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NEW LATIN GRAMMAR

BY

CHARLES E. BENNETT

Goldwin Smith Professor of Latin in Cornell University

Quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles: Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. —HORACE, Ars Poetica.

COPYRIGHT, 1895; 1908; 1918 BY CHARLES E. BENNETT

* * * * *

PREFACE.

The present work is a revision of that published in 1908. No radical alterations have been introduced, although a number of minor changes will be noted. I have added an Introduction on the origin and development of the Latin language, which it is hoped will prove interesting and instructive to the more ambitious pupil. At the end of the book will be found an Index to the Sources of the Illustrative Examples cited in the Syntax.

C.E.B.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, May 4, 1918

* * * * *

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The present book is a revision of my Latin Grammar originally published in 1895. Wherever greater accuracy or precision of statement seemed possible, I have endeavored to secure this. The rules for syllable division have been changed and made to conform to the prevailing practice of the Romans themselves. In the Perfect Subjunctive Active, the endings -is, -imus, -itis are now marked long. The theory of vowel length before the suffixes -gnus, -gna, -gnum, and also before j, has been discarded. In the Syntax I have recognized a special category of Ablative of Association, and have abandoned the original doctrine as to the force of tenses in the Prohibitive.

Apart from the foregoing, only minor and unessential modifications have been introduced. In its main lines the work remains unchanged.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, October 16, 1907.

* * * * *

FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The object of this book is to present the essential facts of Latin grammar in a direct and simple manner, and within the smallest compass consistent with scholarly standards. While intended primarily for the secondary school, it has not neglected the needs of the college student, and aims to furnish such grammatical information as is ordinarily required in undergraduate courses.

The experience of foreign educators in recent years has tended to restrict the size of school-grammars of Latin, and has demanded an incorporation of the main principles of the language in compact manuals of 250 pages. Within the past decade, several grammars of this scope have appeared abroad which have amply met the most exacting demands.

The publication in this country of a grammar of similar plan and scope seems fully justified at the present time, as all recent editions of classic texts summarize in introductions the special idioms of grammar and style peculiar to individual authors. This makes it feasible to dispense with the enumeration of many minutiae of usage which would otherwise demand consideration in a student's grammar.

In the chapter on Prosody, I have designedly omitted all special treatment of the lyric metres of Horace and Catullus, as well as of the measures of the comic poets. Our standard editions of these authors all give such thorough consideration to versification that repetition in a separate place seems superfluous.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, December 15, 1894.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Introduction—The Latin language

PART I.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY, ETC.

The Alphabet Sec. 1 Classification of Sounds Sec. 2 Sounds of the Letters Sec. 3 Syllables Sec. 4 Quantity Sec. 5 Accent Sec. 6 Vowel Changes Sec. 7 Consonant Changes Sec. 8 Peculiarities of Orthography Sec. 9

PART II.

INFLECTIONS.

CHAPTER I.—Declension.

A. NOUNS. Sec. 10

Gender of Nouns Sec. 13 Number Sec. 16 Cases Sec. 17 The Five Declensions Sec. 18 First Declension Sec. 20 Second Declension Sec. 23 Third Declension Sec. 28 Fourth Declension Sec. 48 Fifth Declension Sec. 51 Defective Nouns Sec. 54

B. ADJECTIVES. Sec. 62

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions Sec. 63 Adjectives of the Third Declension Sec. 67 Comparison of Adjectives Sec. 71 Formation and Comparison of Adverbs Sec. 76 Numerals Sec. 78

C. PRONOUNS. Sec. 82

Personal Pronouns Sec. 84 Reflexive Pronouns Sec. 85 Possessive Pronouns Sec. 86 Demonstrative Pronouns Sec. 87 The Intensive Pronoun Sec. 88 The Relative Pronoun Sec. 89 Interrogative Pronouns Sec. 90 Indefinite Pronouns Sec. 91 Pronominal Adjectives Sec. 92

CHAPTER II.—Conjugation. Sec. 93

Verb Stems Sec. 97 The Four Conjugations Sec. 98 Conjugation of Sum Sec. 100 First Conjugation Sec. 101 Second Conjugation Sec. 103 Third Conjugation Sec. 105 Fourth Conjugation Sec. 107 Verbs in -io of the Third Conjugation Sec. 109 Deponent Verbs Sec. 112 Semi-Deponents Sec. 114 Periphrastic Conjugation Sec. 115 Peculiarities of Conjugation Sec. 116 Formation of the Verb Stems Sec. 117 List of the Most Important Verbs with Principal Parts Sec. 120 Irregular Verbs Sec. 124 Defective Verbs Sec. 133 Impersonal Verbs Sec. 138

PART III.

PARTICLES. Sec. 139

Adverbs Sec. 140 Prepositions Sec. 141 Interjections Sec. 145

PART IV.

WORD FORMATION.

I. DERIVATIVES. Sec. 146

Nouns Sec. 147 Adjectives Sec. 150 Verbs Sec. 155 Adverbs Sec. 157

II. COMPOUNDS. Sec. 158

Examples of Compounds Sec. 159

PART V.

SYNTAX.

CHAPTER I.—Sentences.

Classification of Sentences Sec. 161 Form of Interrogative Sentences Sec. 162 Subject and Predicate Sec. 163 Simple and Compound Sentences Sec. 164

CHAPTER II.—Syntax of Nouns.

Subject Sec. 166 Predicate Nouns Sec. 167 Appositives Sec. 169 The Nominative Sec. 170 The Accusative Sec. 172 The Dative Sec. 186 The Genitive Sec. 194 The Ablative Sec. 213 The Locative Sec. 232

CHAPTER III.—Syntax of Adjectives.

Agreement of Adjectives Sec. 234 Adjectives used Substantively Sec. 236 Adjectives with the Force of Adverbs Sec. 239 Comparatives and Superlatives Sec. 240 Other Peculiarities Sec. 241

CHAPTER IV.—Syntax of Pronouns.

Personal Pronouns Sec. 242 Possessive Pronouns Sec. 243 Reflexive Pronouns Sec. 244 Reciprocal Pronouns Sec. 245 Demonstrative Pronouns Sec. 246 Relative Pronouns Sec. 250 Indefinite Pronouns Sec. 252 Pronominal Adjectives Sec. 253

CHAPTER V.—Syntax of Verbs.

Agreement of Verbs Sec. 254 Voices Sec. 256 Tenses — Of the Indicative Sec. 257 — Of the Subjunctive Sec. 266 — Of the Infinitive Sec. 270 Moods — In Independent Sentences Sec. 271 — — Volitive Subjunctive Sec. 273 — — Optative Subjunctive Sec. 279 — — Potential Subjunctive Sec. 280 — — Imperative Sec. 281 — In Dependent Clauses — — Clauses of Purpose Sec. 282 — — Clauses of Characteristic Sec. 283 — — Clauses of Result Sec. 284 — — Causal Clauses Sec. 285 — — Temporal Clauses — — — Introduced by Postquam, Ut, Ubi, etc. Sec. 287 — — — Cum-Clauses Sec. 288 — — — Introduced by Antequam and Priusquam Sec. 291 — — — Introduced by Dum, Donec, Quoad Sec. 293 — — Substantive Clauses Sec. 294 — — — Developed from the Volitive Sec. 295 — — — Developed from the Optative Sec. 296 — — — Of Result Sec. 297 — — — After non dubito, etc. Sec. 298 — — — Introduced by Quod Sec. 299 — — — Indirect Questions Sec. 300 — — Conditional Sentences Sec. 301 — — Use of Si, Nisi, Sin Sec. 306 — — Conditional Clauses of Comparison Sec. 307 — — Concessive Clauses Sec. 308 — — Adversative Clauses with Quamvis, Quamquam, etc. Sec. 309 — — Clauses of Wish and Proviso Sec. 310 — — Relative Clauses Sec. 311 — — Indirect Discourse Sec. 313 — — — Moods in Indirect Discourse Sec. 314 — — — Tenses in Indirect Discourse Sec. 317 — — — Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse Sec. 319 — — Implied Indirect Discourse Sec. 323 — — Subjunctive by Attraction Sec. 324 Noun and Adjective Forms of the Verb Sec. 325 — Infinitive Sec. 326 — Participles Sec. 336 — Gerund Sec. 338 — Supine Sec. 340

CHAPTER VI.—Particles.

Cooerdinate Conjunctions Sec. 341 Adverbs Sec. 347

CHAPTER VII.—Word-Order and Sentence-Structure.

Word-Order Sec. 348 Sentence-Structure Sec. 351

CHAPTER VIII.—Hints on Latin Style. Sec. 352

Nouns Sec. 353 Adjectives Sec. 354 Pronouns Sec. 355 Verbs Sec. 356 The Cases Sec. 357

PART VI.

PROSODY. Sec. 360

Quantity of Vowels and Syllables Sec. 362 Verse-Structure Sec. 366 The Dactylic Hexameter Sec. 368 The Dactylic Pentameter Sec. 369 Iambic Measures Sec. 370

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.

I. Roman Calendar Sec. 371 II. Roman Names Sec. 373 III. Figures of Syntax and Rhetoric Sec. 374

* * * * *

Index to the Illustrative Examples Cited in the Syntax Index to the Principal Parts of Latin Verbs General Index Footnotes

* * * * *

INTRODUCTION.

THE LATIN LANGUAGE.

1. The Indo-European Family of Languages.—Latin belongs to one group of a large family of languages, known as Indo-European.[1] This Indo-European family of languages embraces the following groups:

ASIATIC MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.

a. The Sanskrit, spoken in ancient India. Of this there were several stages, the oldest of which is the Vedic, or language of the Vedic Hymns. These Hymns are the oldest literary productions known to us among all the branches of the Indo-European family. A conservative estimate places them as far back as 1500 B.C. Some scholars have even set them more than a thousand years earlier than this, i.e. anterior to 2500 B.C.

The Sanskrit, in modified form, has always continued to be spoken in India, and is represented to-day by a large number of dialects descended from the ancient Sanskrit, and spoken by millions of people.

b. The Iranian, spoken in ancient Persia, and closely related to the Sanskrit. There were two main branches of the Iranian group, viz. the Old Persian and the Avestan. The Old Persian was the official language of the court, and appears in a number of so-called cuneiform[2] inscriptions, the earliest of which date from the time of Darius I (sixth century B.C.). The other branch of the Iranian, the Avestan,[3] is the language of the Avesta or sacred books of the Parsees, the followers of Zoroaster, founder of the religion of the fire-worshippers. Portions of these sacred books may have been composed as early as 1000 B.C.

