Where reference is made to page numbers, there is an annotation showing a footnote number and the relative information is appended at the end of each lesson or section.
Pronunciation marks have been ignored. However, accented syllables precede the single apostrophe, which also serves as a break. Otherwise breaks are shown by spaces.
Barnes' New National Readers
NEW NATIONAL FOURTH READER
CHARLES J. BARNES and J. MARSHALL HAWKES
It is thought that the following special features of this book will commend themselves to Teachers and School Officers.
The reading matter of the book is more of a descriptive than conversational style, as it is presumed that the pupil, after having finished the previous books of the series, will have formed the habit of easy intonation and distinct articulation.
The interesting character of the selections, so unlike the reading books of former times.
The large amount of information which has been combined with incidents of an interesting nature, to insure the pupil's earnest and thoughtful attention.
The length of the selections for reading,—the attention of pupils being held more readily by long selections than by short ones, though of equal interest.
The gradation of the lessons, which has been systematically maintained by keeping a careful record of all new words as fast as they appeared, and using only such pieces as contained a limited number.
The simplicity of the lessons, which becomes absolutely necessary in the schools of to-day, owing to the short school life of the pupil, his immature age, and inability to comprehend pieces of a metaphysical or highly poetical nature.
The ease with which pupils may pass from the Third Reader of this series to this book, thereby avoiding the necessity of supplementary reading before commencing the Fourth Reader, or of using a book of another series much lower in grade.
Language Lessons, of a nature to secure intelligent observation, and lead the pupil to habits of thought and reflection. Nothing being done for the learner that he could do for himself.
Directions for Reading, which accompany the lessons—specific in their treatment and not of that general character which young teachers and pupils are unable to apply.
All new words of special difficulty, at the heads of the lessons, having their syllabication, accent, and pronunciation indicated according to Webster. Other new words are placed in a vocabulary at the close of the book.
The type of this book, like that of the previous books of the series, is much larger than that generally used, for a single reason. Parents, every-where, are complaining that the eye-sight of their children is being ruined by reading from small, condensed type. It is confidently expected that this large, clear style will obviate such unfortunate results.
The illustrations have been prepared regardless of expense, and will commend themselves to every person of taste and refinement.
LESSONS IN PROSE.
1.—"I'M GOING TO" (Part I) Charlotte Daly.
2.—"I'M GOING TO" (Part II) Charlotte Daly.
3.—THE BEAN AND THE STONE
5.—AN ADVENTURE WITH DUSKY WOLVES (I) Mayne Reid.
6.—AN ADVENTURE WITH DUSKY WOLVES (II) Mayne Reid.
7.—THE SAILOR CAT David Ker.
10.—ADVENTURE WITH A LION Livingstone.
11.—THE NOBLEST DEED OF ALL
13.—THE STORY OF INDIAN SPRING (I) Aunt Mary.
14.—THE STORY OF INDIAN SPRING (II)
15.—AN ADVENTURE WITH A SHARK
17.—A FUNNY HORSESHOE "Christian Union."
19.—THE TRADER'S TRICK
21.—ALI, THE CAMEL DRIVER (I)
22.—ALI, THE CAMEL DRIVER (II)
23.—A QUEER PEOPLE
26.—THE HIDDEN TREASURE (I)
27.—THE HIDDEN TREASURE (II)
28.—THE HIDDEN TREASURE (III)
30.—AIR J. Berners (Adapted).
31.—A TIMELY RESCUE
33.—TRUE COURTESY (I)
34.—TRUE COURTESY (II)
35.—WHY AN APPLE FALLS
38.—HOLLAND (I) Mary Mapes Dodge.
39.—HOLLAND (II) Mary Mapes Dodge.
41.—SOMETHING ABOUT PLANTS
42.—FOREST ON FIRE (I) Audubon.
43.—FOREST ON FIRE (II) Audubon.
45.—A GHOST STORY (I) Louisa M. Alcott.
46.—A GHOST STORY (II) Louisa M. Alcott.
47.—A GHOST STORY (III) Louisa M. Alcott.
50.—PRESENCE OF MIND
51.—HALBERT AND HIS DOG
53.—THE CATERPILLAR AND BUTTERFLY
54.—WILD HORSES OF SOUTH AMERICA
55.—AN EMPEROR'S KINDNESS
57.—STORY OF THE SIOUX WAR (I)
58.—STORY OF THE SIOUX WAR (II)
61.—ANECDOTE OF WASHINGTON (I)
62.—ANECDOTE OF WASHINGTON (II)
65.—AN INCIDENT OF THE REVOLUTION
67.—STORY OF DETROIT
69.—MAKING MAPLE SUGAR (I) Charles Dudley Warner.
70.—MAKING MAPLE SUGAR (II) Charles Dudley Warner.
72.—NATURAL WONDERS OF AMERICA (I)
73.—NATURAL WONDERS OF AMERICA (II)
74.—AFRICAN ANTS Du Chaillu.
76.—EGYPT AND ITS RUINS (I)
77.—EGYPT AND ITS RUINS (II)
LESSONS IN VERSE.
4.—TO-MORROW Mrs. M.R. Johnson.
8.—RESCUED Celia Thaxter.
12.—MARJORIE'S ALMANAC T.B. Aldrich.
16.—A LEGEND OF THE NORTHLAND Phoebe Cary.
20.—A HAPPY PAIR Florence Percy.
24.—ILL-NATURED BRIER Mrs. Anna Bache.
29.—LOOKING FOR THE FAIRIES Julia Bacon.
32.—BIRDS IN SUMMER Mary Howitt.
36.—THE MILLER OF THE DEE Charles Mackay.
40.—THE WIND IN A FROLIC William Howitt.
48.—WHAT THE CHIMNEY SANG Bret Harte.
56.—UNITED AT LAST
60.—THE BROOK Alfred Tennyson.
