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Narrative and Lyric Poems (first series) for use in the Lower School
by O. J. Stevenson
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NARRATIVE AND LYRIC POEMS

(FIRST SERIES)

FOR USE IN THE LOWER SCHOOL



WITH ANNOTATIONS BY

O. J. STEVENSON, M.A., D.PAED.,

Professor of English, Ontario Agricultural College.



TORONTO

THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED



Copyright, Canada, 1912, by THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED,

Toronto, Ontario.



PREFACE

The Narrative and Lyric Poems contained in this volume are those prescribed by the Department of Education for examination for Junior and Senior Public School Diplomas, and for the Senior High School Entrance, and Entrance into the Model Schools. (Circular 58.)

In arranging the order of the poems, the Editor has taken into consideration the character of the selections with the object both of grading them in the order of increasing difficulty, and of securing variety in the subjects treated. The teacher may, however, follow his own judgment as to the order in which the poems should be taken up in class.

In the annotations the chief points of difficulty have been explained. In the case of a number of the poems, different editions of the poets' works contain different readings. In such cases we have followed the readings that are best known and that have been recognized by the best authorities.



CONTENTS

The Meeting of the Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moore

Jock o' Hazeldean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scott

Horatius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macaulay

Alice Brand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scott

The Solitary Reaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordsworth

The Island of the Scots . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aytoun

Dickens in Camp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harte

A Musical Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . Mrs. Browning

Gradatim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holland

The Battle of the Lake Regillus . . . . . . . . Macaulay

The Vision of Sir Launfal . . . . . . . . . . . . Lowell

The Builders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Longfellow

British Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordsworth

The Courtship of Miles Standish . . . . . . . . Longfellow

Sohrab and Rustum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arnold



NARRATIVE AND LYRIC POEMS



THE MEETING OF THE WATERS.

There is not in the wide world a valley so sweet As that vale in whose bosom the bright waters meet! Oh! the last rays of feeling and life must depart Ere the bloom of that valley shall fade from my heart.

Yet it was not that nature had shed o'er the scene 5 Her purest of crystal and brightest of green; 'Twas not the soft magic of streamlet or hill, Oh! no—it was something more exquisite still.

'Twas that friends, the beloved of my bosom, were near, Who made every dear scene of enchantment more dear, 10 And who felt how the best charms of nature improve, When we see them reflected from looks that we love.

Sweet vale of Avoca![1] how calm could I rest In thy bosom of shade with the friends I love best, Where the storms that we feel in this cold world should cease, 15 And our hearts, like thy waters, be mingled in peace!

Moore.

[1] Avoca. A valley and river in the County of Wicklow, Ireland. The name signifies "The Meeting of the Waters."



JOCK O' HAZELDEAN.

"Why weep ye by the tide, ladie? Why weep ye by the tide? I'll wed ye to my youngest son, And ye sall[1] be his bride: And ye sall be his bride, ladie, 5 Sae comely to be seen"— But aye she loot[2] the tears down fa' For Jock o' Hazeldean.

"Now let this wilfu' grief be done, And dry that cheek so pale; 10 Young Frank is chief of Errington, And lord of Langley-dale; His step is first in peaceful ha', His sword in battle keen"— But aye she loot the tears down fa' 15 For Jock o' Hazeldean.

"A chain of gold ye sall not lack, Nor braid to bind your hair; Nor mettled hound, nor managed[3] hawk, Nor palfrey fresh and fair; 20 And you, the foremost o' them a' Shall ride our forest-queen"— But aye she loot the tears down fa' For Jock o' Hazeldean.

The kirk was deck'd at morning-tide, 25 The tapers glimmer'd fair; The priest and bridegroom wait the bride, And dame and knight are there. They sought her baith by bower and ha'. The ladie was not seen! 30 She's o'er the border, and awa' Wi' Jock o' Hazeldean!

Scott

[1] sall. shall.

[2] loot. let.

[3] managed. trained.



HORATIUS.

A LAY MADE ABOUT THE YEAR OF THE CITY CCCLX.

According to legend, Tarquinius Superbus, or Tarquin the Proud, the last of the early kings of Rome, was driven out of the city, partly on account of his own tyranny, and partly because of the misdeeds of his son Sextus Tarquin. The immediate cause of the expulsion of the Tarquins was "the deed of shame," committed by Sextus against Lucretia, the wife of one of the Roman governors. After two unsuccessful attempts to regain the throne, Tarquinius Superbus sought the aid of the Etruscans and Latins, and under the leadership of Lars Porsena, the head of the Etruscan League, the combined forces marched upon Rome. It was then that the incident recorded in the story of Horatius is supposed to have taken place. After the defence of the bridge by Horatius, Lars Porsena laid siege to the city and at last reduced it to submission. He did not, however, insist upon the reinstatement of the Tarquins. A fourth and last attempt was made by Tarquin the Proud to regain the throne, by the aid of his Latin allies, under Mamilius of Tusculum. The story of this expedition forms the subject of The Battle of Lake Regulus.

I

Lars[1] Porsena of Clusium[2] By the Nine Gods[3] he swore That the great house of Tarquin Should suffer wrong no more. By the Nine Gods he swore it, 5 And named a trysting day,[4] And bade his messengers ride forth, East and west and south and north, To summon his array.

II

East and west and south and north 10 The messengers ride fast, And tower and town and cottage Have heard the trumpet's blast. Shame on the false Etruscan, Who lingers in his home, 15 When Porsena of Clusium Is on the march to Rome.

III

The horsemen and the footmen Are pouring in amain From many a stately market-place, 20 From many a fruitful plain, From many a lonely hamlet, Which, hid by beech and pine, Like an eagle's nest, hangs on the crest Of purple Apennine; 25

IV

From lordly Volaterrae,[5] Where scowls the far-famed hold Piled by the hands of giants For godlike kings of old; From seagirt Populonia, 30 Whose sentinels descry Sardinia's snowy mountain-tops Fringing the southern sky;

V

From the proud mart of Pisse,[6] Queen of the western waves, 35 Where ride Massilia's triremes[7] Heavy with fair-haired slaves, From where sweet Olanis[8] wanders Through corn and vines and flowers, From where Cortona lifts to heaven 40 Her diadem of towers.

VI

Tall are the oaks whose acorns Drop in dark Auser's[9] rill; Fat are the stags that champ the boughs Of the Ciminian hill;[10] 45 Beyond all streams Clitumnus[11] Is to the herdsman dear; Best of all pools the fowler loves The great Volsinian mere.[12]

VII

But now no stroke of woodman 50 Is heard by Auser's rill; No hunter tracks the stag's green path Up the Ciminian hill; Unwatched along Clitumnus Grazes the milk-white steer; 55 Unharmed the waterfowl may dip In the Volsinian mere.

VIII

The harvests of Arretium,[13] This year, old men shall reap, This year, young boys in Umbro[14] 60 Shall plunge the struggling sheep; And in the vats of Luna, This year, the must[15] shall foam Round the white feet of laughing girls Whose sires have marched to Rome.

IX

There be thirty chosen prophets, The wisest of the land, Who alway by Lars Porsena Both morn and evening stand: Evening and morn the Thirty 70 Have turned the verses o'er, Traced from the right[16] on linen white By mighty seers of yore,

X

And with one voice the Thirty Have their glad answer given: 75 "Go forth, go forth, Lars Porsena; Go forth, beloved of Heaven: Go, and return in glory To Clusium's royal dome; And hang round Nurscia's[17] altars 80 The golden shields[18] of Rome."

XI

And now hath every city Sent up her tale[19] of men: The foot are fourscore thousand, The horse are thousands ten. 85 Before the gates of Sutrium[20] Is met the great array. A proud man was Lars Porsena Upon the trysting day.

XII

For all the Etruscan armies 90 Were ranged beneath his eye And many a banished Roman, And many a stout ally; And with a mighty following To join the muster came 95 The Tusculan Mamilius,[21] Prince of the Latian[22] name.

XIII

But by the yellow Tiber Was tumult and affright: From all the spacious champaign 100 To Rome men took their flight. A mile around the city, The throng stopped up the ways; A fearful sight it was to see Through two long nights and days. 105

XIV

For aged folks on crutches, And women great with child, And mothers sobbing over babes That clung to them and smiled, And sick men borne in litters 110 High on the necks of slaves, And troops of sunburnt husbandmen With reaping-hooks and staves,

XV

And droves of mules and asses Laden with skins of wine, 115 And endless flocks of goats and sheep, And endless herds of kine, And endless trains of wagons That creaked beneath the weight Of corn-sacks and of household goods, 120 Choked every roaring gate.

XVI

Now, from the rock Tarpeian,[23] Could the wan burghers spy The line of blazing villages Red in the midnight sky. 125 The Fathers[24] of the City, They sat all night and day, For every hour some horseman came With tidings of dismay.

XVII

To eastward and to westward 130 Have spread the Tuscan bands; Nor house nor fence nor dovecote In Crustumerium[25] stands. Verbenna down to Ostia[26] Hath wasted all the plain; 135 Astur hath stormed Janiculum,[27] And the stout guards are slain.

XVIII

I wis,[28] in all the Senate, There was no heart so bold, But sore it ached, and fast it beat; 140 When that ill news was told. Forthwith up rose the Consul, Up rose the Fathers all; In haste they girded up their gowns, And hied them to the wall. 145

XIX

They held a council standing Before the River-Gate[30]; Short time was there, ye well may guess, For musing or debate. Out spake the Consul roundly: 150 "The bridge[31] must straight go down; For, since Janiculum is lost, Naught else can save the town."

XX

Just then a scout came flying, All wild with haste and fear; 155 "To arms! to arms! Sir Consul: Lars Porsena is here." On the low hills to westward The Consul fixed his eye, And saw the swarthy storm of dust 160 Rise fast along the sky.