Modern Persian is a living representative of the old Iranian speech. It has naturally been much modified by time, particularly through the introduction of many words from the Arabic.

c. The Armenian, spoken in Armenia, the district near the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains. This is closely related to the Iranian, and was formerly classified under that group. It is now recognized as entitled to independent rank. The earliest literary productions of the Armenian language date from the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era. To this period belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian Chronicle. The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the Armenians are found to-day.

d. The Tokharian. This language, only recently discovered and identified as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea (modern Turkestan). While in some respects closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others it shows close relationship to the European members of the family. The literature of the Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to light, consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred writings, and dates from the seventh century of our era.

EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.

e. The Greek. The Greeks had apparently long been settled in Greece and Asia Minor as far back as 1500 B.C. Probably they arrived in these districts much earlier. The earliest literary productions are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century B.C. From the sixth century B.C. on, Greek literature is continuous. Modern Greek, when we consider its distance in time from antiquity, is remarkably similar to the classical Greek of the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.

f. The Italic Group. The Italic Group embraces the Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula (in ancient Umbria); the Latin, spoken in the central part (in Latium); the Oscan, spoken in the southern part (in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc.). Besides these, there were a number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc. Of all these (barring the Latin), there are no remains except a few scanty inscriptions. Latin literature begins shortly after 250 B.C. in the works of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Plautus, although a few brief inscriptions are found belonging to a much earlier period.

g. The Celtic. In the earliest historical times of which we have any record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as certain areas in central Europe; but after the second century B.C., they are found only in Gaul and the British Isles. Among the chief languages belonging to the Celtic group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul; the Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish, which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the common people, the Welsh; and the Gaelic of the Scotch Highlanders.

h. The Teutonic. The Teutonic group is very extensive. Its earliest representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the translation of the scriptures by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas (about 375 A.D.). Other languages belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish; German; Dutch; Anglo-Saxon, from which is descended the modern English.

i. The Balto-Slavic. The languages of this group belong to eastern Europe. The Baltic division of the group embraces the Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The earliest literary productions of these languages date from the sixteenth century. The Slavic division comprises a large number of languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish. All of these were late in developing a literature, the earliest to do so being the Old Bulgarian, in which we find a translation of the Bible dating from the ninth century.

j. The Albanian, spoken in Albania and parts of Greece, Italy, and Sicily. This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin, Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature does not begin till the seventeenth century.

2. Home of the Indo-European Family.—Despite the many outward differences of the various languages of the foregoing groups, a careful examination of their structure and vocabulary demonstrates their intimate relationship and proves overwhelmingly their descent from a common parent. We must believe, therefore, that at one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages are descended. The precise location of the home of this ancient tribe cannot be determined. For a long time it was assumed that it was in central Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected as untenable. It arose from the exaggerated importance attached for a long while to Sanskrit. The great antiquity of the earliest literary remains of the Sanskrit (the Vedic Hymns) suggested that the inhabitants of India were geographically close to the original seat of the Indo-European Family. Hence the home was sought in the elevated plateau to the north. To-day it is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech, though anything like a logical demonstration of so difficult a problem can hardly be expected.

As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European languages have sprung, we can only speculate. It probably was not large, and very likely formed a compact racial and linguistic unit for centuries, possibly for thousands of years.

The time at which Indo-European unity ceased and the various individual languages began their separate existence, is likewise shrouded in obscurity. When we consider that the separate existence of the Sanskrit may antedate 2500 B.C., it may well be believed that people speaking the Indo-European parent-speech belonged to a period as far back as 5000 B.C., or possibly earlier.

3. Stages in the Development of the Latin Language.—The earliest remains of the Latin language are found in certain very archaic inscriptions. The oldest of these belong to the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. Roman literature does not begin till several centuries later, viz. shortly after the middle of the third century B.C. We may recognize the following clearly marked periods of the language and literature:

a. The Preliterary Period, from the earliest times down to 240 B.C., when Livius Andronicus brought out his first play. For this period our knowledge of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have survived from this remote time. Few of these are of any length.

b. The Archaic Period, from Livius Andronicus (240 B.C.) to Cicero (81 B.C.). Even in this age the language had already become highly developed as a medium of expression. In the hands of certain gifted writers it had even become a vehicle of power and beauty. In its simplicity, however, it naturally marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days. To this period belong:

Livius Andronicus, about 275-204 B.C. (Translation of Homer's Odyssey; Tragedies). Plautus, about 250-184 B.C. (Comedies). Naevius, about 270-199 B.C. ("Punic War"; Comedies). Ennius, 239-169 B.C. ("Annals"; Tragedies). Terence, about 190-159 B.C. (Comedies). Lucilius, 180-103 B.C. (Satires). Pacuvius, 220-about 130 B.C. (Tragedies). Accius, 170-about 85 B.C. (Tragedies).

c. The Golden Age, from Cicero (81 B.C.) to the death of Augustus (14 A.D.). In this period the language, especially in the hands of Cicero, reaches a high degree of stylistic perfection. Its vocabulary, however, has not yet attained its greatest fullness and range. Traces of the diction of the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times. Literature reached its culmination in this epoch, especially in the great poets of the Augustan Age. The following writers belong here:

Lucretius, about 95-55 B.C. (Poem on Epicurean Philosophy). Catullus, 87-about 54 B.C. (Poet). Cicero, 106-43 B.C. (Orations; Rhetorical Works; Philosophical Works; Letters). Caesar, 102-44 B.C. (Commentaries on Gallic and Civil Wars), Sallust, 86-36 B.C. (Historian). Nepos, about 100-about 30 B.C. (Historian). Virgil, 70-19 B.C. ("Aeneid"; "Georgics"; "Bucolics"). Horace, 65-8 B.C. (Odes; Satires, Epistles). Tibullus, about 54-19 B.C. (Poet). Propertius, about 50-about 15 B.C. (Poet). Ovid, 43 B.C.-17 A.D. ("Metamorphoses" and other poems). Livy. 59 B.C.-17 A.D. (Historian).

d. The Silver Latinity, from the death of Augustus (14 A.D.) to the death of Marcus Aurelius (180 A.D.), This period is marked by a certain reaction against the excessive precision of the previous age. It had become the practice to pay too much attention to standardized forms of expression, and to leave too little play to the individual writer. In the healthy reaction against this formalism, greater freedom of expression now manifests itself. We note also the introduction of idioms from the colloquial language, along with many poetical words and usages. The following authors deserve mention:

Phaedrus, flourished about 40 A.D. (Fables in Verse) Velleius Paterculus, flourished about 30 A.D. (Historian). Lucan, 39-65 A.D. (Poem on the Civil War). Seneca, about 1-65 A.D. (Tragedies; Philosophical Works). Pliny the Elder, 23-79 A.D. ("Natural History"). Pliny the Younger, 62-about 115 A.D. ("Letters"). Martial, about 45-about 104 A.D. (Epigrams). Quintilian, about 35-about 100 A.D. (Treatise on Oratory and Education). Tacitus, about 55-about 118 A.D. (Historian). Juvenal, about 55-about 135 A.D. (Satirist). Suetonius, about 73-about 118 A.D. ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars"). Minucius Felix, flourished about 160 A.D. (First Christian Apologist). Apuleius, 125-about 200 A.D. ("Metamorphoses," or "Golden Ass").

e. The Archaizing Period. This period is characterized by a conscious imitation of the Archaic Period of the second and first centuries B.C.; it overlaps the preceding period, and is of importance from a linguistic rather than from a literary point of view. Of writers who manifest the archaizing tendency most conspicuously may be mentioned Fronto, from whose hand we have a collection of letters addressed to the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius; also Aulus Gellius, author of the "Attic Nights." Both of these writers flourished in the second half of the second century A.D.

f. The Period of the Decline, from 180 to the close of literary activity in the sixth century A.D. This period is characterized by rapid and radical alterations in the language. The features of the conversational idiom of the lower strata of society invade the literature, while in the remote provinces, such as Gaul, Spain, Africa, the language suffers from the incorporation of local peculiarities. Representative writers of this period are:

Tertullian, about 160-about 240 A.D. (Christian Writer). Cyprian, about 200-258 A.D. (Christian Writer). Lactantius, flourished about 300 A.D. (Defense of Christianity). Ausonius, about 310-about 395 A.D. (Poet). Jerome, 340-420 A.D. (Translator of the Scriptures). Ambrose, about 340-397 (Christian Father). Augustine, 354-430 (Christian Father—"City of God"). Prudentius, flourished 400 A.D. (Christian Poet). Claudian, flourished 400 A.D. (Poet). Boethius, about 480-524 A.D. ("Consolation of Philosophy ").

4. Subsequent History of the Latin Language.—After the sixth century A.D. Latin divides into two entirely different streams. One of these is the literary language maintained in courts, in the Church, and among scholars. This was no longer the language of people in general, and as time went on, became more and more artificial. The other stream is the colloquial idiom of the common people, which developed ultimately in the provinces into the modern so-called Romance idioms. These are the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Provencal (spoken in Provence, i.e. southeastern France), the Rhaeto-Romance (spoken in the Canton of the Grisons in Switzerland), and the Roumanian, spoken in modern Roumania and adjacent districts. All these Romance languages bear the same relation to the Latin as the different groups of the Indo-European family of languages bear to the parent speech.

* * * * *

PART I.

* * * * *

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.

* * * * *

THE ALPHABET.

1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, except that the Latin has no w.

1. K occurs only in Kalendae and a few other words; y and z were introduced from the Greek about 50 B.C., and occur only in foreign words—chiefly Greek.

2. With the Romans, who regularly employed only capitals, I served both as vowel and consonant; so also V. For us, however, it is more convenient to distinguish the vowel and consonant sounds, and to write i and u for the former, j and v for the latter. Yet some scholars prefer to employ i and u in the function of consonants as well as vowels.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS.

2. 1. The Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are Consonants. The Diphthongs are ae, oe, ei, au, eu, ui.

2. Consonants are further subdivided into Mutes, Liquids, Nasals, and Spirants.

3. The Mutes are p, t, c, k, q; b, d, g; ph, th, ch. Of these,—

a) p, t, c, k, q are voiceless,[4] i.e. sounded without voice or vibration of the vocal cords.

b) b, d, g are voiced,[5] i.e. sounded with vibration of the vocal cords.

c) ph, th, ch are aspirates. These are confined almost exclusively to words derived from the Greek, and were equivalent to p + h, t + h, c + h, i.e. to the corresponding voiceless mutes with a following breath, as in Eng. loop-hole, hot-house, block-house.