64.—TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW Charles Mackay.
68.—THE FISHERMAN John G. Whittier.
71.—OLD IRONSIDES Oliver Wendell Holmes.
75.—THE LEAP OF ROUSHAN BEG Henry W. Longfellow.
GEOGRAPHICAL AND PROPER NAMES
The publishers desire to thank Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., the Century Co., Roberts Brothers, and Charles Scribner's Sons, for permission to use and adapt some of their valuable copyright matter.
The following suggestions are submitted for the benefit of young teachers.
In order that pupils may learn how to define words at the heads of the lessons, let the teacher read the sentences containing such words and have pupils copy them upon slate or paper.
Then indicate what words are to be defined, and insist upon the proper syllabication, accent, marking of letters, etc.
In this way the pupil learns the meaning of the word as it is used, and not an abstract definition that may be meaningless.
Have pupils study their reading lessons carefully before coming to recitation.
The position of pupils while reading should be erect, easy, and graceful.
Give special attention to the subject of articulation, and insist upon a clear and distinct enunciation.
In order to develop a clear tone of voice, let pupils practice, in concert, upon some of the open vowel sounds, using such words as arm, all, old.
In this exercise, the force of utterance should be gentle at first, and the words repeated a number of times; then the force should be increased by degrees, until "calling tones" are used.
Encourage a natural use of the voice, with such modulations as may be proper for a correct rendering of the thoughts which are read.
It should, be remembered that the development of a good tone of voice is the result of careful and constant practice.
Concert reading is recommended as a useful exercise, inasmuch as any feeling of restraint or timidity disappears while reading with others.
Question individual pupils upon the manner in which lessons should be read. In this way they will learn to think for themselves.
Do not interrupt a pupil while reading until a thought or sentence is completed, since such a course tends to make reading mechanical and deprive it of expression.
Errors in time, force of utterance, emphasis, and inflection should be carefully corrected, and then the passage read over again.
The "Directions for Reading" throughout the book are intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive, and can be added to as occasion requires.
The "Language Lessons" in this book, should not be neglected. They contain only such matter as is necessary to meet the requirements of pupils.
Words and expressions not readily understood, must be made intelligible to pupils. This has been done in part by definitions, and in part by interpreting some of the difficult phrases.
After the habit of acquiring the usual meaning has been formed, the original meaning of those words which are made up of stems modified by prefixes or affixes should be shown.
The real meaning of such words can be understood far better by a study of their formation, than by abstract definitions. It will be found, also, that pupils readily become interested in this kind of work.
As the capabilities of classes of the same grade will differ, it may sometimes occur that a greater amount of language work can be done effectively than is laid down in this book. When this happens, more time can be devoted to such special kinds of work as the needs of the classes suggest.
Constant drill upon the analysis of lessons, varied at times by the analysis of short stories taken from other sources and read to the class, will develop the reasoning faculties of pupils and render the writing of original compositions a comparatively easy exercise.
Encourage the habit of self-reliance on the part of pupils. Original investigation, even if followed at first by somewhat crude results, is in the end more satisfactory than any other course.
The Definitions (pages 373-382) and the List of Proper Names (pages 383 and 384) may be used in the preparation of the lessons.
When exercises are written, particular care should be required in regard to penmanship, correct spelling, punctuation, and neatness.
 "The Definitions" are found at the end of the text, however "the List of Proper Names" has not been included in this production.
a as in lake a " " at a " " far a " " all a " " care a " " ask a as in what e " " be e " " let i " " ice i " " in o " " so o as in box u " " use u " " up u " " fur oo " " too oo " " look
oi, oy (unmarked), as in oil, boy ou, ow " " " out, now
b as in bad d " " do f " " fox g " " go h " " he j " " just k " " kite l " " let m as in me n " " no p " " put r " " rat s " " so t " " too v " " very w " " we y as in yes z " " froze ng " " sing ch " " chick sh " " she th " " think th " " the wh(hw)," what
a like o as in what e " a " " where e " a " " they e " u " " her i " u " " girl i " e " " police o, u like oo as in to, rule o " u " " come o " a " " for u, o " oo " " put, could y " i " " by y " i " " kit'ty
c like s as in race c " k " " cat g " j " " cage n like ng as in think s " z " " has x " ks, or gz " box, exist
spokes'man, one who speaks for others.
cho'rus, a number of speakers or singers.
apt, likely; ready.
folks, people; family.
mis'er a ble, very unhappy; very poor.
lone'some, without friends; lonely.
wretch'ed, unhappy; very sad.
* * * * *
"I'M GOING TO."
Once upon a time, there was a little boy, whose name was Johnny. "Johnny," said his mamma, one day, "will you bring me an armful of wood?"
"Yes," said Johnny, "I'm going to"; but just then he heard Carlo, the dog, barking at a chipmunk over in the meadow, so he ran off as fast as he could go.
Now this was not the first time that Johnny had said to his mamma, "Yes, I'm going to." He never thought of that wood again until about dinner-time, when he began to feel hungry.
When he got back, he found that dinner was over, and papa and mamma had gone to ride. He found a piece of bread and butter, and sat down on a Large rock, with his back against the stump of a tree, to eat it.
When it was all gone, Johnny began to think what he should do next. He closed his eyes as people are apt to do when they think.
Presently he heard a score of voices about him. One was saying, "Wait a bit"; another, "Pretty soon"; another, "In a minute"; another, "By and by"; and still another, louder than the rest, kept screaming as loud as it could, "Going to, going to, going to," till Johnny thought they were crazy.
"Who in the world are you?" said he, in great surprise, "and what are you making such a noise about?"
"We are telling our names," said they; "didn't you ask us to tell our names?"
"No," said Johnny, "I didn't."
"O what a story!" cried they all in a breath.
"Let's shake him for it," said one.
