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Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon
by Robert A. Sterndale
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[Frontispiece: FELIS TIGRIS.]



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MAMMALIA OF INDIA AND CEYLON.

BY

ROBERT A. STERNDALE, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., &C., AUTHOR OF "THE DENIZENS OF THE JUNGLE;" "THE AFGHAN KNIFE;" "SEONEE, OR CAMP LIFE IN THE SATPURA RANGE," ETC.

WITH 170 ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR, T. W. WOOD, AND OTHERS.



CALCUTTA: THACKER, SPINK, AND CO. BOMBAY: THACKER AND CO., LIMITED. LONDON: W. THACKER AND CO. 1884.



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.



THIS POPULAR HISTORY OF OUR INDIAN MAMMALS IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED (BY PERMISSION) TO ONE WHO TAKES A DEEP INTEREST IN ALL THAT CONCERNS OUR EASTERN EMPIRE, THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF NORTHBROOK, G.C.S.I., LATE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND VICEROY OF INDIA.



PREFACE.

This work is designed to meet an existing want, viz.: a popular manual of Indian Mammalia. At present the only work of the kind is one which treats exclusively of the Peninsula of India, and which consequently omits the more interesting types found in Assam, Burmah, and Ceylon, as well as the countries bordering the British Indian Empire on the North. The geographical limits of the present work have been extended to all territories likely to be reached by the sportsman from India, thus greatly enlarging the field of its usefulness.

The stiff formality of the compiled "Natural Histories" has been discarded, and the Author has endeavoured to present, in interesting conversational and often anecdotal style, the results of experience by himself and his personal friends; at the same time freely availing himself of all the known authorities upon the subject.



CONTENTS.

NO. PAGE INTRODUCTION 1

ORDER BIMANA 3

ORDER QUADRUMANA 7

Genus Hylobates—The Gibbons—

1. Hylobates hooluck (White-fronted Gibbon) 8 2. " lar (White-handed Gibbon) 11 3. " syndactylus (Siamang) 12

Genus Presbytes—Cuvier's Genus Semnopithecus—

4. Semnopithecus vel Presbytes entellus (Bengal Langur) 14 5. " vel P. schistaceus (Himalayan Langur) 16 6. " vel P. priamus (Madras Langur) 16 7. " vel P. Johnii (Malabar Langur) 17 8. " vel P. jubatus (Nilgheri Langur) 18 9. " vel P. pileatus (Capped Langur) 18 10. " vel P. Barbei (Tipperah Langur) 19 11. " vel P. Phayrei (Silvery-Leaf Monkey) 19 12. " vel P. obscurus (Dusky-Leaf Monkey) 20 13. " vel P. cephalopterus (Ceylon Langur) 20 14. " vel P. ursinus (Great Wanderu) 21 15. " vel P. thersites 22 16. " vel P. albinus (White Langur) 23

SUB-FAMILY PAPIONINAE 24

Genus Inuus—

17. Inuus vel Macacus silenus (Lion Monkey) 24 18. " vel M. rhesus (Bengal Monkey) 25 19. " vel M. pelops (Hill Monkey) 26 20. " vel M. nemestrinus (Pig-tailed Monkey) 26 21. " vel M. leoninus (Long-haired Pig-tailed Monkey) 27 22. " vel M. arctoides (Brown Stump-tailed Monkey) 28 23. " vel M. Thibetanus (Thibetan Stump-tailed Monkey) 28

Genus Macacus—

24. Macacus radiatus (Madras Monkey) 28 25. " pileatus (Capped Monkey) 29 26. " cynomolgus (Crab-eating Macacque) 30 27. " carbonarius (Black-faced Crab-eating Monkey) 31

FAMILY LEMURIDAE 31

Genus Nycticebus—

28. Nycticebus tardigradus (Slow-paced Lemur) 31

Genus Loris—

29. Loris gracilis (Slender Lemur) 33

SUB-ORDER PLEUROPTERA—FAMILY GALAEOPITHECIDAE 33

Genus Galaeopithecus—

30. Galaeopithecus volans (Flying Lemur) 34

ORDER CARNARIA 35

CHEIROPTERA 35

MEGACHIROPTERA—SUB-FAMILY PTEROPODIDAE 36

Genus Pteropus—

31. Pteropus Edwardsii vel medius (Common Flying Fox) 37 32. " Leschenaultii (Cynonycteris amplexicaudata) (Fulvous Fox-Bat) 40

Genus Cynopterus—

33. Cynopterus marginatus (Small Fox-Bat) 40 34. Macroglossus (Pteropus) minimus (Tenasserim Fox-Bat) 41

Genus Eonycteris—

35. Eonycteris spelaea 41

MICROCHIROPTERA—SUB-FAMILY VAMPYRIDAE 42

Genus Megaderma—

36. Megaderma lyra (Large-eared Vampire Bat) 42 37. " spectrum (Cashmere Vampire) 43 38. " spasma 43

RHINOLOPHINAE 44

Genus Rhinolophus—

39. Rhinolophus perniger vel luctus (Large Leaf-Bat) 44 40. " mitratus (Mitred Leaf-Bat) 44 41. " tragatus vel ferrum-equinum (Dark-brown Leaf-Bat) 45 42. " Pearsonii (Pearson's Leaf-Bat) 46 43. " affinis (Allied Leaf-Bat) 46 44. " rouxi (Rufous Leaf-Bat) 46 45. " macrotis (Large-eared Leaf-Bat) 47 46. " sub-badius (Bay Leaf-Bat) 47 47. " rammanika 47 48. " Andamanensis 48 49. " minor 48 50. " coelophyllus 48 51. " Garoensis 48 52. " Petersii 49 53. " trifoliatus 49

Genus Hipposideros vel Phyllorhina—

54. Hipposideros armiger (Large Horse-shoe Bat) 50 55. " speoris (Indian Horse-shoe Bat) 50 56. " murinus (Little Horse-shoe Bat) 51 57. " cineraceus (Ashy Horse-shoe Bat) 51 58. " larvatus 51 59. " vulgaris (Common Malayan Horse-shoe Bat) 52 60. " Blythii 52 61. Phyllorhina diadema 52 62. " Masoni 53 63. " Nicobarensis 53 64. " armigera 53 65. " leptophylla 54 66. " galerita 54 67. " bicolor 55

Genus Coelops—

68. Coelops Frithii (Frith's Tailless Bat) 55

Genus Rhinopoma—

69. Rhinopoma Hardwickii (Hardwick's Long-tailed Leaf-Bat) 56

SUB-FAMILY NOCTILIONIDAE 56

Genus Taphozous—

70. Taphozous longimanus (Long-armed Bat) 57 71. " melanopogon (Black-bearded Bat) 57 72. " saccolaimus (White-bellied Bat) 58 73. " Theobaldi 58 74. " Kachhensis 58

Genus Nyctinomus—

75. Nyctinomus plicatus (Wrinkle-lipped Bat) 59 76. " tragatus 59

SUB-FAMILY VESPERTILIONIDAE 60

Genus Plecotus—

77. Plecotus auritus vel homochrous 60

Genus Vesperugo—

78. Vesperugo noctula 61 79. " leucotis 61 80. " maurus 62 81. " affinis 62 82. " pachyotis 62 83. " atratus 62 84. " Tickelli 63 85. " pachypus 63 86. " annectans 63 87. " dormeri 63 88. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus serotinus (Silky Bat) 63 89. " " Leisleri (Hairy-armed Bat) 64 Scotophilus pachyomus 64 90. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus Coromandelianus (Coromandel Bat) 64 91. " " lobatus (Lobe-eared Bat) 65

Genus Scotophilus—

92. Scotophilus fuliginosus (Smoky Bat) 65 93. " Temminckii 65 94. " Heathii 66 95. " emarginatus 66 96. " ornatus 66 97. " pallidus 67 Noctulinia noctula 67 Nycticejus Heathii (Large Yellow Bat) 67 " luteus (Bengal Yellow Bat) 67 " Temminckii (Common Yellow Bat) 67 " castaneus (Chestnut Bat) 67 " atratus (Sombre Bat) 67 " canus (Hoary Bat) 67 " ornatus (Harlequin Bat) 68 98. " nivicolus (Alpine Bat) 68

Genus Harpiocephalus—

99. Harpiocephalus harpia 69 100. " (Murina) suillus (The Pig-Bat) 69 101. " auratus 70 102. " griseus 70 103. " leucogaster 70 104. " cyclotis 70

Genus Kerivoula—

105. Kerivoula picta (Painted Bat) 71 " pallida 72 106. " papillosa 72 107. " Hardwickii 72

Genus Vespertilio—

108. Myotis (Vespertilio) murinus 73 109. " Theobaldi 73 110. " parvipes 73 111. Vespertilio longipes 73 112. " mystacinus 73 113. " muricola 73 114. " montivagus 74 115. " murinoides 74 116. " formosus 74 117. " Nepalensis 74 118. " emarginatus 75

Genus Miniopterus—

119. Miniopterus Schreibersii 76

Genus Barbastellus—

120. Barbastellus communis 76 121. Nyctophilus Geoffroyi 76

INSECTIVORA 77

FAMILY TALPIDAE—THE MOLES 79

Genus Talpa—

122. Talpa micrura (Short-tailed Mole) 81 123. " macrura (Long-tailed Mole) 81 124. " leucura (White-tailed Mole) 81

FAMILY SORECIDAE 82

Genus Sorex—

125. Sorex caerulescens (Common Musk Shrew, better known as Musk-rat) 83 126. " murinus (Mouse-coloured Shrew) 85 127. " nemorivagus (Nepal Wood Shrew) 85 128. " serpentarius (Rufescent Shrew) 85 129. " saturatior (Dark-brown Shrew) 86 130. " Tytleri (Dehra Shrew) 86 131. " niger (Neilgherry Wood Shrew) 86 132. " leucops (Long-tailed Shrew) 87 133. " soccatus (Hairy-footed Shrew) 87 134. " montanus (Ceylon Black Shrew) 87 135. " ferrugineus (Ceylon Rufescent Shrew) 87 136. " Griffithi (Large Black Shrew) 88 137. " heterodon 88

Genus Feroculus—

138. Feroculus macropus (Large-footed Shrew) 88 139. Sorex Hodgsoni (Nepal Pigmy-Shrew) 88 140. " Perroteti (Neilgherry Pigmy-Shrew) 89 141. " micronyx (Small-clawed Pigmy-Shrew) 89 142. " melanodon (Black-toothed Pigmy-Shrew) 89 143. " nudipes (Naked-footed Shrew) 89 144. " atratus (Black Pigmy-Shrew) 89

Sub-genus Soriculus—

145. Soriculus nigrescens (Mouse-tailed Shrew) 90

Genus Crossopus—

146. Crossopus Himalaicus (Himalayan Water-Shrew) 90

Genus Nyctogale—

147. Nyctogale elegans (Thibet Water-Shrew) 92

Genus Corsira—

148. Corsira Alpina (Alpine Shrew) 92

Genus Anurosorex—

149. Anurosorex Assamensis (Assam Burrowing Shrew) 93

FAMILY ERINACEIDAE—THE HEDGEHOGS 93

Genus Erinaceus—

150. Erinaceus collaris (Collared Hedgehog) 96 151. " micropus (Small-footed Hedgehog) 96 152. " pictus (Painted Hedgehog) 97 153. " Grayi 97 154. " Blanfordi 97 155. " Jerdoni 97 156. " megalotis (Large-eared Hedgehog) 98

FAMILY HYLOMIDAE 99

Genus Hylomys—

157. Hylomys Peguensis (Short-tailed Tree-Shrew) 99

FAMILY TUPAIIDAE 99

Genus Tupaia—

158. Tupaia Ellioti (Elliot's Tree-Shrew) 101 159. " Peguana vel Belangeri (Pegu Tree-Shrew) 101 160. " Chinensis 103 161. " Nicobarica 103 162. Gymnura Rafflesii (Bulau) 104