4. The Mutes admit of classification also as

Labials, p, b, ph. Dentals (or Linguals), t, d, th. Gutturals (or Palatals), c, k, q, g, ch.

5. The Liquids are l, r. These sounds were voiced.

6. The Nasals are m, n. These were voiced. Besides its ordinary sound, n, when followed by a guttural mute also had another sound,—that of ng in sing,—the so-called n adulterinum; as,—

anceps, double, pronounced angceps.

7. The Spirants (sometimes called Fricatives) are f, s, h. These were voiceless.

8. The Semivowels are j and v. These were voiced.

9. Double Consonants are x and z. Of these, x was equivalent to cs, while the equivalence of z is uncertain. See Sec. 3, 3.

10. The following table will indicate the relations of the consonant sounds:—

VOICELESS. VOICED. ASPIRATES. p, b, ph, (Labials). Mutes, t, d, th, (Dentals). c, k, q, g, ch, (Gutturals). Liquids, l, r, Nasals, m, n, f, (Labial). Spirants, s, (Dental). h, (Guttural). Semivowels, j, v.

a. The Double Consonants, x and z, being compound sounds, do not admit of classification in the above table.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.

3. The following pronunciation (often called Roman) is substantially that employed by the Romans at the height of their civilization; i.e., roughly, from 50 B.C. to 50 A.D.

1. Vowels.

a as in father; a as in the first syllable aha; e as in they; e as in met; i as in machine; i as in pin; o as in note; o as in obey, melody; u as in rude; u as in put; y like French u, German ue.

2. Diphthongs.

ae like ai in eu with its two elements, e and u, aisle; pronounced in rapid succession; oe like oi in oil; ui occurs almost exclusively in ei as in rein; cui and huic. These words may au like ow in how; be pronounced as though written kwee and wheek.

3. Consonants.

b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, qu are pronounced as in English, except that bs, bt are pronounced ps, pt.

c is always pronounced as k.

t is always a plain t, never with the sound of sh as in Eng. oration.

g always as in get; when ngu precedes a vowel, gu has the sound of gw, as in anguis, languidus.

j has the sound of y as in yet.

r was probably slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue.

s always voiceless as in sin; in suadeo, suavis, suesco, and in compounds and derivatives of these words, su has the sound of sw.

v like w.

x always like ks; never like Eng. gz or z.

z uncertain in sound; possibly like Eng. zd, possibly like z. The latter sound is recommended.

The aspirates ph, ch, th were pronounced very nearly like our stressed Eng. p, c, t—so nearly so, that, for practical purposes, the latter sounds suffice.

Doubled letters, like ll, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the combination are distinctly articulated.

SYLLABLES.

4. There are as many syllables in a Latin word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs.

In the division of words into syllables,—

1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel; as, vo-lat, ge-rit, pe-rit, a-dest.

2. Doubled consonants, like tt, ss, etc., are always separated; as, vit-ta, mis-sus.

3. Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel; as, ma-gis-tri, dig-nus, mon-strum, sis-te-re.

4. An exception to Rule 3 occurs when the two consonants consist of a mute followed by l or r (pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr, etc.). In such cases both consonants are regularly joined to the following vowel; as, a-gri, vo-lu-cris, pa-tris, ma-tris. Yet if the l or r introduces the second part of a compound, the two consonants are separated; as, ab-rumpo, ad-latus.

5. The double consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel; as, ax-is, tex-i.

QUANTITY.

5. A. Quantity of Vowels.

A vowel is long or short according to the length of time required for its pronunciation. No absolute rule can be given for determining the quantity of Latin vowels. This knowledge must be gained, in large measure, by experience; but the following principles are of aid:—

1. A vowel is long,[6]—

a) before nf or ns; as, infans, inferior, consumo, censeo, insum.

b) when the result of contraction; as, nilum for nihilum.

2. A vowel is short,—

a) before nt, nd; as, amant, amandus. A few exceptions occur in compounds whose first member has a long vowel; as, nondum (non dum).

b) before another vowel, or h; as, meus, traho. Some exceptions occur, chiefly in proper names derived from the Greek; as, Aeneas.

B. Quantity of Syllables.

Syllables are distinguished as long or short according to the length of time required for their pronunciation.

1. A syllable is long,[7]—

a) if it contains a long vowel; as, mater, regnum, dius.

b) if it contains a diphthong; as, causae, foedus.

c) if it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except a mute with l or r); as, axis, gaza, resto.

2. A syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant; as, mea, amat.

3. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute with l or r, i.e. by pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr, etc.; as, agri, volucris.[8] Such syllables are called common. In prose they were regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at the option of the poet.

NOTE.—These distinctions of long and short are not arbitrary and artificial, but are purely natural. Thus, a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a syllable requires more time for its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it takes less time to pronounce it. In case of the common syllables, the mute and the liquid blend so easily as to produce a combination which takes no more time than a single consonant. Yet by separating the two elements (as ag-ri) the poets were able to use such syllables as long.

ACCENT.

6. 1. Words of two syllables are accented upon the first; as, tegit, mo'rem.

2. Words of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the antepenult (second from the last); as, ama'vi, amantis, miserum.

3. When the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, -ce, -met, -dum are appended to words, if the syllable preceding the enclitic is long (either originally or as a result of adding the enclitic) it is accented; as, misero'que, hominisque. But if the syllable still remains short after the enclitic has been added, it is not accented unless the word originally took the accent on the antepenult. Thus, portaque; but miseraque.

4. Sometimes the final -e of -ne and -ce disappears, but without affecting the accent; as, tanto'n, isti'c, illu'c.

5. In utra'que, each, and plera'que, most, -que is not properly an enclitic; yet these words accent the penult, owing to the influence of their other cases,—uterque, utrumque, plerumque.

VOWEL CHANGES.[9]

7.. 1. In Compounds,

a) e before a single consonant becomes i; as,—

colligo for con-lego.

b) a before a single consonant becomes i: as,—

adigo for ad-ago.

c) a before two consonants becomes e; as,—

expers for ex-pars.

d) ae becomes i; as,—

conquiro for con-quaero.

e) au becomes u, sometimes o; as,—

concludo for con-claudo; explodo for ex-plaudo.

2. Contraction. Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted into one long vowel. The first of the two vowels regularly prevailed; as,—

tres for tre-es; copia for co-opia; malo for ma(v)elo; cogo for co-ago; amasti for ama(v)isti; como for co-emo; debeo for de(h)abeo; junior for ju(v)enior. nil for nihil;

3. Parasitic Vowels. In the environment of liquids and nasals a parasitic vowel sometimes develops; as,—

vinculum for earlier vinclum.

So periculum, saeculum.

4. Syncope. Sometimes a vowel drops out by syncope; as,—

ardor for aridor (compare aridus); valde for valide (compare validus).

CONSONANT CHANGES[10]

8. 1. Rhotacism. An original s between vowels became r; as,—

arbos, Gen. arboris (for arbosis); genus, Gen. generis (for genesis); dirimo (for dis-emo).

2. dt, tt, ts each give s or ss; as,—

pensum for pend-tum; versum for vert-tum; miles for milet-s; sessus for sedtus; passus for pattus.

3. Final consonants were often omitted; as,—

cor for cord; lac for lact.

4. Assimilation of Consonants. Consonants are often assimilated to a following sound. Thus: accurro (adc-); aggero (adg-); assero (ads-); allatus (adl-); apporto (adp-); attuli (adt-); arrideo (adr-); affero (adf-); occurro (obc-); suppono (subp-); offero (obf-); corruo (comr-); collatus (coml-); etc.

5. Partial Assimilation. Sometimes the assimilation is only partial. Thus:—

a) b before s or t becomes p; as,—

scripsi (scrib-si), scriptum (scrib-tum).

b) g before s or t becomes c; as,—

actus (ag-tus).

c) m before a dental or guttural becomes n; as,—

eundem (eum-dem); princeps (prim-ceps).

PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.

9. Many words have variable orthography.

1. Sometimes the different forms belong to different periods of the language. Thus, quom, voltus, volnus, volt, etc., were the prevailing forms almost down to the Augustan age; after that, cum, vultus, vulnus, vult, etc. So optumus, maxumus, lubet, lubido, etc. down to about the same era; later, optimus, maximus, libet, libido, etc.

2. In some words the orthography varies at one and the same period of the language. Examples are exspecto, expecto; exsisto, existo; epistula, epistola; adulescens, adolescens; paulus, paullus; cottidie, cotidie; and, particularly, prepositional compounds, which often made a concession to the etymology in the spelling; as,—

ad-gero or aggero; ad-sero or assero; ad-licio or allicio; in-latus or illatus; ad-rogans or arrogans; sub-moveo or summoveo; and many others.

3. Compounds of jacio were usually written eicio, deicio, adicio, obicio, etc., but were probably pronounced as though written adjicio, objicio, etc.

4. Adjectives and nouns in -quus, -quum; -vus, -vum; -uus, -uum preserved the earlier forms in -quos, -quom; -vos, -vom; -uos, -uom, down through the Ciceronian age; as, antiquos, antiquom; saevos; perpetuos; equos; servos. Similarly verbs in the 3d plural present indicative exhibit the terminations -quont, -quontur; -vont, -vontur; -uont, -uontur, for the same period; as, relinquont, loquontur; vivont, metuont.

The older spelling, while generally followed in editions of Plautus and Terence, has not yet been adopted in our prose texts.

* * * * *

PART II.

* * * * *

INFLECTIONS.

* * * * *

10. The Parts of Speech in Latin are the same as in English, viz. Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections; but the Latin has no article.

11. Of these eight parts of speech the first four are capable of Inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modifications of meaning. In case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this process is called Declension; in case of verbs, Conjugation.

* * * * *

CHAPTER I.—Declension.

A. NOUNS.

12. A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or quality; as, Caesar, Caesar; Roma, Rome; penna, feather; virtus, courage.

1. Nouns are either Proper or Common. Proper nouns are permanent names of persons or places; as, Caesar, Roma. Other nouns are Common: as, penna, virtus.

2. Nouns are also distinguished as Concrete or Abstract.

a) Concrete nouns are those which designate individual objects; as, mons, mountain; pes, foot; dies, day; mens, mind.