"No, let us carry him to the king," said another.
So they began to spin about him like so many spiders; for each one of them carried a long web, and when that gets wound around a boy or a girl, it is a very difficult thing to get rid of.
In a few minutes they had him all wound up—hands and feet, nose and eyes, all tied up tight. Then they took him among them, and flew away with him, miles and miles, over the hills, and up to a big cave in the mountain. There he heard ever so many more voices, and it was noisier than ever.
"Where am I?" he said, as soon as he could speak.
"O you're safe at home," answered Wait-a-bit, for he seemed to be the spokesman; "and they have been expecting you for some time."
"This isn't my home," said Johnny, feeling very miserable and beginning to cry.
"O yes, it is," said a chorus of voices. "This is just where such folks as you belong. There are many of your fellows here, and you won't be lonesome a bit."
They had begun to unwind the web from his eyes now, so he opened them and looked about him. O what a wretched place it was!
Against the sides of the cave, stood long rows of boys and girls, with very sorry faces, all of them saying over as fast as they could speak, "Going to, going to!" "Wait a bit, wait a bit!" "Pretty soon, pretty soon!" "In a minute, in a minute!" studying the names just as hard as if they were lessons.
There were Delays, and Tardys, and Put-offs, with ever so many more; and in a corner by themselves, and looking more unhappy than all the rest, were the poor little fellows whose names were "Too late."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Pupils should read loud enough for all the class to hear them.
The words forming a quotation should usually be spoken in a louder tone than the other words in the lesson, as—
"Johnny," said his mamma, one day, "will you bring me an armful of wood?"
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Divide into syllables, accent, and mark the sounds of the letters in the following words: Carlo, armful, mountain, unwind.
What two words can be used for each of the following: I'm, didn't, let's, you're, isn't, won't?
What other words could be used instead of got (page 16, line 4)?
Proper names should begin with capital letters: as, Johnny, Carlo.
Give three other words used as proper names in this lesson.
 paragraph 4 of this lesson
* * * * *
de spair', loss of hope.
pro cras' ti na tor, one who puts off doing any thing.
res o lu'tions, promises made to one's self; resolves.
yon'der, there; in that place.
mon'strous, of great size.
gi'ant, an unreal person, supposed to be of great size.
hor'rid, causing great fear or alarm.
ex pect'ed, thought; looked for.
* * * * *
"I'M GOING TO."
"O dear, dear! Where am I?" said Johnny in despair. "Please let me out! I want my mamma!"
"No, you don't," said Wait-a-bit. "You don't care much about her, and this is really where you belong. This is the kingdom of Procrastination, and yonder comes the king."
"The kingdom of what?" said Johnny, who had never heard such a long word in his life before.
But just then he heard a heavy foot-fall, and a great voice that sounded like a roar, saying, "Has he come? Did you get him?"
"Yes, here he is," said Wait-a-bit, "and he'd just been saying it a little while before we picked him up."
Johnny looked up and saw a monstrous giant, with a bright green body and red legs, and a yellow head and two horrid coal-black eyes.
"Let me have him," said the giant. So he took him up just as if he had been a rag-baby, and looked him all over, turning him from side to side, and from head to feet.
O but Johnny was frightened, and expected every moment to be swallowed!
"Let's see," said the giant; "he always says 'Pretty soon.' No, that isn't it. What is it, my fine fellow, that you always say to your mamma when she asks you to do any thing for her?
"It isn't 'Pretty soon,' nor 'In a minute.' What is it? They all mean about the same thing, to be sure, and bring every body to me in the end; but I must know exactly, or I can't put you in the right place."
Johnny hung his head, and did not want to tell; but an extra hard poke of the giant's big finger made him open his mouth and say with shame, that he always said, "I'm going to."
"O that's it!" said the giant. "Well, then, you stand there."
So he unwound a bit of the web from his fingers—just enough so that he could hold the Procrastinator's Primer—and stood him at the end of a long row of children, who were saying over and over again, just as fast as they could speak, "Going to, going to, going to, going to," just that, and nothing else in the world.
Johnny was tired and hungry by this time, and longed to see his mamma, thinking that, if he could only get back: to her, he would always mind the very moment she told him to do any thing.
He made a great many good resolutions while he stood there. At last the giant called him to come and say his lesson.
"You shall have a short one to-day," said he, "and need say it only a thousand times, because it is your first day here. To-morrow, you must say it a million."
Johnny tried to step forward, but the web was still about his feet, so he fell with, a bang to the floor.
Just then he opened his eyes to find that he had rolled from the rock to the grass, and that mamma was calling him in a loud voice to come to supper, and this time he didn't say, "I'm going to."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—The words in quotation marks should be read in the same manner as in Lesson I.
Read words in dark type in the following sentences with more force than the other words:
"Has he come? Did you get him?"
Words that are read more forcibly than other words in a sentence are called emphatic words.
Which are the emphatic words in the following sentences?
"You shall have a short one to-day."
"I must know exactly."
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Divide into syllables, accent, and mark the sounds of the letters in the following words: extra, primer, moment, coal-black.
* * * * *
remark'able, worthy of notice; unusual.
moist'ure, wetness; that which makes wet.
absorbed', sucked up; drunk up.
with'er, lose freshness.
starched, stiffened, as starch.
germ, that from which the plant grows; bud.
hand'some, pleasing in appearance; very pretty.
clasped, surrounded; inclosed.
* * * * *
THE BEAN AND THE STONE.
"I think I ought to be doing something in the world!" said a little voice out in the garden.
"Pray, what can you do?" asked another and somewhat stronger voice.
"I think I can grow," answered the little voice.
If you had seen the owner of the little voice, perhaps you would not have thought him any thing remarkable.
It is true he had on a clean white coat, so smooth and shining that it looked as if it had been newly starched and ironed, and inside of this, he hugged two stout packages.