CARNIVORA 105

ARCTOIDEA—PLANTIGRADA 108

URSIDAE 108

Genus Ursus—

163. Ursus Isabellinus (Himalayan Brown Bear) 111 164. " (Helarctos) torquatus vel Tibetanus (Himalayan Black Bear) 113 165. " (Helarctos) gedrosianus (Baluchistan Bear) 116 166. " " Malayanus (Bruang or Malayan Sun Bear) 116 167. " (Melursus) labiatus (Common Indian Sloth Bear) 118

AILURIDAE 123

Genus Ailuropus—

168. Ailuropus melanoleucos 124

Genus Ailurus—

169. Ailurus fulgens (Red Cat-Bear) 128

SEMI-PLANTIGRADES 130

MELIDIDAE; OR, BADGER-LIKE ANIMALS 130

Genus Arctonyx—

170. Arctonyx collaris (Hog-Badger) 131 171. " taxoides (Assam Badger) 132

Genus Meles (Sub-genus Taxidia)—

172. Meles (Taxidia) leucurus (Thibetan White-tailed Badger) 133 173. " albogularis (White-throated Thibetan Badger) 134

Genus Mellivora—

174. Mellivora Indica (Indian Ratel or Honey-Badger) 134

Genus Gulo—The Glutton or Wolverene 136

Genus Helictis—

175. Helictis Nipalensis (Nepal Wolverene) 138 176. " moschata (Chinese Wolverene) 138

MUSTELIDAE—MARTENS AND WEASELS 139

Genus Martes—The Martens—

177. Martes flavigula (White-cheeked Marten) 141 178. " abietum (Pine Marten) 142 179. " toufoeus 143

Genus Mustela—The Weasels—

180. Mustela (Vison: Gray) sub-hemachalana (Sub-Hemachal Weasel) 145 181. " (Gymnopus: Gray) kathiah (Yellow-bellied Weasel) 145 182. " (Gymnopus: Gray) strigidorsa (Striped Weasel) 146 183. " erminea (Ermine or Stoat) 146 184. " (Vison: Gray) canigula (Hoary Red-necked Weasel) 146 185. " Stoliczkana 147 186. " (Vison) Sibirica 147 187. " alpina (Alpine Weasel) 147 188. " Hodgsoni 147 189. " (Vison) Horsfieldi 148 190. " (Gymnopus) nudipes 148

Genus Putorius—The Pole-cat—

191. Putorius larvatus vel Tibetanus (Black-faced Thibetan Pole-cat) 149 192. " Davidianus 149 193. " astutus 150 194. " Moupinensis 150

LUTRIDAE—The Otters 150

Genus Lutra—

195. Lutra nair (Common Indian Otter) 153 196. " monticola vel simung 155 197. " Ellioti 155 198. " aurobrunnea 155

Genus Aonyx—Clawless Otters—

199. Aonyx leptonyx (Clawless Otter) 156

AELUROIDEA 156

FELIDAE—The Cat Family

Genus Felis—

200. Felis leo (Lion) 159 201. " tigris (Tiger) 161

THE PARDS OR PANTHERS 175

202. Felis pardus (Pard) 179 203. " panthera (Panther) 183 204. " uncia (Ounce or Snow Panther) 184 205. " Diardii vel macrocelis (Clouded Panther) 185 206. " viverrina (Large Tiger-Cat) 187 207. " marmorata (Marbled Tiger-Cat) 188 208. " Bengalensis (Leopard-Cat) 189 209. " Jerdoni (Lesser Leopard-Cat) 191 210. " aurata (Bay Cat) 191 211. " rubiginosa (Rusty-spotted Cat) 192 212. " torquata (Spotted Wild-Cat) 193 213. " manul (Black-chested Wild-Cat) 193 214. " scripta 194 215. " Shawiana (Yarkand Spotted Wild-Cat) 194 216. " chaus (Common Jungle-Cat) 195 217. " isabellina (Thibetan Lynx) 197 218. " caracal (Red Lynx) 198 219. " jubata (Hunting Leopard) 200

HYAENIDAE—THE HYAENAS 203

Genus Hyaena—

220. Hyaena striata (Striped Hyaena) 205

VIVERRIDAE—THE CIVET FAMILY 207

Genus Viverra—

221. Viverra zibetha (Large Civet Cat) 208 222. " civettina (Malabar Civet-Cat) 209 223. " megaspila 209 224. " Malaccensis (Lesser Civet-Cat) 211

Genus Prionodon—

225. Prionodon pardicolor (Tiger Civet or Linsang) 212 226. " maculosus (Spotted Linsang) 213 227. " gracilis (Malayan Linsang) 215

Genus Paradoxurus—The Musangs—

228. Paradoxurus musanga (Common Musang) 216 229. " (Paguma of Gray) Grayii (Hill Musang) 217 230. " bondar (Terai Musang) 218 231. " trivirgatus (Three-striped Musang) 218 232. " leucotis (White-eared Musang) 219 233. " zeylanicus (Golden Musang) 220 234. " (Paguma) laniger 220

Genus Arctictis—

235. Arctictis binturong (Binturong) 221

HERPESTIDAE—THE ICHNEUMON OR MUNGOOSE FAMILY 222

Genus Herpestes—

236. Herpestes pallidus vel griseus (Common Grey Mungoose) 223 237. " Jerdoni vel monticolus (Long-tailed Mungoose) 225 238. " Smithii (Ruddy Mungoose) 225 239. " auropunctatus (Gold-speckled Mungoose) 225 240. " fuscus (Neilgherry Brown Mungoose) 226 241. " (Onychogale of Gray) Maccarthiae 226 242. " ferrugineus 226 243. " vitticollis (Stripe-necked Mungoose) 227 244. Urva cancrivora (Crab-eating Mungoose) 227

CYNOIDEA 228

Genus Canis—The Dog— 245. Canis pallipes (Indian Wolf) 232 246. " laniger (Lupus chanco of Gray) (Thibetan Wolf) 235 247. " lupus (European Wolf) 237 248. " aureus (Jackal) 237

Genus Cuon—

249. Canis (Cuon) rutilans (Indian Wild Dog) 239

Genus Vulpes—

250. Vulpes Bengalensis (Indian Fox) 243 251. " leucopus (Desert Fox) 244 252. " ferrilatus (Thibetan Grey Fox) 245 253. " montanus (Hill Fox) 245 254. " pusillus (Punjab Fox) 245 255. " flavescens (Persian Fox) 246 256. " Griffithii (Afghanistan Fox) 246

MARINE CARNIVORA 246

ORDER CETACEA—THE WHALES 247

Denticete—The Toothed Whales 248

FAMILY DELPHINIDAE—THE DOLPHINS OR PORPOISES 250

Genus Platanista—The River Dolphins—

257. Platanista Gangetica (Gangetic Porpoise) 251

Genus Orcella—The Round-headed River Dolphins—

258. Orcella brevirostris (Short-nosed Round-headed River Dolphin) 255 259. " fluminalis (Fresh-water Round-headed Dolphin) 255

Genus Delphinus—The Marine Dolphins—

260. Delphinus perniger (Black Dolphin) 258 261. " plumbeus (Lead-coloured Dolphin) 258 262. " gadamu 258 263. " lentiginosus (Freckled Dolphin) 259 264. " maculiventer (Spot-bellied Dolphin) 259 265. " fusiformis (Spindle-shaped Dolphin) 259 266. " pomeegra (Black or Pomeegra Dolphin) 260 267. " longirostris (Long-snouted Dolphin) 260 268. " velox 260

Genus Phocaena—The Porpoises 260

Genus Globicephalus—The Ca'ing or Pilot Whale—

269. Globicephalus Indicus (Indian Ca'ing Whale) 261

PHYSETERIDAE—THE CACHELOTS OR SPERM WHALES 261

Genus Euphysetes—

270. Physeter or Euphysetes simus (Snub-nosed Cachelot) 261

MYSTICETE—WHALEBONE OR BALEEN WHALES 262

Genus Balaena—The Right Whales 262

Genus Balaenoptera—Finback Whales or Rorquals—

271. Balaenoptera Indica (Indian Rorqual) 264

SIRENIA—THE MANATEES 267

Genus Halicore—The Dugong—

272. Halicore dugong (Dugong) 268

ORDER RODENTIA—THE GNAWERS 269

SUB-ORDER SIMPLICIDENTATA—SIMPLE-TOOTHED RODENTS 272

SCIUROMORPHA 273

SCIURIDAE—THE SQUIRRELS 274

Genus Sciurus—

273. Sciurus Indicus (Bombay Squirrel of Pennant) 276 274. " maximus (Central Indian Red Squirrel) 277 275. " macrourus (Long-tailed Forest Squirrel) 278 276. " giganteus (Black Hill Squirrel) 279 277. " lokriah (Orange-bellied Grey Squirrel) 280 278. " lokroides (Hoary-bellied Grey Squirrel) 280 279. " pygerythrus 282 280. " caniceps (Golden-backed Squirrel) 282 281. " Phayrei (Laterally-banded or Phayre's Squirrel) 282 282. " Blanfordii (Blanford's Squirrel) 283 283. " atrodorsalis (Black-backed Squirrel) 284 284. " erythraeus (Assam Red-bellied Squirrel) 285 285. " Gordoni (Gordon's Squirrel) 285 286. " hippurus (Chestnut-bellied Assam Squirrel) 285 287. " Sladeni (Sladen's Squirrel) 286 288. " ferrugineus (Rusty-coloured Squirrel) 287 289. " palmarum (Common Indian Ground Squirrel) 287 290. " tristriatus (Three-striped Ground-Squirrel) 289 291. " Layardi (Layard's Striped Ground-Squirrel) 289 292. " sublineatus (Dusky-striped Ground-Squirrel) 290 293. " McClellandi (McClelland's Ground-Squirrel) 290 294. " Berdmorei (Berdmore's Ground-Squirrel) 291 295. " quinquestriatus (Stripe-bellied Squirrel) 291 296. " (Rhinosciurus) tupaoides (Long-nosed Squirrel) 292

Genus Pteromys—

297. Pteromys oral (Brown Flying Squirrel) 294 298. " cineraceus (Ashy Flying Squirrel) 296 299. " Yunnanensis (Yunnan Flying Squirrel) 296 300. " melanopterus (Black-flanked Flying Squirrel) 297 301. " alborufus (Red and White Flying Squirrel) 297 302. " magnificus (Red-bellied Flying Squirrel) 298 303. " albiventer (White-bellied Flying Squirrel) 299 304. " caniceps (Grey-headed Flying Squirrel) 299 305. " Pearsonii (Hairy-footed Flying Squirrel) 300 306. " fuscocapillus (Small Travancore Flying Squirrel) 300 307. " fimbriatus (Grey Flying Squirrel) 301 308. " alboniger (Black and White Flying Squirrel) 301 309. " spadiceus (Red Flying Squirrel) 302

ARCTOMYDINAE—THE MARMOTS 302

Genus Arctomys—

310. Arctomys bobac (Bobac, or Poland Marmot) 303 311. " caudatus (Red Marmot) 304 312. " Hemachalanus (Eastern Red Marmot) 305 313. " aureus (Golden Marmot) 305 314. " dichrous 306 315. " robustus 306

MYOMORPHA—MOUSE-LIKE RODENTS 306

FAMILY MURIDAE 307

Genus Platacanthomys—

316. Platacanthomys lasiurus (Long-tailed Spiny Mouse) 308

SUB-FAMILY GERBILLINAE 309

Genus Gerbillus—

317. Gerbillus Indicus (Indian Jerboa-Rat, or Kangaroo-Rat) 309 318. " Hurrianae (Desert Jerboa-Rat) 311 319. " cryptorhinus (Lobe-nosed Jerboa-Rat) 312 320. " erythrurus (Red-tailed Jerboa-Rat) 313 321. " nanus (Dwarf Jerboa-Rat) 313