Under concrete nouns are included, also, collective nouns; as, legio, legion; comitatus, retinue.

b) Abstract nouns designate qualities; as, constantia, steadfastness; paupertas, poverty.

GENDER OF NOUNS.

13. There are three Genders,—Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Gender in Latin is either natural or grammatical.

Natural Gender.

14. The gender of nouns is natural when it is based upon sex. Natural gender is confined entirely to names of persons; and these are—

1. Masculine, if they denote males; as,—

nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer.

2. Feminine, if they denote females; as,—

mater, mother; regina, queen.

Grammatical Gender.

15. Grammatical gender is determined not by sex, but by the general signification of the word, or the ending of its Nominative Singular. By grammatical gender, nouns denoting things or qualities are often Masculine or Feminine, simply by virtue of their signification or the ending of the Nominative Singular. The following are the general principles for determining grammatical gender:—

A. Gender determined by Signification.

1. Names of Rivers, Winds, and Months are Masculine; as,—

Sequana, Seine; Eurus, east wind; Aprilis, April.

2. Names of Trees, and such names of Towns and Islands as end in -us, are Feminine; as,—

quercus, oak; Corinthus, Corinth; Rhodus, Rhodes.

Other names of towns and islands follow the gender of their endings (see B, below); as,—

Delphi, n.; Leuctra, n.; Tibur, n.; Carthago, f.

3. Indeclinable nouns, also infinitives and phrases, are Neuter; as,—

nihil, nothing; nefas, wrong; amare, to love.

NOTE.—Exceptions to the above principles sometimes occur; as, Allia (the river), f.

B. Gender determined by Ending of Nominative Singular.

The gender of other nouns is determined by the ending of the Nominative Singular.[11]

NOTE 1.—Common Gender. Certain nouns are sometimes Masculine, sometimes Feminine. Thus, sacerdos may mean either priest or priestess, and is Masculine or Feminine accordingly. So also civis, citizen; parens, parent; etc. The gender of such nouns is said to be common.

NOTE 2.—Names of animals usually have grammatical gender, according to the ending of the Nominative Singular, but the one form may designate either the male or female; as, anser, m., goose or gander. So vulpes, f., fox; aquila, f., eagle.

NUMBER.

16. The Latin has two Numbers,—the Singular and Plural. The Singular denotes one object, the Plural, more than one.

CASES.

17. There are six Cases in Latin:—

Nominative, Case of Subject; Genitive, Objective with of, or Possessive; Dative, Objective with to or for; Accusative, Case of Direct Object; Vocative, Case of Address; Ablative, Objective with by, from, in, with.

1. LOCATIVE. Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting place where), occur in names of towns and in a few other words.

2. OBLIQUE CASES. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are called Oblique Cases.

3. STEM AND CASE-ENDINGS. The different cases are formed by appending certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the Stem.[12] Thus, portam (Accusative Singular) is formed by adding the case-ending -m to the stem porta-. But in most cases the final vowel of the stem has coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending that the latter has become more or less obscured. The apparent case-ending thus resulting is called a termination.

THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.

18. There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from each other by the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive Singular, as follows:—

DECLENSION. FINAL LETTER OF STEM. GEN. TERMINATION. First a -ae Second o -i Third i / Some consonant -is Fourth u -us Fifth e -ei / -ei

Cases alike in Form.

19. 1. The Vocative is regularly like the Nominative, except in the singular of nouns in -us of the Second Declension.

2. The Dative and Ablative Plural are always alike.

3. In Neuters the Accusative and Nominative are always alike, and in the Plural end in -a.

4. In the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Declensions, the Accusative Plural is regularly like the Nominative.

* * * * *

FIRST DECLENSION.

a-Stems.

20. Pure Latin nouns of the First Declension regularly end, in the Nominative Singular, in -a, weakened from -a, and are of the Feminine Gender. They are declined as follows:—

Porta, gate; stem, porta-.

SINGULAR. CASES. MEANINGS. TERMINATIONS. Nom. porta a gate (as subject) -a Gen. portae of a gate -ae Dat. portae to or for a gate -ae Acc. portam a gate (as object) -am Voc. porta O gate! -a Abl. porta with, by, from, in a gate -a

PLURAL. Nom. portae gates (as subject) -ae Gen. portarum of gates -arum Dat. portis to or for gates -is Acc. portas gates (as object) -as Voc. portae O gates! -ae Abl. portis with, by, from, in gates -is

1. The Latin has no article, and porta may mean either a gate or the gate; and in the Plural, gates or the gates.

Peculiarities of Nouns of the First Declension.

21. 1. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. Nouns denoting males are Masculine; as, nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer; also, Hadria, Adriatic Sea.

2. Rare Case-Endings,—

a) An old form of the Genitive Singular in -as is preserved in the combination pater familias, father of a family; also in mater familias, filius familias, filia familias. But the regular form of the Genitive in -ae is also admissible in these expressions; as, pater familiae.

b) In poetry a Genitive in -ai also occurs; as, aulai.

c) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, Romae, at Rome.

d) A Genitive Plural in -um instead of -arum sometimes occurs; as, Dardanidum instead of Dardanidarum. This termination -um is not a contraction of -arum, but represents an entirely different case-ending.

e) Instead of the regular ending -is, we usually find -abus in the Dative and Ablative Plural of dea, goddess, and filia, daughter, especially when it is important to distinguish these nouns from the corresponding forms of deus, god, and filius, son. A few other words sometimes have the same peculiarity; as, libertabus (from liberta, freedwoman), equabus (mares), to avoid confusion with libertis (from libertus, freedman) and equis (from equus, horse).

Greek Nouns.

22. These end in -e (Feminine); -as and -es (Masculine). In the Plural they are declined like regular Latin nouns of the First Declension. In the Singular they are declined as follows:—

Archias, Epitome, Cometes, comet. Archias. epitome. Nom. Archias epitome cometes Gen. Archiae epitomes cometae Dat. Archiae epitomae cometae Acc. Archiam (or -an) epitomen cometen Voc. Archia epitome comete (or -a) Abl. Archia epitome comete (or -a)

1. But most Greek nouns in -e become regular Latin nouns in -a, and are declined like porta; as, grammatica, grammar; musica, music; rhetorica, rhetoric.

2. Some other peculiarities occur, especially in poetry.

* * * * *

SECOND DECLENSION.

o-Stems.

23. Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in -us, -er, -ir, Masculine; -um, Neuter. Originally -us in the Nominative of the Masculine was -os; and -um of the Neuters -om. So also in the Accusative.

Nouns in -us and -um are declined as follows:—

Hortus, garden; Bellum, war; stem, horto-. stem, bello-. SINGULAR. TERMINATION. TERMINATION. Nom. hortus -us bellum -um Gen. horti -i belli -i Dat. horto -o bello -o Acc. hortum -um bellum -um Voc. horte -e bellum -um Abl. horto -o bello -o

PLURAL. Nom. horti -i bella -a Gen. hortorum -orum bellorum -orum Dat. hortis -is bellis -is Acc. hortos -os bella -a Voc. horti -i bella -a Abl. hortis -is bellis -is

Nouns in -er and -ir are declined as follows:—

Puer, boy; Ager, field; Vir, man; stem, puero- stem, agro- stem, viro- SINGULAR. TERMINATION. Nom. puer ager vir Wanting Gen. pueri agri viri -i Dat. puero agro viro -o Acc. puerum agrum virum -um Voc. puer ager vir Wanting Abl. puero agro viro -o

PLURAL. Nom. pueri agri viri -i Gen. puerorum agrorum virorum -orum Dat. pueris agris viris -is Acc. pueros agros viros -os Voc. pueri agri viri -i Abl. pueris agris viris -is

1. Note that in words of the type of puer and vir the final vowel of the stem has disappeared in the Nominative and Vocative Singular.

In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of ager, the stem is further modified by the development of e before r.

2. The following nouns in -er are declined like puer: adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-law; Liber, Bacchus; socer, father-in-law; vesper, evening; and compounds in -fer and -ger, as signifer, armiger.

Nouns in -vus, -vum, -quus.

24. Nouns ending in the Nominative Singular in -vus, -vum, -quus, exhibited two types of inflection in the classical Latin,—an earlier and a later,—as follows:—

Earlier Inflection (including Caesar and Cicero). Servos, m., Aevom, n., Equos, m., slave. age. horse. SINGULAR. Nom. servos aevom equos Gen. servi aevi equi Dat. servo aevo equo Acc. servom aevom equom Voc. serve aevom eque Abl. servo aevo equo

Later inflection (after Cicero). SINGULAR. Nom. servus aevum equus Gen. servi aevi equi Dat. servo aevo equo Act. servum aevum equum Voc. serve aevum eque Abl. servo aevo equo

1. The Plural of these nouns is regular, and always uniform.

Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.

25. 1. Proper names in -ius regularly form the Genitive Singular in -i (instead of -ii), and the Vocative Singular in -i (for -ie); as Vergili, of Virgil, or O Virgil (instead of Vergilii, Vergilie). In such words the accent stands upon the penult, even though that be short. Nouns in -ajus, -ejus form the Gen. in -ai, -ei, as Pompejus, Pompei.

2. Nouns in -ius and -ium, until after the beginning of the reign of Augustus (31 B.C.), regularly formed the Genitive Singular in -i (instead of -ii); as,—

Nom. ingenium filius Gen. ingeni fili

These Genitives accent the penult, even when it is short.

3. Filius forms the Vocative Singular in -i (for -ie); viz. fili, O son!

4. Deus, god, lacks the Vocative Singular. The Plural is inflected as follows:—

Nom. di (dei) Gen. deorum (deum) Dat. dis (deis) Acc. deos Voc. di (dei) Abl. dis (deis)

5. The Locative Singular ends in -i; as, Corinthi, at Corinth.

6. The Genitive Plural has -um, instead of -orum,—

a) in words denoting money and measure; as, talentum, of talents; modium, of pecks; sestertium, of sesterces.

b) in duumvir, triumvir, decemvir; as, duumvirum.

c) sometimes in other words; as, liberum, of the children; socium, of the allies.

Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.

26. 1. The following nouns in -us are Feminine by exception:—

a) Names of towns, islands, trees—according to the general rule laid down in Sec. 15, 2; also some names of countries; as Aegyptus, Egypt.

b) Five special words,—

alvus, belly; carbasus, flax; colus, distaff; humus, ground; vannus, winnowing-fan.

c) A few Greek Feminines; as,—

atomus, atom; diphthongus, diphthong.