The coat had only one fastening; but that fastening extended down the back, and was a curious thing to see.
It looked just as if the coat had been cut with a knife, and had afterward grown together again. It was like a scar on your hand; and a scar it is called.
"Yes, I ought to be growing," said the little voice, "for I am a bean, and in the spring a bean ought to grow."
Now you know how the coat came by its scar, for the scar was the spot which showed where the bean had been broken from the pod.
"What do you mean by growing?" said the other voice, which came from a large red stone.
"Why," said the bean, "don't you know what growing means? I thought every thing knew how to grow. You see, when I grow, my root goes down into the soil to get moisture, and my stem goes up into the light to find heat. Heat and moisture are my food and drink.
"By and by, I shall be a full-grown plant, and that is wonderful! In the ground, my roots will travel far and wide.
"In the air, how happy my stem will be! I shall learn a great deal, and see beautiful things every day. O how I long for that time to come!"
"What you say is very strange," said the red stone. "Here I have been in this same place for many years, and I have not grown at all. I have no root; I have no stem; or, if I have, they never move upward nor downward, as you say. Are you sure you are not mistaken?"
"Why, of course I'm not mistaken," cried the bean. "I feel within myself that I can grow; and I have absorbed so much moisture that I must soon begin."
Just then the bean's coat split from end to end, and for one or two minutes neither the stone nor the bean spoke. The stone was astonished, and the bean was a little frightened. However, he soon recovered his courage.
"There!" said he, showing the two packages he had been carrying; "these are my seed-leaves. In them is the food on which I intend to live when I begin growing.
"When my stem is strong enough to do without them, they will wither away. My coat is all worn-out, too. I shall not need it any longer. Look inside the seed-leaves, and you will see the germ. Part of it is root, and part of it is stem. Do you see?"
"I see two little white lumps," replied the stone; "but I can not understand how they will ever be a root and a stem."
"I do believe you are a poor, dull mineral, after all," said the bean; "and if so, of course you can not understand what pleasure a vegetable has in growing.
"I wouldn't be a mineral for the world! I would not lie still and do nothing, year after year. I would rather spread my branches in the sunshine, and drink in the sweet spring air through my leaves."
"What you say must be all nonsense," said the stone. "I can't understand it."
But the bean grew on without minding him. The roots pushed down into the soil and drank up the moisture from the ground. Then this moisture went into the stem, and the stem climbed bravely up into the light.
"How happy I am!" cried the bean.
It ran over the red stone, and clasped it with long green branches, covered with white bean flowers.
"O indeed!" said the stone. "Is this what you call growing? I thought you were only in fun. How handsome you are!"
"May I hang my pods on you, so that they can ripen in the sun?" said the bean.
"Certainly, friend," said the stone.
He was very polite, now that he saw the bean was a full-grown vine.
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Read in a conversational tone of voice, as in Lessons I and II.
What word is emphatic in the third paragraph?
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the words, broken, packages, courage, polite.
Tell in your own words how the bean grew.
* * * * *
elf, a very small person; an unreal being.
vex, make angry; trouble.
pon'dered, thought about with care.
streak, line; long mark.
* * * * *
A bright little boy with laughing face, Whose every motion was full of grace, Who knew no trouble and feared no care, Was the light of our household—the youngest there.
He was too young—this little elf— With troublesome questions to vex himself; But for many days a thought would rise, And bring a shade to the dancing eyes.
He went to one whom he thought more wise Than any other beneath the skies: "Mother,"—O word that makes the home!— "Tell me, when will to-morrow come?"
"It is almost night," the mother said, "And time for my boy to be in bed; When you wake up and it's day again, It will be to-morrow, my darling, then."
The little boy slept through all the night, But woke with the first red streak of light; He pressed a kiss on his mother's brow, And whispered, "Is it to-morrow now?"
"No, little Eddie, this is to-day; To-morrow is always one night away." He pondered awhile, but joys came fast, And this vexing question quickly passed.
But it came again with the shades of night: "Will it be to-morrow when it is light?" From years to come, he seemed care to borrow, He tried so hard to catch to-morrow.
"You can not catch it, my little Ted; Enjoy to-day," the mother said; "Some wait for to-morrow through many a year— It always is coming, but never is here."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—In reading poetry, pupils should notice the emphatic words, and give them proper force.
"Mother,"—O word that makes the home!—
"Tell me, when will to-morrow come?"
The two dashes in the first line of the preceding example are used instead of a parenthesis, and have the same value.
When there is no pause at the end of a line (see first line, third stanza), it should be closely joined in reading to the line which follows it, thus making the two lines read as one.
* * * * *
ap'pe tite, wish for food.
a muse'ment, play; enjoyment.
gaunt, lean; hungry looking.
oc curred', took place; happened.
en cour'age ment, hope given by another's words or actions.
di rec'tion, way; course.
dusk'y, very dark; almost black.
sin'gu lar, unusual; strange.
* * * * *
AN ADVENTURE WITH DUSKY WOLVES.
"During the summer and winter, we had several adventures in the trapping and killing of wild animals. One of them was of such a singular and dangerous kind, that you may feel interested in hearing it.
"It occurred in the dead of winter, when there was snow upon the ground. The lake was frozen over, and the ice was as smooth as glass. We spent much of our time in skating about over its surface, as the exercise gave us health and a good appetite.
"Even Cudjo, our colored servant, had taken a fancy for this amusement, and was a very good skater. Frank was fonder of it than the rest of us, and was, in fact, the best skater among us.
"One day, however, neither Cudjo nor I had gone out, but only Frank and Harry. The rest of us were busy at some carpenter work within doors.
"We could hear the merry laugh of the boys, and the ring of their skates as they glided over the smooth ice. All at once, a cry reached our ears, which we knew meant the presence of some danger.
"'O Robert!' cried my wife, 'they have broken through the ice!'
