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Nelson's Home Comforts - Thirteenth Edition
by Mary Hooper
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NELSON'S

HOME COMFORTS.

THIRTEENTH EDITION.

REVISED AND ENLARGED

BY MARY HOOPER,

AUTHOR OF "LITTLE DINNERS," "EVERY-DAY MEALS," "COOKERY FOR INVALIDS," ETC. ETC.



London: G. NELSON, DALE & CO., LIMITED, 14, DOWGATE HILL. 1892.

ANY OF

NELSON'S SPECIALITIES

MENTIONED IN THIS BOOK

MAY BE OBTAINED FROM

W. CHAPLIN & SONS, 19 & 20, WATERLOO PLACE, SOUTHAMPTON. PLEASE SEND, S.W.R.

They are also Sold by Grocers, Chemists, Italian Warehousemen, etc., throughout the World. Should any difficulty be experienced in obtaining them, kindly send the name and address of your Grocer, and we will at once communicate with him.



***

G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.

NELSON'S SPECIALITIES.

***

PATENT OPAQUE GELATINE. In packets, from 6d. to 7s. 6d.

CITRIC ACID. In 3d. packets. For use with the Gelatine.

ESSENCE OF LEMON, ALMONDS, & VANILLA. In graduated bottles, 8d.

FAMILY JELLY BOXES. 7s. 6d. each. Containing sufficient of the above materials for 12 quarts of Jelly.

BOTTLED WINE JELLIES (Concentrated). CALF'S FOOT, LEMON, SHERRY, PORT, ORANGE, AND CHERRY. Quarts, 2s. 6d.; Pints, 1s. 4d.; Half-pints, 9d.

TABLET JELLIES. ORANGE, LEMON, CALF'S FOOT, CHERRY, RASPBERRY, VANILLA, PORT, SHERRY, ETC. Quarts, 9d.; Pints, 6d.; Half-pints, 3d.

WINE TABLET JELLIES. PORT, SHERRY, ORANGE. Pints only, 9d.

PATENT REFINED ISINGLASS. In 1s. packets.

GELATINE LOZENGES. LIQUORICE LOZENGES. In Ornamental Tins, 6d.

JELLY-JUBES. A most agreeable and nourishing Sweetmeat.

EXTRACT OF MEAT. FOR SOUPS, GRAVIES, ETC. In ounce packets, 4d.

PURE BEEF TEA. In half-pint packets, 6d.

SOUPS. BEEF AND CARROTS } BEEF AND CELERY } In pint packets, BEEF AND ONIONS } 6d. each. MULLIGATAWNY } BEEF, PEAS, AND VEGETABLES } In quart packets, BEEF, LENTILS, AND VEGETABLES } 6d. each. PENNY PACKETS OF SOUP for charitable purposes.

EGG ALBUMEN. For clearing Jelly or Soup. In boxes containing 12 packets, 9d. per box.

***

G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.

LITTLE DINNERS,

How to serve them with Elegance and Economy.

BY MARY HOOPER.

Twenty-second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.

"Shows us how to serve up a 'little dinner,' such as a philosopher might offer a monarch—good, varied, in good taste, and cheap. Exactly what the young English wife wishes to know, and what the ordinary cookery book does not teach her."—Queen.

***

EVERY-DAY MEALS,

Being Economic and Wholesome Recipes for Plain Dinners, Breakfasts, Luncheons, and Suppers.

BY MARY HOOPER.

Eighth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.

"Our already deep obligations to Miss Hooper are weightily increased by this excellent and practical little book. The recipes for little dishes are excellent, and so clearly worded that presumptuous man instantly believes, on reading them, that he could descend into the kitchen and 'toss up' the little dishes without any difficulty."—Spectator.

***

COOKERY FOR INVALIDS,

For Persons of Delicate Digestion, and for Children.

BY MARY HOOPER.

Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.

"An epicure might be content with the little dishes provided by Miss Hooper; but, at the same time, the volume fills the utmost extent of promise held out in the title-page."—Pall Mall Gazette.

***

LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & CO.



CONTENTS.

***

PAGE

PREFACE 7 Bottled Jellies 7 Tablet Jellies 8 Lemon Sponge 9 Citric Acid and Pure Essence of Lemon 9 Pure Essence of Almonds and Vanilla 9 Gelatine Lozenges 9 Jelly-Jubes 10 Licorice Lozenges 10 Albumen 10 Extract of Meat 10 Soups 11 Beef Tea 12 New Zealand Mutton 12 Tinned Meats 12 Gelatine 13

SOUPS 14

LITTLE DISHES OF FISH 22

LITTLE DISHES OF MEAT 31

PUDDINGS 50

JELLIES 61

CREAMS 74

CAKES 85

BEVERAGES 93

MACARONI, ETC. 98

HINTS ON HOUSEKEEPING 105

NEW ZEALAND FROZEN MUTTON 119

INDEX 121



NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS.

***

PREFACE.

In presenting our friends and the public with the thirteenth edition of our "Home Comforts," we have the pleasure to remark that so greatly has the book been appreciated, that the large number of FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND copies has been called for. The value of the Jubilee Edition was enhanced by some new recipes; these are repeated in the present edition, to which, also, some valuable additions have been made. Since the introduction of our Gelatine by the late Mr. G. Nelson, more than fifty years ago, we have considerably enlarged our list of specialities, and we have gratefully to acknowledge the public favour accorded to us.

Among those of our preparations which have met with so much appreciation and success, we would cite the following:

NELSON'S BOTTLED JELLIES.—It is sometimes so difficult, if not impossible, to have a first-class jelly made in private kitchens, that we venture to think our BOTTLED JELLIES will be highly appreciated by all housekeepers. It is not too much to say that a ready-made jelly of the highest quality, and of the best and purest materials, requiring only the addition of hot water, is now, for the first time, supplied. Careful experiments, extending over a long period of time, have been required to bring this excellent and very useful preparation to its present state of perfection, and it is confidently asserted that no home-made jelly can surpass it in purity, brilliancy, or delicacy of flavour. All that is necessary to prepare the jelly for the table is to dissolve it by placing the bottle in hot water, and then to add the given quantity of water to bring it to a proper consistency. It is allowed to stand until on the point of setting, and is then put into a mould.

NELSON'S CALF'S FOOT, LEMON, PORT, SHERRY, ORANGE, AND CHERRY JELLIES are now to be had of all first-class grocers, and are put up in bottles each containing sufficient of the concentrated preparation to make a quart, pint, or half-pint.

NELSON'S TABLET JELLIES are recommended for general use, are guaranteed of the purest and best materials, and are flavoured with the finest fruit essences. The Tablet Jellies are of so moderate a price as to be within the reach of all classes, and can be used as an every-day addition to the family bill of fare. They are not, however, intended as a substitute for high-class jellies, whether bottled or home-made.

The Tablet Jellies used as directed in the recipes make, in a few minutes, creams of a most delicate kind, remarkable for smoothness of texture and fine flavour.

NELSON'S PORT, SHERRY, AND ORANGE WINE TABLET JELLIES have now been added to the list.

NELSON'S LEMON SPONGE, supplied in tins, is a delicious novelty, and will be found to surpass any that can be made at home.

NELSON'S CITRIC ACID AND PURE ESSENCE OF LEMON.—In order to save the trouble of putting jelly through a strainer when required for invalids, we have introduced our Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and by their use a jelly clear enough for all ordinary purposes is made in a few minutes.

LEMONADE and other beverages can be quickly made, and with less expense than by any other method, by using Nelson's Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and for these recipes are given. Delicious beverages are also made with Nelson's Bottled Jellies, see page 93.

NELSON'S PURE ESSENCE OF ALMONDS AND VANILLA.—These Extracts, like the Essence of Lemon, will be found of superior strength and flavour, and specially adapted for the recipes in this book.

NELSON'S GELATINE LOZENGES are not only a delicious sweetmeat, but most useful as voice lozenges, or in cases of sore or irritable throat. The flavour is very delicate and refreshing. Dissolved in water they make a useful beverage, and also a jelly suitable for children and invalids.

NELSON'S JELLY-JUBES will be found most agreeable and nourishing sweetmeats, deliciously flavoured with fruit essences. They can be used as cough lozenges, will be found soothing for delicate throats, are useful for travellers, and may be freely given to children.

NELSON'S LICORICE LOZENGES are not only a favourite sweetmeat, but in cases of throat irritation and cough are found to be soothing and curative.

NELSON'S ALBUMEN is the white of eggs carefully dried and prepared, so that it will keep for an indefinite length of time. It is useful for any purpose to which the white of egg is applied, and answers well for clearing soup and jelly. When required for use, the albumen is soaked in cold water and whisked in the usual way.

NELSON'S EXTRACT OF MEAT.—The numerous testimonials which have been received as to the excellence of this preparation, as well as the great and universal demand for it, have afforded the highest satisfaction to us as the manufacturers, and have enabled us to offer it with increased confidence to the public. It is invaluable, whether for making soup or gravy, or for strengthening or giving flavour to many dishes; and it is not only superior to, but far cheaper than, any similar preparation now before the public.

Now that clear soup is so constantly required, and a thing of every-day use, Nelson's Extract of Meat will be found a great boon. With the addition of a little vegetable flavouring, a packet of the Extract will make a pint of soup as good and as fine as that produced, at much labour and expense, from fresh meat. With a judicious use of the liquor derived from boiling fowls, rabbits, and fresh meat, an endless variety of soup may be made, by the addition of Nelson's Extract of Meat. Some recipes are given by which first-class soups can be prepared in a short time, at a very small cost, and with but little trouble. It may be as well to say that soaking for a few minutes in cold water facilitates the solution of the Extract of Meat.