XXI

And nearer fast and nearer Doth the red whirlwind come; And louder still and still more loud, From underneath that rolling cloud, 165 Is heard the trumpet's war-note proud, The trampling, and the hum. And plainly and more plainly Now through the gloom appears, Far to left and far to right, 170 In broken gleams of dark-blue light, The long array of helmets bright, The long array of spears.

XXII

And plainly, and more plainly Above that glimmering line, 175 Now might ye see the banners Of twelve fair cities[32] shine; But the banner of proud Clusium Was highest of them all, The terror of the Umbrian,[33] 180 The terror of the Gaul.[34]

XXIII

And plainly and more plainly Now might the burghers know, By port and vest,[35] by horse and crest, Each warlike Lucumo.[36] 185 There Cilnius of Arretium On his fleet roan[37] was seen; And Astur of the fourfold shield,[38] Girt with the brand none else may wield; Tolumnius with the belt of gold, 190 And dark Verbenna from the hold By reedy Thrasymene.[39]

XXIV

Fast by the royal standard, O'erlooking all the war, Lars Porsena of Clusium 195 Sat in his ivory car. By the right wheel rode Mamilius, Prince of the Latian name; And by the left false Sextus, That wrought the deed of shame. 200

XXV

But when the face of Sextus Was seen among the foes, A yell that rent the firmament From all the town arose. On the house-tops was no woman 205 But spat towards him and hissed, No child but screamed out curses, And shook its little fist.

XXVI

But the Consul's brow was sad, And the Consul's speech was low. 210 And darkly looked he at the wall, And darkly at the foe. "Their van will be upon us Before the bridge goes down; And if they once may win the bridge, 215 What hope to save the town?"

XXVII

Then out spake brave Horatius, The Captain of the Gate: "To every man upon this earth Death cometh soon or late, 220 And how can man die better Than facing fearful odds, For the ashes of his fathers, And the temples of his Gods,

XXVIII

And for the tender mother 225 Who dandled him to rest, And for the wife that nurses His baby at her breast, And for the holy maidens[40] Who feed the eternal flame, 230 To save them from false Sextus That wrought the deed of shame?"

XXIX

"Hew down the bridge, Sir Consul, With all the speed ye may, I, with two more to help me, 235 Will hold the foe in play. In yon strait path a thousand May well be stopped by three. Now who will stand on either hand, And keep the bridge with me?" 240

XXX

Then out spake Spurius Lartius; A Ramnian[41] proud was he: "Lo, I will stand at thy right hand, And keep the bridge with thee." And out spake strong Herminius; 245 Of Titian blood was he: "I will abide on thy left side, And keep the bridge with thee."

XXXI

"Horatius," quoth the Consul, "As thou sayest, so let it be," 250 And straight against that great array Forth went the dauntless Three. For Romans in Rome's quarrel Spared neither land nor gold, Nor son nor wife, nor limb nor life, 255 In the brave days of old.[42]

XXXII

Then none was for a party; Then all were for the state; Then the great man helped the poor. And the poor man loved the great, 260 Then lands were fairly portioned, Then spoils were fairly sold:[43] The Romans were like brothers In the brave days of old.

XXXIII

Now Roman is to Roman 265 More hateful than a foe, And the Tribunes[44] beard[45] the high, And the Fathers grind the low. As we wax hot in faction, In battle we wax cold: 270 Wherefore men fight not as they fought In the brave days of old.

XXXIV

Now while the Three were tightening Their harness[46] on their backs, The Consul was the foremost man 275 To take in hand an axe: And Fathers mixed with Commons Seized hatchet, bar, and crow, And smote upon the planks above, And loosed the props below. 280

XXXV

Meanwhile the Tuscan army, Right glorious to behold, Came flashing back the noonday light, Rank behind rank, like surges bright Of a broad sea of gold. 285 Four hundred trumpets sounded A peal of warlike glee, As that great host, with measured tread, And spears advanced, and ensigns spread, Rolled slowly towards the bridge's head, 290 Where stood the dauntless Three.

XXXVI

The Three stood calm and silent, And looked upon the foes, And a great shout of laughter From all the vanguard rose; 295 And forth three chiefs came spurring Before that deep array; To earth they sprang, their swords they drew, And lifted high their shields, and flew To win the narrow way; 300

XXXVII

Aunus from green Tifernum,[47] Lord of the Hill of Vines; And Seius, whose eight hundred slaves Sicken in Ilva's[48] mines; And Picus, long to Clusium 305 Vassal in peace and war, Who led to fight his Umbrian powers From that gray crag where, girt with towers, The fortress of Nequinum[49] lowers O'er the pale waves of Nar. 310

XXXVIII

Stout Lartius hurled down Aunus Into the stream beneath: Herminius struck at Seius, And clove him to the teeth: At Picus brave Horatius 315 Darted one fiery thrust; And the proud Umbrian's gilded arms Clashed in the bloody dust.

XXXIX

Then Ocnus of Palerii[50] Rushed on the Roman Three; 320 And Lausulus of Urgo,[51] The rover of the sea;[52] And Aruns of Volsinium, Who slew the great wild boar, The great wild boar that had his den 325 Amidst the reeds of Cosa's[53] fen And wasted fields, and slaughtered men, Along Albinia's[54] shore.

XL

Herminius smote down Aruns: Lartius laid Ocnus low: 330 Right to the heart of Lausulus Horatius sent a blow. "Lie there," he cried, "fell pirate! No more, aghast and pale, From Ostia's walls the crowd shall mark 335 The track of thy destroying bark. No more Campania's[55] hinds[56] shall fly To woods and caverns when they spy Thy thrice accursed sail."

XLI

But now no sound of laughter 340 Was heard among the foes. A wild and wrathful clamor From all the vanguard rose. Six spears' lengths from the entrance Halted that deep array, 345 And for a space no man came forth To win the narrow way.

XLII

But hark! the cry is Astur: And lo! the ranks divide; And the great Lord of Luna Comes with his stately stride. 350 Upon his ample shoulders Clangs loud the fourfold shield, And in his hand he shakes the brand Which none but he can wield. 355

XLIII

He smiled on those bold Romans A smile serene and high; He eyed the flinching Tuscans, And scorn was in his eye. Quoth he, "The she-wolf's litter[57] 360 Stand savagely at bay: But will ye dare to follow, If Astur clears the way?"

XLIV

Then, whirling up his broadsword With both hands to the height, 365 He rushed against Horatius, And smote with all his might. With shield and blade Horatius, Right deftly turned the blow. The blow, though turned, came yet too nigh: 370 It missed his helm, but gashed his thigh: The Tuscans raised a joyful cry To see the red blood flow.

XLV

He reeled, and on Herminius He leaned one breathing-space; 375 Then, like a wild-cat mad with wounds, Sprang right at Astur's face. Through teeth, and skull, and helmet So fierce a thrust he sped The good sword stood a hand-breadth out 380 Behind the Tuscan's head.

XLVI

And the great Lord of Luna Fell at that deadly stroke, As falls on Mount Alvernus A thunder-smitten oak. 385 Far o'er the crashing forest The giant arms lie spread; And the pale augurs, muttering low, Gaze on the blasted head.

XLVII

On Astur's throat Horatius 390 Right firmly pressed his heel; And thrice and four times tugged amain, Ere be wrenched out the steel. "And see," he cried, "the welcome, Fair guests, that waits you here! 395 What noble Lucumo comes next To taste our Roman cheer?"

XLVI

But at his haughty challenge A sullen murmur ran, Mingled of wrath, and shame, and dread, 400 Along that glittering van. There lacked not men of prowess, Nor men of lordly race, For all Etruria's noblest Were round the fatal place. 405

XLIX

But all Etruria's noblest Felt their hearts sink to see On the earth the bloody corpses, In the path the dauntless Three: And from the ghastly entrance 410 Where those bold Romans stood, All shrank, like boys who unaware, Ranging the woods to start a hare, Come to the mouth of the dark lair, Where, growling low, a fierce old bear 415 Lies amidst bones and blood.

L

Was none who would be foremost To lead such dire attack; But those behind cried, "Forward!" And those before cried, "Back!" 420 And backward now and forward Wavers the deep array; And on the tossing sea of steel, To and fro the standards reel; And the victorious trumpet-peal 425 Dies fitfully away.

LI

Yet one man for one moment Stood out before the crowd; Well known was he to all the Three, And they gave him greeting loud. 430 "Now welcome, welcome, Sextus! Now welcome to thy home! Why dost thou stay, and turn away? Here lies the road to Rome."

LII

Thrice looked he at the city; 435 Thrice looked he at the dead And thrice came on in fury, And thrice turned back in dread: And, white with fear and hatred, Scowled at the narrow way 440 Where, wallowing in a pool of blood, The bravest Tuscans lay.

LIII

But meanwhile axe and lever Have manfully been plied; And now the bridge hangs tottering 445 Above the boiling tide. "Come back, come back, Horatius!" Loud cried the Fathers all. "Back, Lartius! back, Herminius! Back, ere the ruin fall!" 450

LIV

Back darted Spurius Lartius, Herminius darted back: And, as they passed, beneath their feet They felt the timbers crack. But when they turned their faces, 455 And on the farther shore Saw brave Horatius stand alone, They would have crossed once more.

LV

But with a crash like thunder Fell every loosened beam, 460 And, like a dam, the mighty wreck Lay right athwart the stream; And a long shout of triumph Rose from the walls of Rome, As to the highest turret-tops 465 Was splashed the yellow foam.