SUB-FAMILY PHLOEMYINAE 314

Genus Nesokia—

322. Nesokia Hardwickii (Hardwick's Field-Rat) 315 323. " Huttoni (Hutton's Field-Rat) 315 324. " Scullyi (Scully's Field-Rat) 315 325. " providens (Southern India Field-Rat) 316 326. " Blythiana (Bengal Field-Rat) 317 327. " Barclayiana (Barclay's Field-Rat) 318 328. Mus (Nesokia) Elliotanus (Elliot's Field-Rat) 318 329. " " giganteus (Bandicoot) 319

SUB-FAMILY CRICETINAE 320

Genus Cricetus—The Hamsters—

330. Cricetus phaeus (Persian Hamster) 321 331. " fulvus (Sandy Hamster) 321

SUB-FAMILY MURINAE 321

Genus Mus—

332. Mus rattus (Black Rat) 322 333. " decumanus (Brown Rat) 323 334. " Andamanensis (Andaman Rat) 325 335. " robustulus (Burmese Common Rat) 325 336. " Sladeni (Sladen's Rat) 326 337. " rubricosa (Small Red Rat of the Kakhyen Hills) 326 338. " Yunnanensis (Common House Rat of Yunnan) 327 339. " infralineatus (Striped-bellied Rat) 327 340. " brunneus (Tree Rat) 327 341. " rufescens (Rufescent Tree Rat) 328 342. " niveiventer (White-bellied House Rat) 329 343. " nitidus (Shining Brown Rat) 329 344. " caudatior (Chestnut Rat) 329 345. " concolor (Common Thatch Rat of Pegu) 330 346. " palmarum (Nicobar Tree Rat) 330 347. " Ceylonus 330 348. " plurimammis 331 349. " aequicaudalis 331 350. " oleraceus (Long-tailed Tree Mouse) 331 351. " Nilagiricus (Neilgherry Tree Mouse) 332 352. " badius (Bay Tree Mouse) 332 353. " gliroides (Cherrapoonjee Tree Mouse) 333 354. " Peguensis (Pegu Tree Mouse) 333 355. " urbanus (Common Indian Mouse) 333 356. " homourus 335 357. " Darjeelingensis 335 358. " Tytleri 335 359. " bactrianus 335 360. " crassipes (Large-footed Mouse) 337 361. " sublimis 337 362. " pachycercus 337 363. " erythronotus 337 364. " cervicolor (Fawn-coloured Field Mouse) 338 365. " terricolor (Earth-coloured Field Mouse) 338 366. " Peguensis (Pegu Field Mouse) 338 367. " nitidulus (Shiny Little House Mouse of Pegu) 338 368. " Beaveni (Beaven's Mouse) 339 369. " cunicularis (Little Rabbit-Mouse) 339 370. " erythrotis (Cherrapunji Red-eared Mouse) 339 371. " fulvidiventris 340 372. " Kakhyenensis (Kakhyen Mouse) 340 373. " viculorum (Kakhyen House Mouse) 340

Genus Leggada—

374. Leggada platythrix (Brown Spiny Mouse) 341 375. " spinulosa (Dusky Spiny Mouse) 342 376. " Jerdoni (Himalayan Spiny Mouse) 342 377. " lepida (Small Spiny Mouse) 342

Genus Golunda—

378. Golunda Ellioti (Bush Rat or Coffee Rat) 343 379. " meltada (Soft-furred Bush Rat) 344

Genus Hapalomys—

380. Hapalomys longicaudatus 345 381. Mus ouang-thomae (Kiangsi Rat) 346 382. " flavipectus (Yellow-breasted Rat) 346 383. " griseipectus (Grey-breasted Rat) 346 384. " Confucianus 347 385. " Chevrieri 347 386. " pygmaeus (Pigmy Mouse) 347

ARVICOLINAE 347

Genus Arvicola—

387. Arvicola Stoliczkanus (Yarkand Vole) 349 388. " Stracheyi (Kumaon Vole) 349 389. " Wynnei (Murree Vole) 350 390. " Roylei (Cashmere Vole) 350 391. " Blanfordi (Gilgit Vole) 350 392. " Blythii 351 393. " mandarinus (Afghan Vole) 351 394. " Sikimensis (Sikim Vole) 351 395. " melanogaster 352

FAMILY SPALACIDAE 352

Genus Rhizomys—The Bamboo-Rat—

396. Rhizomys badius (Chestnut Bamboo-Rat) 353 397. " erythrogenys (Red-cheeked Bamboo-Rat) 354 398. " pruinosus (Hoary Bamboo-Rat) 354 399. " minor (Small Bamboo-Rat) 354

FAMILY DIPODIDAE 355

Genus Dipus—The Jerboas—

400. Dipus lagopus (Yarkand Jerboa) 357

Genus Alactaga—

401. Alactaga Indica 358

HYSTRICOMORPHA—PORCUPINE-LIKE RODENTS 359

FAMILY HYSTRICIDAE—THE PORCUPINES 360

SUB-FAMILY HYSTRICINAE—THE TRUE PORCUPINES 360

Genus Atherura—The Long-tailed Porcupine—

402. Atherura fasciculata (Brush-tailed Porcupine) 361

Genus Hystrix—The Porcupine—

403. Hystrix leucura (White-tailed Indian Porcupine) 362 404. " Bengalensis (Bengal Porcupine) 365 405. " (Acanthion) longicauda (Crestless Porcupine) 366 406. " Yunnanensis 366

SUB-ORDER DUPLICIDENTATA—DOUBLE-TOOTHED RODENTS 367

FAMILY LEPORIDAE—THE HARES 368

Genus Lepus—

407. Lepus ruficaudatus (Common Indian Red-tailed Hare) 369 408. " nigricollis (Black-naped Hare) 369 409. " Peguensis (Pegu Hare) 370 410. " hypsibius (Mountain Hare) 370 411. " pallipes (Pale-footed Hare) 370 412. " Tibetanus (Thibet Hare) 371 413. " Yarkandensis (Yarkand Hare) 371 414. " Pamirensis (Pamir Hare) 372 415. " Stoliczkanus (Stoliczka's Hare) 372 416. " craspedotis (Large-eared Hare) 372 417. " hispidus (Hispid Hare) 373

FAMILY LAGOMYIDAE—THE PIKAS, OR MOUSE-HARES 373

Genus Lagomys—

418. Lagomys Roylei (Royle's Pika) 374 419. " Curzoniae (Curzon's Pika) 374 420. " Ladacensis (Ladak Pika) 374 421. " auritus (Large-eared Pika) 375 422. " macrotis 375 423. " griseus (Grey Pika) 375 424. " rufescens (Red Pika) 376

ORDER PROBOSCIDEA 377

Genus Elephas—The Elephant—

425. Elephas Indicus (Indian or Asiatic Elephant) 389

ORDER UNGULATA 397

SUB-ORDER PERISSODACTYLA 397

FAMILY EQUIDAE—THE HORSE 398

Genus Equus—

426. Equus onager (Wild Ass of Kutch) 399 427. " hemionus (Kiang or Wild Ass of Thibet) 401

FAMILY TAPIRIDAE—THE TAPIR 403

Genus Tapirus—

428. Tapirus Malayanus (Malay Tapir) 404

FAMILY RHINOCEROTIDAE 405

Genus Rhinoceros—

429. Rhinoceros Indicus 407 430. " Sondaicus (Javan Rhinoceros) 410

Genus Ceratorhinus—

431. Rhinoceros vel Ceratorhinus (Crossi?) lasiotis (Ear-fringed Rhinoceros) 411 432. Rhinoceros vel Ceratorhinus Sumatrensis (Sumatran Rhinoceros) 412

SUB-ORDER ARTIODACTYLA 413

FAMILY SUIDAE—THE HOGS 414

Genus Sus—

433. Sus scrofa (European Wild Boar) 415 434. " Indicus (Indian Boar) 416 435. " Andamanensis (Andaman Island Pig) 420 436. " Moupinensis 420

Genus Porcula—

437. Porcula Salvania (Pigmy Hog of the Saul Forests) 421

RUMINANTIA—THE RUMINANTS 422

FAMILY BOVIDAE—HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS 424

SUB-FAMILY CAPRINAE—GOATS AND SHEEP 424

Genus Ovis—The Sheep—

438. Ovis Polii (Marco Polo's Sheep) 424 439. " Hodgsoni (Argali or Ovis Ammon of Thibet) 427 440. " Karelini (Karelin's Wild Sheep) 430 441. " Brookei (Brooke's Wild Sheep) 434 442. " Vignei (Vigne's Wild Sheep) 435 443. " cycloceros (Punjab Wild Sheep) 435 444. " Blanfordii (Blanford's Wild Sheep) 437 445. " nahura vel burhel (Blue Wild Sheep) 438

Genus Capra—The Goats—

446. Capra megaceros (Markhor) 441 447. " Sibirica (Himalayan Ibex) 444 448. " aegagrus (Wild Goat of Asia Minor) 446

Sub-genus Hemitragus—

449. Capra vel Hemitragus Jemlaicus (Tahr) 449 450. " " " hylocrius (Neilgherry Wild Goat, or Ibex of Madras Sportsmen) 451

THE GOAT ANTELOPES, OR CAPRICORNS 454

Genus Nemorhoedus—

451. Nemorhoedus bubalina (Serow, or Forest Goat) 454 452. " rubida vel Sumatrensis (Arakanese Capricorn) 456 453. " Edwardsii (Thibetan Capricorn) 457 454. " goral (Small Himalayan Capricorn) 457

Genus Budorcas—

455. Budorcas taxicolor (Takin) 460

Genus Gazella—The Gazelles—

456. Gazella Bennetti (Indian Gazelle) 463 457. " fuscifrons (Baluchistan Gazelle) 465 458. " subgutterosa (Persian Gazelle) 466 459. " picticaudata (Thibetan Gazelle) 467

Genus Pantholops—

460. Pantholops Hodgsonii (Chiru) 469

Genus Antelope (restricted)—

461. Antelope bezoartica (Indian Antelope) 472

Genus Portax—The Nylgao—

462. Portax pictus vel tragocamelus (Nylgao or Blue Bull) 476

Genus Tetraceros—

463. Tetraceros quadricornis (Four-horned Antelope) 479

BOVINAE—CATTLE 480

Genus Gavaeus—

464. Gavaeus gaurus (Gaur, popularly called Bison) 481 465. " frontalis (Mithun or Gayal) 486 466. " Sondaicus (Burmese Wild Ox) 488

Genus Poephagus—The Yak—

467. Poephagus grunniens (Yak or Grunting Ox) 489

Genus Bubalus—The Buffalos—

468. Bubalus arni (Wild Buffalo) 490

Genus Moschus—The Musk Deer—

469. Moschus moschiferus (Musk Deer) 494

CERVIDAE—THE DEER 495

Genus Cervulus—The Muntjacs or Rib-faced Deer—

470. Cervulus muntjac vel aureus (Muntjac or Rib-faced Deer) 500

Genus Rusa—The Rusine Deer—

471. Rusa Aristotelis (Sambar) 503

Genus Axis—

472. Axis maculatus (Spotted Deer) 506 473. " porcinus (Hog Deer) 508

Genus Rucervus—

474. Rucervus Duvaucelli (Swamp-Deer) 510 475. " vel Panolia Eldii (Brown Antlered or Eld's Deer) 511

Genus Cervus—

476. Cervus Cashmirianus (Kashmir Stag) 512 477. " affinis vel Wallichii (Sikhim Stag) 514

TRAGULIDAE—THE CHEVROTIANS OR DEERLETS 515

Genus Tragulus—

478. Tragulus napu (Javan Deerlet) 516

Genus Meminna—

479. Meminna Indica (Indian Mouse Deer) 516

TRIBE TYLOPODA—THE CAMELS 518

ORDER EDENTATA 519

Genus Manis—

480. Manis pentadactyla or brachyura (Five-fingered or Short-tailed Pangolin) 520 481. " aurita (Eared Pangolin) 521 482. " Javanica (Javan Ant-eater) 522