NELSON'S SOUPS are deserving of the attention of every housekeeper, for they combine all the elements of good nourishment, have an excellent flavour, both of meat and vegetables, are prepared by merely boiling the contents of a packet for fifteen minutes, and are so cheap as to be within everybody's means. Penny packets of these soups, for charitable purposes, will be found most useful and nourishing.

Those who have to cater for a family know how often a little soup will make up a dinner that would otherwise be insufficient; yet because of the time and trouble required in the preparation, it is impossible to have it. In a case like this, or when a supplementary dish is unexpectedly required, Nelson's Soups are most useful. Although these Soups are all that can be desired, made with water according to the directions given with each packet, they can be utilised with great advantage for strengthening household stock.

For instance, the liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, or of pork, if not too salt, can be at once, by using a packet or two of Nelson's Soup, converted into a delicious and nourishing soup, and at a cost surprisingly small. Or the bones of any joint can be made into stock, and, after all the fat has been skimmed off, have a packet of Nelson's Soup added, in the same manner as in the directions.

NELSON'S BEEF TEA will be found of the highest value, supplying a cup of unequalled nourishment, combining all the constituents of fresh beef. No other preparation now before the public contains that most important element, albumen, in a soluble form, as well as much of the fibrin of the meat. This Beef Tea is also generally relished by invalids, and merely requires to be dissolved in boiling water.

NEW ZEALAND MUTTON.—For information respecting this meat, and the great advantage as well as economy of its use, see page 119.

NELSON'S TINNED MEATS, known as the "Tomoana Brand," are prepared at the works of NELSON BROS., LIMITED, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, from the finest cattle of the country. Messrs. NELSON specially recommend their "Pressed Mutton and Green Peas," "Haricot Mutton," and "Pressed Corned Mutton." The "Stewed Kidneys" will be found of a quality superior to any articles of the kind now in the market, while the price places them within the reach of all classes of consumers.

NELSON'S GELATINE having now been favourably known all over the world for more than half a century, it is unnecessary to do more than observe that our efforts are constantly directed to supplying a perfectly pure article, always of the same strength and quality. When Russian isinglass was first introduced into this country, the prejudices against its use on the part of our great-grandmothers were violent and extreme; for those worthy ladies would not believe that some unfamiliar substance, of the origin of which they were either ignorant or doubtful, could form an efficient substitute for the well-known calves' feet and cow-heels, from which they had always been in the habit of making their jellies and blanc-manges. By degrees, however, the Gelatine made its way, and at length superseded the old system entirely; and its popularity is demonstrated by the fact that the works at Emscote, near Warwick, cover nearly five acres.

* * * * *

N.B.—It is necessary to call attention to the fact that in all the following recipes in which Nelson's Gelatine and Specialities are used, the quantities are calculated for their manufactures only, the quality and strength of which may be relied upon for uniformity.



NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS.

***

SOUPS.

***

BEEF AND ONION SOUP.

A pint of very good soup can be made by following the directions which accompany each tin of Nelson's Beef and Onion Soup, viz. to soak the contents in a pint of cold water for fifteen minutes, then place over the fire, stir, and boil for fifteen minutes. It is delicious when combined with a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, thus producing a quart of nutritious and appetising soup.

NELSON'S MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.

Soaked in cold water for a quarter of an hour, and then boiled for fifteen minutes, Nelson's Mulligatawny Soup is very appetising and delicious. It should be eaten with boiled rice; and for those who like the soup even hotter than that in the above preparation, the accompanying rice may be curried. In either case the rice should be boiled so that each grain should be separate and distinct from the rest.

BEEF, LENTIL, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.

Pour one quart of boiling water upon the contents of a tin of Nelson's Soup of the above title, stirring briskly. The water must be boiling. A little seasoning of salt and pepper may be added for accustomed palates. This soup is perfectly delicious if prepared as follows: Cut two peeled onions into quarters, tie them in a muslin bag, and let the soup boil for twenty minutes with them. Take out the bag before serving the soup.

BEEF, PEA, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.

The directions printed on each packet of Nelson's Beef, Pea, and Vegetable Soup produce a satisfactory soup, but even this may be improved by the addition of the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat and a handful of freshly-gathered peas. It is perhaps not generally known that pea-pods, usually thrown away as useless, impart a most delicious flavour to soup if boiled fast for two or three hours in a large saucepan, strained, and the liquor added to the soup, stock, or beef tea.

BEEF TEA AS A SOLID.

Soak the contents of a tin of Nelson's Beef Tea in a gill of water for ten minutes. Add to this the third of an ounce packet of Nelson's Gelatine, which has been soaked for two or three hours in half-a-pint of cold water. Put the mixture in a stewpan, and stir until it reaches boiling-point. Then put it into a mould which has been rinsed with cold water. When thoroughly cold, this will turn out a most inviting and extremely nutritious dish.

CLEAR VERMICELLI SOUP.

Boil two minced onions in a quart of the liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, skim well, and when the vegetables are tender strain them out. Pass the soup through a napkin, boil up, skim thoroughly, and when clear add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, stirring until dissolved.

Boil two ounces of vermicelli paste in a pint of water until tender. Most shapes take about ten minutes. Take care that the water boils when you throw in the paste, and that it continues to do so during all the time of cooking, as that will keep the paste from sticking together. When done, drain it in a strainer, put it in the tureen, and pour the soup on to it.

SOUP JULIENNE.

Wash and scrape a large carrot, cut away all the yellow parts from the middle, and slice the red outside of it an inch in length, and the eighth of an inch thick. Take an equal quantity of turnip and three small onions, cut in a similar manner. Put them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter and a pinch of powdered sugar; stir over the fire until a nice brown colour, then add a quart of water and a teaspoonful of salt, and let all simmer together gently for two hours. When done skim the fat off very carefully, and ten minutes before serving add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a cabbage-lettuce cut in shreds and blanched for a minute in boiling water; simmer for five minutes and the soup will be ready. Many cooks, to save time and trouble, use the preserved vegetables, which are to be had in great perfection at all good Italian warehouses.

BROWN RABBIT SOUP CLEAR.

Fry a quarter of a pound of onions a light brown; mince a turnip and carrot and a little piece of celery; boil these until tender in three pints of the liquor in which a rabbit has been boiled, taking care to remove all scum as it rises; strain them out, and then pass the soup through a napkin. The soup should be clear, or nearly so, but if it is not, put it in a stewpan, boil and skim until bright; then throw in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, soaked for a few minutes; stir until dissolved; add pepper and salt to taste.

HARE SOUP.

Half roast a hare, and, having cut away the meat in long slices from the backbone, put it aside to make an entree. Fry four onions; take a carrot, turnip, celery, a small quantity of thyme and parsley, half-a-dozen peppercorns, a small blade of mace, some bacon-bones or a slice of lean ham, with the body of the hare cut up into small pieces; put all in two quarts of water with a little salt. When you have skimmed the pot, cover close and allow it to boil gently for three hours, then strain it; take off every particle of fat, and having allowed the soup to boil up, add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and thicken it with a dessertspoonful of potato-flour; stir in two lumps of sugar, a glass of port wine, and season if necessary.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.

English cooks generally err in making both mulligatawny and curries too hot. It is impossible to give the exact quantity of the powder, because it varies so much in strength, and the cook must therefore be guided by the quality of her material. Mulligatawny may be made cheaply, and be delicious. The liquor in which meat or fowl has been boiled will make a superior soup, and fish-liquor will answer well. Slice and fry brown four onions, quarter, but do not peel, four sharp apples; boil them in three pints of stock until tender, then rub through a sieve to a pulp. Boil this up in the soup, skimming well; add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and stir in two ounces of flour and the curry-powder, mixed smooth in half-a-pint of milk. Any little pieces of meat, fowl, game, or fish may be added as an improvement to the soup. Just before serving taste that the soup is well-flavoured; add a little lemon-juice or vinegar.

THIN MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.

To a quart of the liquor in which a fresh haddock has been boiled, add half-a-pint of water in which onions have been boiled. Stir into this, after it has been skimmed, and whilst boiling, the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a teaspoonful of curry-powder; let it boil up; add the juice of half a lemon and serve.

BROWN ARTICHOKE SOUP.

Wash, peel, and cut into slices about half-an-inch thick two pounds of Jerusalem artichokes. Fry them in a little butter until brown; fry also brown half-a-pound of sliced onions. Put these to boil in two quarts of water with two turnips, a carrot sliced, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and one of pepper. When the vegetables are tender drain the liquor, set it aside to cool, and remove all fat. Pass the vegetables through a fine sieve to a nice smooth puree. Those who possess a Kent's "triturating strainer" will be able to do this much more satisfactorily, both as regards time and results, than by the old way of rubbing through a sieve. Put the liquor on to boil, dissolve in it—according to the strength the soup is required to be—the contents of one or two tins of Nelson's Extract of Meat, then add the vegetable puree, a lump or two of sugar, and if required, salt and pepper. Let it boil up and serve.

TURTLE SOUP.