LVI

And like a horse unbroken When first he feels the rein, The furious river struggled hard, And tossed his tawny mane, 470 And burst the curb, and bounded, Rejoicing to be free, And whirling down, in fierce career, Battlement, and plank, and pier, Rushed headlong to the sea. 475

LVII

Alone stood brave Horatius, But constant still in mind; Thrice thirty thousand foes before, And the broad flood behind. "Down with him!" cried false Sextus, 480 With a smile on his pale face. "Now yield thee," cried Lars Porsena, "Now yield thee to our grace."

LVIII

Round turned he, as not deigning Those craven ranks to see; 485 Nought spake he to Lars Porsena, To Sextus nought spake he; But he saw on Palatinus[58] The white porch of his home; And he spake to the noble river 490 That rolls by the towers of Rome.

LIX

"Oh, Tiber! father Tiber! To whom the Romans pray, A Roman's life, a Roman's arms, Take thou in charge this day." 495 So he spake, and speaking sheathed The good sword by his side, And with his harness on his back, Plunged headlong in the tide.

LX

No sound of joy or sorrow 500 Was heard from either bank; But friends and foes, in dumb surprise, With parted lips and straining eyes, Stood gazing where he sank; And when above the surges 505 They saw his crest appear, All Rome sent forth a rapturous cry, And even the ranks of Tuscany Could scarce forbear to cheer.

LXI

But fiercely ran the current, 510 Swollen high by months of rain: And fast his blood was flowing, And he was sore in pain, And heavy with his armor, And spent with changing[59] blows: 515 And oft they thought him sinking, But still again he rose.

LXII

Never, I ween,[80] did swimmer, In such an evil case, Struggle through such a raging flood 520 Safe to the landing-place: But his limbs were borne up bravely By the brave heart within, And our good father Tiber Bore bravely up his chin. 525

LXIII

"Curse on him!" quoth false Sextus, "Will not the villain drown? But for this stay, ere close of day We should have sacked the town!" "Heaven help him!" quoth Lars Porsena, 530 "And bring him safe to shore; For such a gallant feat of arms Was never seen before."

LXI

And now he feels the bottom; Now on dry earth he stands; 535 Now round him throng the Fathers To press his gory hands; And now, with shouts and clapping, And noise of weeping loud, He enters through the River-Gate, 540 Borne by the joyous crowd.

LXV

They gave him of the corn-land, That was of public right,[81] As much as two strong oxen Could plough from morn till night; 545 And they made a molten image, And set it up on high, And there it stands unto this, day, To witness if I lie.

LXVI

It stands in the Comitium,[62] 545 Plain for all folk to see; Horatius in his harness, Halting upon one knee: And underneath is written, In letters all of gold, 550 How valiantly he kept the bridge, In the brave days of old.

LXVII

And still his name sounds stirring Unto the men of Rome, As the trumpet-blast that cries to them 560 To charge the Volscian home,[63] And wives still pray to Juno[64] For boys with hearts as bold As his who kept the bridge so well, In the brave days of old. 565

LXVIII

And in the nights of winter, When the cold north winds blow, And the long howling of the wolves Is heard amidst the snow; When round the lonely cottage 570 Roars loud the tempest's din, And the good logs of Algidus[65] Roar louder yet within;

LXIX

When the oldest cask is opened, And the largest lamp is lit 575 When the chestnuts glow in the embers, And the kid turns on the spit; When young and old in circle Around the firebrands close; When the girls are weaving baskets, 580 And the lads are shaping bows;

LXX

When the goodman mends his armor, And trims his helmet's plume; When the good wife's shuttle merrily Goes flashing through the loom: 585 With weeping and with laughter Still is the story told, How well Horatius kept the bridge In the brave days of old.

Macaulay

[1] Lars. Lord or Chieftain.

[2] Clusium. The modern Chiusi.

[3] Nine Gods. The chief Gods of the Etruscans were nine in number.

[4] trysting day. A day appointed for meeting.

[5] Volaterrae. The modern Volterra. The walls of the ancient fortress were built of enormous blocks of stone fitted together without cement.

[6] Pisse. Pisa

[7] Massilia. The modern Marseilles, originally a Greek colony and a flourishing commercial centre. triremes. Vessels with three banks of oars on each side. fair-haired slaves. Slaves from Gaul.

[8] Clanis. The modern river Chiana.

[9] Auser. A tributary of the Anio.

[10] Ciminian hill. A lofty mountain in the northern Apennines.

[11] Clitumnus. The river Clitumno.

[12] Volsinian mere. A lake which took its name from the town of Volsinii (modern Bolsena) situated on its banks.

[13] Arretium. Arezzo.

[14] Umbro. A river in Etruria,—the modern Ombrone.

[15] must. new wine.

[16] Written from right to left.

[17] Nurscia. The Etruscan goddess of fortune.

[18] golden shields. Twelve golden shields kept in the temple of Vesta, and believed by the Romans to be bound up with the safety of their city. See notes on pp. 68 and 71.

[19] tale. (A. S. talian, "to reckon".) number.

[20] Sutrium. Sutri, a city about thirty miles from Rome.

[21] Tusculan Mamilius. Tusculum is the modern Frascati, a city about twelve miles from Rome. Mamilius was the son-in-law of Tarquin.

[22] Latium was a province in central Italy, inhabited by the Latins. It was conquered by Rome in the fourth century B.C.

[23] Tarpeian. The Tarpeian Rock was a cliff on one side of the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Tarpeia, from whom the cliff took its name, was the daughter of Tarpeius, the governor of the citadel, on this hill. She betrayed the fortress to the Sabines, but as they entered, they threw their shields upon her and she was crushed to death.

[24] Fathers of the City. The senators.

[25] Crustumerium. A Latin city a few miles from Rome.

[26] Ostia. A city at the mouth of the Tiber, fifteen miles from Rome.

[27] Janiculum. A hill on the right bank of the Tiber.

[28] I wis. See H. S. Grammar, p. 176.

[29] Consul. After the expulsion of the Tarquin kings, Rome was governed by two chief magistrates, known as consuls.

[30] the River-Gate. The gate facing the Janiculum hill.

[31] bridge. The Sublician bridge, which connected Rome with Janiculum.

[32] twelve fair cities. The Etruscan confederacy was composed of twelve cities.

[33] Umbrian. Umbria was a division of Italy.

[34] the Gaul. The Gauls were beginning to invade Italy from the north.

[35] port and vest. Bearing and dress.

[36] Lucumo. Etruscan chief.

[37] roan. A roan horse is of a reddish colour, with white hairs thickly interspersed.

[38] fourfold. With four thicknesses of leather.

[39] Thrasymene. Lake Trasimenus (modern Lake of Perugia). It is only about twenty feet deep.

[40] holy maidens. The vestal virgins, whose duty it was to keep the fire burning on the altar in the temple of Vesta. Vesta was the goddess of the home, and the vestal virgins were bound by oath never to marry.

[41] Ramnian. The Ramnes were one of the three tribes of which the Roman people were mainly comprised; the Tities were a second of these tribes; Horatius himself belonged to the Luceres, the third tribe, so that in the defence of the bridge all three tribes were represented.

[42] The story is supposed to be told by one of the plebeians, or common people in Rome, about 120 years after the event took place.

[43] The speaker voices the grievances of the Plebeians against the Patricians.

[44] Tribunes. The officers appointed to defend the rights of the Plebeians against the encroachments of the Patricians.

[45] beard. openly defy.

[46] harness. armour.

[47] Tifernum. A town on the river Tiber.

[48] Ilva. Elba, an island in the Mediterranean, on the coast of Italy.

[49] Nequinum. Narni, on the Nar, which is a tributary of the Tiber.

[50] Falerii. One of the twelve Etruscan cities.

[51] Urgo. An island in the Mediterranean.

[52] rover of the sea. pirate.

[53] Cosa. A town on the sea-coast.

[54] Albinia. A river in Etruria.

[55] Campania. A district along the sea-coast.

[56] hinds. peasants.

[57] The she-wolf's litter. A reference to the legend, of Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome, who were said to have been suckled by a she-wolf.

[58] Palatinus. The Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome.

[59] changing. exchanging.

[60] ween. think, fancy.

[61] of public right. Belonging to the state.

[62] Comitium. That part of the Roman forum, or public square, where the Patricians were accustomed to meet.

[63] To charge the Volscian home. The Volsciana lived in the southern part of Latium. They were constantly at war with the Romans. Home is here an adverb strengthening the meaning of charge.

[64] Juno. Wife of Jupiter, and queen of heaven.

[65] Algidus. A hill about twelve miles from Rome.



ALICE BRAND.

Merry it is in the good greenwood, When the mavis and merle[1] are singing, When the deer sweeps by and the hounds are in cry, And the hunter's horn is ringing.

"O Alice Brand, my native land 5 Is lost for love of you; And we must hold by wood and wold,[2] As outlaws wont to do.

"O Alice, 'twas all for thy locks so bright, And 'twas all for thine eyes so blue, 10 That on the night of our luckless flight Thy brother bold I slew.

"Now must I teach to hew the beech The hand that held the glaive,[3] For leaves to spread our lowly bed, 15 And stakes to fence our cave.

"And for vest of pall,[4] thy fingers small, That wont on harp to stray, A cloak must shear from the slaughtered deer, To keep the cold away." 20

"O Richard! if my brother died, Twas but a fatal chance; For darkling[5] was the battle tried, And fortune sped the lance.

"If pall and vair[6] no more I wear, 25 Nor thou the crimson sheen, As warm, we 'll say, is the russet gray, As gay the forest-green.

"And, Richard, if our lot be hard, And lost thy native land, 30 Still Alice has her own Richard, And he his Alice Brand."

'T is merry, 't is merry, in good greenwood So blithe Lady Alice is singing; On the beech's pride, and oak's brown side, 35 Lord Richard's axe is ringing.