APPENDIX A 523

APPENDIX B 525

APPENDIX C 526

APPENDIX D 532

INDEX 535



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

SECTION Felis Tigris Frontispiece Skull of Hylobates hooluck 1 Hylobates lar; Hylobates hooluck 2 Presbytes entellus 4 " thersites 15 Macacus silenus 17 " rhesus 18 " nemestrinus 20 " radiatus and Macacus pileatus 24 " cynomolgus 26 Loris gracilis and Nycticebus tardigradus 28 Galaeopithecus volans 30 Sternum of Pteropus Cheiroptera The Flying Fox at Home 31 Head of Pteropus medius 31 Cynopterus marginatus 33 Megaderma lyra 36 " spasma 38 Rhinolophus luctus 39 " ferrum-equinum 41 Phyllorhina armigera (male and female) 64 Skull of Rhinopoma 69 Plecotus auritus 77 Vesperugo noctula 78 " Leisleri 89 Scotophilus Temminckii 93 Skull of Harpiocephalus harpia 99 Vespertilio murinus 108 " formosus 116 Synotus barbastellus Genus Barbastellus Dentition of Shrew (magnified) Genus Sorex " of Hedgehog Family Erinaceidae Hedgehog Genus Erinaceus Dentition of Tupaia 158 Tupaia Peguana 159 Gymnura Rafflesii 162 Dentition of Tiger and Indian Black Bear Carnivora " of Bear Ursidae Skull of Bear (under view) Ursidae Ursus Isabellinus 163 " Tibetanus 164 " Malayanus 166 " labiatus 167 Ailuropus melanoleucos 168 Ailurus fulgens 169 Arctonyx collaris 170 Mellivora Indica 174 Skull of Putorius Mustelidae Martes abietum 178 Mustela Genus Mustela Otter's skull (side and under view) Lutridae Lutra nair 195 Skull of Tiger (side view) Felidae Tendons of Tiger's toe Felidae Auditory apparatus of Tiger (section) Felidae Felis leo (Indian variety) 200 Head of Tiger 201 Tiger's skull (under part) 201 Felis panthera (From a fine specimen in the Regent's Park Gardens) 203 " uncia 204 " Diardii 205 Skull of Felis viverrina 206 Felis marmorata 207 " aurata 210 " caracal 218 " jubata 219 Skull of Felis jubata 219 Skull of Hyaena Hyaenidae Hyaena striata 220 Dentition of Civet Viverridae Viverra zibetha 221 " megaspila 223 " Malaccensis 224 Prionodon maculosus 226 Paradoxurus trivirgatus 231 Arctictis binturong 235 Urva cancrivora 244 Dentition of Wolf Genus Canis Canis pallipes 245 Cuon rutilans 249 Platanista Gangetica 257 Gangetic Dolphin; Round-headed River Dolphin; Gadamu Dolphin; Freckled Dolphin; Black Dolphin Genus Delphinus Skull of Baleen Whale Genus Balaena Rorqual 271 Halicore dugong 272 Skull of Pteromys (Flying Squirrel) Genus Sciurus Sciurus maximus 274 Pteromys oral 297 Dentition of Gerbillus Genus Gerbillus Dentition of Cricetus Genus Cricetus Cricetus Genus Cricetus Dentition of Black Rat 332 " of Arvicola Arvicolinae Rhizomys badius 396 Dentition of Jerboa Family Dipodidae Dipus Genus Dipus Skull of Porcupine Family Hystricidae Hystrix leucura 403 Dentition of Hare Sub-order Duplicidentata Side view of Grinders of Asiatic Elephant Genus Elephas Grinder of Asiatic Elephant Genus Elephas " of African Elephant Genus Elephas Section of Elephant's Skull Genus Elephas Skeleton of Elephant Genus Elephas Muscles of Elephant's Trunk Genus Elephas Dentition of Horse Family Equidae Equus onager 426 Dentition of Tapir Family Tapiridae Tapirus Malayanus 428 Dentition of Rhinoceros Genus Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Indicus 429 " Indicus 429 " Sondaicus 430 " lasiotis (R. Indicus and R. Sondaicus in the distance) 431 Bones of a Pig's foot Sub-order Artiodactyla Dentition of Wild Boar Family Suidae Sus Indicus 434 Porcula Salvania 437 Ovis Polii 438 Horns of Ovis Polii 438 Ovis Hodgsoni 439 Skull of Ovis Hodgsoni 439 Horns of Ovis Karelini 440 Ovis Brookei 441 " cycloceros 443 " nahura 445 Capra megaceros. No. 1 variety 446 " " No. 2 variety 446 " Sibirica 447 Hemitragus Jemlaicus 449 Nemorhoedus bubalina 451 " goral 454 Budorcas taxicolor 455 Gazella Bennetti (male and female) 456 " subgutterosa 458 Saiga Antelope Genus Pantholops Pantholops Hodgsoni 460 Antelope bezoartica 461 Portax pictus 462 Tetraceros quadricornis 463 Gavaeus gaurus 464 " frontalis 465 Bubalus arni 468 Skull of Musk Deer 468 Moschus moschiferus 469 " moschiferus 469 Stag with Horns matured Cervidae " " " in velvet Cervidae Cervulus aureus 470 Rusa Aristotelis 471 Axis maculatus 472 " porcinus 473 Cervus Cashmirianus 476 Tragulus napu 478 Mouse Deer 479 Manis pentadactyla 480 Dentition of Dormouse (magnified) Appendix A Myoxus Appendix A Osteology of the skull of Platanista Gangetica Appendix B The Slow Loris Appendix C Osteology of the feet of Pig, or African deerlet; Javan deerlet; Roebuck; Sheep; Camel Appendix C Gaur Appendix C



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MAMMALIA OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON.



INTRODUCTION.

In laying before the public the following history of the Indian Mammalia, I am actuated by the feeling that a popular work on the subject is needed, and would be appreciated by many who do not care to purchase the expensive books that exist, and who also may be more bothered than enlightened by over-much technical phraseology and those learned anatomical dissertations which are necessary to the scientific zoologist.

Another motive in thus venturing is, that the only complete history of Indian Mammalia is Dr. Jerdon's, which is exhaustive within the boundaries he has assigned to India proper; but as he has excluded Assam, Cachar, Tenasserim, Burmah, Arracan, and Ceylon, his book is incomplete as a Natural History of the Mammals of British India. I shall have to acknowledge much to Jerdon in the following pages, and it is to him I owe much encouragement, whilst we were together in the field during the Indian Mutiny, in the pursuit of the study to which he devoted his life; and the general arrangement of this work will be based on his book, his numbers being preserved, in order that those who possess his 'Mammals of India' may readily refer to the noted species.

But I must also plead indebtedness to many other naturalists who have left their records in the 'Journals of the Asiatic Society' and other publications, or who have brought out books of their own, such as Blyth, Elliott, Hodgson, Sherwill, Sykes, Tickell, Hutton, Kellaart, Emerson Tennent, and others; Col. McMaster's 'Notes on Jerdon,' Dr. Anderson's 'Anatomical and Zoological Researches,' Horsfield's 'Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the East India Company,' Dr. Dobson's 'Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera,' the writings of Professors Martin Duncan, Flowers, Kitchen Parker, Boyd Dawkins, Garrod, Mr. E. R. Alston, Sir Victor Brooke and others; the Proceedings and Journals of the Zoological, Linnean, and Asiatic Societies, and the correspondence in The Asian; so that after all my own share is minimised to a few remarks here and there, based on personal experience during a long period of jungle life, and on observation of the habits of animals in their wild state, and also in captivity, having made a large collection of living specimens from time to time.

As regards classification, Cuvier's system is the most popular, so I shall adopt it to a certain extent, keeping it as a basis, but engrafting on it such modifications as have met with the approval of modern naturalists. For comparison I give below a synopsis of Cuvier's arrangement. I have placed Cetacea after Carnivora, and Edentata at the end. In this I have followed recent authors as well as Jerdon, whose running numbers I have preserved as far as possible for purposes of reference.

Cuvier divides the Mammals into nine orders, as follows. (The examples I give are Indian ones, except where stated otherwise):—

Order I.—BIMANA. Man.

Order II.—QUADRUMANA. Two families—1st, Apes and Monkeys; 2nd, Lemurs.

Order III.—CARNARIA. Three families—1st, Cheiroptera, Bats; 2nd, Insectivora, Hedgehogs, Shrews, Moles, Tupaiae, &c.; 3rd, Carnivora: Tribe 1, Plantigrades, Bears, Ailurus, Badger, Arctonyx; 2, Digitigrades, Martens, Weasels, Otters, Cats, Hyaenas, Civets, Musangs, Mongoose, Dogs, Wolves and Foxes.

Order IV.—MARSUPIATA. Implacental Mammals peculiar to America and Australia, such as Opossums, Dasyures, Wombats, and Kangaroos. We have none in India.

Order V.—RODENTIA. Squirrels, Marmots, Jerboas, Mole-Rats, Rats, Mice, Voles, Porcupines, and Hares.

Order VI.—EDENTATA, or toothless Mammals, either partially or totally without teeth. Three families—1st, Tardigrades, the Sloths, peculiar to America; 2nd, Effodientia, or Burrowers, of which the Indian type is the Manis, but which includes in other parts of the world the Armadillos and Anteaters; 3rd, Monotremata, Spiny Anteaters or Echidnas, and the Ornithorynchus.

Order VII.—PACHYDERMATA, or thick-skinned Mammals. Three families—1st, Proboscidians, Elephants; 2nd, Ordinary Pachyderms, Rhinoceroses, Hogs; 3rd, Solidungula, Horses.

Order VIII.—RUMINANTIA, or cud-chewing Mammals. Four families—1st, Hornless Ruminants, Camels, Musks; 2nd, Cervidae, true horns shed periodically, Deer; 3rd, Persistent horns, Giraffes; 4th, Hollow-horned Ruminants, Antelopes, Goats, Sheep and Oxen.

Order IX.—CETACEA. Three families—1st, Herbivorous Cetacea, Manatees, Dugongs; 2nd, Ordinary Cetacea, Porpoises; 3rd, Balaenidae, Whales.



ORDER BIMANA.

Some people have an extreme repugnance to the idea that man should be treated of in connection with other animals. The development theory is shocking to them, and they would deny that man has anything in common with the brute creation. This is of course mere sentiment; no history of nature would be complete without the noblest work of the Creator. The great gulf that separates the human species from the rest of the animals is the impassable one of intellect. Physically, he should be compared with the other mammals, otherwise we should lose our first standpoint of comparison. There is no degradation in this, nor is it an acceptance of the development theory. To argue that man evolved from the monkey is an ingenious joke which will not bear the test of examination, and the Scriptural account may still be accepted. I firmly believe in man as an original creation just as much as I disbelieve in any development of the Flying Lemur (Galeopithecus) from the Bat, or that the habits of an animal would in time materially alter its anatomy, as in the case of the abnormal length of the hind toe and nail of the Jacana. It is not that the habit of running over floating leaves induced the change, but that an all-wise Creator so fashioned it that it might run on those leaves in search of its food. I accept the development theory to the extent of the multiplication of species, or perhaps, more correctly, varieties in genera. We see in the human race how circumstances affect physical appearance. The child of the ploughman or navvy inherits the broad shoulders and thick-set frame of his father; and in India you may see it still more forcibly in the difference between Hindu and Mahomedan races, and those Hindus who have been converted to Mahomedanism. I do not mean isolated converts here and there who intermarry with pure Mahomedan women, but I mean whole communities who have in olden days been forced to accept Islam. In a few generations the face assumes an unmistakable Mahomedan type. It is the difference in living and in thought that effects this change.