This soup is so often required for invalids, as well as for the table, that an easy and comparatively inexpensive method of preparing it cannot fail to be acceptable. Nelson's Beef Tea or Extract of Meat will be used instead of fresh beef, and Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle instead of live turtle. If convenient it is desirable to soak the dried turtle all night, but it can be used without doing so. Put it on to boil in the water in which it was soaked, in the proportion of one quart with a teaspoonful of salt to a quarter of a pound of the turtle. Add two or three onions peeled and quartered, a small bit of mace and sliced lemon-peel, and simmer gently for four or five hours, or until the turtle is tender enough to divide easily with a spoon. Stock of any kind may be used instead of water, and as the liquid boils away more should be added, to keep the original quantity. Herbs for the proper flavouring of the Turtle Soup are supplied by Bellis; these should be put in about an hour before the turtle is finished, and be tied in muslin. When done take out the turtle and divide it into neat little pieces; strain the liquor in which it was cooked, and having boiled it up, stir in the contents of two tins of Nelson's Extract of Meat, previously soaked for a few minutes. Mix smooth in a gill of cold water a teaspoonful of French potato-flour and of Vienna flour, stir into the soup, and when it has thickened put in the turtle meat; let it get hot through, add a wine-glassful of sherry, a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, and salt and pepper to taste, and serve at once. It is necessary to have "Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle," imported by T. K. Bellis, Jeffrey's Square, St. Mary Axe, London (sold in boxes), for this soup, because it is warranted properly prepared. An inferior article, got up by negroes from turtle found dead, is frequently sold at a low price; but it is unnecessary to say it is not good or wholesome.

MOCK TURTLE SOUP.

This, like real turtle soup, can be made of Nelson's Extract of Meat and Bellis's Mock Turtle Meat. Boil the contents of a tin of this meat in water or stock, salted and flavoured with vegetables and turtle herbs, until tender. Finish with Nelson's Extract of Meat, and as directed for turtle soup.

GRAVY.

For roast meat, merely dissolve, after a little soaking, a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in a pint of boiling water. For poultry or game, fry two onions a light brown, mince a little carrot and turnip, put in half a teaspoonful of herbs, tied in muslin, and boil until tender, in a pint of water. Strain out the herbs, let the liquor boil up, stir in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and if the gravy is required to be slightly thickened, add a small teaspoonful of potato-flour mixed smooth in cold water. For cutlets or other dishes requiring sharp sauce, make exactly as above, and just before serving add a little of any good piquant sauce, or pickles minced finely.

GLAZE.

Soak in a small jar the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in rather less than a gill of cold water. Set the jar over the fire in a saucepan with boiling water, and let the extract simmer until dissolved. This is useful for strengthening soups and gravies, and for glazing ham, tongues, and other things.



LITTLE DISHES OF FISH.

***

The recipes we are now giving are suitable for dinner, supper, or breakfast dishes, and will be found especially useful for the latter meal, as there is nothing more desirable for breakfast than fish. We are constantly told that it is not possible to have fresh fish for breakfast, because it cannot be kept all night in the home larder. But we must insist that there is no greater difficulty in keeping fish than meat. Indeed, there is perhaps less difficulty, because fish can be left lying in vinegar, if necessary, whereas in the case of meat it cannot always be done.

We will suppose that it is necessary to use strict economy. It is as well to proceed on that supposition, because people can always be lavish in their expenditure, whereas it is not so easy to provide for the household at once well and economically. In many neighbourhoods fish is sold much cheaper late in the day than in the morning, and in this case the housekeeper who can buy overnight for the use of the next day has a great advantage. Suppose you get the tail of a cod weighing three pounds, as you frequently may, at a very small price in the evening, and use a part of it stuffed and baked for supper, you can have a dish of cutlets of the remainder for breakfast which will be very acceptable. We do not mean a dish of the cold remains, but of a portion of the fish kept uncooked, as it easily may be, as we have before said, by dipping it in vinegar. Or, you get mackerel. Nothing is better than this fish treated according to the recipe we give. Even so delicate a fish as whiting may, by a little management with vinegar, be kept perfectly well from one day to the other. Skinned whiting has very little flavour, and although when skilfully cooked in the usual way it is useful by way of change, the nourishment is much impaired by the removal of the skin. The same remark applies to soles. By frying fish unskinned you get a dish of a different character to that of skinned fish, and one of which the appetite does not so soon tire.

FRIED SOLE.

Soles weighing from three-quarters of a pound to a pound are the most suitable size for frying whole. If it is desired to have the fish juicy and with their full flavour, do not have them skinned. The black side of the soles will not of course look so well, or be so crisp, as the white side, but this is of little consequence compared to the nourishment sacrificed in removing the skin. Have the soles scraped, wipe them, put a tablespoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the fish through it, and let them lie an hour or more, if necessary all night, as the flavour is thus improved. Run a knife along the backbone, which prevents it looking red when cut. When ready to crumb the fish, lay them in a cloth and thoroughly dry them. Beat up the yolk of an egg with a very little of the white, which will be sufficient to egg a pair of soles; pass the fish through the egg on both sides, hold it up to drain; have ready on a plate a quarter of a pound of very fine dry crumbs, mixed with two ounces of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Draw the fish over the crumbs, first on one side, then on the other, and lay it gently on a dish, black side downwards, whilst you prepare another. Some people succeed better in crumbing fish by sifting the crumbs on to it through a very fine strainer after it is egged. When the fish are ready put them, black side downwards, into the frying-pan with plenty of fat, hot enough to brown a piece of bread instantaneously, move the pan about gently, and when the soles have been fried four minutes, put a strong cooking-fork into them near the head, turn the white side downwards, and fry three minutes longer. Seven minutes will be sufficient to fry a sole weighing three-quarters of a pound, and a pair of this weight is sufficient for a party of six persons. When the sole is done put the fork into the fish close to the head, hold it up and let all the fat drain away, lay it on a sheet of cap paper, and cover over with another sheet. Being thus quite freed from grease, of a rich golden brown, crisp, and with an even surface, lay the fish on the dish for serving, which should have on it either a fish-paper or a napkin neatly folded. A well-fried sole is best eaten without any sauce, but in deference to the national usage, butter sauce, or melted butter, may be served with it.

FILLETED SOLES.

It is better for the cook to fillet the soles, for there is often much waste when it is done by the fishmonger. Having skinned the fish, with a sharp knife make an incision down the spine-bone from the head to the tail, and then along the fins; press the knife between the flesh and the bone, bearing rather hard against the latter, and the fillets will then be readily removed. These can now be dressed in a variety of ways; perhaps the most delicate for breakfast is the following:

FILLETS OF SOLE SAUTES.

Having dried the fillets, divide them into neat pieces two or three inches long; dip them in the beaten yolk of egg, and then in seasoned bread-crumbs. Make a little butter hot in the frying-pan, put in the fillets and cook them slowly until brown on one side, then turn and finish on the other.

FILLETS OF SOLE FRIED.

These may either be rolled in one piece or divided into several, as in the foregoing recipe. In either case egg and crumb them thoroughly, place them in the wire-basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the fillets on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, and serve as hot as possible. All kinds of flat fish can be filleted and cooked by these recipes, and will usually be found more economical than serving the fish whole. It is also economical to fillet the tail-end of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either fry or saute, as may be preferred.

FILLETS OF SOLE WITH LOBSTER.

Thin and fillet a pair of soles, each weighing about a pound. Roll the fillets, secure them with thread, which remove before serving; put them in a stewpan with two ounces of sweet butter, cover closely, and allow them to cook at a slow heat for twenty minutes or until tender, taking care to keep them from getting brown. Prepare a sauce by boiling a quarter of a pound of veal cutlet and the bones of the fish in half-a-pint of water. When reduced to a gill, strain and take off all fat from the sauce, thicken either with fine flour or "Rizine," put it into the stewpan with the fish, and allow it to stand for a quarter of an hour without boiling. Mince or cut in small pieces either the meat of a small fresh lobster, or half a flat tin of the best brand of preserved lobster. Make this hot by putting it in a jam pot standing in a saucepan of boiling water. Take up the fish, carefully pour the sauce round, and place on the top of each fillet some of the lobster.

BAKED WHITING.

Small whiting answer well for this purpose. Tie them round, the tail to the mouth, dip them in dissolved butter, lightly sprinkle with pepper and salt, strew them with pale raspings, put them in a baking-dish with a little butter, and bake in a quick oven for a quarter of an hour.

COD CUTLETS.

A cheap and excellent dish is made by filleting the tail of cod, egging and crumbing the pieces and frying them. Get about a pound and a half of the tail of a fine cod; with a sharp knife divide the flesh from the bone lengthways, cut it into neat pieces as nearly of a size as you can, and flatten with a knife. Dip in egg, then in crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. It is best to fry the cutlets in the wire-basket in plenty of fat, but if this is not convenient they can be done in the frying-pan; in any case, they should be done quickly, so that they may get crisp.

FRIED HERRINGS.

Take care the fish is well cleaned, without being split. Two or three hours before cooking, lightly sprinkle with salt and pepper; when ready to cook, wipe and flour the herrings. Have ready in the frying-pan as much fat at the proper temperature as will cover the herrings. Cook quickly at first, then moderate the heat slightly, and fry for ten to twelve minutes, when they should be crisp and brown. When done, lay them on a dish before the fire, in order that all fat and the fish-oil may drain from them; with this precaution, fried herrings will be found more digestible than otherwise they would be.

ROLLED HERRINGS.

Choose the herrings with soft roes. Having scraped and washed them, cut off the heads, split open, take out the roes, and cleanse the fish. Hold one in the left hand, and, with thumb and finger of the right, press the backbone to loosen it, then lay flat on the board and draw out the bone; it will come out whole, leaving none behind. Dissolve a little fresh butter, pass the inner side of the fish through it, sprinkle pepper and salt lightly over, then roll it up tightly with the fin and tail outwards, roll it in flour and sprinkle a little pepper and salt, then put a small game skewer to keep the herring in shape. Have ready a good quantity of boiling fat; it is best to do the herrings in a wire-basket, and fry them quickly for ten minutes. Take them up and set them on a plate before the fire, in order that all the fat may drain from them. Pass the roes through flour mixed with a sufficient quantity of pepper and salt, fry them brown, and garnish the fish with them and crisp parsley. A difficulty is often felt in introducing herrings at dinner on account of the number of small bones in them, but this is obviated by the above method of dressing, as with care not one bone should be left in.