Up spoke the moody Elfin King,[7] Who woned[8] within the hill,— Like wind in the porch of a ruined church, His voice was ghostly shrill. 40

"Why sounds yon stroke on beech and oak, Our moonlight circle's[9] screen? Or who comes here to chase the deer, Beloved of our Elfin Queen? Or who may dare on wold to wear 45 The fairies' fatal green?[10]

"Up, Urgan, up! to yon mortal hie, For thou wert christened[11] man; For cross or sign thou wilt not fly, For muttered word or ban.[12] 50

"Lay on him the curse of the withered heart, The curse of the sleepless eye Till he wish and pray that his life would part, Nor yet find leave to die."

Tis merry, 'tis merry, in good greenwood 55 Though the birds have stilled their singing, The evening blaze doth Alice raise, And Richard is fagots bringing.

Up Urgan starts, that hideous dwarf, Before Lord Richard stands, 60 And, as he crossed and blessed himself, "I fear not sign," quoth the grisly[13] elf, "That is made with bloody hands."

But out then spoke she, Alice Brand, That woman void of fear,— 65 "And if there's blood upon his hand, 'Tis but the blood of deer."

"Now loud thou liest, thou bold of mood! It cleaves unto his hand, The stain of thine own kindly blood,[14] 70 The blood of Ethert Brand."

Then forward stepped she, Alice Brand, And made the holy sign,— "And if there's blood on Richard's hand, A spotless hand is mine. 75

"And I conjure[15] thee, demon elf, By Him whom demons fear, To show us whence thou art thyself, And what thine errand here?"

"'Tis merry, 'tis merry, in Fairy-land, 80 When fairy birds are singing, When the court doth ride by their monarch's side, With bit and bridle ringing:

"And gayly shines the Fairy-land— But all is glistening show 85 Like the idle gleam that December's beam Can dart on ice and snow.

"And fading, like that varied gleam, Is our inconstant shape, "Who now like knight and lady seem, 90 And now like dwarf and ape.

"It was between the night and day, When the Fairy King has power, That I sunk down in a sinful fray, And 'twixt life and death was snatched away 95 To the joyless Elfin bower.

"But wist[16] I of a woman bold, Who thrice my brow durst sign,[17] I might regain my mortal mould, As fair a form as thine." 100

She crossed him once—she crossed him twice—- That lady was so brave; The fouler grew his goblin hue, The darker grew the cave.

She crossed him thrice, that lady bold, 105 He rose beneath her hand, The fairest knight on Scottish mould, Her brother, Ethert Brand!

Merry it is in good greenwood, When the mavis and merle are singing, 110 But merrier were they in Dunfermline[18] gray, When all the bells were ringing.

Scott

[1] mavis and merle. thrush and blackbird.

[2] wold. hilly, open country.

[3] glaive. sword.

[4] pall. A rich cloth from which mantles of noblemen were made.

[5] darkling. In the dark.

[6] vair. The fur of the squirrel.

[7] Elfin King. King of the fairies.

[8] woned. dwelt.

[9] circle. dance.

[10] fairies' fatal green. The dress of the fairies was green and they were angered when mortals dared to wear garments of that colour.

[11] christened. Those who had been baptized were, according to mediaeval belief, supposed to enjoy special advantages or privileges.

[12] ban. curse.

[13] grisly. horrible; hideous.

[14] kindly blood. The blood of your kindred.

[15] conjure. Call upon by oath. Distinguished from conjure, meaning "to influence by magic."

[16] wist. See High School Grammar, p. 176.

[17] sign. Make the sign of the cross upon ray brow.

[18] Dunfermline. A town, about twenty miles from Edinburgh.

THE SOLITARY REAPER.

Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland lass! Reaping and singing by herself, Stop here, or gently pass! Alone she cuts and binds the grain 5 And sings a melancholy strain. Oh, listen! for the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound.

No nightingale did ever chant So sweetly to reposing bands 10 Of travellers in some shady haunt Among Arabian sands: No sweeter voice was ever heard In spring time from the cuckoo-bird Breaking the silence of the seas 15 Among the farthest Hebrides.

"Will no one tell me what she sings? Perhaps the plaintive numbers now For old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago. 20 Or is it some more humble lay, Familiar matter of to-day? Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain, That has been, and may be again?

"Whate'er the theme, the maiden sang 25 As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o'er the sickle bending;— I listen'd motionless and still; And, as I mounted up the hill, 30 The music in my heart I bore, Long after it was heard no more.

Wordsworth.



THE ISLAND OF THE SCOTS.

The Rhine is running deep and red, the island lies before,— "Now is there one of all the host will dare to venture o'er? For not alone the river's sweep might make a brave man quail; The foe are on the further side, their shot comes fast as hail. God help us, if the middle isle we may not hope to win; 5 Now is there any of the host will dare to venture in?" "The ford is deep, the banks are steep, the island-shore lies wide; Nor man nor horse could stem its force, or reach the further side. See there! amidst the willow-boughs the serried[1] bayonets gleam, They've flung their bridge,—they've won the isle; the foe have cross'd the stream! 10 Their volley flashes sharp and strong,—by all the saints! I trow There never yet was soldier born could force that passage now!"

So spoke the bold French Mareschal[2] with him who led the van, Whilst, rough and red before their view the turbid river ran. Nor bridge nor boat had they to cross the wild and swollen Rhine, 15 And thundering on the other bank far stretch'd the German line. Hard by there stood a swarthy man, was leaning on his sword, And a sadden'd smile lit up his face as he heard the Captain's word. "I've seen a wilder stream ere now than that which rushes there; I've stemm'd a heavier torrent yet and never thought to dare. 20 If German steel be sharp and keen, is ours not strong and true? There may be danger in the deed, but there is honour too."

The old lord in his saddle turn'd, and hastily he said, "Hath bold Duguesclin's[3] fiery heart awaken'd from the dead? Thou art the leader of the Scots,—now well and sure I know, 25 That gentle blood in dangerous hour ne'er yet ran cold nor slow; And I have seen ye in the fight do all that mortal may: If honour is the boon ye seek, it may be won this day,— The prize is in the middle isle, there lies the adventurous way, And armies twain are on the plain, the daring deed to see,— 30 Now ask thy gallant company if they will follow thee!"

Right gladsome look'd the Captain then, and nothing did he say, But he turn'd him to his little band, O, few, I ween, were they! The relics of the bravest force that ever fought in fray. No one of all that company but bore a gentle name, 35 Not one whose fathers had not stood in Scotland's fields of fame. All they had march'd with great Dundee[4] to where he fought and fell, And in the deadly battle-strife had venged their leader well;

And they had bent the knee to earth when every eye was dim, As o'er their hero's buried corpse they sang the funeral hymn; 40 And they had trod the Pass[5] once more, and stoop'd on either side. To pluck the heather from the spot where he had dropp'd and died, And they had bound it next their hearts, and ta'en a last farewell Of Scottish earth and Scottish sky, where Scotland's glory fell. Then went they forth to foreign lands like bent and broken men, 45 Who leave their dearest hope behind, and may not turn again.

"The stream," he said, "is broad and deep, and stubborn is the foe,— Yon island-strength is guarded well,—say, brothers, will ye go? From home and kin for many a year our steps have wander'd wide, And never may our bones be laid our fathers' graves beside. 50 No children have we to lament, no wives to wail our fall; The traitor's and the spoiler's hand have reft our hearths of all. But we have hearts, and we have arms, as strong to will and dare As when our ancient banners flew within the northern air. Come, brothers! let me name a spell, shall rouse your souls again, 55 And send the old blood bounding free through pulse and heart and vein. Call back the days of bygone years,—be young and strong once more; Think yonder stream, so stark and red, is one we've cross'd before.

Rise, hill and glen! rise, crag and wood! rise up on either hand,— Again upon the Garry's[6] banks, on Scottish soil we stand! 60 Again I see the tartans[7] wave, again the trumpets ring; Again I hear our leader's call; 'Upon them for the King!' Stay'd we behind that glorious day for roaring flood or linn?[8] The soul of Graeme is with us still,—now, brothers, will ye in?" No stay,—no pause. With one accord, they grasp'd each other's hand, 65 Then plunged into the angry flood, that bold and dauntless band. High flew the spray above their heads, yet onward still they bore, Midst cheer, and shout, and answering yell, and shot, and cannon-roar,— "Now, by the Holy Cross! I swear, since earth and sea began, Was never such a daring deed essay'd by mortal man!" 70

Thick blew the smoke across the stream, and faster flash'd the flame: The water plash'd in hissing jets as ball and bullet came. Yet onward push'd the Cavaliers all stern and undismay'd, With thousand armed foes before, and none behind to aid. Once, as they near'd the middle stream, so strong the torrent swept, 75 That scarce that long and living wall their dangerous footing kept. Then rose a warning cry behind, a joyous shout before: "The current's strong,—the way is long,—they'll never reach the shore! See, see! they stagger in the midst, they waver in their line! Fire on the madmen! break their ranks, and whelm them in the Rhine!" 80

Have you seen the tall trees swaying when the blast is sounding shrill, And the whirlwind reels in fury down the gorges to the hill? How they toss their mighty branches, struggling with the temper's shock; How they keep their place of vantage, cleaving firmly to the rock? Even so the Scottish warriors held their own against the river. 85 Though the water flashed around them, not an eye was seen to quiver; Though the shot flew sharp and deadly, not a man relax'd his hold; For their hearts were big and thrilling with the mighty thoughts of old. One word was spoken among them, and through the ranks it spread,— "Remember our dead Claverhouse!" was all the Captain said. 90 Then, sternly bending forward, they wrestled on a while, Until they clear'd the heavy stream, then rush'd toward the isle.