2. The following nouns in -us are Neuter:—

pelagus, sea; virus, poison; vulgus, crowd.

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension.

27. These end in -os, -os, Masculine or Feminine; and -on, Neuter. They are mainly proper names, and are declined as follows:—

Barbitos, m. Androgeos, m., Ilion, n., and f., Androgeos. Troy. lyre. Nom. barbitos Androgeos Ilion Gen. barbiti Androgeo, -i Ilii Dat. barbito Androgeo Ilio Acc. barbiton Androgeo, -on Ilion Voc. barbite Androgeos Ilion Abl. barbito Androgeo Ilio

1. Nouns in -os sometimes form the Accusative Singular in -um instead of -on; as, Delum, Delos.

2. The Plural of Greek nouns, when it occurs, is usually regular.

3. For other rare forms of Greek nouns the lexicon may be consulted.

* * * * *

THIRD DECLENSION.

28. Nouns of the Third Declension end in -a, -e, -i, -o, -y, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, -x. The Third Declension includes several distinct classes of Stems,—

I. Pure Consonant-Stems. II. i-Stems. III. Consonant-Stems which have partially adapted themselves to the inflection of i-Stems. IV. A very few stems ending in a long vowel or a diphthong. V. Irregular Nouns.

I. Consonant-Stems.

29. 1. In these the stem appears in its unaltered form in all the oblique cases, so that the actual case-endings may be clearly recognized.

2. Consonant-Stems fall into several natural subdivisions, according as the stem ends in a Mute, Liquid, Nasal, or Spirant.

A. Mute-Stems.

30. Mute-Stems may end,—

1. In a Labial (p); as, princep-s.

2. In a Guttural (g or c); as, remex (remeg-s); dux (duc-s).

3. In a Dental (d or t); as, lapis (lapid-s); miles (milet-s).

1. STEMS IN A LABIAL MUTE (p).

31. Princeps, m., chief.

SINGULAR. TERMINATION. Nom. princeps -s Gen. principis -is Dat. principi -i Acc. principem -em Voc. princeps -s Abl. principe -e

PLURAL. Nom. principes -es Gen. principum -um Dat. principibus -ibus Acc. principes -es Voc. principes -es Abl. principibus -ibus

2. STEMS IN A GUTTURAL MUTE (g, c).

32. In these the termination -s of the Nominative Singular unites with the guttural, thus producing -x.

Remex, m., rower. Dux, c., leader. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. remex remiges dux duces Gen. remigis remigum ducis ducum Dat. remigi remigibus duci ducibus Acc. remigem remiges ducem duces Voc. remex remiges dux duces Abl. remige remigibus duce ducibus

3. STEMS IN A DENTAL MUTE (d, t).

33. In these the final d or t of the stem disappears in the Nominative Singular before the ending -s.

Lapis, m., stone. Miles, m., soldier. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. lapis lapides miles milites Gen. lapidis lapidum militis militum Dat. lapidi lapidibus militi militibus Acc. lapidem lapides militem milites Voc. lapis lapides miles milites Abl. lapide lapidibus milite militibus

B. Liquid Stems.

34. These end in -l or -r.

Vigil, m., Victor, m., Aequor, n., watchman. conqueror. sea.

SINGULAR. Nom. vigil victor aequor Gen. vigilis victoris aequoris Dat. vigili victori aequori Acc. vigilem victorem aequor Voc. vigil victor aequor Abl. vigile victore aequore

PLURAL. Nom. vigiles victores aequora Gen. vigilum victorum aequorum Dat. vigilibus victoribus aequoribus Acc. vigiles victores aequora Voc. vigiles victores aequora Abl. vigilibus victoribus aequoribus

1. Masculine and Feminine stems ending in a liquid form the Nominative and Vocative Singular without termination.

2. The termination is also lacking in the Nominative, Accusative and Vocative Singular of all neuters of the Third Declension.

C. Nasal Stems.

35. These end in -n,[13] which often disappears in the Nom. Sing.

Leo, m., lion. Nomen, n., name SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. leo leones nomen nomina Gen. leonis leonum nominis nominum Dat. leoni leonibus nomini nominibus Acc. leonem leones nomen nomina Voc. leo leones nomen nomina Abl. leone leonibus nomine nominibus

D. s-Stems.

36. Mos, m. Genus, n., Honor, m., custom. race. honor.

SINGULAR. Nom. mos genus honor Gen. moris generis honoris Dat. mori generi honori Acc. morem genus honorem Voc. mos genus honor Abl. more genere honore

PLURAL. Nom. mores genera honores Gen. morum generum honorum Dat. moribus generibus honoribus Acc. mores genera honores Voc. mores genera honores Abl. moribus generibus honoribus

1. Note that the final s of the stem becomes r (between vowels) in the oblique cases. In many words (honor, color, and the like) the r of the oblique cases has, by analogy, crept into the Nominative, displacing the earlier s, though the forms honos, colos, etc., also occur, particularly in early Latin and in poetry.

II. i-Stems.

A. Masculine and Feminine i-Stems.

37. These regularly end in -is in the Nominative Singular, and always have -ium in the Genitive Plural. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in -im, the Ablative Singular in -i, and the Accusative Plural in -is; but these endings have been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -es, the endings of Consonant-Stems.

38. Tussis, f., Ignis, m., Hostis, c., cough; stem, fire; stem, enemy; stem, tussi-. igni-. hosti-.

SINGULAR. TERMINATION. Nom. tussis ignis hostis -is Gen. tussis ignis hostis -is Dat. tussi igni hosti -i Acc. tussim ignem hostem -im, -em Voc. tussis ignis hostis -is Abl. tussi igni or e hoste -i, -e

PLURAL. Nom. tusses ignes hostes -es Gen. tussium ignium hostium -ium Dat. tussibus ignibus hostibus -ibus Acc. tussis or -es ignis or -es hostis or -es -is, -es Voc. tusses ignes hostes -es Abl. tussibus ignibus hostibus -ibus

1. To the same class belong—

apis, bee. cratis, hurdle. +*securis, axe. auris, ear. *febris, fever. sementis, sowing. avis, bird. orbis, circle. +*sitis, thirst. axis, axle. ovis, sheep. torris, brand. *buris, plough-beam. pelvis, basin. +*turris, tower. clavis, key. puppis, stern. trudis, pole. collis, hill. restis, rope. vectis, lever. and many others.

Words marked with a star regularly have Acc. -im; those marked with a + regularly have Abl. -i. Of the others, many at times show -im and -i. Town and river names in -is regularly have -im, -i.

2. Not all nouns in -is are i-Stems. Some are genuine consonant-stems, and have the regular consonant terminations throughout, notably, canis, dog; juvenis, youth.[14]

3. Some genuine i-Stems have become disguised in the Nominative Singular; as, pars, part, for par(ti)s; anas, duck, for ana(ti)s; so also mors, death; dos, dowry; nox, night; sors, lot; mens, mind; ars, art; gens, tribe; and some others.

B. Neuter i-Stems.

39. These end in the Nominative Singular in -e, -al, and -ar. They always have -i in the Ablative Singular, -ia in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural, and -ium in the Genitive Plural, thus holding more steadfastly to the i-character than do Masculine and Feminine i-Stems.

Sedile, Animal, Calcar, seat; animal; spur; stem, sedili-. stem, stem, animali-. calcari-.

SINGULAR. TERMINATION. Nom. sedile animal calcar -e or wanting Gen. sedilis animalis calcaris -is Dat. sedili animali calcari -i Acc. sedile animal calcar -e or wanting Voc. sedile animal calcar -e or wanting Abl. sedili animali calcari -i

PLURAL. Nom. sedilia animalia calcaria -ia Gen. sedilium animalium calcarium -ium Dat. sedilibus animalibus calcaribus -ibus Acc. sedilia animalia calcaria -ia Voc. sedilia animalia calcaria -ia Abl. sedilibus animalibus calcaribus -ibus

1. In most words of this class the final -i of the stem is lost in the Nominative Singular; in others it appears as -e.

2. Proper names in -e form the Ablative Singular in -e; as, Soracte, Mt. Soracte; so also sometimes mare, sea.

III. Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the Inflection of i-Stems.

40. Many Consonant-Stems have so far adapted themselves to the inflection of i-stems as to take -ium in the Genitive Plural, and -is in the Accusative Plural. Their true character as Consonant-Stems, however, is shown by the fact that they never take -im in the Accusative Singular, or -i in the Ablative Singular. The following words are examples of this class:—

Caedes, f., Arx, f., Linter, f., slaughter; citadel; skiff; stem, caed-. stem, arc-. stem, lintr-.

SINGULAR. Nom. caedes arx linter Gen. caedis arcis lintris Dat. caedi arci lintri Acc. caedem arcem lintrem Voc. caedes arx linter Abl. caede arce lintre

PLURAL. Nom. caedes arces lintres Gen. caedium arcium lintrium Dat. caedibus arcibus lintribus Acc. caedes, -is arces, -is lintres, -is Voc. caedes arces lintres Abl. caedibus arcibus lintribus

1. The following classes of nouns belong here:—

a) Nouns in -es, with Genitive in -is; as, nubes, aedes, clades, etc.

b) Many monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by one or more consonants; as, urbs, mons, stirps, lanx.

c) Most nouns in -ns and -rs as, cliens, cohors.

d) Uter, venter; fur, lis, mas, mus, nix; and the Plurals fauces, penates, Optimates, Samnites, Quirites.

e) Sometimes nouns in -tas with Genitive -tatis; as, civitas, aetas. Civitas usually has civitatium.

IV. Stems in -i, -u, and Diphthongs.

41. Vis, f., Sus, c., Bos, c., ox, Juppiter, m., force; swine; cow; Jupiter; stem, vi-. stem, su-. stem, bou-. stem, Jou-.

SINGULAR. Nom. vis sus bos Juppiter Gen. —— suis bovis Jovis Dat. —— sui bovi Jovi Acc. vim suem bovem Jovem Voc. vis sus bos Juppiter Abl. vi sue bove Jove

PLURAL. Nom. vires sues boves Gen. virium suum bovum, boum Dat. viribus suibus, subus bobus, bubus Acc. vires sues boves Voc. vires sues boves Abl. viribus suibus, subus bobus, bubus

1. Notice that the oblique cases of sus have u in the root syllable.

2. Grus is declined like sus, except that the Dative and Ablative Plural are always gruibus.

3. Juppiter is for Jou-pater, and therefore contains the same stem as in Jov-is, Jov-i, etc.

Navis was originally a diphthong stem ending in au-, but it has passed over to the i-stems (Sec. 37). Its ablative often ends in -i.