"We all dropped what we held in our hands, and rushed to the door. I seized a rope as I ran, while Cudjo took his long spear, thinking it might be of use to us. This was the work of a moment, and the next we were outside the house.
"What was our astonishment to see both the boys, away at the farthest end of the lake, but skating toward us as fast as they could!
"At the same time, our eyes rested upon a terrible sight. Close behind them upon the ice, and following at full gallop, was a pack of wolves!
"They were not the small prairie wolves, which either of the boys might have chased with a stick, but of a species known as the 'Great Dusky Wolf' of the Rocky Mountains.
"There were six of them in all. Each of them was twice the size of the prairie wolf, and their long, dark bodies, gaunt with hunger, and crested from head to tail with a high, bristling mane, gave them a most fearful appearance.
"They ran with their ears set back and their jaws apart, so that we could see their red tongues and white teeth.
"We did not stop a moment, but rushed toward the lake. I threw down the rope, and seized hold of a large rail as I ran, while Cudjo hurried forward armed with a spear. My wife, with presence of mind, turned back into the house for my rifle.
"I saw that Harry was foremost, and that the fierce wolves were fast closing upon Frank. This was strange, for we knew that Frank was by far the better skater. We all called out to him, uttering loud shouts of encouragement. Both were bearing themselves manfully, but Frank was most in danger.
"The wolves were upon his heels! 'O they will kill him!' I cried, expecting the next moment to see him thrown down upon the ice. What was my joy at seeing him suddenly wheel and dart off in a new direction."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—This lesson should be read with spirit, and in a full, clear tone of voice.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Presence of mind is the power to act quickly when sudden danger threatens.
Upon his heels means very close to.
Dead of winter is the middle of winter, as that is supposed to be the quietest or most lifeless time.
Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: fancy, gallop, prairie, bristling, rifle.
* * * * *
e lud'ed, got away from; avoided.
ex cit'ing, causing deep interest.
marks'man, one who shoots well.
re treat'ing, going away from.
en a'bled, helped; made able.
sim'i lar, like; nearly the same.
pur suit', following after.
nim'bly, with a quick motion.
com menced', began.
* * * * *
AN ADVENTURE WITH DUSKY WOLVES.
"The wolves, thus nimbly eluded, now kept on after Harry, who, in turn, became the object of our anxiety.
"In a moment they were close upon him; but he, already warned by his brother, wheeled in a similar manner, while the fierce brutes, swept along by the force of their running, were carried a long distance upon the ice before they could turn themselves.
"Their long, bushy tails, however, soon enabled them to turn about and follow in the new direction, and they galloped after Harry, who was now the nearest to them.
"Frank, in the meantime, had again turned, and came sweeping past behind them, at the same time shouting loudly, as if to tempt them away from their pursuit of Harry.
"They heeded him not, and again he changed his direction, and, as though he was about to skate into their midst, followed the wolves.
"This time he skated up close behind them, just at the moment when Harry had turned again, and thus made his second escape.
"At this moment, we heard Frank calling out to his brother to make for the shore, while, instead of retreating himself, he stopped until Harry had passed, and then dashed off, followed closely by the whole pack.
"Another slight turn brought him nearly in our direction; but there was a large hole broken through the ice close by the shore, and we saw that, unless he turned again, he would skate into it.
"We thought he was watching the wolves too intently to see it, and we shouted to warn him. Not so; he knew better than we what he was about.
"When he had reached within a few feet of the hole, he wheeled sharply to the left, and came dashing up to the point where we stood to receive him.
"The wolves, too intent upon their chase to see any thing else, went sweeping past the point where he had turned, and the next moment plunged through the broken ice into the water.
"Then Cudjo and I ran forward, shouting loudly, and, with the heavy rail and the long spear, commenced dealing death among them.
"It was but a short, though exciting scene. Five of them were speared and drowned, while the sixth crawled out upon the ice and was rapidly making off, frightened enough at his cold ducking.
"At that moment I heard the crack of a rifle and saw the wolf tumble over.
"On turning round I saw Harry with, my rifle, which my wife had brought down and handed to him, as a better marksman than herself.
"The wolf, only wounded, was kicking furiously about on the ice; but Cudjo now ran out, and, after a short struggle, finished the business with his spear.
"This was, indeed, a day of great excitement in our forest home. Frank, who was the hero of the day, although he said nothing, was no doubt not a little proud of his skating feat.
"And well he might be, as, but for his skill, poor Harry would no doubt have fallen a prey to the fierce wolves."
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of what is given below in dark type.
Again he changed his direction.
He then dashed off.
He wheeled sharply to the left.
Cudjo and I commenced dealing death among them.
Cudjo finished the business with his spear.
Harry would have fallen a prey to the fierce wolves.
Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following
Analysis.—1. Frank and Harry go to skate. 2. The alarm. 3. The wolves. 4. The pursuit. 5. The escape. 6. Death of the wolves.
* * * * *
craft, ship; a boat of any kind.
mew'ing, crying, like a cat.
a dopt'ed, received as one's own.
ad mir'er, one who likes another.
voy'age, journey by water.
dain'ty, nice in form or taste.
a loft', on high; in the air.
wind'ward, the point from which the wind blows.
star'board, the right-hand side of a ship.
bruised, injured, hurt.
* * * * *
OUR SAILOR CAT.
She was a sailor cat, indeed, and it was a sailor who first brought her on board.
Our steamer was lying at her pier in the North River, at New York, taking in cargo.
One of our men, who had been ashore, came back with a little gray-and-white kitten in his arms. She was very poor and thin, and her little furry coat was sadly soiled with dirt and grease.
But she had not lost all her fun, for she was making play with her tiny fore-paws at the ends of the sailor's red beard, to honest Jack's great delight.
"Where did you pick that up, Jack?" asked the third officer.