The German heart is stout and true, the German arm is strong; The German foot goes seldom back where armed foemen throng. But never bad they faced in field so stern a charge before, 95 And never had they felt the sweep of Scotland's broad claymore.[9] Not fiercer pours the avalanche adown the steep incline, That rises o'er the parent springs of rough and rapid Rhine,— Scarce swifter shoots the bolt from heaven, than came the Scottish band Right up against the guarded trench, and o'er it, sword in hand. 100 In vain their leaders forward press,—they meet the deadly brand!

O lonely island of the Rhine,—Where seed was never sown, What harvest lay upon thy sands, by those strong reapers thrown? What saw the winter moon that night, as, struggling through the rain, She pour'd a wan and fitful light on marsh, and stream, and plain? 105 A dreary spot with corpses strewn, and bayonets glistening round; A broken bridge, a stranded boat, a bare and batter'd mound; And one huge watch-fire's kindled pile, that sent its quivering glare To tell the leaders of the host the conquering Scots were there.

And did they twine the laurel-wreath,[10] for those who fought so well 110 And did they honour those who liv'd, and weep for those who fell? What meed of thanks was given to them let aged annals tell. Why should they bring the laurel-wreath,—why crown the cup with wine? It was not Frenchmen's blood that flow'd so freely on the Rhine,— A stranger band of beggar'd men had done the venturous deed; 115 The glory was to France alone, the danger was their meed, And what cared they for idle thanks from foreign prince and peer? What virtue had such honey'd words the exiled heart to cheer? What matter'd it that men should vaunt, and loud and fondly swear That higher feat of chivalry was never wrought elsewhere? 120 They bore within their breast the grief that fame can never heal,— The deep, unutterable woe which none save exiles feel. Their hearts were yearning for the land they ne'er might see again,— For Scotland's high and heather'd hills, for mountains, loch and glen— For those who haply lay at rest beyond the distant sea, 125 Beneath the green and daisied turf where they would gladly be!

Long years went by. The lonely isle in Rhine's tempestuous flood Has ta'en another name from those who bought it with their blood: And, though the legend does not live,—for legends lightly die— The peasant, as he sees the stream in winter rolling by, 130 And foaming o'er its channel-bed between him and the spot Won by the warriors of the sword, still calls that deep and dangerous ford The Passage of the Scot.

Aytoun.

[1] serried. crowded.

[2] Mareschal. Marshal, an officer of the highest rank in the French army.

[3] Duguesclin. A noted French commander, famous for his campaigns against the English in the 14th century.

[4] Dundee. John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, a Scottish soldier. He raised a body of Highlanders in 1689 to fight for James II against William of Orange. At the battle of Killecrankie (1689) he was mortally wounded.

[5] The Pass. The Pass of Killecrankie.

[6] Garry. A river in Perthshire, Scotland.

[7] tartan. A Scotch plaid

[8] linn. A waterfall.

[9] claymore. The heavy broadsword used by the Highlanders.

[10] laurel-wreath. The laurel is an evergreen shrub found in parts of Europe. A wreath of laurel was a mark of distinction or honour.



DICKENS IN CAMP.

Above the pines the moon was slowly drifting, The river sang below, The dim Sierras,[1] far beyond, uplifting Their minarets of snow.

The roaring camp-fire, with rude humor, painted 5 The ruddy tints of health On haggard face and form that drooped and fainted In the fierce race for wealth;

Till one arose, and from his pack's scant treasure A hoarded volume drew, 10 And cards were dropped from hands of listless leisure, To hear the tale anew;

And then, while round them shadows gathered faster, And as the firelight fell, He read aloud the book wherein the Master[2] 15 Had writ of "Little Nell."[3]

Perhaps 'twas boyish fancy,—for the reader Was youngest of them all,— But, as he read, from clustering pine and cedar A silence seemed to fall; 20

The fir-trees, gathering closer in the shadows, Listened in every spray, While the whole camp, with "Nell," on English meadows Wandered and lost their way.

And so in mountain solitudes—o'ertaken 25 As by some spell divine— Their cares dropped from them like the needles shaken From out the gusty pine.

Lost is that camp, and wasted all its fire: And he who wrought that spell?— 30 Ah, towering pine and stately Kentish spire,[4] Ye have one tale[5] to tell!

Lost is that camp! but let its fragrant story[6] Blend with the breath that thrills With hop-vines' incense[7] all the pensive glory 35 That fills the Kentish hills.

And on that grave where English oak and holly And laurel wreaths intwine,[8] Deem it not all a too presumptuous folly,— This spray of Western pine. 40

—Harte.

[1] Sierra. A Spanish term, meaning a mountain range. The name Sierra was applied, of course, to a great many different ranges.

[2] the Master. Dickens.

[3] Little Nell. The heroine of Dickens' novel, The Old Curiosity Shop.

[4] Dickens died at Gadshill, Kent, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

[5] one tale. Both they who heard the story, and he who wrote it, are dead.

[6] Let the fragrance of the western pine blend with the incense of the hop-vines in memory of Dickens. In other words, let me add this story as another tribute to his memory.

[7] hop-vines' incense. The smell of the hop-vines. Kent is the chief hop-growing county of England.

[8] The great writers of England have done honour to Dickens.



A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.

I

What was he doing, the great god Pan,[1] Down in the reeds by the river! Spreading ruin, and scattering ban, Splashing and paddling with hoofs of a goat, And breaking the golden lilies afloat 5 With the dragon-fly on the river.

II

He tore out a reed, the great god Pan, From the deep, cool bed of the river. The limpid water turbidly ran, And the broken lilies a-dying lay, 10 And the dragon-fly had fled away, Ere he brought it out of the river.

III

High on the shore sat the great god Pan, While turbidly flowed the river, And hacked and hewed as a great god can, 15 With his hard bleak steel, at the patient reed, Till there was not a sign of the leaf indeed To prove it fresh from the river.

IV

He cut it short, did the great god Pan, (How tall it stood in the river!) 20 Then drew the pith, like the heart of a man, Steadily from the outside ring, And notched the poor, dry, empty thing In holes, as he sat by the river.

V

"This is the way," laughed the great god Pan, 25 (Laughed while he sat by the river,) "The only way, since gods began To make sweet music, they could succeed." Then, dropping his mouth to a hole in the reed, He blew in power by the river. 30

VI

Sweet, sweet, sweet, O Pan! Piercing sweet by the river! Blinding sweet, O great god Pan! The sun on the lull forgot to die, And the lilies revived, and the dragon-fly 35 Came back to dream on the river.

VII

Yet half a beast is the great god Pan, To laugh as he sits by the river, Making a poet out of a man: The true gods[2] sigh for the cost and pain,— 40 For the reed which grows nevermore again As a reed with the reeds in the river.

—Mrs. Browning.

[1] Pan. In Greek mythology, the god of pastures, forests and flocks. He was represented as half-man, half-goat, in appearance. He was the inventor of the shepherd's flute.

[2] Pan was not one of the gods of Olympus, and was literally "half a beast."



GRADATIM.[1]

Heaven is not reached at a single bound; But we build the ladder by which we rise From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies, And we mount to the summit round by round.

I count this thing to be grandly true, 5 That a noble deed is a step toward God— Lifting the soul from the common sod[2] To a purer air and a broader view.

We rise by things that are under our feet;[3] By what we have mastered of good and gain; 10 By the pride deposed and the passion slain, And the vanquished ills that we hourly meet.

We hope, we aspire, we resolve, we trust, When the morning calls us to life and light; But our hearts grow weary, and ere the night, 15 Our lives are trailing the sordid[4] dust.

We hope, we resolve, we aspire, we pray, And we think that we mount the air on wings Beyond the recall of sensual things, While our feet still cling to the heavy clay. 20

Wings for the angels, but feet for the men![5] We may borrow the wings to find the way— We may hope, and resolve, and aspire, arid pray. But our feet must rise, or we fall again.

Only in dreams is a ladder[6] thrown 25 From the weary earth to the sapphire walls; But the dreams depart, and the vision falls, And the Sleeper wakes on his pillow of stone.

Heaven is not reached at a single bound; But we build the ladder by which we rise From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies, 30 And we mount to the summit round by round.

Holland.

[1] Gradatim. A step at a time.

[2] the common sod. earthly things.

[3] See Longfellow, The Ladder of Saint Augustine.

[4] sordid. mean; base.

[5] Good resolves and aspirations ("wings") are not sufficient. We can rise only step by step by overcoming the petty difficulties of everyday life.

[6] ladder. A reference to Jacob's ladder (Genesis xxviii, 12).



THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS.[1]

A LAY SUNG AT THE FEAST OF CASTOR AND POLLUX,[2]

ON THE IDES OF QUINTILIS,[3]

IN THE YEAR OF THE CITY CCCCLI (B.C. 303).

[This is the feast of Castor and Pollux, and the anniversary of the battle of Lake Regillus, which they did so much to win. Let us remember them, and sing their praises.]

I

Ho, trumpets, sound a war-note! Ho, lictors,[4] clear the way! The Knights[5] will ride, in all their pride, Along the streets to-day, To-day the doors and windows 5 Are hung with garlands all, From Castor[6] in the forum,[7] To Mars without the wall. Each Knight is robed in purple, With olive each is crowned, 10 A gallant war-horse under each Paws haughtily the ground. While flows the Yellow River,[8] While stands the Sacred Hill,[9] The proud Ides of Quintilis, 15 Shall have such honour still. Gay are the Martian Kalends:[10] December's Nones[11] are gay: But the proud Ides, when the squadron rides, Shall be Rome's whitest[12] day. 20

II

Unto the Great Twin Brethren We keep this solemn feast. Swift, swift, the Great Twin Brethren Came spurring from the east. They came o'er wild Parthenius[13] 25 Tossing in waves of pine, O'er Cirrha's dome,[14] o'er Adria's[15] foam, O'er purple Apennine, From where with flutes and dances Their ancient mansion rings, 30 In lordly Lacedaemon,[16] The city of two kings, To where, by Lake Regillus, Under the Porcian[17] height, All in the lands of Tusculum, 35 Was fought the glorious fight.