V. Irregular Nouns.

42. Senex, m., Caro, f., Os, n., old man. flesh. bone.

SINGULAR. Nom. senex caro os Gen. senis carnis ossis Dat. seni carni ossi Acc. senem carnem os Voc. senex caro os Abl. sene carne osse

PLURAL. Nom. senes carnes ossa Gen. senum carnium ossium Dat. senibus carnibus ossibus Acc. senes carnes ossa Voc. senes carnes ossa Abl. senibus carnibus ossibus

1. Iter, itineris, n., way, is inflected regularly throughout from the stem itiner-.

2. Supellex, supellectilis, f., furniture, is confined to the Singular. The oblique cases are formed from the stem supellectil-. The ablative has both -i and -e.

3. Jecur, n., liver, forms its oblique cases from two stems,—jecor- and jecinor-. Thus, Gen. jecoris or jecinoris.

4. Femur, n., thigh, usually forms its oblique cases from the stem femor-, but sometimes from the stem femin-. Thus, Gen. femoris or feminis.

General Principles of Gender in the Third Declension.

43. 1. Nouns in -o, -or, -os, -er, -es are Masculine.

2. Nouns in -as, -es, -is, -ys, -x, -s (preceded by a consonant); -do, -go (Genitive -inis); -io (abstract and collective), -us (Genitive -atis or -udis) are Feminine.

3. Nouns ending in -a, -e, -i, -y, -o, -l, -n, -t, -ar, -ur, -us are Neuter.

Chief Exceptions to Gender in the Third Declension.

44. Exceptions to the Rule for Masculines.

1. Nouns in -o.

a. Feminine: caro, flesh.

2. Nouns in -or.

a. Feminine: arbor, tree.

b. Neuter: aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, marble.

3. Nouns in -os.

a. Feminine: dos, dowry.

b. Neuter: os (oris), mouth.

4. Nouns in -er.

a. Feminine: linter, skiff.

b. Neuter: cadaver, corpse; iter, way; tuber, tumor; uber, udder. Also botanical names in -er; as, acer, maple.

5. Nouns in -es.

a. Feminine: seges, crop.

45. Exceptions to the Rule for Feminines.

1. Nouns in -as.

a. Masculine: vas, bondsman.

b. Neuter: vas, vessel.

2. Nouns in -es.

a. Masculine: aries, ram; paries, wall; pes, foot.

3. Nouns in -is.

a. Masculine: all nouns in -nis and -guis; as, amnis, river; ignis, fire; panis, bread; sanguis, blood; unguis, nail.

Also—

axis, axle. piscis, fish. collis, hill. postis, post. fascis, bundle. pulvis, dust. lapis, stone. orbis, circle. mensis, month. sentis, brier.

4. Nouns in -x.

a. Masculine: apex, peak; codex, tree-trunk; grex, flock; imbrex, tile; pollex, thumb; vertex, summit; calix, cup.

5. Nouns in -s preceded by a consonant.

a. Masculine: dens, tooth; fons, fountain; mons, mountain; pons, bridge.

6. Nouns in -do.

a. Masculine: cardo, hinge; ordo, order.

46. Exceptions to the Rule for Neuters.

1. Nouns in -l.

a. Masculine: sol, sun; sal, salt.

2. Nouns in -n.

a. Masculine: pecten, comb.

3. Nouns in -ur.

a. Masculine: vultur, vulture.

4. Nouns in -us.

a. Masculine: lepus, hare.

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.

47. The following are the chief peculiarities of these:—

1. The ending -a in the Accusative Singular; as, aethera, aether; Salamina, Salamis.

2. The ending -es in the Nominative Plural; as, Phryges, Phrygians.

3. The ending -as in the Accusative Plural; as, Phrygas, Phrygians.

4. Proper names in -as (Genitive -antis) have -a in the Vocative Singular; as, Atlas (Atlantis), Vocative Atla, Atlas.

5. Neuters in -ma (Genitive -matis) have -is instead of -ibus in the Dative and Ablative Plural; as, poematis, poems.

6. Orpheus, and other proper names ending in -eus, form the Vocative Singular in -eu (Orpheu, etc.). But in prose the other cases usually follow the second declension; as, Orphei, Orpheo, etc.

7. Proper names in -es, like Pericles, form the Genitive Singular sometimes in -is, sometimes in -i, as, Periclis or Pericli.

8. Feminine proper names in -o have -us in the Genitive, but -o in the other oblique cases; as,—

Nom. Dido Acc. Dido Gen. Didus Voc. Dido Dat. Dido Abl. Dido

9. The regular Latin endings often occur in Greek nouns.

* * * * *

FOURTH DECLENSION.

u-Stems.

48. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in -us Masculine, and -u Neuter. They are declined as follows:—

Fructus, m., fruit. Cornu, n., horn. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. fructus fructus cornu cornua Gen. fructus fructuum cornus cornuum Dat. fructui fructibus cornu cornibus Acc. fructum fructus cornu cornua Voc. fructus fructus cornu cornua Abl. fructu fructibus cornu cornibus

Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fourth Declension.

49. 1. Nouns in -us, particularly in early Latin, often form the Genitive Singular in -i, following the analogy of nouns in -us of the Second Declension; as, senati, ornati. This is usually the case in Plautus and Terence.

2. Nouns in -us sometimes have -u in the Dative Singular, instead of -ui; as, fructu (for fructui).

3. The ending -ubus, instead of -ibus, occurs in the Dative and Ablative Plural of artus (Plural), limbs; tribus, tribe; and in dis-syllables in -cus; as, artubus, tribubus, arcubus, lacubus. But with the exception of tribus, all these words admit the forms in -ibus as well as those in -ubus.

4. Domus, house, is declined according to the Fourth Declension, but has also the following forms of the Second:—

domi (locative), at home; domo, from home; domum, homewards, to one's home; domos, homewards, to their (etc.) homes

5. The only Neuters of this declension in common use are: cornu, horn; genu, knee; and veru, spit.

Exceptions to Gender in the Fourth Declension.

50. The following nouns in -us are Feminine: acus, needle; domus, house; manus, hand; porticus, colonnade; tribus, tribe; Idus (Plural), Ides; also names of trees (Sec. 15, 2).

* * * * *

FIFTH DECLENSION.

e-Stems.

51. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in -es, and are declined as follows:—

Dies, m., day. Res, f., thing. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. dies dies res res Gen. diei dierum rei rerum Dat. diei diebus rei rebus Acc. diem dies rem res Voc. dies dies res res Abl. die diebus re rebus

Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fifth Declension.

52. 1. The ending of the Genitive and Dative Singular is -ei, instead of -ei, when a consonant precedes; as, spei, rei, fidei.

2. A Genitive ending -i (for -ei) is found in plebi (from plebes = plebs) in the expressions tribunus plebi, tribune of the people, and plebi scitum, decree of the people; sometimes also in other words.

3. A Genitive and Dative form in -e sometimes occurs; as, acie.

4. With the exception of dies and res, most nouns of the Fifth Declension are not declined in the Plural. But acies, series, species, spes, and a few others are used in the Nominative and Accusative Plural.

Gender in the Fifth Declension.

53. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except dies, day, and meridies, mid-day. But dies is sometimes Feminine in the Singular, particularly when it means an appointed day.

* * * * *

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.

54. Here belong—

1. Nouns used in the Singular only.

2. Nouns used in the Plural only.

3. Nouns used only in certain cases.

4. Indeclinable Nouns.

Nouns used in the Singular only.

55. Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, are regularly used in the Singular only. Thus:—

1. Proper names; as, Cicero, Cicero; Italia, Italy.

2. Nouns denoting material; as, aes, copper; lac, milk.

3. Abstract nouns; as, ignorantia, ignorance; bonitas, goodness.

4. But the above classes of words are sometimes used in the Plural. Thus:—

a) Proper names,—to denote different members of a family, or specimens of a type; as, Cicerones, the Ciceros; Catones, men like Cato.

b) Names of materials,—to denote objects made of the material, or different kinds of the substance; as, aera, bronzes (i.e. bronze figures); ligna, woods.

c) Abstract nouns,—to denote instances of the quality; as, ignorantiae, cases of ignorance.

Nouns used in the Plural only.

56. Here belong—

1. Many geographical names; as, Thebae, Thebes; Leuctra, Leuctra; Pompeji, Pompeii.

2. Many names of festivals; as, Megalesia, the Megalesian festival.

3. Many special words, of which the following are the most important:—

angustiae, narrow pass. manes, spirits of the arma, weapons. dead. deliciae, delight. moenia, city walls. divitiae, riches. minae, threats. Idus, Ides. nuptiae, marriage. indutiae, truce. posteri, descendants. insidiae, ambush. reliquiae, remainder. majores, ancestors. tenebrae, darkness. verbera, blows.

Also in classical prose regularly—

cervices, neck. nares, nose. fides, lyre. viscera, viscera.

Nouns used only in Certain Cases.

57. 1. Used in only One Case. Many nouns of the Fourth Declension are found only in the Ablative Singular as, jussu, by the order; injussu, without the order; natu, by birth.

2. Used in Two Cases.

a. Fors (chance), Nom. Sing.; forte, Abl. Sing.

b. Spontis (free-will), Gen. Sing.; sponte, Abl. Sing.

3. Used in Three Cases. Nemo, no one (Nom.), has also the Dat. nemini and the Acc. neminem. The Gen. and Abl. are supplied by the corresponding cases of nullus; viz. nullius and nullo.

4. Impetus has the Nom., Acc., and Abl. Sing., and the Nom. and Acc. Plu.; viz. impetus, impetum, impetu, impetus.

5. a. Preci, precem, prece, lacks the Nom. and Gen. Sing.

b. Vicis, vicem, vice, lacks the Nom. and Dat. Sing.

6. Opis, dapis, and frugis,—all lack the Nom. Sing.

7. Many monosyllables of the Third Declension lack the Gen. Plu.: as, cor, lux, sol, aes, os (oris), rus, sal, tus.

Indeclinable Nouns.