It is the same with animals inhabiting mountainous districts as compared with the same living in the plains; constant enforced exercise tells on the former, and induces a more robust and active form.

Whether diet operates in the same degree to effect changes I am inclined to doubt. In man there is no dental or intestinal difference, whether he be as carnivorous as an Esquimaux or as vegetarian as a Hindu; whereas in created carnivorous, insectivorous, and herbivorous animals there is a striking difference, instantly to be recognised even in those of the same family. Therefore, if diet has operated in effecting such changes, why has it not in the human race?

"Who shall decide when doctors disagree?" is a quotation that may aptly be applied to the question of the classification of man; Cuvier, Blumenbach, Fischer, Bory St. Vincent, Prichard, Latham, Morton, Agassiz and others have each a system.

Cuvier recognises only three types—the Caucasian, the Mongolian, and the Negro or Ethiopian, including Blumenbach's fourth and fifth classes, American and Malay in Mongolian. But even Cuvier himself could hardly reconcile the American with the Mongol; he had the high cheek-bone and the scanty beard, it is true, but his eyes and his nose were as Caucasian as could be, and his numerous dialects had no affinity with the type to which he was assigned.

Fischer in his classification divided man into seven races:—

1st.—Homo japeticus, divided into three varieties—Caucasicus, Arabicus and Indicus.

2nd.—H. Neptunianus, consisting of—1st, the Malays peopling the coasts of the islands of the Indian Ocean, Madagascar, &c.; 2nd, New Zealanders and Islanders of the Pacific; and, 3rd, the Papuans.

3rd.—H. Scythicus. Three divisions, viz.: 1st, Calmucks and other Tartars; 2nd, Chinese and Japanese; and, 3rd, Esquimaux.

4th.—H. Americanus, and

5th.—H. Columbicus, belong to the American Continent.

6th.—H. AEthiopicus. The Negro.

7th.—H. Polynesius. The inland inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, of the Islands of the Indian Ocean, of Madagascar, New Guinea, New Holland, &c.

I think this system is the one that most commends itself from its clearness, but there are hardly two writers on ethnology who keep to the same classification.

Agassiz classifies by realms, and has eight divisions.

The Indian races with which we have now to deal are distributed, generally speaking, as follows:—

Caucasian.—(Homo japeticus, Bory and Fischer). Northerly, westerly, and in the Valley of the Ganges in particular, but otherwise generally distributed over the most cultivated parts of the Peninsula, comprising the Afghans (Pathans), Sikhs, Brahmins, Rajputs or Kshatryas of the north-west, the Arabs, Parsees, and Mahrattas of the west coast, the Singhalese of the extreme south, the Tamils of the east, and the Bengalis of the north-east.

Mongolians (H. Scythicus), inhabiting the chain of mountains to the north, from Little Thibet on the west to Bhotan on the east, and then sweeping downwards southerly to where Tenasserim joins the Malay Peninsula. They comprise the Hill Tribes of the N. Himalayas, the Goorkhas of Nepal, and the Hill Tribes of the north-eastern frontier, viz. Khamtis, Singphos, Mishmis, Abors, Nagas, Jynteas, Khasyas, and Garos. Those of the northern borders: Bhotias, Lepchas, Limbus, Murmis and Haioos; of the Assam Valley Kachari, Mech and Koch.

The Malays (H. Neptunianus) Tipperah and Chittagong tribes, the Burmese and Siamese.

Now comes the most difficult group to classify—the aborigines of the interior, and of the hill ranges of Central India, the Kols, Gonds, Bhils, and others which have certain characteristics of the Mongolian, but with skins almost as dark as the Negro, and the full eye of the Caucasian. The main body of these tribes, which I should feel inclined to classify under Fischer's H. Polynesius, have been divided by Indian ethnologists into two large groups—the Kolarians and Dravidians. The former comprise the Juangs, Kharrias, Mundas, Bhumij, Ho or Larka Kols, Santals, Birhors, Korwas, Kurs, Kurkus or Muasis, Bhils, Minas, Kulis. The latter contains the Oraons, Malers, Paharis of Rajamahal, Gonds and Kands.

The Cheroos and Kharwars, Parheyas, Kisans, Bhuikers, Boyars, Nagbansis, Kaurs, Mars, Bhunyiars, Bendkars form another great group apart from the Kolarians and Dravidians, and approximating more to the Indian variety of the Japetic class.

Then there are the extremely low types which one has no hesitation in assigning to the lowest form of the Polynesian group, such as the Andamanese, the jungle tree-men of Chittagong, Tipperah, and the vast forests stretching towards Sambhulpur.

On these I would now more particularly dwell as points of comparison with the rest of the animal kingdom. I have taken but a superficial view of the varieties of the higher types of the human race in India, for the subject, if thoroughly entered into, would require a volume of no ordinary dimensions; and those who wish to pursue the study further should read an able paper by Sir George Campbell in the 'Journal of the Asiatic Society' for June 1866 (vol. xxxv. Part II.), Colonel Dalton's 'Ethnology of Bengal,' the Rev. S. Hislop's 'Memoranda,' and the 'Report of the Central Provinces Ethnological Committee.' There is as yet, however, very little reliable information regarding the wilder forms of humanity inhabiting dense forests, where, enjoying apparently complete immunity from the deadly malaria that proves fatal to all others, they live a life but a few degrees removed from the Quadrumana.

I have in my book on the Seonee District described the little colonies in the heart of the Bison jungles. Clusters of huts imbedded in tangled masses of foliage, surrounded by an atmosphere reeking with the effluvia of decaying vegetation, where, unheedful of the great outer world beyond their sylvan limits, the Gonds pass year after year of uneventful lives.

In some of these hamlets I was looked upon with positive awe, as being the first white man the Baigas had seen. But these simple savages rank high in the scale compared with some others, of whom we have as yet but imperfect descriptions.

Some years ago Mr. Piddington communicated to the Asiatic Society an account of some "Monkey-men" he came across on the borders of the Palamow jungle. He was in the habit of employing the aboriginal tribes to work for him, and on one occasion a party of his men found in the jungle a man and woman in a state of starvation, and brought them in. They were both very short in stature, with disproportionately long arms, which in the man were covered with a reddish-brown hair. They looked almost more like baboons than human beings, and their language was unintelligible, except that words here and there resembled those in one of the Kolarian dialects. By signs, and by the help of these words, one of the Dhangars managed to make out that they lived in the depths of the forest, but had to fly from their people on account of a blood feud. Mr. Piddington was anxious to send them down to Calcutta, but before he could do so, they decamped one night, and fled again to their native wilds. Those jungles are, I believe, still in a great measure unexplored; and, if some day they are opened out, it is to be hoped that the "Monkey-men" will be again discovered.[1]

[Footnote 1: There has been lately exhibited in London a child from Borneo which has several points in common with the monkey—hairy face and arms, the hair on the fore-arm being reversed, as in the apes.]

The lowest type with which we are familiar is the Andamanese, and the wilder sort of these will hardly bear comparison with even the degraded Australian or African Bosjesman, and approximate in debasement to the Fuegians.

The Andamanese are small in stature—the men averaging about five feet, the women less. They are very dark, I may say black, but here the resemblance to the Negro ceases. They have not the thick lips and flat nose, nor the peculiar heel of the Negro. In habit they are in small degree above the brutes, architecture and agriculture being unknown. The only arts they are masters of are limited to the manufacture of weapons, such as spears, bows and arrows, and canoes. They wear no kind of dress, but, when flies and mosquitoes are troublesome, plaster themselves with mud. The women are fond of painting themselves with red ochre, which they lay thickly over their heads, after scraping off the hair with a flint-knife. They swim and dive like ducks, and run up trees like monkeys. Though affectionate to their children, they are ruthless to the stranger, killing every one who happens to be cast away on their inhospitable shores. They have been accused of cannibalism, but this is open to doubt. The bodies of those they have killed have been found dreadfully mutilated, almost pounded to a jelly, but no portion had been removed.[2]

[Footnote 2: Since the above was written there has been published in the 'Journal of the Anthropological Institute,' vol. xii., a most interesting and exhaustive paper on these people by Mr. E. H. Man, F.R.G.S., giving them credit for much intelligence.]

In the above description I speak of the savage Andamanese in his wild state, and not of the specimens to be seen at Port Blair, who have become in an infinitesimal degree civilised—that is to say, to the extent of holding intercourse with foreigners, making some slight additions to their argillaceous dress-suits, and understanding the principles of exchange and barter—though as regards this last a friend informs me that they have no notion of a token currency, but only understand the argumentum ad hominem in the shape of comestibles, so that your bargains, to be effectual, must be made within reach of a cookshop or grocery. The same friend tells me he learnt at Port Blair that there were marriage restrictions on which great stress was laid. This may be the case on the South Island; there is much testimony on the other side as regards the more savage Andamanese.

The forest tribes of Chittagong are much higher in the scale than the Andamanese, but they are nevertheless savages of a low type. Captain Lewin says: "The men wear scarcely any clothing, and the petticoat of the women is scanty, reaching only to the knee; they worship the terrene elements, and have vague and undefined ideas of some divine power which overshadows all. They were born and they die for ends to them as incomputable as the path of a cannon-shot fired into the darkness. They are cruel, and attach but little value to life. Reverence or respect are emotions unknown to them, they salute neither their chiefs nor their elders, neither have they any expression conveying thanks." There is, however, much that is interesting in these wild people, and to those who wish to know more I recommend Captain Lewin's account of 'The Hill Tracts of Chittagong.'



ORDER QUADRUMANA.

The monkeys of the Indian Peninsula are restricted to a few groups, of which the principal one is that of the Semnopitheci. These monkeys are distinguished not only by their peculiar black faces, with a ridge of long stiff black hair projecting forwards over the eyebrows, thin slim bodies and long tails, but by the absence of cheek pouches, and the possession of a peculiar sacculated stomach, which, as figured in Cuvier, resembles a bunch of grapes. Jerdon says of this group that, out of five species found on the continent there is only one spread through all the plains of Central and Northern India, and one through the Himalayas, whilst there are three well-marked species in the extreme south of the Peninsula; but then he omits at least four species inhabiting Chittagong, Tenasserim, Arracan, which also belong to the continent of India, though perhaps not to the actual Peninsula. Sir Emerson Tennent, in his 'Natural History of Ceylon,' also mentions and figures three species, of which two are not included in Jerdon's 'Mammals,' though incidentally spoken of. I propose to add the Ceylon Mammalia to the Indian, and therefore shall allude to these further on.

The next group of Indian monkeys is that of the Macaques or Magots, or Monkey Baboons of India, the Lal Bundar of the natives. They have simple stomachs and cheek pouches, which last, I dare say, most of us have noticed who have happened to give two plantains in succession to one of them.

Although numerically the Langurs or Entellus Monkeys form the most important group of the Quadrumana in India, yet the Gibbons (which are not included by Jerdon) rank highest in the scale, though the species are restricted to but three—Hylobates hooluck, H. lar and H. syndactylus. They are superior in formation (that is taking man as the highest development of the form, to which some people take objection, though to my way of thinking there is not much to choose between the highest type of monkey and the lowest of humanity, if we would but look facts straight in the face), and they are also vastly superior in intellect to either the Langurs or the Macaques, though inferior perhaps to the Ourangs.