III

Now on the place of slaughter Are cots and sheepfolds seen, And rows of vines, and fields of wheat, And apple-orchards green; 40 And swine crush the big acorns That fall from Corne's[18] oaks. Upon the turf by the Fair Fount[19] The reaper's pottage smokes. The fisher baits his angle; 45 The hunter twangs his bow; Little they think on those strong limbs That moulder deep below. Little they think how sternly That day the trumpets pealed; 50 How in the slippery swamp of blood Warrior and war-horse reeled; How wolves came with fierce gallop, And crows on eager wings, To tear the flesh of captains, 55 And peck the eyes of kings; How thick the dead lay scattered Under the Porcian height: How through the gates of Tusculum Raved the wild stream of night; 60 And how the Lake Regillus Bubbled with crimson foam, What time the Thirty Cities[20] Came forth to war with Rome.

IV

But, Roman, when thou standest 65 Upon that holy ground, Look thou with heed on the dark rock. That girds the dark lake round, So shall thou see a hoof-mark[21] Stamped deep into the flint: 70 It was no hoof of mortal steed That made so strange a dint; There to the Great Twin Brethren Vow thou thy vows, and pray That they, in tempest and in fight, 75 Will keep thy head alway.

[The Latins send a message calling on the Romans to restore the Tarquins. The consul proudly refuses, and a dictator is appointed. The Roman army encamps hard by Lake Regillus.]

Since last the Great Twin Brethren Of mortal eyes were seen, Have years gone by an hundred And fourscore and thirteen. 80 That summer a Virginius[22] Was Consul first in place;[23] The second was stout Aulus, Of the Posthumian race. The Herald of the Latines 85 From Gabii[24] came in state: The Herald of the Latines Passed through Rome's Eastern Gate The herald of the Latines Did in our Forum stand; 90 And there he did his office, A sceptre in his hand.

VI

"Hear, Senators and people Of the good town of Rome, The Thirty Cities charge you 95 To bring the Tarquins home: And if ye still be stubborn, To work the Tarquins wrong, The Thirty Cities warn you, Look that your walls be strong." 100

VII

Then spake the Consul Aulus, He spake a bitter jest: "Once the jay sent a message Unto the eagle's nest:— Now yield thou up thine eyrie 105 Unto the carrion-kite, Or come forth valiantly, and face The jays in deadly fight.— Forth looked in wrath the eagle; And carrion-kite and jay, 110 Soon as they saw his beak and claw, Fled screaming far away."

VIII

The Herald of the Latines Hath hied him back in state; The Fathers of the City 115 Are met in high debate. Then spake the elder Consul, An ancient man and wise: "Now hearken, Conscript Fathers,[25] To that which I advise. 120 In seasons of great peril Tis good that one bear sway; Then choose we a Dictator, Whom all men shall obey. Camerium[26] knows how deeply 125 The sword of Aulus bites, And all our city calls him The man of seventy fights. Then let him be Dictator For six months and no more, 130 And have a Master of the Knights,[27] And axes twenty-four."[28]

IX

So Aulus was Dictator, The man of seventy fights He made Aebutius Elva 135 His Master of the Knights. On the third morn thereafter, At dawning of the day, Did Aulus and Aebutius Set forth with their array. 140 Sempronius Atratinus Was left in charge at home With boys, and with grey-headed men, To keep the walls of Rome. Hard by the Lake Regillus 145 Our camp was pitched at night: Eastward a mile the Latines lay, Under the Porcian height. Far over hill and valley Their mighty host was spread; 150 And with their thousand watch-fires The midnight sky was red.

[The names of the towns which contributed to the Latin army of threescore thousand men, and their order of battle. All Latium was there to fight with Rome.]

Up rose the golden morning Over the Porcian height, The proud Ides of Quintilis 155 Marked evermore with white. Not without; secret trouble Our bravest saw the foes; For girt by threescore thousand spears The thirty standards rose. 160 From every warlike city That boasts the Latian name, Foredoomed to dogs and vultures, That gallant army came; From Sofia's purple vineyards, 165 From Norba's ancient wall, From the white streets of Tusculum, The proudest town of all; From where the Witch's Fortress[29] O'erhangs the dark-blue seas; 170 From the still glassy lake that sleeps Beneath Aricia's trees— Those trees in whose dim shadow The ghastly priest[30] doth reign, The priest who slew the slayer, 175 And shall himself be slain; From the drear banks of Ufens,[31] Where nights of marsh-fowl play, And buffaloes lie wallowing Through the hot summer's day, 180 From the gigantic watch-towers, No work of earthly men, Whence Cora's sentinels o'erlook The never-ending fen; From the Laurentian[32] jungle, 185 The wild hog's reedy home; From the green steeps whence Anio leaps In floods of snow-white foam.

XI

Aricia, Cora, Norba, Velitrae, with the might; 190 Of Setia and of Tusculum, Were marshalled on the right: The leader was Mamilius, Prince of the Latian name, Upon his head a helmet 195 Of red gold shone like flame: High on a gallant charger Of dark-grey hue he rode: Over his gilded armour A vest of purple flowed, 200 Woven in the land of sunrise By Syria's dark-browed daughters, And by the sails of Carthage[33] brought Far o'er the southern waters.

XII

Lavinium and Laurentum 205 Had on the left their post, With all the banners of the marsh, And banners of the coast. Their leader was false Sextus, That wrought the deed of shame: 210 With restless pace and haggard face To his last field he came. Men said he saw strange visions Which none beside might see, And that strange sounds were in his ears 215 Which none might hear but he. A woman[34] fair and stately, But pale as are the dead, Oft through the watches of the night Sat spinning by his bed. 220 And as she plied the distaff, In a sweet voice and low, She sang of great old houses, And fights fought long ago. So spun she, and so sang she, 225 Until the east was grey, Then pointed to her bleeding breast, And shrieked, and fled away.

XIII

But in the centre thickest Were ranged the shields of foes, 230 And from the centre loudest The cry of battle rose. There Tibur[35] marched and Pedum Beneath proud Tarquin's rule, And Ferentinum of the rock, 235 And Gabii of the pool. There rode the Volscian succours: There, in a dark stern ring, The Roman exiles gathered close, Around the ancient king. 240 Though white as Mount Soracte,[36] When winter nights are long, His beard flowed down o'er mail and belt, His heart and hand were strong: Under his hoary eyebrows 245 Still flashed forth quenchless rage, And, if the lance shook in his gripe, 'Twas more with hate than age. Close at his side was Titus On an Apulian[37] steed, 250 Titus, the youngest Tarquin, Too good for such a breed.

[The battle begins. False Sextus flees from Herminius, one of the defenders of the bridge. Aebutius slays Tubero, but is severely wounded by Mamilius of Tusculum, and retires from the fight.]

XIV

Now on each side the leaders Gave signal for the charge; And on each side the footmen 255 Strode on with lance and targe;[38] And on each side the horsemen Struck their spurs deep in gore; And front to front, the armies Met with a mighty roar: 260 And under that great battle The earth with blood was red; And, like the Pomptine[39] fog at morn, The dust hung overhead; And louder still and louder 265 Rose from the darkened field The braying of the war-horns, The clang of sword and shield, The rush of squadrons sweeping Like whirlwinds o'er the plain, The shouting of the slayers, 270 And screeching of the slain.

XV

False Sextus rode out foremost: His look was high and bold; His corslet was of bison's hide, 275 Plated with steel and gold. As glares the famished eagle From the Digentian rock[40] On a choice lamb that bounds alone Before Bandusia's[41] flock, 280 Herminius glared on Sextus, And came with eagle speed, Herminius on black Auster,[42] Brave champion on brave steed; In his right hand the broadsword 285 That kept the bridge so well, And on his helm the crown[43] he won When proud Fidenae fell. Woe to the maid whose lover Shall cross his path to-day! 290 False Sextus saw, and trembled, And turned, and fled away. As turns, as flies, the woodman In the Calabrian[44] brake, When through the reeds gleams the round eye 295 Of that fell speckled snake; So turned, so fled, false Sextus, And hid him in the rear, Behind the dark Lavinian ranks, Bristling with crest and spear. 300

XVI

But far to north Aebutius, The Master of the Knights, Gave Tubero of Norba To feed the Porcian kites. Next under those red horse-hoofs 305 Flaccus of Setia lay; Better had he been pruning Among his elms[45] that day. Mamilius saw the slaughter, And tossed his golden crest, 310 And towards the Master of the Knights Through the thick battle pressed. Aebutias smote Mamilius So fiercely, on the shield That the great lord of Tusculum 315 Well nigh rolled on the field. Mamilius smote Aebutius, With a good aim and true, Just where the neck and shoulder join, And pierced him through and through; 320 And brave Aebutius Elva Fell swooning to the ground: But a thick wall of bucklers Encompassed him around. His clients[46] from the battle 325 Bare him some little space, And filled a helm from the dark lake, And bathed his brow and face; And when at last he opened His swimming eyes to light, 330 Men say, the earliest word he spake Was, "Friends, how goes the fight?"

[The struggle in the centre, where the ancient Tarquin is struck down. The Latins fight over him as he lies, and Titus kills Valerius, round whose body the struggle waxes hot.]