58. Here belong—

fas, n., right. nefas, n., impiety. instar, n., likeness. nihil, n., nothing. mane, n., morning. secus, n., sex.

1. With the exception of mane (which may serve also as Ablative, in the morning), the nouns in this list are simply Neuters confined in use to the Nominative and Accusative Singular.

Heteroclites.

59. These are nouns whose forms are partly of one declension, and partly of another. Thus:—

1. Several nouns have the entire Singular of one declension, while the Plural is of another; as,—

vas, vasis (vessel); Plu., vasa, vasoroum, vasis, etc. jugerum, jugeri (acre); Plu., jugera, jugerum, jugeribus, etc.

2. Several nouns, while belonging in the main to one declension, have certain special forms belonging to another. Thus:—

a) Many nouns of the First Declension ending in -ia take also a Nom. and Acc. of the Fifth; as, materies, materiem, material, as well as materia, materiam.

b) Fames, hunger, regularly of the Third Declension, has the Abl. fame of the Fifth.

c) Requies, requietis, rest, regularly of the Third Declension, takes an Acc. of the Fifth, requiem, in addition to requietem.

d) Besides plebs, plebis, common people, of the Third Declension, we find plebes, plebei (also plebi, see Sec. 52, 2), of the Fifth.

Heterogeneous Nouns.

60. Heterogeneous nouns vary in Gender. Thus:—

1. Several nouns of the Second Declension have two forms,—one Masc. in -us, and one Neuter in -um; as, clipeus, clipeum, shield; carrus, carrum, cart.

2. Other nouns have one gender in the Singular, another in the Plural; as,—

SINGULAR. PLURAL. balneum, n., bath; balneae, f., bath-house. epulum, n., feast; epulae, f., feast. frenum, n., bridle; freni, m.(rarely frena, n.), bridle. jocus, m., jest; joca, n. (also joci, m.), jests. locus, m., place; loca, n., places; loci, m., passages or topics in an author. rastrum, n., rake; rastri, m.; rastra, n., rakes.

a. Heterogeneous nouns may at the same time be heteroclites, as in case of the first two examples above.

Plurals with Change of Meaning.

61. The following nouns have one meaning in the Singular, and another in the Plural:—

SINGULAR. PLURAL. aedes, temple; aedes, house. auxilium, help; auxilia, auxiliary troops. carcer, prison; carceres, stalls for racing-chariot. castrum, fort; castra, camp. copia, abundance; copiae, troops, resources. finis, end; fines, borders, territory. fortuna, fortune; fortunae, possessions, wealth. gratia, favor, gratiae, thanks. gratitude; impedimentum, impedimenta, baggage. hindrance; littera, letter (of the litterae, epistle; literature. alphabet); mos, habit, custom; mores, character. opera, help, service; operae, laborers. (ops) opis, help; opes, resources. pars, part; partes, party; role. sal, salt; sales, wit.

* * * * *

B. ADJECTIVES.

62. Adjectives denote quality. They are declined like nouns, and fall into two classes,—

1. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

2. Adjectives of the Third Declension.

* * * * *

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.

63. In these the Masculine is declined like hortus, puer, or ager, the Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like bellum. Thus, Masculine like hortus:—

Bonus, good.

SINGULAR. MASCULINE. FEMININE. NEUTER. Nom. bonus bona bonum Gen. boni bonae boni Dat. bono bonae bono Acc. bonum bonam bonum Voc. bone bona bonum Abl. bono bona bono

PLURAL. Nom. boni bonae bona Gen. bonorum bonarum bonorum Dat. bonis bonis bonis Acc. bonos bonas bona Voc. boni bonae bona Abl. bonis bonis bonis

1. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neut. of Adjectives in -ius ends in -ii (not in -i as in case of Nouns; see Sec. 25, 1; 2). So also the Voc. Sing. of such Adjectives ends in -ie, not in i. Thus eximius forms Gen. eximii; Voc. eximie.

2. Distributives (see Sec. 78, 1, c) regularly form the Gen. Plu. Masc. and Neut. in -um instead of -orum (compare Sec. 25, 6); as, denum centenum; but always singulorum.

64. Masculine like puer:—

Tener, tender.

SINGULAR. MASCULINE. FEMININE NEUTER. Nom. tener tenera tenerum Gen. teneri tenerae teneri Dat. tenero tenerae tenero Acc. tenerum teneram tenerum Voc. tener tenera tenerum Abl. tenero tenera tenero

PLURAL. Nom. teneri tenerae tenera Gen. tenerorum tenerarum tenerorum Dat. teneris teneris teneris Acc. teneros teneras tenera Voc. teneri tenerae tenera Abl. teneris teneris teneris

65. Masculine like ager:—

Sacer, sacred.

SINGULAR. MASCULINE. FEMININE. NEUTER. Nom. sacer sacra sacrum Gen. sacri sacrae sacri Dat. sacro sacrae sacro Acc. sacrum sacram sacrum Voc. sacer sacra sacrum Abl. sacro sacra sacro

PLURAL. Nom. sacri sacrae sacra Gen. sacrorum sacrarum sacrorum Dat. sacris sacris sacris Acc. sacros sacras sacra Voc. sacri sacrae sacra Abl. sacris sacris sacris

1. Most adjectives in -er are declined like sacer. The following however, are declined like tener: asper, rough; lacer, torn; liber, free; miser, wretched; prosper, prosperous; compounds in -fer and -ger; sometimes dexter, right.

2. Satur, full, is declined: satur, satura, saturum.

Nine Irregular Adjectives.

66. Here belong—

alius, another; alter, the other; ullus, any; nullus, none; uter, which? (of two); neuter, neither; solus, alone; totus, whole; unus, one, alone.

They are declined as follows:—

SINGULAR. MASCULINE. FEMININE. NEUTER. Nom. alius alia aliud Gen. alterius alterius alterius[15] Dat. alii alii alii Acc. alium aliam aliud Voc. —— —— —— Abl. alio alia alio

Nom. alter altera alterum Gen. alterius alterius alterius Dat. alteri alteri[16] alteri Acc. alterum alteram alterum Voc. —— —— —— Abl. altero altera altero

Nom. uter utra utrum Gen. utrius utrius utrius Dat. utri utri utri Acc. utrum utram utrum Voc. —— —— —— Abl. utro utra utro

Nom. totus tota totum Gen. totius totius totius Dat. toti toti toti Acc. totum totam totum Voc. —— —— —— Abl. toto tota toto

1. All these words lack the Vocative. The Plural is regular.

2. Neuter is declined like uter.

* * * * *

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

67. These fall into three classes,—

1. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular,—one for each gender.

2. Adjectives of two terminations.

3. Adjectives of one termination.

a. With the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words mentioned below in Sec. 70, 1, all Adjectives of the Third Declension follow the inflection of i-stems; i.e. they have the Ablative Singular in -i, the Genitive Plural in -ium, the Accusative Plural in -is (as well as -es) in the Masculine and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative Plural in -ia in Neuters.

Adjectives of Three Terminations.

68. These are declined as follows:—

Acer, sharp.

SINGULAR. MASCULINE. FEMININE. NEUTER. Nom. acer acris acre Gen. acris acris acris Dat. acri acri acri Acc. acrem acrem acre Voc. acer acris acre Abl. acri acri acri

PLURAL. Nom. acres acres acria Gen. acrium acrium acrium Dat, acribus acribus acribus Acc. acres, -is acres, -is acria Voc. acres acres acria Abl. acribus acribus acribus

1. Like acer are declined alacer, lively; campester, level; celeber, famous; equester, equestrian; paluster, marshy; pedester, pedestrian; puter, rotten; saluber, wholesome; silvester, woody; terrester, terrestrial; volucer, winged; also names of months in -ber, as September.

2. Celer, celeris, celere, swift, retains the e before r, but lacks the Genitive Plural.

3. In the Nominative Singular of Adjectives of this class the Feminine form is sometimes used for the Masculine. This is regularly true of salubris, silvestris, and terrestris. In case of the other words in the list, the use of the Feminine for the Masculine is confined chiefly to early and late Latin, and to poetry.

Adjectives of Two Terminations.

69. These are declined as follows:—

Fortis, strong. Fortior, stronger. SINGULAR. M. AND F. NEUT. M. AND F. NEUT. Nom. fortis forte fortior fortius Gen. fortis fortis fortioris fortioris Dat. forti forti fortiori fortiori Acc. fortem forte fortiorem fortius Voc. fortis forte fortior fortius Abl. forti forti fortiore fortiore

PLURAL. Nom. fortes fortia fortiores fortiora Gen. fortium fortium fortiorum fortiorum Dat. fortibus fortibus fortioribus fortioribus Acc. fortes, -is fortia fortiores, -is fortiora Voc. fortes fortia fortiores fortiora Abl. fortibus fortibus fortioribus fortioribus

1. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives are regularly declined in the same way. The Acc. Plu. in -is is rare.

Adjectives of One Termination.

70. Felix, happy.. Prudens, prudent.

SINGULAR. M. AND F. NEUT. M. AND F. NEUT. Nom. felix felix prudens prudens Gen. felicis felicis prudentis prudentis Dat. felici felici prudenti prudenti Acc. felicem felix prudentem prudens Voc. felix felix prudens prudens Abl. felici felici prudenti prudenti

PLURAL. Nom. felices felicia prudentes prudentia Gen. felicium felicium prudentium prudentium Dat. felicibus felicibus prudentibus prudentibus Acc. felices, -is felicia prudentes, -is prudentia Voc. felices felicia prudentes prudentia Abl. felicibus felicibus prudentibus prudentibus

Vetus, old. Plus, more.

SINGULAR. M. AND F. NEUT. M. AND F. NEUT. Nom. vetus vetus —— plus Gen. veteris veteris —— pluris Dat. veteri veteri —— —— Acc. veterem vetus —— plus Voc. vetus vetus —— —— Abl. vetere vetere —— plure

PLURAL. Nom. veteres vetera plures plura Gen. veterum veterum plurium plurium Dat. veteribus veteribus pluribus pluribus Acc. veteres vetera plures, -is plura Voc. veteres vetera —— —— Abl. veteribus veteribus pluribus pluribus

1. It will be observed that vetus is declined as a pure Consonant-Stem; i.e. Ablative Singular in -e, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural Neuter in -a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in -es only. In the same way are declined compos, controlling; dives, rich; particeps, sharing; pauper, poor; princeps, chief; sospes, safe; superstes, surviving. Yet dives always has Neut. Plu. ditia.