"Well, your honor," said Jack Harmon, touching his cap with a grin, "seems to me she must have left her ship and gone to look for another, for I found her tramping along the pier there, and mewing as if she was calling out for somebody to show her the road.
"So I thought that, as we have many rats aboard the old craft, she would be able to pick up a good living there; and I called to her, and she came at once, and here she is."
Here she was, sure enough; and as Jack ended his story, she chimed in with a plaintive little "Me-ow," which said, as plainly as ever any cat spoke yet, "I'm very cold and hungry, and I do wish somebody would take me below and give me some food!"
She had not long to wait. Half an hour later she was the best-fed cat in that part of New York City, and that night she lay snugly curled up with a good warm blanket over her.
Of course, the first thing to do with an adopted cat is to give it a name, and Jack Harmon, who was a bit of a wag in his way, and a great admirer of the monster elephant which was just then making such a stir in New York, called his new pet "Jumbo."
Jumbo soon became the pet of the whole crew, and of the passengers, too, when they came on board, a few days later, for the voyage back to England.
Before we were half-way across the ocean, the bits of meat or cake, and bits of white bread soaked in milk, which were being constantly given her by one and another, had made her look as round as an apple.
The ladies were never tired of stroking her soft fur and admiring her dainty white paws, which were now as spotless as snow. The children romped all day with this new playmate, who seemed to enjoy the sport quite as much as themselves.
But Jumbo was not content with mere play. She seemed to think herself bound to do something to "work her passage." Whenever any of the crew went aloft to take in sail, Jumbo would always climb up, too, as if to help them.
Jack Harmon was still her favorite, and whenever it came his turn to stand at the bow and keep watch, there was Jumbo going backward and forward.
On the eighth night of the voyage, the stars looked dim and watery, and a low bank of clouds began to rise to windward of us, just between sea and sky.
The old sailors shook their heads and looked grave, as if they expected an unusual storm. Suddenly the wind began to blow strongly upon the starboard quarter, stirring up a cross-sea which tossed the great ship like a toy.
Nearly all the passengers had gone below, and the few who remained on deck buttoned their water-proof coats, and held tightly on by any thing they could seize.
Jack Harmon had shut up his cat below, but poor puss escaped somehow, for all at once a shrill cry was heard, and there was Jumbo clinging to a rail, with a great mountain of a wave coming right down upon her.
Several men sprang toward the spot, but Jack was foremost, and he had just reached his little pet when down came the great wave upon them both.
Instantly the whole after-deck was one roaring, foaming waterfall, the flying spray of which blinded one for a moment. But when it cleared, there stood our brave Jack—dripping, bruised, and bleeding from a cut on the head.
But his little favorite was safe in his arms, and as he came back with her, such a cheer went up from all who were on deck, as the old ship had not heard for many a day.
"Let's send round the hat for him," said one of the passengers.
And the hat was sent around, so successfully that Jack got enough money to give his poor old mother a happy Christmas, and still have something left over for himself and Jumbo, who was his mother's pet ever after.
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Should this lesson be read with the same tone of voice as Lessons V. and VI.?
In the first paragraph, do not say pier rin for pier in; dir' tand for dirt and.
Point out two other places in the lesson where mistakes similar to those just given might occur.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark the sounds of letters in the following words: cargo, officer, blanket, passengers, instantly, bleeding.
Work her passage means to pay her fare by making herself useful.
Make out an analysis in six parts for this lesson, and use it in telling the story in your own words.
* * * * *
loi'ter ing, going slowly, lingering.
pro tect'or, one who keeps another from harm.
throng'ing, gathering in large numbers.
wrecked, dashed to pieces.
thatched, covered with straw or twigs.
bronzed, brown, darked-colored.
van'ished, gone out of sight; departed suddenly.
rapt'ure, great joy; delight.
* * * * *
"Little lad, slow wandering across the sands so yellow, Leading safe a lassie small—O tell me, little fellow, Whither go you, loitering in the summer weather, Chattering like sweet-voiced birds on a bough together?"
"I am Robert, if you please, and this is Rose, my sister, Youngest of us all"—he bent his curly head and kissed her, "Every day we come and wait here till the sun is setting, Watching for our father's ship, for mother dear is fretting.
"Long ago he sailed away, out of sight and hearing, Straight across the bay he went, into sunset steering. Every day we look for him, and hope for his returning, Every night my mother keeps the candle for him burning.
"Summer goes, and winter comes, and spring returns but never Father's step comes to the gate. O, is he gone forever? The great, grand ship that bore him off, think you some tempest wrecked her?" Tears shone in little Rose's eyes, upturned to her protector.
Eagerly the bonny boy went on: "O, sir, look yonder! In the offing see the sails that east and westward wander; Every hour they come and go, the misty distance thronging. While we watch and see them fade, with sorrow and with longing."
"Little Robert, little Rose!" The stranger's eyes were glistening At his bronzed and bearded face, upgazed the children, listening; He knelt upon the yellow sand, and clasped them to his bosom, Robert brave, and little Rose, as bright as any blossom.
"Father, father! Is it you?" The still air rings with rapture; All the vanished joy of years the waiting ones recapture! Finds he welcome wild and sweet, the low-thatched cottage reaching, But the ship that into sunset steered, upon the rocks lies bleaching.
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Read the conversational parts of this poem like conversation in prose.
Point out the emphatic words in the first line of the last stanza.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Into sunset steering, means sailing westward.
The misty distance thronging, means gathering together in the distance.
The still air rings with rapture, means that the air becomes full of joyful shouts.
All the vanished joy of years the waiting ones recapture, means that the children regain the happiness lost during their father's absence.
* * * * *
impos'ing, grand looking; of great size.
glar'ing, fierce looking.
e nor'mous, very large; huge.
start'led, suddenly alarmed; surprised.
au'dible, that may be heard.
maj'esty, greatness; nobility.
increas'ing, growing larger.