XVII

But meanwhile in the centre Great deeds of arms were wrought; There Aulus the Dictator 335 And there Valerius fought. Aulus with his good broadsword A bloody passage cleared To where, amidst the thickest foes, He saw the long white beard. 340 Flat lighted that good broadsword Upon proud Tarquin's head. He dropped the lance: he dropped the reins: He fell as fall the dead. Down Aulus springs to slay him, 345 With eyes like coals of fire; But faster Titus[47] hath sprung down, And hath bestrode his sire. Latian captains, Roman knights, Fast down to earth they spring, 350 And hand to hand they fight on foot Around the ancient king. First Titus gave tall Caeso A death wound in the face; Tall Caeso was the bravest man 355 Of the brave Fabian[48] race: Aulus slew Rex of Gabii, The priest of Juno's shrine: Valerius smote down Julius, Of Rome's great Julian line;[49] 360 Julius, who left his mansion High on the Velian hill,[50] And through all turns of weal and woe Followed proud Tarquin still. Now right across proud Tarquin 365 A corpse was Julius laid; And Titus groaned with rage and grief, And at Valerius made. Valerius struck at Titus, And lopped off half his crest; 370 But Titus stabbed Valerius A span deep in the breast. Like a mast snapped by the tempest, Valerius reeled and fell. Ah! woe is me for the good house 375 That loves the people well! Then shouted loud the Latines; And with one rush they bore The struggling Romans backward Three lances' length and more: 380 And up they took proud Tarquin, And laid him on a shield, And four strong yeoman bare him, Still senseless from the field.

XVIII

But fiercer grew the fighting 385 Around Valerius dead; For Titus dragged him by the foot, And Aulus by the head. "On, Latines, on!" quoth Titus, "See how the rebels fly!" 390 "Romans, stand firm!" quoth Aulus, "And win this fight or die! They must not give Valerius To raven and to kite; For aye Valerius loathed the wrong, 395 And aye upheld the right: And for your wives and babies In the front rank he fell. Now play the men for the good house That loves the people well!" 400

XIX

Then tenfold round the body The roar of battle rose, Like the roar of a burning forest, "When a strong north wind blows. Now backward, and now forward, 405 Rocked furiously the fray, Till none could see Valerius, And none wist where he lay. For shivered arms and ensigns Were heaped there in a mound, 410 And corpses stiff, and dying men, That writhed and gnawed the ground, And wounded horses kicking, And snorting purple foam: Right well did such a couch befit 415 A Consular of Rome.

[Mamilius is seen coming to the aid of the Latins. Cossus gallops off to summon Herminus, who comes at once. Mamilius flings himself athwart his course, and both champions are slain.]

XX

But north looked the Dictator; North looked he long and hard; And spake to Caius Cossus, The Captain of his Guard: 420 "Caius, of all the Romans Thou hast the keenest sight; Say, what through yonder storm of dust Comes from the Latian right?"

XXI

Then answered Caius Cossus 425 "I see an evil sight; The banner of proud Tusculum Comes from the Latian right: I see the plumed horsemen; And far before the rest 430 I see the dark-grey charger, I see the purple vest, I see the golden helmet That shines far off like flame; So ever rides Mamilius, 435 Prince of the Latian name."

XXII

"Now hearken, Caius Cossus: Spring on thy horse's back; Ride as the wolves of Apennine Were all upon thy track; 440 Haste to our southward battle: And never draw thy rein Until thou find Herminius, And bid him come amain."

XXIII

So Aulus spake, and turned him 445 Again to that fierce strife, And Caius Cossus mounted, And rode for death and life. Loud clanged beneath his horse-hoofs The helmets of the dead, 450 And many a curdling pool of blood Splashed him from heel to head. So came he far to southward, Where fought the Roman host, Against the banners of the marsh 455 And banners of the coast. Like corn before the sickle The stout Lavinians fell, Beneath the edge of the true sword That kept the bridge so well. 460

XXIV

"Herminius: Aulus greets thee; He bids thee come with speed, To help our central battle: For sore is there our need. There wars the youngest Tarquin, 465 And there the Crest of Flame,[51] The Tusculan Mamilius, Prince of the Latian name. Valerius hath fallen fighting In front of our array: 470 And Aulus of the seventy fields Alone upholds the day."

XXV

Herminius beat his bosom: But never a word he spake. He clapped his hand on Auster's mane, 475 He gave the reins a shake: Away, away went Auster, Like an arrow from the bow: Black Auster was the fleetest steed From Aufidus to Po.[52] 480

XXVI

Right glad were all the Romans Who, in that hour of dread, Against great odds bare up the war Around Valerius dead, When from the south the cheering 485 Rose with a mighty swell; "Herminius comes, Herminius, Who kept the bridge so well!"

XXVII

Mamilius spied Herminius, And dashed across the way. 490 "Herminius! I have sought thee Through many a bloody day. One of us two, Herminius, Shall never more go home, I will lay on for Tusculum, 495 And lay thou on for Rome!"

XXVIII

All round them paused the battle, While met in mortal fray The Roman and the Tusculan, The horses black and grey. 500 Herminius smote Mamilius Through breast-plate and through breast, And fast flowed out the purple blood Over the purple vest. Mamilius smote Herminius 505 Through head-piece and through head; And side by side those chiefs of pride Together fell down dead. Down fell they dead together In a great lake of gore; 510 And still stood all who saw them fall While men might count a score.

[Mamilius' charger dashes off to Tusculum, Black Auster remains by his master's body. Titus attempts to mount him, but is slain by Aulus the Dictator.]

XXIX

Fast, fast, with heels wild spurning, The dark-grey charger fled: He burst through ranks of fighting men; 515 He sprang o'er heaps of dead. His bridle far out-streaming, His flanks all blood and foam, He sought the southern mountains, The mountains of his home. 520 The pass was steep and rugged, The wolves they howled and whined; But he ran like a whirlwind up the pass, And he left the wolves behind. Through many a startled hamlet 525 Thundered his flying feet; He rushed through the gate of Tusculum, He rushed up the long white street; He rushed by tower and temple, And paused not from his race 530 Till he stood before his master's door In the stately market-place. And straightway round him gathered A pale and trembling crowd, And when they knew him, cries of rage 535 Brake forth, and wailing loud: And women rent their tresses For their great prince's fall; And old men girt on their old swords, And went to man the wall. 540

XXX

But, like a graven image, Black Auster kept his place, And ever wistfully he looked Into his master's face. The raven-mane that daily, 545 With pats and fond caresses, The young Herminia washed and combed, And twined in even tresses, And decked with coloured ribands From her own gay attire, 550 Hung sadly o'er her father's corpse In carnage and in mire. Forth with a shout sprang Titus, And seized Black Auster's rein. Then Aulus sware a fearful oath, 555 And ran at him amain. "The furies of thy brother[53] With me and mine abide, If one of your accursed house Upon black Auster ride!" 560 As on an Alpine watch-tower From heaven comes down the flame, Full on the neck of Titus The blade of Aulus came: And out the red blood spouted, 565 In a wide arch and tall, As spouts a fountain in the court Of some rich Capuan's[54] hall. The knees of all the Latines Were loosened with dismay 570 When dead, on dead Herminius, The bravest Tarquin lay.

[Aulus prepares to mount black Auster, when he spies two strange horsemen by his side. These are Castor and Pollux, who charge at the head of the Roman army.]

XXXI

And Aulus the Dictator Stroked Auster's raven mane, With heed he looked unto the girths, 575 With heed unto the rein. "Now bear me well, black Auster, Into yon thick array; And thou and I will have revenge For thy good lord this day." 580

XXXII

So spake he; and was buckling Tighter black Auster's band, When he was aware of a princely pair That rode at his right hand. So like they were, no mortal 585 Might one from other know: White as snow their armour was; Their steeds were white as snow. Never on earthly anvil Did such rare armour gleam; 590 And never did such gallant steeds Drink of an earthly stream.

XXXIII

And all who saw them trembled, And pale grew every cheek, And Aulus the Dictator 595 Scarce gathered voice to speak. "Say by what name men call you? What city is your home? And wherefore ride ye in such guise Before the ranks of Rome?" 600

XXXIV

"By many names men call us; In many lands we dwell; Well Samothracia[55] knows us, Cyrene knows us well. Our house in gay Tarentum[56] 605 Is hung each morn with flowers: High o'er the masts of Syracuse[57] Our marble portal towers; But by the proud Eurotas[58] Is our dear native home; 610 And for the right we come to fight Before the ranks of Rome."

XXXV

So answered those strange horsemen, And each couched low his spear; And forthwith all the ranks of Rome 615 Were bold, and of good cheer; And on the thirty armies Came wonder and affright, And Ardea wavered on the left, And Cora on the right. 620 "Rome to the charge!" cried Aulus; "The foe begins to yield! Charge for the hearth of Vesta![59] Charge for the Golden Shield![60] Let no man stop to plunder, 625 But slay, and slay, and slay: The Gods who live forever Are on our side to-day."

[The Latins turn and flee. Many of their chiefs are slain, and above all false Sextus, who dies a coward's death.]