2. Inops, needy, and memor, mindful, have Ablative Singular inopi, memori, but Genitive Plural inopum, memorum.

3. Participles in -ans and -ens follow the declension of i-stems. But they do not have -i the Ablative, except when employed as adjectives; when used as participles or as substantives, they have -e; as,—

a sapienti viro, by a wise man; but a sapiente, by a philosopher. Tarquinio regnante, under the reign of Tarquin.

4. Plus, in the Singular, is always a noun.

5. In the Ablative Singular, adjectives, when used as substantives,—

a) usually retain the adjective declension; as,—

aequalis, contemporary, Abl. aequali. consularis, ex-consul, Abl. consulari

So names of Months; as, Aprili, April; Decembri, December.

b) But adjectives used as proper names have -e in the Ablative Singular; as, Celere, Celer; Juvenale, Juvenal.

c) Patrials in -as, -atis and -is, -itis, when designating places regularly have -i; as, in Arpinati, on the estate at Arpinum, yet -e, when used of persons; as, ab Arpinate, by an Arpinatian.

6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which are frugi, frugal; nequam, worthless.

7. In poetry, adjectives and participles in -ns sometimes form the Gen. Plu. in -um instead of -ium; as, venientum, of those coming.

* * * * *

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

71. 1. There are three degrees of Comparison,—the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (Neut. -ius), and the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um), to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel; as,—

altus, high, altior, higher, altissimus, highest, very high. fortis, brave, fortior, fortissimus. felix, fortunate, felicior, felicissimus.

So also Participles, when used as Adjectives; as,—

doctus, learned, doctior, doctissimus. egens, needy, egentior, egentissimus.

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to the Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—

asper, rough, asperior, asperrimus. pulcher, beautiful, pulchrior, pulcherrimus. acer, sharp, acrior, acerrimus. celer, swift, celerior, celerrimus.

a. Notice maturus, maturior, maturissimus or maturrimus.

4. Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—

facilis, easy, facilior, facillimus. difficilis, diffcult, difficilior, difficillimus. similis, like, similior, simillimus. dissimilis, unlike, dissimilior, dissimillimus. humilis, low, humilior, humillimus.

5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and Superlative as though from forms in -dicens, -ficens, -volens. Thus:—

maledicus, slanderous, maledicentior, maledicentissimus. magnificus, magnificent, magnificentior, magnificentissimus. benevolus, kindly, benevolentior, benevolentissimus.

a. Positives in -dicens and -volens occur in early Latin; as maledicens, benevolens.

6. Dives has the Comparative divitior or ditior; Superlative divitissimus or ditissimus.

Irregular Comparison.

72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison; viz.—

bonus, good, melior, optimus. malus, bad, pejor, pessimus. parvus, small, minor, minimus. magnus, large, major, maximus. multus, much, plus, plurimus, frugi, thrifty, frugalior, frugalissimus, nequam, worthless, nequior, nequissimus.

Defective Comparison.

73. 1. Positive lacking entirely,—

(Cf. prae, in front prior, former, primus, first of.) (Cf. citra, this side citerior, on this citimus, near. of.) side, (Cf. ultra, beyond.) ulterior, farther, ultimus, farthest. (Cf. intra, within.) interior, inner, intimus, inmost (Cf. prope, near.) propior, nearer, proximus, nearest. (Cf. de, down.) deterior, inferior, deterrimus, worst. (Cf. archaic potis, potior, preferable, potissimus, chiefest possible.)

2. Positive occurring only in special cases,—

postero die, anno, posterior, later, postremus, latest, etc. the following last. day, etc., postumus, late-born, posteri, posthumous. descendants, exteri, exterior, outer extremus, extimus, foreigners, outermost. nationes exterae, foreign nations, inferi, gods of the inferior, lower, infimus, imus, lower world, lowest. Mare Inferum, Mediterranean Sea, superi, gods superior, higher, supremus, last. above, summus, highest. Mare Superum, Adriatic Sea,

3. Comparative lacking.

vetus, old, ——[17] veterrimus. fidus, faithful, —— fidissimus. novus, new, ——[18] novissimus,[19] last. sacer, sacred, —— sacerrimus. falsus, false, —— falsissimus.

Also in some other words less frequently used.

4. Superlative lacking.

alacer, lively, alacrior, —— ingens, great, ingentior, —— salutaris, wholesome, salutarior, —— juvenis, young, junior, ——[20] senex, old, senior. ——[21]

a. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives in -alis, -ilis, -ilis, -bilis, and in a few others.

Comparison by Magis and Maxime.

74. Many adjectives do not admit terminational comparison, but form the Comparative and Superlative degrees by prefixing magis (more) and maxime (most). Here belong—

1. Many adjectives ending in -alis, -aris, -idus, -ilis, -icus, imus, inus, -orus.

2. Adjectives in -us, preceded by a vowel; as, idoneus, adapted; arduus, steep; necessarius, necessary.

a. Adjectives in -quus, of course, do not come under this rule. The first u in such cases is not a vowel, but a consonant.

Adjectives not admitting Comparison.

75. Here belong—

1. Many adjectives, which, from the nature of their signification, do not admit of comparison; as, hodiernus, of to-day; annuus, annual; mortalis, mortal.

2. Some special words; as, mirus, gnarus, merus; and a few others.

* * * * *

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon them for their comparison.

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive by changing -i of the Genitive Singular to -e; those derived from adjectives of the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive Singular to -iter; as,—

carus, care, dearly; pulcher, pulchre, beautifully; acer, acriter, fiercely; levis, leviter, lightly.

a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead of -iter), to form the Adverb; as,—

sapiens, sapienter, wisely; sollers, sollerter, skillfully.

Note audax, audacter, boldly.

2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accusative Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective; while the Superlative of the Adverb is formed by changing the -i of the Genitive Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to -e. Thus—

(carus) care, dearly, carius, carissime. (pulcher) pulchre, beautifully, pulchrius, pulcherrime. (acer) acriter, fiercely, acrius, acerrime. (levis) leviter, lightly, levius, levissime. (sapiens) sapienter, wisely, sapientius, sapientissime. (audax) audacter, boldly, audacius, audacissime.

Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.

77. 1., well, melius, optime. male, ill, pejus, pessime. magnopere, greatly, magis, maxime. multum, much, plus, plurimum. non multum, little, minus, minime. parum, diu, long, diutius, diutissime. nequiter, worthlessly, nequius, nequissime. saepe, often, saepius, saepissime. mature, betimes, maturius, maturrime. maturissime. prope, near, propius, proxime. nuper, recently, —— nuperrime. —— potius, rather, potissimum, especially. —— prius, previously, primum, first. before, secus, otherwise, setius, less.

2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form an Adverb in -o, instead of -e; as,—

crebro, frequently; falso, falsely; continuo, subito, suddenly; immediately; raro, rarely, and a few others.

a. cito, quickly, has -o.

3. A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the Positive of the Adverb; as,—

multum, much; paulum, facile, little; easily.

4. A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive in -iter; as,—

firmus, firmiter, firmly; humanus, humaniter, humanly; largus, largiter, copiously; alius, aliter, otherwise.

a. violentus has violenter.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are -tus and -tim; as, antiquitus, anciently; paulatim, gradually.

* * * * *

NUMERALS.

78. Numerals may be divided into—

I. Numeral Adjectives, comprising—

a. Cardinals; as, unus, one; duo, two; etc.

b. Ordinals; as, primus, first; secundus, second; etc.

c. Distributives; as, singuli, one by one; bini, two by two; etc.

II. Numeral Adverbs; as, semel, once; bis, twice; etc.

79. TABLE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

CARDINALS. ORDINALS. 1. unus, una, unum primus, first 2. duo, duae, duo secundus, second 3. tres, tria tertius, third 4. quattuor quartus, fourth 5. quinque quintus, fifth 6. sex sextus 7. septem septimus 8. octo octavus 9. novem nonus 10. decem decimus 11. undecim undecimus 12. duodecim duodecimus 13. tredecim tertius decimus 14. quattuordecim quartus decimus 15. quindecim quintus decimus 16. sedecim, sextus decimus sexdecim 17. septendecim septimus decimus 18. duodeviginti duodevicesimus 19. undeviginti undevicesimus 20. viginti vicesimus 21. viginti unus, vicesimus primus, unus et viginti unus et vicesimus 22. viginti duo, vicesimus secundus, duo et viginti alter et vicesimus 30. triginta tricesimus 40. quadraginta quadragesimus 50. quinquaginta quinquagesimus 60. sexaginta sexagesimus 70. septuaginta septuagesimus 80. octoginta octogesimus 90. nonaginta nonagesimus 100. centum centesimus 101. centum unus, centesimus primus, centum et unus centesimus et primus 200. ducenti, -ae, -a ducentesimus 300. trecenti trecentesimus 400. quadringenti quadringentesimus 500. quingenti quingentesimus 600. sescenti sescentesimus 700. septingenti septingentesimus 800. octingenti octingentesimus 900. nongenti nongentesimus 1,000. mille millesimus 2,000. duo milia bis millesimus 100,000. centum milia centies millesimus 1,000,000. decies centena milia decies centies millesimus

DISTRIBUTIVES. ADVERBS. 1. singuli, one by one semel, once 2. bini, two by two bis 3. terni (trini) ter 4. quaterni quater 5. quini quinquies 6. seni sexies 7. septeni septies 8. octoni octies 9. noveni novies 10. deni decies 11. undeni undecies 12. duodeni duodecies 13. terni deni terdecies 14. quaterni deni quaterdecies 15. quini deni quinquies decies 16. seni deni sexies decies 17. septeni deni septies decies 18. duodeviceni octies decies 19. undeviceni novies decies 20. viceni vicies 21. viceni singuli, vicies semel singuli et viceni 22. viceni bini, vicies bis bini et viceni 30. triceni tricies 40. quadrageni quadragies 50. quinquageni quinquagies 60. sexageni sexagies 70. septuageni septuagies 80. octogeni octogies 90. nonageni nonagies 100. centeni centies 101. centeni singuli, centies semel centeni et singuli 200. duceni ducenties 300. treceni trecenties 400. quadringeni quadringenties 500. quingeni quingenties 600. sesceni sescenties 700. septingeni septingenties 800. octingeni octingenties 900. nongeni nongenties 1,000. singula milia milies 2,000. bina milia bis milies 100,000. centena milia centies milies 1,000,000. decies centena milia decies centies milies

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