GALANTINE OF FISH.

Procure a fine large fresh haddock and two smaller, of which to make forcemeat. Take off the head and open the large fish. Carefully press the meat from the backbone, which must be removed without breaking the skin; trim away the rough parts and small bones at the sides. Cover the inside of the fish with a layer of forcemeat, and at intervals place lengthways a few fillets of anchovies, between which sprinkle a little lobster coral which has been passed through a wire sieve; fold the haddock into its original form, and sew it up with a needle and strong thread. Dip a cloth in hot water, wring it as dry as possible, butter sufficient space to cover the fish, then fold it up, tie each end, and put a small safety pin in the middle to keep it firm. Braise the galantine for an hour in stock made from the bones of the fish. Let it stay in the liquor until cold, when take it up and draw out the sewing thread. Reduce and strain the liquor, mix with cream and aspic jelly, or Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a pint. When this sauce is on the point of setting, coat the galantine with it, sprinkle with little passed lobster coral, dish in a bed of shred salad, tastefully interspersed with beetroot cut in dice and dipped in oil and vinegar.

To make the forcemeat, pound the fillets of the small haddocks till fine, then work in about half its quantity of bread panada, an ounce of butter, and the fillets of two anchovies; season with salt and pepper, mix in one egg and a yolk, pass through a wire sieve, and work into it a gill of cream.

FILLETS OF SOLE EN ASPIC.

Aspic jelly, or meat jelly, may be made very good, and at a moderate cost, by boiling lean beef or veal in water with a little vegetable and spice. To make it according to the standard recipes is so expensive and tedious that few persons care to attempt it. The following directions will enable a cook to make an excellent and clear aspic.

Cut two pounds of lean beefsteak or veal cutlet into dice, put it on in two quarts of cold water, and as soon as it boils, take off the scum as it rises. Let it simmer gently for half-an-hour; then add four onions, a turnip, carrot, small bundle of sweet herbs, blade of mace, half-a-dozen white peppercorns, and when it has again boiled for an hour strain it through a napkin. Let it stand until cold, remove all the fat, boil it up, and to a quart of the liquor put an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in cold water. Add salt and a pinch of cayenne pepper, and when the jelly is cool stir in the whites and shells of two eggs well beaten. Let the jelly boil briskly for two minutes, let it stand off the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a jelly-bag and use as directed. Take the fillets of a pair of large thick soles, cut them into neat square pieces, leaving the trimmings for other dishes, and lay them in vinegar with a little salt for an hour. As they must be kept very white the best French vinegar should be used. Boil the fillets gently in salted water, with a little vinegar, till done; take them up and dry them on a cloth. Have ready some picked parsley and hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters; arrange these neatly at the bottom of a plain mould so as to form a pretty pattern. Pour in very gently enough jelly to cover the first layer, let it stand until beginning to set, then put another layer of fish, eggs, and parsley, then more jelly, and so on until the mould is full. When done set the mould on ice, or allow it to stand some hours in a cold place to get well set. Turn it out, ornament with parsley, beetroot, and cut lemon.

COLLARED EELS.

Clean and boil the eels in water highly seasoned with pepper and salt, an onion, bay-leaf, a clove, and a little vinegar. When the eels are done enough, slip out the bones and cut them up into pieces about two inches long. Take the liquor in which the fish is boiled, strain it, let it boil in the stewpan without the lid, skimming it until it becomes clear. Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine to each half-pint of the fish gravy, and boil together for a minute, let it then stand until cool. Arrange the pieces of eel tastefully in a plain mould with small sprigs of curled parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs, and, if you like, a fillet or two of anchovies cut up into dice. When all the fish is thus arranged in the mould, pour the jelly in very gently, a tablespoonful at a time, in order not to disturb the solid material. Let the mould stand in cold water for seven or eight hours, when it can be turned out. Ornament with parsley, lemon, and beetroot.



LITTLE DISHES OF MEAT.

***

In this chapter a number of useful and inexpensive dishes are given, which will serve either as breakfast dishes, entrees, or for invalids, and which may, in the hands of an intelligent cook, serve as models for many others. As will be seen, it is not so much a question of expense to provide these little tasty dishes as of management. In all the following recipes for little dishes of mutton, it will be found a great advantage to use New Zealand Meat.

A good cook will never be embarrassed by having too much cold meat on hand, because she will be able by her skill so to vary the dishes that the appetites of those for whom she caters will never tire of it. Even a small piece of the loin of mutton may be served in half-a-dozen different ways, and be relished by those who are tired of the mutton-chop or the plain roast.

MUTTON CUTLETS.

Taken from the neck, mutton cutlets are expensive, but those from the loin will be found not only convenient, but to answer well at a smaller cost.

First remove the under-cut or fillet from about two pounds of the best end of a loin of mutton, cut off the flap, which will be useful for stewing, and it is especially good eaten cold, and then remove the meat from the bones in one piece, which divide with the fillet into cutlets about half-an-inch thick. Egg them over and dip them in well-seasoned bread-crumbs, fry them until a nice brown, and serve with gravy made from the bones and an onion.

This way of cooking the loin is much more economical than in chops, because with them the bones and flap are wasted, whereas in cutlets all is used up.

To stew the flap, put it in a stewpan, the fat downwards, sprinkle pepper and salt, and slice an onion or two over, and set it to fry gently in its own fat for an hour. Take up the meat, and put half-a-pint of cold water to the fat, which, when it has risen in a solid cake, take off, mix a little flour with the gravy which will be found beneath the fat, add pepper, salt, and some cooked potatoes cut in slices. Cut the meat into neat squares; let it simmer gently in the gravy with the potatoes for an hour.

ROULADES OF MUTTON.

Remove the fillet from a fine loin of mutton, trim away every particle of skin, fat, and gristle. Flatten the fillet with a cutlet-bat, and cut it lengthways into slices as thin as possible; divide these into neat pieces about three inches long. Sprinkle each with pepper, salt, and finely-chopped parsley, roll them up tightly, then dip in beaten egg, and afterwards in finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with an equal quantity of flour and highly seasoned with pepper and salt. As each roulade is thus prepared place it on a game-skewer, three or four on each skewer. Dissolve an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan, and cook the roulades in it.

MUTTON COLLOPS.

Cut neat thin slices from a leg of either roasted or boiled mutton, dip them in yolk of egg and in fine dry bread-crumbs to which a little flour, pepper, and salt have been added. Heat enough butter in a small frying-pan to just cover the bottom, put in the slices of mutton and cook them very slowly, first on one side then on the other, until they are brown. Garnish the dish on which the mutton is served with some fried potatoes or potato chips.

MUTTON SAUTE.

Put a little butter or bacon fat in the frying-pan, sprinkle pepper and salt over slices of cold mutton, and let them get hot very slowly. The mutton must be frequently turned, and never allowed to fry. When turned in the pan for the last time sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the upper side; remove the slices carefully on to a hot dish, pour the fat in the pan over, and serve.

COLD MUTTON POTTED.

Cut up the mutton, being careful to free it from all sinew and skin; chop or pound it with half its weight of cooked bacon until it is as fine as desired. Season with a little pepper, salt, and allspice, put it into a jar, which set in a saucepan of water over the fire until the meat is hot through. When taken up stir occasionally until cool, then press it into little pots, and pour clarified butter or mutton fat over the top. If liked, a little essence of anchovy may be added to the seasoning.

MUTTON PIES.

Mince a quarter of a pound of underdone mutton, taking care to have it free from skin and fat. Mix with it a tablespoonful of rich gravy—that which is found under a cake of dripping from a joint is particularly suitable for this purpose—add a few drops of essence of anchovy, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and a small teaspoonful of minced parsley. If necessary add salt.

Line four patty-pans with puff paste, divide the mutton into equal portions and put it into the pans, cover each with a lid of paste, and bake in a quick oven for half-an-hour.

OX BRAIN.

Having carefully washed the brain, boil it very fast, in order to harden it, in well-seasoned gravy. When it is done, take it out of the gravy and set it aside until cold. Cut it either in slices or in halves, dip each piece in egg, then in bread-crumbs well seasoned with dried and sifted parsley, pepper, and salt, fry them in a little butter until brown. The gravy having become cold, take off the fat, and boil it in a stewpan without a lid until it is reduced to a small quantity; pour it round the brain, and serve.

BRAIN FRITTERS.

Carefully wash an ox brain, and boil it for a quarter of an hour in well-seasoned stock. When the brain is cold, cut it into slices as thin as possible, dip each of them in batter, drop them as you do them into a stewpan half-full of fat at a temperature of 430 deg., or that which will brown instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make the batter, mix two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water, stir in a tablespoonful of dissolved butter or of fine oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt and pepper; when ready to use, beat the white of the egg to a strong froth, and mix with it. Do not fry more than two fritters at once; as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or ornamental dish-paper. If this recipe is closely followed, the fritters will be light, crisp, delicate morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides a very pretty dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take care the parsley is thoroughly dry, put it into a small frying-basket, and immerse it for an instant in the fat in which the fritters are to be cooked. Turn it out on paper, dry, and serve.

MARROW TOAST.

Let the butcher break up a marrow-bone. Take out the marrow in as large pieces as possible, and put them into a stewpan with a little boiling water, rather highly salted. When the marrow has boiled for a minute, drain the water away through a fine strainer. Have ready a slice of lightly-toasted bread, place the marrow on it, and put it into a Dutch oven before the fire for five minutes, or until it is done. Sprinkle over it a little pepper and salt, and a small teaspoonful of parsley, chopped fine. The toast must be served very hot.