GENUS HYLOBATES—THE GIBBONS,

Which, with the long arms of the Ourangs and the receding forehead of the Chimpanzee, possess the callosities of the true monkeys, but differ from them in having neither tail nor cheek pouches. They are true bipeds on the ground, applying the sole of the foot flatly, not, as Cuvier and others have remarked of the Ourangs, with the outer edge of the sole only, but flat down, as Blyth, who first mentions it, noticed it, with the thumb or big toe widely separated.

NO. 1. HYLOBATES HOOLUCK. The White-fronted Gibbon.

NATIVE NAMES.—Hooluck, Hookoo.

HABITAT.—Garo and Khasia Hills, Valley of Assam, and Arracan.

DESCRIPTION.—Males deep black, marked with white across the forehead. Females vary from brownish black to whitish-brown, without, however, the fulvous tint observable in pale specimens of the next species.

"In general they are paler on the crown, back, and outside of limbs, darker in front, and much darker on the cheeks and chin."—Blyth.

SIZE.—About two feet.

[Figure: Skull of Hylobates hooluck.]

I think of all the monkey family this Gibbon makes one of the most interesting pets. It is mild and most docile, and capable of great attachment. Even the adult male has been caught, and within the short space of a month so completely tamed that he would follow and come to a call. One I had for a time, some years ago, was a most engaging little creature. Nothing contented him so much as being allowed to sit by my side with his arm linked through mine, and he would resist any attempt I made to go away. He was extremely clean in his habits, which cannot be said of all the monkey tribe. Soon after he came to me I gave him a piece of blanket to sleep on in his box, but the next morning I found he had rolled it up and made a sort of pillow for his head, so a second piece was given him. He was destined for the Queen's Gardens at Delhi, but unfortunately on his way up he got a chill, and contracted a disease akin to consumption. During his illness he was most carefully tended by my brother, who had a little bed made for him, and the doctor came daily to see the little patient, who gratefully accepted his attentions; but, to their disappointment, he died. The only objection to these monkeys as pets is the power they have of howling, or rather whooping, a piercing and somewhat hysterical "Whoop-poo! whoop-poo! whoop-poo!" for several minutes, till fairly exhausted.

They are very fond of swinging by their long arms, and walk something like a tipsy sailor. A friend, resident on the frontiers of Assam, tells me that the full-grown adult pines and dies in confinement. I think it probable that it may miss a certain amount of insect diet, and would recommend those who cannot let their pets run loose in a garden to give them raw eggs and a little minced meat, and a spider or two occasionally.

In its wild state this Gibbon feeds on leaves, insects, eggs and small birds. Dr. Anderson notices the following as favourite leaves: Moringa pterygosperma (horse-radish tree), Spondias mangifera (amra), Ficus religiosa (the pipal), also Beta vulgaris; and it is specially partial to the Ipomoea reptans (the water convolvulus) and the bright-coloured flowers of the Indian shot (Canna Indica). Of insects it prefers spiders and the Orthoptera; eggs and small birds are also eagerly devoured.

NO. 2. HYLOBATES LAR. The White-handed Gibbon.

HABITAT.—Arracan, Lower Pegu, Tenasserim, and the Malayan Peninsula.

[Figure: HYLOBATES LAR. HYLOBATES HOOLUCK.]

DESCRIPTION.—"This species is generally recognisable by its pale yellowish, almost white hands and feet, by the grey, almost white, supercilium, whiskers and beard, and by the deep black of the rest of the pelage."—Anderson.

SIZE.—About same as H. hooluck.

It is, however, found in every variety of colour, from black to brownish, and variegated with light-coloured patches, and occasionally of a fulvous white. For a long time I supposed it to be synonymous with H. agilis of Cuvier, or H. variegatus of Temminck, but both Mr. Blyth and Dr. Anderson separate it. Blyth mentions a significant fact in distinguishing the two Indian Gibbons, whatever be their variations of colour, viz.: "H. hooluck has constantly a broad white frontal band either continuous or divided in the middle, while H. lar has invariably white hands and feet, less brightly so in some, and a white ring encircling the visage, which is seldom incomplete."[3]

[Footnote 3: There is an excellent coloured drawing by Wolf of these two Gibbons in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' 1870, page 86, from which I have partly adapted the accompanying sketch.]

H. lar has sometimes the index and middle fingers connected by a web, as in the case of H. syndactylus (a Sumatran species very distinct in other respects). The very closely allied H. agilis has also this peculiarity in occasional specimens. This Gibbon was called "agilis" by Cuvier from its extreme rapidity in springing from branch to branch. Duvaucel says: "The velocity of its movements is wonderful; it escapes like a bird on the wing. Ascending rapidly to the top of a tree, it then seizes a flexible branch, swings itself two or three times to gain the necessary impetus, and then launches itself forward, repeatedly clearing in succession, without effort and without fatigue, spaces of forty feet."

Sir Stamford Raffles writes that it is believed in Sumatra that it is so jealous that if in captivity preference be given to one over another, the neglected one will die of grief; and he found that one he had sickened under similar circumstances and did not recover till his rival (a Siamang, H. syndactylus) was removed.

NO. 3. HYLOBATES SYNDACTYLUS. The Siamang.

HABITAT.—Tenasserim Province, Sumatra, Malayan Peninsula.

DESCRIPTION.—A more robust and thick-set animal than the two last; deep, woolly, black fur; no white supercilium nor white round the face. The skull is distinguished from the skull of the other Gibbons, according to Dr. Anderson, by the greater forward projection of the supraorbital ridges, and by its much deeper face, and the occipital region more abruptly truncated than in the other species. The index and middle toes of the foot are united to the last phalange.

SIZE.—About three feet.

This Gibbon is included in the Indian group on the authority of Helfer, who stated it to be found in the southern parts of the Tenasserim province. Blyth mentions another distinguishing characteristic—it is not only larger than the other Gibbons, but it possesses an inflatable laryngeal sac. Its arms are immense—five feet across in an adult of three feet high.

The other species of this genus inhabiting adjacent and other countries are H. Pileatus and H. leucogenys in Siam; H. leuciscus, Java; H. Mulleri and H. concolor, Borneo.

GENUS PRESBYTES—CUVIER'S GENUS SEMNOPITHECUS.

These monkeys are characterised by their slender bodies and long limbs and tails. Jerdon says the Germans call them Slim-apes. Other striking peculiarities are the absence of cheek pouches, which, if present, are but rudimentary. Then they differ from the true monkeys (Cercopithecus) by the form of the last molar tooth in the lower jaw, which has five tubercles instead of four; and, finally, they are to be distinguished by the peculiar structure of the stomach, which is singularly complicated, almost as much so as in the case of Ruminants, which have four divisions. The stomach of this genus of monkey consists of three divisions: 1st, a simple cardiac pouch with smooth parietes; 2nd, a wide sacculated middle portion; 3rd, a narrow elongated canal, sacculated at first, and of simple structure towards the termination. Cuvier from this supposes it to be more herbivorous than other genera, and considers this conclusion justified by the blunter tubercles of the molars and greater length of intestines and caecum, all of which point to a vegetable diet. "The head is round, the face but little produced, having a high facial angle."—Jerdon.

But the tout ensemble of the Langur is so peculiar that no one who has once been told of a long, loosed-limbed, slender monkey with a prodigious tail, black face, with overhanging brows of long stiff black hair, projecting like a pent-house, would fail to recognise the animal.

The Hanuman monkey is reverenced by the Hindus. Hanuman was the son of Pavana, god of the winds; his strength was enormous, but in attempting to seize the sun he was struck by Indra with a thunderbolt which broke his jaw (hanu), whereupon his father shut himself up in a cave, and would not let a breeze cool the earth till the gods had promised his son immortality. Hanuman aided Rama in his attack upon Ceylon, and by his superhuman strength mountains were torn up and cast into the sea, so as to form a bridge of rocks across the Straits of Manar.[4]

[Footnote 4: The legend, with native picture, is given in Wilkin's 'Hindoo Mythology.']

The species of this genus of monkey abound throughout the Peninsula. All Indian sportsmen are familiar with their habits, and have often been assisted by them in tracking a tiger. Their loud whoops and immense bounds from tree to tree when excited, or the flashing of their white teeth as they gibber at their lurking foe, have often told the shikari of the whereabouts of the object of his search. The Langurs take enormous leaps, twenty-five feet in width, with thirty to forty in a drop, and never miss a branch. I have watched them often in the Central Indian jungles. Emerson Tennent graphically describes this: "When disturbed their leaps are prodigious, but generally speaking their progress is not made so much by leaping as by swinging from branch to branch, using their powerful arms alternately, and, when baffled by distance, flinging themselves obliquely so as to catch the lower boughs of an opposite tree, the momentum acquired by their descent being sufficient to cause a rebound of the branch that carries them upwards again till they can grasp a higher and more distant one, and thus continue their headlong flight."

Jerdon's statement that they can run with great rapidity on all-fours is qualified by McMaster, who easily ran down a large male on horseback on getting him out on a plain.

A correspondent of the Asian, quoting from the Indian Medical Gazette for 1870, states that experiments with one of this genus (Presbytes entellus) showed that strychnine has no effect on Langurs—as much as five grains were given within an hour without effect. "From a quarter to half of a grain will kill a dog in from five to ten minutes, and even one twenty-fourth of a grain will have a decided tetanic effect in human beings of delicate temperament."—Cooley's Cycl. Two days after ten grains of strychnine were dissolved in spirits of wine, and mixed with rum and water, cold but sweet, which the animal drank with relish, and remained unhurt.

The same experiment was tried with one of another genus (Inuus rhesus), who rejected the poisoned fruit at once, and on having strychnine in solution poured down his throat, died.

The Langur was then tried with cyanide of potassium, which he rejected at once, but on being forced to take a few grains, was dead in a few seconds.

Although we may not sympathize with those who practise such cruel experiments as these above alluded to, the facts elucidated are worth recording, and tend to prove the peculiar herbivorous nature of this genus, which, in common with other strictly herbivorous animals, instinctively knows what to choose and what to avoid, and can partake, without danger, of some of the most virulent vegetable poisons. It is possible that in the forests they eat the fruit of the Strychnos nux-vomica, which is also the favourite food of the pied hornbill (Hydrocissa coronata).

NO. 4. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES ENTELLUS. The Bengal Langur (Jerdon's No. 1).

NATIVE NAMES.—Langur, Hanuman, Hindi; Wanur and Makur, Mahratti; Musya, Canarese.

HABITAT.—Bengal and Central India.

[Figure: Presbytes entellus.]

DESCRIPTION.—Pale dirty or ashy grey; darker on the shoulders and rump; greyish-brown on the tail; paler on the head and lower parts; hands and feet black.

SIZE.—Length of male thirty inches to root of tail; tail forty-three inches.

The Entellus monkey is in some parts of India deemed sacred, and is permitted by the Hindus to plunder their grain-shops with impunity; but I think that with increasing hard times the Hanumans are not allowed such freedom as they used to have, and in most parts of India I have been in they are considered an unmitigated nuisance, and the people have implored the aid of Europeans to get rid of their tormentors. In the forest the Langur lives on grain, fruit, the pods of leguminous trees, and young buds and leaves. Sir Emerson Tennent notices the fondness of an allied species for the flowers of the red hibiscus (H. rosa sinensis). The female has usually only one young one, though sometimes twins. The very young babies have not black but light-coloured faces, which darken afterwards. I have always found them most difficult to rear, requiring almost as much attention as a human baby. Their diet and hours of feeding must be as systematically arranged; and if cow's milk be given it must be freely diluted with water—two-thirds to one-third milk when very young, and afterwards decreased to one-half. They are extremely susceptible to cold. In confinement they are quiet and gentle whilst young, but the old males are generally sullen and treacherous. Jerdon says, on the authority of the Bengal Sporting Magazine (August 1836), that the males live apart from the females, who have only one or two old males with each colony, and that they have fights at certain seasons, when the vanquished males receive charge of all the young ones of their own sex, with whom they retire to some neighbouring jungle. Blyth notices that in one locality he found only males of all ages, and in another chiefly females. I have found these monkeys mostly on the banks of streams in the forests of the Central Provinces; in fact, the presence of them anywhere in arid jungles is a sign that water is somewhere in the vicinity. They are timid creatures, and I have never seen the slightest disposition about them to show fight, whereas I was once most deliberately charged by the old males of a party of Rhesus monkeys. I was at the time on field service during the Mutiny, and, seeing several nursing mothers in the party, tried to run them down in the open and secure a baby; but they were too quick for me, and, on being attacked by the old males, I had to pistol the leader.