XXXVI

Then the fierce trumpet-flourish From earth to heaven arose. 630 The kites know well the long stern swell That bids the Romans close. Then the good sword of Aulus Was lifted up to slay: Then, like a crag down Apennine, 635 Rushed Auster through the fray. But under those strange horsemen Still thicker lay the slain: And after those strange horses Black Auster toiled in vain. 640 Behind them Rome's long battle Came rolling on the foe, Ensigns dancing wild above, Blades all in line below, So comes the Po in flood-time 645 Upon the Celtic plain:[61] So comes the squall, blacker than night, Upon the Adrian main. How, by our Sire Quirinus,[62] It was a goodly sight 650 To see the thirty standards Swept down the tide of flight. So flies the spray of Adria When the black squall doth blow, So corn-sheaves in the flood-time 655 Spin down the whirling Po. False Sextus to the mountains Turned first his horse's head; And fast fled Ferentinum, And fast Lanuvium fled. 660 The horsemen of Nomentum Spurred hard out of the fray, The footmen of Velitrae Threw shield and spear away. And underfoot was trampled, 665 Amidst the mud and gore, The banner of proud Tusculum, That never stooped before: And down went Flavius Faustus, Who led his stately ranks 670 From where the apple-blossoms wave On Anio's echoing banks, And Tullus of Arpinum, Chief of the Volscian aids, And Metius with the long fair curls, 675 The love of Anxur's maids, And the white head of Vulgo, The great Arician seer, And Nepos of Laurentum, The hunter of the deer; 680 And in the back false Sextus Felt the good Roman steel; And wriggling in the dust he died, Like a worm beneath the wheel: And fliers and pursuers 685 Were mingled in a mass; And far away the battle Went roaring through the pass.

[The Dioscuri ride to Rome with news of victory. No one dares to ask who they are, and after washing their steeds in Vesta's fountain they vanish from mortal sight.]

XXXVII

Sempronius Atratinus Sate in the Eastern Gate, 690 Beside him were three Fathers, Each in his chair of state; Fabius, whose nine stout grandsons That day were in the field, And Manlius, eldest of the Twelve[63] 695 Who kept the Golden Shield; And Sergius, the High Pontiff,[64] For wisdom far renowned, In all Etruria's colleges Was no such Pontiff found. 700 And all around the portal, And high above the wall, Stood a great throng of people, But sad and silent all; Young lads, and stooping elders 705 That might not bear the mail, Matrons with lips that quivered, And maids with faces pale. Since the first gleam of daylight, Sempronius had not ceased 710 To listen for the rushing Of horse-hoofs from the east. The mist of eve was rising. The sun was hastening down, When he was aware of a princely pair 715 Fast pricking towards the town, So like they were, man never Saw twins so like before; Red with gore their armour was, Their steeds were red with gore. 720

XXXVIII

"Hail to the great Asylum![65] Hail to the hill-tops seven! Hail to the fire[66] that burns for aye! And the shield that fell from heaven! This day, by Lake Regillus, 725 Under the Porcian height, All in the lands of Tusculum Was fought a glorious fight. To-morrow your Dictator Shall bring in triumph home 730 The spoils of thirty cities To deck the shrines of Rome!"

XXXIX

Then burst from that great concourse A shout that shook the towers, And some ran north, and some ran south, 735 Crying, "The day is ours!" But on rode these strange horsemen, With slow and lordly pace; And none who saw their bearing Durst ask their name or race. 740 On rode they to the Forum, While laurel-boughs and flowers, From house-tops and from windows, Fell on their crests in showers. When they drew nigh to Vesta, 745 They vaulted down amain, And washed their horses in the well That springs by Vesta's fane. And straight again they mounted, And rode to Vesta's door; 750 Then, like a blast, away they passed, And no man saw them more.

[The Pontiff tells the Romans who their god-like visitors are, and bids the citizens build a temple to them and establish an annual procession in their honour.]

XL

And all the people trembled, And pale grew every cheek; And Sergius the High Pontiff 755 Alone found voice to speak: "The gods who live for ever Have fought for Rome to-day! These be the Great Twin Brethren To whom the Dorians[67] pray. 760 Back comes the Chief in triumph, Who, in the hour of fight, Hath seen the Great Twin Brethren In harness on his right. Safe comes the ship to haven, 765 Through billows and through gales, If once the Great Twin Brethren Sit shining on the sails.[68] Wherefore they washed their horses In Vesta's holy well, 770 Wherefore they rode to Vesta's door, I know, but may not tell. Here, hard by Vesta's Temple, Build we a stately dome Unto the Great Twin Brethren 775 Who fought so well for Rome. And when the months returning Bring back this day of fight, The proud Ides of Quintilis, Marked evermore with white, 780 Unto the Great Twin Brethren Let all the people throng, With chaplets and with offerings, With music and with song; And let the doors and windows 785 Be hung with garlands all, And let the Knights be summoned To Mars without the wall: Thence let them ride in purple With joyous trumpet-sound, 790 Each mounted on his war-horse, And each with olive crowned; And pass in solemn order Before the sacred dome, Where dwell the Great Twin Brethren 795 Who fought so well for Rome!"

Macaulay.

[1] Ten years after the siege of Rome by Lars Porsena, the Latins, under Mamilius of Tusculum, made a last attempt to force the Romans to restore the Tarquin kings. A battle was fought at Lake Regillus (B.C. 498) between the Latins and the Romans, in which the Romans were successful. Lake Regillus has disappeared and its exact site is no longer known. It is supposed to have been situated at the foot of the Tusculan hills, about ten miles to the southeast of Rome.

[2] Castor and Pollux were twin deities, the sons of Zeus (or Jupiter). Their birthplace was Sparta, in Greece, and there they had their chief temple.

[3] Ides of Quintilis. The fifteenth of July.

[4] lictors. The body-guard of the magistrates, armed with rods and axes.

[5] The Knights. The cavalry.

[6] Castor, and Mars. The temples of Castor and of Mars.

[7] Forum. The market-place, or public square.

[8] Yellow River. The Tiber, so called from its yellow sands.

[9] Sacred Hill. A famous hill about three miles from Rome.

[10] Martian Kalends. The first of March, on which a feast to Juno was held.

[11] December's Nones. December the fifth, on which was held a feast to Faunus, a god of the flocks and herds.

[12] whitest. We should say "a red-letter day."

[13] Parthemus. A mountain range in Greece.

[14] Cirrha's dome. The dome of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, near Cirrha, in Greece.

[15] Adria. The Adriatic.

[16] Lacedaemon. Sparta, which was governed by two kings representing two great families.

[17] Porcian height. Monte Porzio, near the scene of the battle.

[18] Corne. A hill near Tusculum.

[19] Fair Fount. A spring in the vicinity.

[20] Thirty Cities. The Latin cities, banded together in aid of the Tarquins.

[21]"One spot on the margin of Lake Regillus was regarded during many ages with superstitious awe. A mark, resembling in shape a horse's hoof, was discernible in the volcanic rock; and this mark was believed to have been made by one of the celestial chargers."—Macaulay.

[22] a Virginius. One of the family of the Virginii.

[23] The consul who was elected first was usually held in greater honour than the other.

[24] Gabii. A Latin city about twelve miles from Rome.

[25] Conscript Fathers. The senate. The original expression is patres conscripti (patres et conscripti), patres referring to the patrician element, and conscripti to the plebeian element in the senate.

[26] Camerium. One of the Latin cities.

[27] Master of the Knights. Chief lieutenant.

[28] The Consuls usually had twelve lictors each; the Dictator twenty-four.

[29] Witch's Fortress. The town of Circeii, which Macaulay associates here with Circe, the enchantress.

[30] ghastly priest. The temple of Diana, in a grove near Aricia, had for its priest a runaway slave, who was to hold office until slain by another runaway slave stronger than he.

[31] Ufens. A river.

[32] Laurentian jungle. Marshy thickets near the town of Laurentum.

[33] Carthage. On the north coast of Africa. The Carthaginians were a commercial and sea-faring people.

[34] a woman. Lucretia. After she had been wronged by Sextus, she stabbed herself and died.

[35] Tibur. The modern city of Tivoli.

[36] Soracte. A snow-capped mountain about twenty-five miles from Rome.

[37] Apulian. Apulia was one of the divisions of Italy.

[38] targe. shield.

[39] Pomptine. The Pontine marshes in the southern part of Latium.

[40] Digentian rock. A crag near the river Digentia.

[41] Bandusia. A fountain.

[42] Auster. The word signifies "the stormy south wind."

[43] crown. The first Roman to scale the walls of a besieged town received a crown of gold.

[44] Calabrian. Calabria forms the "heel" of Italy.

[45] Pruning the vines entwined around the trunks of the elms.

[46] clients. Servants attached to the Patrician families.

[47] Titus. Son of Tarquin the Proud.

[48] Fabian. The Fabii were a famous Roman family.

[49] The Julian house claimed to be descended from Iulus, son of Aeneas.

[50] Velian hill. The Velian hill was not far from the Forum in Rome.

[51] Crest of Flame. The flaming crest on the helmet of Mamilius. See l. 434.

[52] From Aufidus to Po. In all Italy. Aufidus was a river in the south of Italy; Po, a river in the north.

[53] thy brother. False Sextus, supposed to be haunted by the furies (the Greek goddesses of Vengeance) for his crime.

[54] Capuan. Capua was a luxurious city in southern Italy.

[55] Samothracia. An island in the Aegean, where Castor and Pollux were worshipped.

[56] Tarentum. A Greek town in the south of Italy.

[57] Syracuse. An important city in Sicily.

[58] Eurotas. A river in Greece, flowing past the city of Sparta.

[59] Vesta. The goddess of the hearth.

[60] Golden Shield. The shield of Mars which had fallen from heaven during the reign of Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome.

[61] Celtic plain. The north of Italy, inhabited by Celtic tribes.

[62] Sire Quirinus. Romulus, the founder of Rome.

[63] The Twelve. In order to prevent the shield of Mars from being stolen, eleven others were made after the same pattern, and twelve priests were appointed to guard the twelve shields.

[64] High Pontiff. The chief priest.

[65] Asylum. Romulus was said to have promised a refuge to all fugitives, in the newly-founded city of Rome.

[66] the fire. In the temple of Vesta.

[67] Dorians. The Spartans belonged to the Dorian branch of the Greek people.

[68] Castor and Pollux were the special guardians of sailors at sea. When, during a thunderstorm, a light played around the masts and sails of the ship, Castor and Pollux were supposed to be present, watching over the fortunes of the vessel.

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