CHICKEN IN ASPIC JELLY.

Cut the white part of a cold boiled chicken, and as many similar pieces of cold ham, into neat rounds, not larger than a florin. Run a little aspic jelly into a fancy border mould, allow it to set, and arrange a decoration of boiled carrot and white savoury custard cut crescent shape, dipping each piece in melted aspic. Pour in a very little more jelly, and when it is set place the chicken and ham round alternately, with a sprig of chervil, or small salad, here and there. Put in a very small quantity of aspic to keep this in place, then, when nearly set, sufficient to cover it. Arrange another layer, this time first of ham then of chicken, fix them in the same way, and fill up the mould with aspic jelly. When the dish is turned out fill the centre with cold green peas, nicely seasoned, and garnish round with chopped aspic and little stars of savoury custard. To make this, soak a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of milk, dissolve it over the fire, and stir in a gill of thick cream, season to taste with cayenne pepper and salt, and, if liked, a little grate of nutmeg. Pour the custard on to a large dish, and when cold cut it into the required shapes.

VEAL CUTLETS IN WHITE SAUCE.

Cut six or seven cutlets, about half-an-inch thick, from a neck of veal, braise them in half-a-pint of good white stock with an onion, a small bunch of herbs, a bacon bone, and two or three peppercorns, until they are done. Let the cutlets get cool in the liquor, then drain them. Strain the liquor and make a white sauce with it; add a tablespoonful of thick cream and a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in a gill of milk; season with salt and cayenne pepper, stirring occasionally until quite cold. Dip the cutlets in, smoothly coating one side, and before the sauce sets decorate them with very narrow strips of truffle in the form of a star. Cut as many pieces of cooked tongue or ham as there are cutlets, dish them alternately in a circle on a border of aspic, fill the centre with a salad composed of all kinds of cold cooked vegetables, cut with a pea-shaped cutter and seasoned with oil, vinegar, pepper, and salt. Garnish with aspic jelly cut lozenge shape and sprigs of chervil.

KIDNEYS SAUTES.

Like many other articles of diet, kidneys within the last ten years have been doubled in price, and are so scarce as to be regarded as luxuries. The method of cooking them generally in use is extravagant, and renders them tasteless and indigestible. Kidneys should never be cooked rapidly, and those persons who cannot eat them slightly underdone should forego them. One kidney dressed as directed in the following recipe will go as far as two cooked in the ordinary manner—an instance, if one were needed, of the economy of well-prepared food.

Choose fine large kidneys, skin them and cut each the round way into thin slices: each kidney should yield from ten to twelve slices. Have ready a tablespoonful of flour highly seasoned with pepper and salt and well mixed together; dip each piece of kidney in it. Cut some neat thin squares of streaked bacon, fry them very slowly in a little butter; when done, put them on the dish for serving, and keep hot whilst you saute the kidneys, which put into the fat the bacon was cooked in. In about a minute the gravy will begin to rise on the upper side, then turn the kidneys and let them finish cooking slowly; when they are done, as they will be in three to four minutes, the gravy will again begin to rise on the side which is uppermost. Put the kidneys on the dish with the bacon, and pour over them a spoonful or two of plain beef gravy, or water thickened with a little flour, boiled and mixed with the fat and gravy from the kidneys in the frying-pan. If there is too much fat in the pan, pour it away before boiling up the gravy. Serve the kidneys on a hot-water dish.

TINNED KIDNEYS WITH MUSHROOMS.

(Tomoana Brand.)

Dry a half-tin of champignons in a cloth, or, if convenient, prepare a similar quantity of fresh button mushrooms; add to these a few pieces of dried mushrooms, previously soaked for ten minutes in tepid water, put them into a stewpan with a slice of butter, and stir constantly for six minutes, then add two or three kidneys cut in small neat pieces, in the shape of dice is best, and continue stirring until the kidneys are hot through, taking care to do them slowly; at the last moment season with pepper and salt, and serve very hot. Garnish the dish with fried sippets of bread.

KIDNEYS WITH PICCALILLI SAUCE.

(Tomoana Brand.)

Take the kidneys out of the gravy, and cut them into six slices. Mix a small teaspoonful of curry powder with three teaspoonfuls of fine flour and a small pinch of salt. Dip each slice in this mixture, and when all are done put them in the frying-pan with a little butter, and let them get slowly hot through. When done, put the kidneys in the centre of a hot dish, and pour round them a sauce made as follows: Boil up the gravy of the kidneys, and stir into it sufficient minced piccalilli pickles to make it quite thick, add a teaspoonful of flour to a tablespoonful of the piccalilli vinegar, stir into the sauce, and when all has boiled up together, pour it round the kidneys.

BROILED KIDNEYS.

These are quite an epicure's dish, and care must be taken to cook them slowly. Having skinned the kidneys (they must not be split or cut) dip them for a moment in boiling fat, place them on the gridiron over a slow fire, turning them every minute. They will take ten to fifteen minutes to cook, and will be done as soon as the gravy begins to run. Place them on a hot dish rubbed over with butter, salt and pepper them rather highly. It must be understood that kidneys thus cooked ought to have the gravy in them, and that when they are cut at table it should run from them freely and in abundance.

LAMB'S FRY.

A really proper fry should consist not only of sweetbreads and liver, but of the heart, melt, brains, frill, and kidneys, each of which requires a different treatment. It is quite as easy to cook a fry properly as to flour and fry it hard and over-brown, as is too frequently done. Trim the sweetbreads neatly, and simmer them for a quarter of an hour in good white stock with an onion. When they are done take them up and put the brains in the gravy, allowing them to boil as fast as possible in order to harden them; let them get cold, then cut into slices, egg and bread-crumb them, and fry with the sweetbread in a little butter. After the brains are taken out of the gravy, put the slices of heart and melt in, and let them stew slowly until tender. When they are ready, flour them, and fry with the liver and frill until brown. Lastly, put the kidneys, cut in slices, into the pan, and very gently fry for about a minute. Shake a little flour onto the pan, stir it about until it begins to brown; then pour on to it the gravy, in which the sweetbreads, etc., were stewed, see it is nicely seasoned, and pour round the fry, which should be neatly arranged in the centre of the dish. Garnish with fried parsley.

LAMB'S SWEETBREADS.

These make an admirable breakfast dish, and can be partly prepared over-night. Trim and wash the sweetbreads, put them into a saucepan with sufficient well-flavoured stock to cover them, a minced onion and a sprig of lemon-thyme; boil gently for fifteen minutes, or a little longer if necessary. Take them up, drain, dip in egg and finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. Fry very carefully, so as not to make it brown or hard, some small slices of bacon, keep warm whilst you fry the sweetbreads in the fat which has run from it, adding, if required, a little piece of butter or lard. For a breakfast dish, the sweetbreads should be served without gravy, but if for an entree the liquor in which they were stewed, with slight additions and a little thickening, can be poured round them in the dish. Calves' sweetbreads are prepared in the same manner as the above, and can either be fried, finished in a Dutch oven, or served white, with parsley and butter, or white sauce.

VEAL A LA CASSEROLE.

For this dish a piece of the fillet about three inches thick will be required, and weighing from two to three pounds. It should be cut from one side of the leg, without bone; but sometimes butchers object to give it, as cutting in this manner interferes with cutlets. In such a case a piece must be chosen near the knuckle, and the bone be taken out before cooking. For a larger party, a thick slice of the fillet, weighing about four pounds, will be found advantageous.

With a piece of tape tie the veal into a round shape, flour, and put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, fry until it becomes brown on all sides. Then put half a pint of good gravy, nicely seasoned with pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and set it on the stove to cook very slowly for at least four hours. When done, the veal will be exquisitely tender, full of flavour, but not the least ragged. Take the meat up, and keep hot whilst the gravy is reduced, by boiling without the lid of the saucepan, to a rich glaze, which pour over the meat and serve.

BROWN FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.

This is a brown fricassee of chicken, and is an excellent dish. No doubt the reason it is so seldom given is that, although easy enough to do, it requires care and attention in finishing it. Many of the best cooks, in the preparation of chickens for fricassee, cut them up before cooking, but we prefer to boil them whole, and afterwards to divide them, as the flesh thus is less apt to shrink and get dry. The chicken can be slowly boiled in plain water, with salt and onions, or, as is much better, in white broth of any kind. When the chicken is tender cut it up; take the back, and the skin, pinions of the wings, and pieces which do not seem nice enough for a superior dish, and boil them in a quart of the liquor in which it was boiled. Add mushroom trimmings, onions, and a sprig of thyme; boil down to one-half, then strain, take off all fat, and stir over the fire with the yolk of two eggs and an ounce of fine flour until thickened. Dip each piece of chicken in some of this sauce, and when they are cold pass them through fine bread-crumbs, then in the yolk of egg, and crumb again. Fry carefully in hot fat. Dish the chicken with a border of fried parsley, and the remainder of the gravy poured round the dish. This dish is generally prepared by French cooks by frying the chicken in oil, and seasoning with garlic; but unless the taste of the guests is well known, it is safer to follow the above recipe.

CHICKEN SAUTE.

Put any of the meat of the breast or of the wings without bone into a frying-pan with a little fresh butter or bacon fat. Cook them very slowly, turning repeatedly; if the meat has not been previously cooked it will take ten minutes, and five minutes if a rechauffe. Sprinkle with pepper, and serve with mushrooms or broiled bacon. The legs of cooked chickens are excellent sautes, but they should be boned before they are put into the pan.