* * * * *
There is, in the appearance of the lion, something both noble and imposing. Nature has given him wonderful strength and beauty.
His body, when full grown, is only about seven feet long and less than four feet high; but his large and shapely head, with its powerful jaws, his glaring eye, and long, flowing mane, give him an air of majesty that shows him worthy of the name—"King of Beasts."
Yet we are told that a lion will not willingly attack man, unless first attacked himself or driven by hunger to forget his habits.
On meeting man suddenly, he will turn, retreat slowly for a short distance, and then run away.
The lion belongs to the cat family, and his teeth and claws are similar in form and action to those of the house cat.
His food is the flesh of animals; and so great is his appetite, that it must require several thousand other animals to supply one lion with food during his life-time.
His strength is so enormous that he can crush the skull of an ox with a single blow of his powerful paw, and then grasp it in his jaws and bound away.
Unless driven by hunger to bolder measures, he will hide in the bushes, or in the tall reeds along the banks of rivers, and spring suddenly upon the unlucky animal that chances to come near him.
Many lions have been captured, and their habits and appearance carefully studied. Although there is a difference in color—some being of a yellowish brown, others of a deep red, and a few silvery gray—the general form and appearance of all lions is the same.
The mane is of a dark brown, or of a dusky color, and the tail nearly three feet long, with a bunch of hair at the tip.
The lioness, or female lion, is smaller in every way than the male and has no mane.
It is in the night-time that the lion goes out from his den to seek for food, and his color is so dark and his movements so silent, that his presence is not known even at the distance of a few yards.
These dangerous beasts are no longer found in Europe, although they lived there in numbers many hundred years ago. It is only in the deserts and rocky hills of Asia and Africa that they are met with.
Those who have visited a menagerie, and have seen a lion within the limits of a narrow iron cage, can form no idea of the majesty of the brute when roaming about freely on his native soil.
The voice of the lion is loud and strong. It is likely to strike terror to the bravest heart.
"It consists," says a well-known writer, "at times of a low, deep moaning, repeated five or six times, and ending in scarcely audible sighs; at other times, the forest is startled with loud, deep-toned, solemn roars, increasing in loudness to the third or fourth, and then dying away in sounds like distant thunder."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—This lesson should be read a little more slowly than conversation. When we wish to describe any thing, we must give time for those who listen to us to get the meaning of what we say.
Do not run the words together when reading. (See Directions for Reading, page 42.)
Example.—"There is, in the appearance of the lion, something both noble and imposing."
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: meeting, require, Europe, idea, terror, measures, unlucky, narrow, bolder.
Air of majesty means the noble appearance supposed to belong to kings.
 See Lesson VII.
* * * * *
ar ti fi' cial, not real; made by human skill.
ex er'tion, great effort; attempt.
destroyed', killed; put an end to.
cleansed, cleaned; freed from dirt.
sit u a'tion, position.
fa'mous, much talked of; well known.
fre'quent ly, often.
in'ci dent, adventure; event.
nar rat'ed, told.
hurled, thrown with force.
stu'por, sleepy feeling.
* * * * *
ADVENTURE WITH A LION.
The dangers of lion-hunting may be understood from the following incident, narrated by Livingstone, the famous African traveler:
"The villagers among whom I was staying were much troubled by lions, which leaped into their cattle-pens and destroyed their cows.
"As I knew well that, if one of a number of lions is killed, the others frequently take the hint and leave that part of the country, I gave the villagers advice to that end, and, to encourage them, offered to lead the hunt.
"The lions were found hiding among the rocks on a hill covered with trees, and about a quarter of a mile in length. The men circled the hill, and slowly edged in closer and closer, so that the lions might be completely surrounded.
"Presently one of the natives spied a lion sitting on a piece of rock, and fired at him, the ball missing the beast and striking the rock.
"The lion turned, bit like a dog at the spot where the bullet had struck, and then bounded off to the shelter of the brushwood.
"Soon I saw another lion in much the same situation as the former, and, being not more than thirty yards from it, let fly with both barrels.
"As the lion was still on its legs, I hastened to reload my gun; but hearing a sudden and frightful cry from the natives, I looked up and saw the wounded lion springing upon me.
"I was caught by the shoulder and hurled to the ground. Growling terribly in my ear, the lion shook me as a dog does a rat.
"The shock produced a stupor, similar to that which seems to be felt by a mouse after the first shake of a cat.
"The lion then leaped upon one of the natives who had tried to shoot at him, and then sprang at the neck of a second native who, armed with a spear, was rushing to the rescue.
"The exertion was too much for the wounded beast, and so, with his claws bedded in the spearman's shoulder, he rolled over and died.
"I had escaped, but with a shoulder so broken as to need an artificial joint, and with eleven teeth wounds in my arm.
"These wounds were less severe than they would have been, had not a heavy jacket which I had on, cleansed the teeth of the lion in their passage. As it was, they were soon cured and gave me no trouble afterward."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Read this lesson in a full and clear conversational tone of voice.
Those parts of the lesson to which we wish to call attention, should be read slowly.
Example.—"The men edged in closer and closer, so that the lions might be completely surrounded."
Should the slow and clear reading be kept up throughout pages 51 and 52, or should those pages be read more rapidly?
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: Livingstone, bullet, growling, jacket, offered, advice, severe.
Edged in closer and closer means went slowly nearer and nearer.
Let fly with both barrels means fired both barrels of his gun at the same time.
Still on its legs means not so badly wounded but that it was able to stand up.
Tell the story in your own words.
 See this lesson.
* * * * *
en riched', made rich.
de tec'tion, being found out.
dis mount'ed, got down from.
sat' is fied, supplied with all one wants.
sum'mit, top; highest point.
en trust'ed, gave the care of.
em ployed', used; made use of.
im por'tant, worthy of attention.
ad dressed', spoke to.
di' a mond, a very valuable stone.
in clud' ed, put in as a part.