NO. 5. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES SCHISTACEUS.[5] The Himalayan Langur (Jerdon's No. 2).

[Footnote 5: Mr. J. Cockburn, of the Imperial Museum, has, since I wrote about the preceding species, given me some interesting information regarding the geographical distribution of Presbytes entellus and Hylobates hooluck. He says: "The latter has never been known to occur on the north bank of the Brahmaputra, though swarming in the forests at the very water's edge on the south bank. The entellus monkey is also not found on the north bank of the Ganges, and attempts at its introduction have repeatedly failed." P. schistaceus replaces it in the Sub-Himalayan forests.]

NATIVE NAMES.—Langur, Hindi; Kamba Suhu, Lepcha; Kubup, Bhotia.

HABITAT.—The whole range of the Himalayas from Nepal to beyond Simla.

DESCRIPTION (after Hodgson).—Dark slaty above; head and lower parts pale yellowish; hands concolorous with body, or only a little darker; tail slightly tufted; hair on the crown of the head short and radiated; on the cheeks long, directed backwards, and covering the ears. Hutton's description is, dark greyish, with pale hands and feet, white head, dark face, white throat and breast, and white tip to the tail.

SIZE.—About thirty inches; tail, thirty-six inches.

Captain Hutton, writing from Mussoorie, says: "On the Simla side I observed them also, leaping and playing about, while the fir-trees, among which they sported, were loaded with snow-wreaths, at an elevation of 11,000 feet."—'Jour. As. Soc. Beng.' xiii. p. 471.

Dr. Anderson remarks on the skull of this species, that it can be easily distinguished from entellus by its larger size, the supraorbital ridge being less forwardly projected, and not forming so thick and wide a pent roof, but the most marked difference lies in the much longer facial portion of schistaceus; the teeth are also larger; the symphysis or junction of the lower jaw is considerably longer and broader, and the lower jaw itself is generally more massive and deep.

NO. 6. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES PRIAMUS. The Madras Langur.

NATIVE NAME.—Gandangi, Telugu.

HABITAT.—The Coromandel Coast and Ceylon.

DESCRIPTION.—Ashy grey, with a pale reddish or chocolat-au-lait tint overlying the whole back and head; sides of the head, chin, throat, and beneath pale yellowish; hands and feet whitish; face, palms and fingers, and soles of feet and toes black; hair long and straight, not wavy; tail of the colour of the darker portion of the back, ending in a whitish tuft.—Jerdon.

SIZE.—About the same as P. entellus.

Blyth, who is followed by Jerdon, describes this monkey as having a compressed high vertical crest, but Dr. Anderson found that the specimens in the Indian Museum owed these crests to bad stuffing. Kellaart, however, mentions it, and calls the animal "the Crested Monkey." In Sir Emerson Tennent's figure of P. priamus a slight crest is noticeable; but Kellaart is very positive on this point, saying: "P. priamus is easily distinguished from all other known species of monkeys in Ceylon by its high compressed vertical crest."

Jerdon says this species is not found on the Malabar Coast, but neither he nor McMaster give much information regarding it. Emerson Tennent writes: "At Jaffna, and in other parts of the island where the population is comparatively numerous, these monkeys become so familiarised with the presence of man as to exhibit the utmost daring and indifference. A flock of them will take possession of a palmyra palm, and so effectually can they crouch and conceal themselves among the leaves that, on the slightest alarm, the whole party becomes invisible in an instant. The presence of a dog, however, excites such irrepressible curiosity that, in order to watch his movements, they never fail to betray themselves. They may be frequently seen congregated on the roof of a native hut; and, some years ago, the child of a European clergyman, stationed near Jaffna, having been left on the ground by the nurse, was so teased and bitten by them as to cause its death."

In these particulars this species resembles P. entellus.

NO. 7. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES JOHNII. The Malabar Langur (Jerdon's No. 4).

HABITAT.—The Malabar Coast, from N. Lat. 14 degrees or 15 degrees to Cape Comorin.

DESCRIPTION.—Above dusky brown, slightly paling on the sides; crown, occiput, sides of head and beard fulvous, darkest on the crown; limbs and tail dark brown, almost black; beneath yellowish white.—Jerdon.

SIZE.—Not quite so large as P. entellus.

This monkey was named after a member of the Danish factory at Tranquebar, M. John, who first described it. It abounds in forests, and does not frequent villages, though it will visit gardens and fields, where, however, it shuns observation.

The young are of a sooty brown, or nearly black, without any indication of the light-coloured hood of the adult.

NO. 8. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES JUBATUS. The Nilgheri Langur (Jerdon's No. 5).

HABITAT.—The Nilgheri Hills, the Animallies, Pulneys, the Wynaad, and all the higher parts of the range of the Ghats as low as Travancore.

DESCRIPTION.—Dark glossy black throughout, except head and nape, which are reddish brown; hair very long; in old individuals a greyish patch on the rump.—Jerdon.

SIZE.—Length of head and body, 26 inches; tail, 30.

This monkey does not, as a rule, descend lower than 2,500 to 3,000 feet; it is shy and wary. The fur is fine and glossy, and is much prized (Jerdon). Its flesh is excellent food for dogs (McMaster).

Dr. Anderson makes this synonymous with the last.

NO. 9. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES PILEATUS. The Capped Langur.

HABITAT.—Assam, Chittagong, Tipperah.

DESCRIPTION.—General colour dark ashy grey, with a slight ferruginous tint; darker near head and on shoulders; underneath and on the inside of the limbs pale yellowish, with a darker shade of orange or golden yellow on the breast and belly. The crown of the head is densely covered with bristly hairs, regularly disposed and somewhat elongated on the vertex so as to resemble a cap, whence the name. Along the forehead is a superciliary crest of long black bristles, directed outwardly; whiskers full and down to the chin: behind the ears is a small tuft of white hairs; the tail is long, one third longer than the body, darker near the end, and tufted; fingers and toes black.

SIZE.—A little smaller than P. entellus.

This monkey is found in Northern Assam, Tipperah and southwards to Tenasserim; in Blyth's 'Catalogue of the Mammals of Burmah' it is mentioned as P. chrysogaster (Semnopithecus potenziani of Bonaparte and Peters). He writes of it: "Females and young have the lower parts white, or but faintly tinted with ferruginous, and the rest of the coat is of a pure grey; the face black, and there is no crest, but the hairs of the crown are so disposed as to appear like a small flat cap laid upon the top of the head. The old males seem always to be of a deep rust-colour on the cheeks, lower parts, and more or less on the outer side of the limbs; while in old females this rust colour is diluted or little more than indicated."

Dr. Anderson says that a young one he had was of a mild disposition, which however is not the character of the adult animal, which is uncertain, and the males when irritated are fierce, and determined in attack. No rule, however, is without its exception, for one adult male, possessed by Blyth, is reported as having been an exceeding gentle animal.

NO. 10. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES BARBEI. The Tipperah Langur.

HABITAT.—Tipperah, Tenasserim.

DESCRIPTION.—No vertical crest of hair on the head, nor is the occipital hair directed downwards, as in the next species. Shoulders and outside of arm silvered; tail slightly paler than body, "which is of a blackish fuliginous hue."

More information is required about this monkey, which was named by Blyth after its donor to the Asiatic Society, the Rev. J. Barbe. Blyth considered it as distinct from P. Phayrei and P. obscurus, which last is from Malacca.

Dr. Anderson noticed it in the valley of the Tapeng in the centre of the Kakhyen Hills, in troops of thirty to fifty, in high forest trees overhanging the mountain streams. Being seldom disturbed, they permitted a near approach.

NO. 11. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES PHAYREI. Syn.—SEMNOPITHECUS CRISTATUS. The Silvery-Leaf Monkey (Blyth).

HABITAT.—Arracan, Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.

DESCRIPTION.-Colour dusky grey-brown above, more or less dark, with black hands and feet; a conspicuous crest on the vertex; under parts white, scarcely extending to the inside of the limbs; sides grey like the back; whiskers dark, very long, concealing the ears in front; lips and eyelids conspicuously white, with white moustachial hairs above and similar hairs below.

SIZE.—Two feet; tail, 2 feet 6 inches.

This monkey was named by Blyth after Captain (now Sir Arthur) Phayre, who first brought it to his notice; but he afterwards reconciled it as being synonymous with Semnopithecus cristatus. The colouring, according to different authors, seems to vary considerably, which causes some confusion in description. It differs from an allied species, S. maurus, in selecting low marshy situations near the banks of streams. Its favourite food is the fruit of the Nibong palm (Oncosperma filamentosa).

NO. 12. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES OBSCURUS. The Dusky-Leaf Monkey.

HABITAT.—Mergui and the Malayan Peninsula.

DESCRIPTION.—Adults ashy or brownish black, darker on forehead, sides of face, shoulder, and sides of body; the hair on the nape is lengthened and whitish. The newly-born young are of a golden ferruginous colour, which afterward changes to dusky-ash colour, the terminal half of the tail being last to change; the mouth and eyelids are whitish, but the rest of the face black.

SIZE.—Body, 1 foot 9 inches; tail, 2 feet 8 inches.

This monkey is most common in the Malayan Peninsula, but has been found to extend to Mergui, where Blyth states it was procured by the late Major Berdmore. Dr. Anderson says it is not unfrequently offered for sale in the Singapore market.

NO. 13. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES CEPHALOPTERUS. The Ceylon Langur.

NATIVE NAME.—Kallu Wanderu.

HABITAT.—The low lands of Ceylon.

DESCRIPTION.—General colour cinereous black; croup and inside of thighs whitish; head rufescent brown; hair on crown short, semi-erect; occipital hairs long, albescent; whiskers white, thick and long, terminating at the chin in a short beard, and laterally angularly pointed; upper lip thinly fringed with white hairs; superciliary hairs black, long, stiff and standing erect; tail albescent and terminating in a beard tuft; face, palms, soles, fingers, toes and callosities black; irides brown.—Kellaart.

SIZE.—Length, 20 inches; tail 24 inches.

Sir E. Tennent says of this monkey that it is never found at a higher elevation than 1,300 feet (when it is replaced by the next species).

"It is an active and intelligent creature, little larger than the common bonneted macaque, and far from being so mischievous as others of the monkeys in the island. In captivity it is remarkable for the gravity of its demeanour and for an air of melancholy in its expression and movements, which are completely in character with its snowy beard and venerable aspect. In disposition it is gentle and confiding, sensible in the highest degree of kindness, and eager for endearing attention, uttering a low plaintive cry when its sympathies are excited. It is particularly cleanly in its habits when domesticated, and spends much of its time in trimming its fur and carefully divesting its hair of particles of dust. Those which I kept at my house near Colombo were chiefly fed upon plantains and bananas, but for nothing did they evince a greater partiality than the rose-coloured flowers of the red hibiscus (H. rosa sinensis). These they devoured with unequivocal gusto; they likewise relished the leaves of many other trees, and even the bark of a few of the more succulent ones."

NO. 14. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES URSINUS. The Great Wanderu.