POTATO HASH.

Put some cold potatoes chopped into the frying-pan with a little fat, stir them about for five minutes, then add to them an equal quantity of cold meat, cut into neat little squares, season nicely with pepper and salt, fry gently, stirring all the time, until thoroughly hot through.

DRY CURRY.

Fry a minced onion in butter until lightly browned, cut up the flesh of two cooked chicken legs, or any other tender meat, into dice, mix this with the onions, and stir them together over the fire until the meat is hot through; sprinkle over it about a small teaspoonful of curry-powder, and salt to taste. Having thoroughly mixed the meat with the curry-powder, pour over it a tablespoonful of milk or cream, and stir over the fire until the moisture has dried up. Celery salt may be used instead of plain salt, and some persons add a few drops of lemon-juice when the curry is finished.

CROQUETTES.

Croquettes of all kinds, fish, game, poultry or any delicate meats, can be successfully made on the following model: Whatever material is used must be finely minced or pounded. Care is required in making the sauce, if it is too thin it is difficult to mould the croquettes, and ice will be required to set it. Croquettes of game without any flavouring, except a little salt and cayenne, are generally acceptable as a breakfast dish. Preserved lobster makes very good croquettes for an entree, and small scraps of any kind can thus be made into a very good dish. Put one ounce of fine flour into a stewpan with half a gill of cold water, stir this over a slow fire very rapidly until it forms a paste, then add one ounce of butter, and stir until well incorporated. Mix in a small teaspoonful of essence of shrimps or anchovies, with a pinch of salt and pepper. Take the stewpan off the fire, and stir the yolk of an egg briskly into the sauce; thoroughly mix it with half-a-pound of pounded fish or meat, spread it out on a plate until it is cool. Flour your hands, take a small piece of the croquette mixture, roll into a ball or into the shape of a cork, then pass it through very finely-sifted and dried bread-crumbs. Repeat the process until all the mixture is used; put the croquettes as you do them into a wire frying-basket, which shake very gently, when all are placed in it, in order to free them from superfluous crumbs. Have ready a stewpan half-full of boiling fat, dip the basket in, gently moving it about, and taking care the croquettes are covered with fat. In about a minute they will become a delicate brown, and will then be done. Turn them on a paper to absorb any superfluous fat, serve them on a napkin or ornamental dish paper. No more croquettes than will lie on the bottom of the basket without touching each other should be fried at once.

MEAT CAKES A L'ITALIENNE.

Mix very fine any kind of cold meat or chicken, taking care to have it free from skin and gristle, add to it a quarter of its weight of sifted bread-crumbs, a few drops of essence of anchovy, a little parsley, pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to moisten the whole. Flour your hands, roll the meat into little cakes about the size of a half-crown piece, then flatten the cakes with the back of a spoon, dip them in egg and fine bread-crumbs, and fry them in a little butter until lightly browned on the outside. Put them on a hot dish and garnish with boiled Italian paste.

RAISED PORK PIE.

Take a pound of meat, fat and lean, from the chump end of a fine fore-loin of pork, cut it into neat dice, mix a tablespoonful of water with it, and season with a large teaspoonful of salt and a small one of black pepper. To make the crust, boil a quarter of a pound of lard or clarified dripping in a gill and a half of water, and pour it hot on to one pound of flour, to which a good pinch of salt has been added. Mix into a stiff paste, pinch off enough of it to make the lid, and keep it hot. Flour your board and work the paste into a ball, then with the knuckles of your right hand press a hole in the centre, and mould the paste into a round or oval shape, taking care to keep it a proper thickness. Having put in the meat, join the lid to the pie, which raise lightly with both hands so as to keep it a good high shape, cut round the edge with a sharp knife, and make the trimmings into leaves to ornament the lid; and having placed these on, with a rose in the centre, put the pie on a floured baking-sheet and brush it over with yolk of egg.

The crust of the pie should be cool and set before putting it into the oven, which should be a moderate heat. When the gravy boils out the pie is done. An hour and a half will bake a pie of this size. Make a little gravy with the bones and trimmings of the pork, and to half-a-pint of it add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, and nicely season with pepper and salt. When the pie is cold remove the rose from the top, make a little hole, insert a small funnel, and pour in as much gravy as the pie will hold. Replace the rose on the top, and put the pie on a dish with a cut paper.

If preferred, the pie can be made in a tin mould; but the crust is nicer raised by the hand. A great point to observe is to begin moulding the crust whilst it is hot, and to get it finished as quickly as possible.

VEAL AND HAM PIE.

Prepare the crust as for a pork pie. Cut a pound of veal cutlet and a quarter of a pound of ham into dice, season with a teaspoonful of salt and another of black pepper, put the meat into the crust, and finish as for pork pie. Add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine—previously soaked in cold water, and then dissolved—to a teacupful of gravy made from the veal trimmings.

PORK SAUSAGES.

When a pig is cut up in the country, sausages are usually made of the trimmings; but when the meat has to be bought, the chump-end of a fore-loin will be found to answer best. The fine well-fed meat of a full-grown pig, known in London as "hog-meat," is every way preferable to that called "dairy-fed pork." The fat should be nearly in equal proportion to the lean, but of course this matter must be arranged to suit the taste of those who will eat the sausages. If young pork is used, remove the skin as thinly as you can—it is useful for various purposes—and then with a sharp knife cut all the flesh from the bones, take away all sinew and gristle, and cut the fat and lean into strips. Some mincing-machines require the meat longer than others; for Kent's Combination, cut it into pieces about an inch long and half-an-inch thick. To each pound of meat put half a gill of gravy made from the bones, or water will do; then mix equally with it two ounces of bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful of salt, a small one of black pepper, dried sage, and a pinch of allspice. This seasoning should be well mixed with the bread, as the meat will then be flavoured properly throughout the mass. Arrange the skin on the filler, tie it at the end, put the meat, a little at a time, into the hopper, turn the handle of the machine briskly, and take care the skin is only lightly filled. When the sausages are made, tie the skin at the other end, pinch them into shape, and then loop them by passing one through another, giving a twist to each as you do them. Sausage-skins, especially if preserved, should be well soaked before using, or they may make the sausages too salt. It is a good plan to put the skin on the water-tap and allow the water to run through it, as thus it will be well washed on the inside. Fifteen to twenty minutes should be allowed for frying sausages, and when done they should be nicely browned. A little butter or lard is best for frying, and some pieces of light bread may be fried in it when the sausages are done, and placed round the dish by way of garnish. Cooks cannot do better than remember Dr. Kitchener's directions for frying sausages. After saying, "They are best when quite fresh made," he adds: "put a bit of butter or dripping into a clean frying-pan; as soon as it is melted, before it gets hot, put in the sausages, and shake the pan for a minute, and keep turning them. Be careful not to break or prick them in so doing. Fry them over a very slow fire till they are nicely browned on all sides. The secret of frying sausages is to let them get hot very gradually; they then will not break if they are not stale. The common practice to prevent them bursting is to prick them with a fork, but this lets the gravy out."



PUDDINGS.

***

CUSTARD PUDDING.

We give this pudding first because it affords an opportunity for giving hints on making milk puddings generally, and because, properly made, there is no more delicious pudding than this. It is besides most useful and nutritious, not only for the dinner of healthy people, but for children and invalids. But few cooks, however, make it properly; as a rule too many eggs are used, to which the milk is added cold, and the pudding is baked in a quick oven. The consequence is that the pudding curdles and comes to table swimming in whey; or, even if this does not happen, the custard is full of holes and is tough.

In the first place, milk for all puddings with eggs should be poured on to the eggs boiling hot; in the next, the baking must be very slowly done, if possible, as directed in the recipe; the dish containing the pudding to be placed in another half-full of water. This, of course, prevents the baking proceeding too rapidly, and also prevents the pudding acquiring a sort of burned greasy flavour, which is injurious for invalids. Lastly, too many eggs should not be used; the quantity given, two to the pint of milk, is in all cases quite sufficient, and will make a fine rich custard.

We never knew a pudding curdle, even with London milk a day old, if all these directions were observed; but it is almost needless to say, that the pudding made with new rich milk is much finer than one of inferior milk.

Boil a pint and a half of milk with two ounces of lump sugar, or rather more if a sweet pudding is liked, and pour it boiling hot on three eggs lightly beaten—that is, just sufficiently so to mix whites and yolks. Flavour the custard with nutmeg, grated lemon-peel, or anything which may be preferred and pour it into a tart-dish. Place this dish in another three-parts full of boiling water, and bake slowly for forty minutes, or until the custard is firm. There is no need to butter the dish if the pudding is baked as directed.

SOUFFLE PUDDING.

This is a delicious pudding, and to insure its success great care and exactness are required. In the first place, to avoid failure it is necessary that the butter, flour, sugar, and milk, should be stirred long enough over a moderate fire to make a stiff paste, because if this is thin the eggs will separate, and the pudding when done resemble a batter with froth on the top.

Before beginning to make the pudding, prepare a pint tin by buttering it inside and fastening round it with string on the outside a buttered band of writing-paper, which will stand two inches above the tin and prevent the pudding running over as it rises. Melt an ounce of butter in a stewpan, add one ounce of sifted sugar, stir in an ounce and a half of Vienna flour, mix well together, add a gill of milk, and stir over the fire with a wooden spoon until it boils and is thick. Take the stewpan off the fire, beat up the yolks of three eggs with half a teaspoonful of extract of vanilla, and stir a little at a time into the paste, to insure both being thoroughly mixed together. Put a small pinch of salt to the whites of four eggs, whip them as stiff as possible, and stir lightly into the pudding, which pour immediately into the prepared mould. Have ready a saucepan with enough boiling water to reach a little way up the tin, which is best placed on a trivet, so that the water cannot touch the paper band. Let the pudding steam very gently for twenty minutes, or until it is firm in the middle, and will turn out.