NATIVE NAME.—Maha Wanderu.

HABITAT.—The mountainous district of Ceylon.

DESCRIPTION.—Fur long, almost uniformly greyish black; whiskers full and white; occiput and croup in old specimens paler coloured; hands and feet blackish; tail long, getting lighter towards the lower half. The young and adults under middle age have a rufous tint, corresponding with that of the head of all ages.

SIZE.—Body about 22 inches; tail, 26 inches.

The name Wanderu is a corruption of the Singhalese generic word for monkey, Ouandura, or Wandura, which bears a striking resemblance to the Hindi Bandra, commonly called Bandarb and v being interchangeable—and is evidently derived from the Sanscrit Banur, which in the south again becomes Wanur, and further south, in Ceylon, Wandura. There has been a certain amount of confusion between this animal and Inuus silenus, the lion monkey, which had the name Wanderu applied to it by Buffon, and it is so figured in Cuvier. They are both large monkeys, with great beards of light coloured hair, but in no other respect do they resemble. Sir Emerson Tennent says: "It is rarely seen by Europeans, this portion of the country having till very recently been but partially opened; and even now it is difficult to observe its habits, as it seldom approaches the few roads which wind through these deep solitudes. At early morning, ere the day begins to dawn, its loud and peculiar howl, which consists of quick repetition of the sound how-how! may be frequently heard in the mountain jungles, and forms one of the characteristic noises of these lofty situations." This was written in 1861; since then much of the mountainous forest land has been cleared for coffee-planting, and the Wanderu either driven into corners or become more familiarised with man. More therefore must be known of its habits by this time, and information regarding it is desirable.

NO. 15. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES THERSITES.

NATIVE NAME.—Ellee Wanderu (Kellaart).

HABITAT.—Ceylon.

[Figure: Presbytes thersites.]

DESCRIPTION.—Chiefly distinguished from the others by wanting the head tuft; uniform dusky grey, darker on crown and fore-limbs; slaty brown on wrists and hands; hair on toes whitish; whiskers and beard largely developed and conspicuously white.

The name was given by Blyth to a single specimen forwarded by Dr. Templeton, and it was for a time doubtful whether it was really a native, till Dr. Kellaart procured a second. Dr. Templeton's specimen was partial to fresh vegetables, plantains, and fruit, but he ate freely boiled rice, beans, and gram. He was fond of being noticed and petted, stretching out his limbs in succession to be scratched, drawing himself up so that his ribs might be reached by the finger, closing his eyes during the operation, and evincing his satisfaction by grimaces irresistibly ludicrous.—Emerson Tennent.

Dr. Anderson considers this monkey as identical with Semnopithecus priamus, but Kellaart, as I have before stated, is very positive on the point of difference, calling S. priamus emphatically the crested monkey, and alleging that thersites has no crest, and it is probable he had opportunities of observing the two animals in life; he says he had a young specimen of priamus, which distinctly showed the crest, and a young thersites of the same age which showed no sign of it.

In Emerson Tennent's 'Natural History of Ceylon,' (1861) page 5, there is a plate of a group in which are included priamus and thersites; in the original they are wrongly numbered—the former should be 2 and not 3, and the latter 3 and not 2. If these be correct (and Wolf's name should be a voucher for their being so) there is a decided difference. There is no crest in the latter, and the white whiskers terminate abruptly on a level with the eyebrow, and the superciliary ridge of hair is wanting.

NO. 16. SEMNOPITHECUS vel PRESBYTES ALBINUS (Kellaart). The White Langur.

HABITAT.—Ceylon, in the hills beyond Matelle.

DESCRIPTION.—Fur dense, sinuous, nearly of uniform white colour, with only a slight dash of grey on the head; face and ears black; palm, soles, fingers and toes flesh-coloured; limbs and body the shape of P. ursinus; long white hairs prolonged over the toes and claws, giving the appearance of a white spaniel dog to this monkey; irides brown; whiskers white, full, and pointed laterally.—Kellaart.

The above description was taken by Dr. Kellaart from a living specimen. He considered it to be a distinct species, and not an Albino, from the black face and ears and brown eyes.

The Kandyans assured him that they were to be seen (rarely however) in small parties of three and four over the hills beyond Matelle, but never in company with the dark kind.

Emerson Tennent also mentions one that was brought to him taken between Ambepasse and Kornegalle, where they were said to be numerous; except in colour it had all the characteristics of P. cephalopterus. So striking was its whiteness that it might have been conjectured to be an Albino, but for the circumstance that its eyes and face were black. An old writer of the seventeenth century, Knox, says of the monkeys of Ceylon (where he was captive for some time) that there are some "milk-white in body and face, but of this sort there is not such plenty."—Tennent's 'Natural History of Ceylon,' page 8.

NOTE.—Since the above was in type I have found in the List of Animals in the Zoological Society's Gardens, a species entered as Semnopithecus leucoprymnus, the Purple-faced Monkey from Ceylon—see P.Z.S.

PAPIONINAE.

This sub-family comprises the true baboons of Africa and the monkey-like baboons of India. They have the stomach simple, and cheek-pouches are always present. According to Cuvier they possess, like the last family, a fifth tubercle on their last molars. They produce early, but are not completely adult for four or five years; the period of gestation is seven months.

The third sub-family of Simiadae consists of the genera Cercopithicus, Macacus, and Cynocephalus, as generally accepted by modern zoologists, but Jerdon seems to have followed Ogilby in his classification, which merges the long-tailed Macaques into Cercopithecus, and substituting Papio for the others.

GENUS INUUS.

Cuvier applies this term to the Magots or rudimentary-tailed Macaques. The monkeys of this genus are more compactly built than those of the last. They are also less herbivorous in their diet, eating frogs, lizards, crabs and insects, as well as vegetables and fruit. Their callosities and cheek-pouches are large, and they have a sac which communicates with the larynx under the thyroid cartilage, which fills with air when they cry out.

Some naturalists of the day, however, place all under the generic name Macacus.

NO. 17. INUUS vel MACACUS SILENUS. The Lion Monkey (Jerdon's No. 6).

NATIVE NAMES.—Nil bandar, Bengali; Shia bandar, Hindi; Nella manthi, Malabari.

HABITAT.—The Western Ghats of India from North Lat. 14 degrees to the extreme south, but most abundant in Cochin and Travancore (Jerdon), also Ceylon (Cuvier and Horsfield), though not confirmed by Emerson Tennent, who states that the silenus is not found in the island except as introduced by Arab horse-dealers occasionally, and that it certainly is not indigenous. Blyth was also assured by Dr. Templeton of Colombo that the only specimens there were imported.

[Figure: Macacus silenus.]

DESCRIPTION.—Black, with a reddish-white hood or beard surrounding the face and neck; tail with a tuft of whitish hair at the tip; a little greyish on the chest.

SIZE.—About 24 inches; tail, 10 inches.

There is a plate of this monkey in Carpenter and Westwood's edition of Cuvier, under the mistaken name of Wanderoo.

It is somewhat sulky and savage, and is difficult to get near in a wild state. Jerdon states that he met with it only in dense unfrequented forest, and sometimes at a considerable elevation. It occurs in troops of from twelve to twenty.

NO. 18. INUUS vel MACACUS RHESUS. The Bengal Monkey (Jerdon's No. 7).

NATIVE NAMES.—Bandar, Hindi; Markot, Bengali; Suhu, Lepcha, Piyu, Bhotia.

HABITAT.—India generally from the North to about Lat. 18 degrees or 19 degrees; but not in the South, where it is replaced by Macacus radiatus.

[Figure: Macacus rhesus.]

DESCRIPTION.—Above brownish ochrey or rufous; limbs and beneath ashy-brown; callosities and adjacent parts red; face of adult males red.

SIZE.—Twenty-two inches; tail 11 inches.

This monkey is too well-known to need description. It is the common acting monkey of the bandar-wallas, the delight of all Anglo-Indian children, who go into raptures over the romance of Munsur-ram and Chameli, their quarrels, parting, and reconciliation, so admirably acted by these miniature comedians.

NOTE.—For Macacus rheso-similis, Sclater, see P.Z.S. 1872, p. 495, pl. xxv., also P.Z.S. 1875, p. 418.

NO. 19. INUUS vel MACACUS PELOPS. Syn.—MACACUS ASSAMENSIS. The Hill Monkey (Jerdon's No. 8).

HABITAT.—The Himalayan ranges and Assam.

DESCRIPTION.—Brownish grey, somewhat mixed with slaty, and rusty brownish on the shoulders in some; beneath light ashy brown; fur fuller and more wavy than in rhesus; canine teeth long; of stout habit; callosities and face less red than in the last species (Jerdon). Face flesh-coloured, but interspersed with a few black hairs (McClelland).

NO. 20. INUUS vel MACACUS NEMESTRINUS. The Pig-tailed Monkey.

HABITAT.—Tenasserim and the Malay Archipelago.

[Figure: Macacus nemestrinus.]

DESCRIPTION.—General colour grizzled brown; the piles annulated with dusky and fulvous; crown darker, and the middle of the back also darker; the hair lengthened on the fore-quarters; the back stripe extends along the tail, becoming almost black; the tail terminates in a bright ferruginous tuft. This monkey is noted for its docility, and in Bencoolen is trained to be useful as well as amusing. According to Sir Stamford Raffles it is taught to climb the cocoa palms for the fruit for its master, and to select only those that are ripe.

NO. 21. INUUS vel MACACUS LEONINUS. The Long-haired Pig-tailed Monkey.

HABITAT.—Arracan.

DESCRIPTION.—A thick-set powerful animal, with a broad, rather flattened head above, and a moderately short, well clad, up-turned tail, about one-third the length of the body and head; the female smaller.—Anderson.

Face fleshy brown; whitish round the eyes and on the forehead; eyebrows brownish, a narrow reddish line running out from the external angle of the eye. The upper surface of the head is densely covered with short dark fur, yellowish brown, broadly tipped with black; the hair radiating from the vertex; on and around the ear the hair is pale grey; above the external orbital angle and on the sides of the face the hair is dense and directed backwards, pale greyish, obscurely annulated with dusky brown, and this is prolonged downwards to the middle of the throat. On the shoulders, back of the neck, and upper part of the thighs, the hairs are very long, fully three inches in the first-mentioned localities; the basal halves greyish; and the remainder ringed with eleven bands of dark brown and orange; the tips being dark. The middle and small of the back is almost black, the shorter hair there being wholly dark; and this colour is prolonged on the tail, which is tufted. The hair on the chest is annulated, but paler than on the shoulders, and it is especially dense on the lower part. The lower halves of the limbs are also well clad with annulated fur, like their outsides, but their upper halves internally and the belly are only sparsely covered with long brownish grey plain hairs, not ringed.

The female differs from the male in the absence of the black on the head and back, and in the hair of the under parts being brownish grey, without annulations. The shoulders somewhat brighter than the rest of the fur, which is yellowish olive; greyish olive on outside of limbs; dusky on upper surface of hands and feet; and black on upper surface of tail.

SIZE.—Length of male, head and body 23 inches; tail, without hair, 8 inches; with hair 10 inches.

The above description is taken from Dr. Anderson's account, 'Anat. and Zool. Res.,' where at page 54 will be found a plate of the skull showing the powerful canine teeth. Blyth mentions a fine male with hair on the shoulders four to five inches long.

NO. 22. INUUS vel MACACUS ARCTOIDES. The Brown Stump-tailed Monkey.

HABITAT.—Cachar, Kakhyen Hills, east of Bhamo.

DESCRIPTION.—Upper surface of head and along the back dark brown, almost blackish; sides and limbs dark brown; the hair, which is very long, is ringed with light yellowish and dark brown, darker still at the tips; face red; tail short and stumpy, little over an inch long.

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