For sauce, boil two tablespoonfuls of apricot jam in a gill of water, with two ounces of lump sugar, stir in a wine-glassful of sherry, add a few drops of Nelson's Vanilla Flavouring, pour over the pudding and serve.

OMELET SOUFFLE.

Put the yolks of two eggs into a basin with an ounce of sifted sugar and a few drops of Nelson's Vanilla Essence; beat the yolks and sugar together for six minutes, or until the mixture becomes thick. Then whip the whites very stiff, so that they will turn out of the basin like a jelly. Mix the yolks and whites lightly together, have ready an ounce of butter dissolved in the omelet-pan, pour in the eggs, hold this pan over a slow fire for two minutes, then put the frying-pan into a quick oven and bake until the omelet has risen; four minutes ought to be sufficient to finish the omelet in the oven; when done, slide it on to a warm dish, double it, sift sugar over, and serve instantly.

SPONGE SOUFFLE.

Cover the bottom of a tart-dish with sponge-cakes, pour over a little brandy and sherry; put in a moderate oven until hot, then pour on the cakes an egg whip made of two packets of Nelson's Albumen, beaten to a strong froth with a little sugar. Bake for a quarter of an hour in a slow oven.

CABINET PUDDING.

Butter very thickly a pint pudding-basin, and cover it neatly with stoned muscatel raisins, the outer side of them being kept to the basin. Lightly fill up the basin with alternate layers of sponge-cake and ratafias, and when ready to steam the pudding, pour by degrees over the cake a custard made of half-a-pint of boiling milk, an egg, three lumps of sugar, a tablespoonful of brandy, and a little lemon flavouring. Cover the basin with a paper cap and steam or boil gently for three-quarters of an hour. Great care should be taken not to boil puddings of this class fast, as it renders them tough and flavourless.

BRANDY SAUCE.

Mix a tablespoonful of fine flour with a gill of cold water, put it into a gill of boiling water, and, having stirred over the fire until it is thick, add the yolk of an egg. Continue stirring for five minutes, and sweeten with two ounces of castor sugar. Mix a wine-glass of brandy with two tablespoonfuls of sherry, stir it into the sauce, and pour it round the pudding. If liked, a grate of nutmeg may be added to the sauce, and, if required to be rich, an ounce of butter may be stirred in before the brandy.

WARWICKSHIRE PUDDING.

Butter a pint-and-a-half tart-dish, lay in it a layer of light bread, cut thin, on this sprinkle a portion of two ounces of shred suet, and of one ounce of lemon candied-peel, chopped very fine. Fill the dish lightly with layers of bread, sprinkling over each a little of the suet and peel.

Boil a pint of milk with two ounces of sugar, pour it on two eggs, beaten for a minute, and add it to the pudding just before putting it into the oven; a little of Nelson's Essence of Lemon or Almonds may be added to the custard. Bake the pudding in a very slow oven for an hour.

VANILLA RUSK PUDDING.

Dissolve, but do not oil, an ounce of butter, mix in a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, stir over the fire for a few minutes, add an egg well beaten, and half a teaspoonful of Nelson's Vanilla Extract, or as much as will give a good flavour to the paste, which continue stirring until it gets thick.

Spread four slices of rusk with the vanilla paste, put them in a buttered tart-dish. Boil half-a-pint of new milk, pour it on to an egg well beaten, then add it to the rusk, and put the pudding to bake in a slow oven for an hour. Turn out when done, and sift sugar over the pudding. If a superior pudding is desired, boil a tablespoonful of apricot jam in a teacupful of plain sugar syrup, add a little vanilla flavouring, and pour over the pudding at the moment of serving.

JUBILEE PUDDING.

Pour a pint of boiling milk on two ounces of Rizine, stir over the fire for ten minutes, add half an ounce of butter, the yolks of two eggs, an ounce of castor sugar, and six drops of Nelson's Essence of Almonds. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for a quarter of an hour. When taken from the oven, spread over it a thin layer of apricot jam, and on this the whites of the eggs beaten to a strong froth, with half an ounce of castor sugar. Return the pudding to a slow oven for about four minutes, in order to set the meringue.

NATAL PUDDING.

Soak half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water until it is soft, when add the grated peel of half a lemon, the juice of two lemons, the beaten yolks of three eggs, and six ounces of lump sugar dissolved in half-a-pint of boiling water. Stir the mixture over the fire until it thickens, taking care that it does not boil. Have ready the whites of the eggs well whisked, stir all together, pour into a fancy mould, which put into a cold place until the pudding is set.

QUEEN'S PUDDING.

Half-a-pound of bread-crumbs, a pint of new milk, two ounces of butter, the yolks of four eggs, and a little Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Boil the bread-crumbs and milk together, then add the sugar, butter, and eggs; when these are well mixed, bake in a tart-dish until a light brown. Then put a layer of strawberry jam, and on the top of this the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, with a little sifted sugar. Smooth over the meringue with a knife dipped in boiling water, and bake for ten minutes in a slow oven.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING.

Boil half-a-pound of light stale bread in a pint of new milk. Stir continually until it becomes a thick paste; then add an ounce of butter, a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, and two large teaspoonfuls of Schweitzer's Cocoatina, with a little Nelson's Essence of Vanilla. Take the pudding off the fire, and mix in, first, the yolks of three eggs, then the whites beaten to a strong froth. Put into a buttered tart-dish and bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour.

COCOA-NUT PUDDING.

Choose a large nut, with the milk in it, grate it finely, mix it with an equal weight of finely-sifted sugar, half its weight of butter, the yolks of four eggs, and the milk of the nut. Let the butter be beaten to a cream, and when all the other ingredients are mixed with it, add the whites of the eggs, whisked to a strong froth. Line a tart-dish with puff-paste, put in the pudding mixture and bake slowly for an hour. Butter a sheet of paper and cover the top of the pudding, as it should not get brown.

RASPBERRY AND CURRANT PUDDING.

Stew raspberries and currants with sugar and water, taking care to have plenty of juice. Cut the crumb of a stale tin-loaf in slices about half-an-inch thick and put in a pie-dish, leaving room for the bread to swell, with alternate layers of fruit, until the dish is full. Then put in as much of the juice as you can without causing the bread to rise. When it is soaked up put in the rest of the juice, cover with a plate, and let the pudding stand until the next day. When required for use turn out and pour over it a good custard or cream. The excellence of this pudding depends on there being plenty of syrup to soak the bread thoroughly. This is useful when pastry is objected to.

THE CAPITAL PUDDING.

Shred a quarter of a pound of suet, mix it with half a pound of flour, one small teaspoonful each of baking-powder and carbonate of soda, then add four tablespoonfuls of strawberry or raspberry jam, and stir well with a gill of milk. Boil for four hours in a high mould, and serve with wine or fruit sauce. The latter is made by stirring jam into thin butter sauce.

ITALIAN FRITTERS.

Cut slices of very light bread half-an-inch thick, with a round paste-cutter, divide them into neat shapes all alike in size. Throw them into boiling fat and fry quickly of a rich golden brown, dry them on paper, place on a dish, and pour over orange or lemon syrup, or any kind of preserve made hot. Honey or golden syrup may be used for those who like them.

DUCHESS OF FIFE'S PUDDING.

Boil two ounces of rice in a pint of milk until quite tender. When done, mix with it a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked in a tablespoonful of water. Line the inside of a plain mould with the rice, and when it is set fill it up with half-a-pint of cream, whipped very stiff and mixed with some nice preserve, stewed fruit, or marmalade. After standing some hours turn out the pudding, and pour over it a delicate syrup made of the same fruit as that put inside the rice.

WELSH CHEESECAKE.

Dry a quarter of a pound of fine flour, mix with two ounces of sifted loaf-sugar, and add it by degrees to two ounces of butter beaten to a cream; then work in three well-beaten eggs, flavour with Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Line patty-pans with short crust, put in the above mixture, and bake in a quick oven.

FRIAR'S OMELET.

Make six moderate-sized apples into sauce, sweeten with powdered loaf-sugar, stir in two ounces of butter, and when cold, mix with two well-beaten eggs. Butter a tart-dish, and strew the bottom and sides thickly with bread-crumbs, then put in the apple-sauce, and cover with bread-crumbs to the depth of a quarter of an inch, put a little dissolved butter on the top, and bake for an hour in a good oven. When done, turn it out, and sift sugar over it.

COMPOTE OF APPLES WITH FRIED BREAD.

Bake a dozen good cooking apples, scrape out the pulp, boil this with half-a-pound of sugar to a pound of pulp, until it becomes stiff. It must be stirred all the time it is boiling. When done, place the compote in the centre of the dish, piling it up high. Have ready some triangular pieces of fried bread, arrange some like a crown on the top, the remainder at the bottom of the compote. Have ready warmed half a pot of apricot marmalade mixed with a little plain sugar-syrup, and pour it over the compote, taking care that each piece of bread is well covered.

APPLE FOOL.

Bake good sharp apples; when done, remove the pulp and rub it through a sieve, sweeten and flavour with Nelson's Essence of Lemon; when cold add to it a custard made of eggs and milk, or milk or cream sweetened will be very good. Keep the fool quite thick. Serve with rusks or sponge finger biscuits.

APPLE MERINGUE.

Beat up two packets of Nelson's Albumen with six small teaspoonfuls of water, and stir them into half-a-pound of stiff apple-sauce flavoured with Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Put the meringue on a bright tin or silver dish, pile it up high in a rocky shape, and bake in a quick oven for ten minutes.

STEWED PEARS WITH RICE.

Put four large pears cut in halves into a stewpan with a pint of claret, Burgundy, or water, and eight ounces of sugar, simmer them until perfectly tender. Take out the pears and let the syrup boil down to half; flavour it with vanilla. Have ready a teacupful of rice, nicely boiled in milk and sweetened, spread it on a dish, lay the pears on it, pour the syrup over, and serve. This is best eaten cold.

COMPOTE OF PRUNES.

Wash the fruit in warm water, put it on to boil in cold water in which lump sugar has been dissolved. To a pound of prunes put half-a-pound of sugar, a pint of water, with the thin rind and juice of a lemon. Let them simmer for an hour, or until so tender that they will mash when pressed. Strain the fruit and set it aside. Boil the syrup until it becomes very thick and is on the point of returning to sugar, then pour it over the prunes, turn them about so that they become thoroughly coated, taking care not to break them, let them lie for twelve hours, then pile up on a glass dish for dessert.



ON JELLY-MAKING.

***

It is within the memory of many persons that jelly was only to be made from calves' feet by a slow, difficult, and expensive process. There is, indeed, a story told of the wife of a lawyer, early in this century, having appropriated some valuable parchment deeds to make jelly, when she could not procure calves' feet. But the secret that it could be so made was carefully guarded by the possessors of it, and it was not until the introduction of Nelson's Gelatine that people were brought to believe that jelly could be made other than in the old-fashioned way. Even now there is a lingering superstition that there is more nourishment in jelly made of calves' feet than that made from Gelatine. The fact is, however, that Gelatine is equally nutritious from whatever source it is procured. Foreign Gelatine, as is well known, does sometimes contain substances which, if not absolutely deleterious, are certainly undesirable; but Messrs. Nelson warrant their Gelatine of equal purity with that derived from calves' feet.

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the economy both in time and money of using Gelatine, or the more certain result obtained from it. If the recipe given for making "a quart of jelly" is closely followed, a most excellent and brilliant jelly will be produced. Many cooks get worried about their jelly-bags, and are much divided in opinion as to the best kind to use. It is not a point of great consequence whether a felt or close flannel is selected. We incline to the latter, which must be of good quality, and if the material is not thick it should be used double.

When put away otherwise than perfectly clean and dry, or when stored in a damp place, flannel bags are sure to acquire a strong mouldy flavour, which is communicated to all jelly afterwards strained through them.

The great matter, therefore, to observe in respect of the jelly-bag, is that it be put away in a proper condition, that is, perfectly free from all stiffness and from any smell whatever.

As soon as the bag is done with, turn it inside out, throw it into a pan of boiling water, stir it about with a spoon until it is cleansed. Then, have another pan of boiling water, and again treat the bag in the same manner. Add as much cold water as will enable you to wring the bag out dry, or it can be wrung out in a cloth. This done, finally rinse in hot water, wring, and, if possible, dry the bag in the open air. See that it is perfectly free from smell; if not, wash in very hot water again. Wrap the bag in several folds of clean paper and keep it in a dry place.

A thing to be observed is that, if the jelly is allowed to come very slowly to boiling-point it will be more effectually cleared, as the impurities of the sugar and the thicker portions of the lemons thus rise more surely with the egg than if this part of the process is too rapidly carried out. In straining, if the jelly is well made, it is best to pour all into the bag at one time, doing it slowly, so as not to break up the scum more than necessary. Should the jelly not be perfectly bright on a first straining, it should be kept hot, and slowly poured again through the bag. The contents of the bag should not be disturbed, nor should the slightest pressure be applied, as this is certain to cloud the jelly. If brandy is used, it should be put in after the jelly is strained, as by boiling both the spirit and flavour of it are lost.

IN ORDER THAT JELLY MAY TURN OUT WELL, DO NOT PUT IT INTO THE MOULD UNTIL IT IS ON THE POINT OF SETTING. If attention is paid to this there will never be any difficulty in getting jelly to turn out of a mould, and putting it into hot water or using hot cloths will be unnecessary. A mould should be used as cold as possible, because then when the jelly comes into contact with it, it is at once set and cannot stick. Any kind of mould may be used. If the direction to put the jelly in when just setting is followed, it will turn out as well from an earthenware as from a copper mould.

It should be unnecessary to say that the utmost cleanliness is imperative to insure the perfection of jelly. So delicate a substance not only contracts any disagreeable flavour, but is rendered cloudy by the least touch of any greasy spoon, or by a stewpan which has not been properly cleansed.

HOW TO USE GELATINE.

There are a few points connected with the use of Gelatine for culinary purposes which cannot be too strongly impressed upon housekeepers and cooks.

1. Gelatine should always be soaked in cold water till it is thoroughly saturated—say, till it is so soft that it will tear with the fingers—whether this is specified in the recipe or not.

2. Nelson's Gelatine being cut very fine will soak in about an hour, but whenever possible it is desirable to give it a longer time. When convenient, it is a good plan to put Gelatine to soak over-night. It will then dissolve in liquid below boiling-point.

When jelly has to be cleared with white of egg do not boil it longer than necessary. Two minutes is quite sufficient to set the egg and clarify the jelly.

Use as little Gelatine as possible; that is to say, never use more than will suffice to make a jelly strong enough to retain its form when turned out of the mould. The prejudice against Gelatine which existed in former years was doubtless caused by persons unacquainted with its qualities using too large a quantity, and producing a jelly hard, tough, and unpalatable, which compared very unfavourably with the delicate jellies they had been accustomed to make from calves' feet, the delicacy of which arose from the simple fact that the Gelatine derived from calves' feet is so weak that it is almost impossible to make the jellies too strong.

Persons accustomed to use Gelatine will know that its "setting" power is very much affected by the temperature. In the recipes contained in the following pages the quantity of Gelatine named is that which experience has shown to be best suited to the average temperature of this country. In hot weather and foreign climates a little more Gelatine should be added.

TO MAKE A QUART OF BRILLIANT JELLY.

Soak one ounce of Nelson's Opaque Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water for two or three hours, and then add the same quantity of boiling water; stir until dissolved, and add the juice and peel of two lemons, with wine and sugar sufficient to make the whole quantity one quart; have ready the white and shell of an egg, well beaten together, or a packet of Nelson's Albumen, and stir these briskly into the jelly; boil for two minutes without stirring it; remove from the fire, allow it to stand two minutes, and strain through a close flannel bag. Let it be on the point of setting before putting into the mould.

AN ECONOMICAL JELLY.

For general family use it is not necessary to clear jelly through the bag, and a quart of excellent jelly can be made as follows: Soak one ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water for two or three hours, then add a 3d. packet of Nelson's Citric Acid and three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar; pour on half-a-pint of boiling water and half-a-pint of sherry, orange or other wine (cold), and add one-twelfth part of a bottle of Nelson's Essence of Lemon; stir for a few minutes before pouring into the moulds.

The effect of citric acid in the above quantity is to make the jelly clearer. When this is not of consequence, a third of a packet can be used, and six ounces of sugar. Wine can be omitted if desired, and water substituted for it. Ginger-beer makes an excellent jelly for those who do not wish for wine, and hedozone is also very good.

JELLY WITH FRUIT.

This is an elegant sweetmeat, and with clear jelly and care in moulding, can be made by inexperienced persons, particularly if Nelson's Bottled Jelly is used. If the jelly is home-made the recipe for making a "quart of jelly" will be followed. When the jelly is on the point of setting, put sufficient into a cold mould to cover the bottom of it. Then place in the centre, according to taste, any fine fruit you choose, a few grapes, cherries, strawberries, currants, anything you like, provided it is not too heavy to break the jelly. Put in another layer of jelly, and when it is set enough, a little more fruit, then fill up your mould with jelly, and let it stand for some hours.

RIBBON JELLY.

Soak one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water for twenty minutes, then add the same quantity of boiling water. Stir until dissolved, and add the juice and peel of two lemons, with wine and sugar sufficient to make the whole quantity one quart. Have ready the white and shell of an egg, well beaten together, and stir these briskly into the jelly; then boil for two minutes without stirring, and remove it from the fire; allow it to stand two minutes, then strain it through a close flannel bag. Divide the jelly in two equal parts, leaving one pint of a yellow colour, and adding a few drops of prepared cochineal to colour the remainder a bright red. Put a small quantity of red jelly into a mould previously soaked in cold water. Let this set, then pour in a small quantity of the pale jelly, and repeat this until the mould is full, taking care that each layer is perfectly firm before pouring in the other. Put it in a cool place, and the next day turn it out. Or, the mould may be partly filled with the yellow jelly, and when this is thoroughly set, fill up with the red.

Ribbon jelly and jelly of two colours can be made in any pretty fancy mould (there are many to be had for the purpose); of course one colour must always be perfectly firm before the other is put in, or the effect would be spoilt by the two colours running into each other. Ribbon jelly can be made with two kinds of Nelson's Bottled Jelly. The Sherry will be used for the pale, and Cherry or Port Wine jelly for the red colour. Thus an elegant jelly will be made in a few minutes.

CLARET JELLY.

Take one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine, soak for twenty minutes in half-a-pint of cold water, then dissolve. Add three-quarters of a pound of sugar, a pot of red-currant jelly, and a bottle of good ordinary claret, and stir over the fire till the sugar is dissolved. Beat the whites and shells of three eggs, stir them briskly into the preparation, boil for two minutes longer, take it off the fire, and when it has stood for two minutes pass it through the bag. This should be a beautiful red jelly, and perfectly clear.

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