* * * * *
THE NOBLEST DEED OF ALL.
A rich Persian, feeling himself growing old, and finding that the cares of business were too great for him, resolved, to divide his goods among his three sons, keeping a very small part to protect him from want in his old age.
The sons were all well satisfied, and each took his share with thanks, and promised that it should be well and properly employed. When this important business was thus finished, the father addressed the sons in the following words:
"My sons, there is one thing which I have not included in the share of any one of you. It is this costly diamond which you see in my hand. I will give it to that one of you who shall earn it by the noblest deed.
"Go, therefore, and travel for three months; at the end of that time, we will meet here again, and you shall tell me what you have done."
The sons thereupon departed, and traveled for three months, each in a different direction. At the end of that time they returned; and all came together to their father to give an account of their journey. The eldest son spoke first.
"Father, on my journey a stranger entrusted to me a great number of valuable jewels, without taking any account of them. Indeed, I was well aware that he did not know how many the package contained.
"One or two of them would never have been missed, and I might easily have enriched myself without fear of detection. But I gave back the package exactly as I had received it. Was not this a noble deed?"
"My son," replied the father, "simple honesty cannot be called noble. You did what was right, and nothing more. If you had acted otherwise, you would have been dishonest, and your deed would have shamed you. You have done well, but not nobly."
The second son now spoke. He said: "As I was riding along on my journey, I one day saw a poor child playing by the shore of a lake; and just as I rode by, it fell into the water, and was in danger of being drowned.
"I at once dismounted from my horse, and plunging into the water, brought it safe to land. All the people of the village where this happened will tell you that what I say is true. Was it not a noble action?"
"My son," replied the old man, "you did only what was your duty. You could hardly have left the child to die without exerting yourself to save it. You, too, have acted well, but not nobly."
Then the third son came forward to tell his tale. He said: "Father, I had an enemy, who for years had done me much harm and tried to take my life.
"One evening during my journey, I was passing along a dangerous road which ran beside the summit of a cliff. As I rode along, my horse started at sight of something in the road.
"I dismounted to see what it was, and found my enemy lying fast asleep on the very edge of the cliff. The least movement in his sleep and he must have rolled over and been dashed to pieces on the rocks below.
"His life was in my hands. I drew him away from the edge and then woke him, and told him to go on his way in peace."
Then the old Persian cried out with great joy, "Dear son, the diamond is yours, for it is a noble and godlike thing to help an enemy and return good for evil."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Read this lesson in a conversational tone of voice, and somewhat more slowly than Lesson III.
Read what is said by each one of the four different persons, as you think each one of them would speak.
How would you read the third and fourth paragraphs?—the last paragraph?
Point out the emphatic words in the last paragraph.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: Persian, therefore, valuable, account, jewels, aware, contained, dishonest, duty, enemy.
Let pupils use other words, to express the following:
To go on his way in peace. Return good for evil.
Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following
Analysis.—1. The father divides his goods. 2. What he said to his sons. 3. What the eldest son did. 4. What the second son did. 5. What the third son did. 6. What the father said.
* * * * *
a new', over again.
al'ma nac, a book giving days, weeks, and months of the year.
rus'tling, shaking with a gentle sound.
drow'sy, sleepy; making sleepy.
larch, a kind of tree.
flue, an opening for air or smoke to pass through.
haunt'ing, staying in; returning often.
mur'mur, a low sound.
fra' grant, sweet smelling.
* * * * *
Robins in the tree-top, Blossoms in the grass, Green things a-growing Every-where you pass; Sudden fragrant breezes, Showers of silver dew, Black bough and bent twig Budding out anew; Pine-tree and willow-tree, Fringed elm and larch,— Don't you think that May-time's Pleasanter than March?
Apples in the orchard Mellowing one by one; Strawberries upturning Soft cheeks to the sun; Roses faint with sweetness, Lilies fair of face, Drowsy scents and murmurs Haunting every place; Lengths of golden sunshine, Moonlight bright as day,— Don't you think that summer's Pleasanter than May?
Roger in the corn-patch Whistling negro songs; Pussy by the hearth-side Romping with the tongs; Chestnuts in the ashes Bursting through the rind; Red leaf and gold leaf Rustling down the wind; Mother "doin' peaches" All the afternoon,— Don't you think that autumn's Pleasanter than June?
Little fairy snow-flakes Dancing in the flue; Old Mr. Santa Claus, What is keeping you? Twilight and firelight, Shadows come and go; Merry chime of sleigh-bells Tinkling through the snow; Mother knitting stockings (Pussy's got the ball!)— Don't you think that winter's Pleasanter than all?
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Read the lesson with spirit, and avoid anything like sing-song.
Do not make the last word of each line emphatic, unless it is really an emphatic word.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words; Marjorie's, chestnuts, peaches, afternoon.
What part of the year is described in each stanza?
What two words can be used for each of the following: May-time's, summer's.
* * * * *
col'o ny, a number of people living together in one place.
set'tlers, those people who form a colony.
shy, easily frightened; timid.
es tab'lished, formed; settled.
war'rior, a soldier; one who fights in war.
fur'ni ture, articles used in a house.
dread'ed, feared very much.
pros' per ous, successful; rich.
* * * * *
THE STORY OF INDIAN SPRING.
"You want to know why this is called Indian Spring, Robbie? I will tell you.
"When Mary and I were little girls, father moved away from our pleasant home on the bank of the Delaware River, and came to this part of the country. There were five of us: father, mother, Mary, our dear nurse Lizzie, and I.
"Lizzie was a colored woman, who had lived with us a long time. She was very handsome, and straight as an arrow. She was a few years older than mother.
"Grandfather Thorpe, your great grandfather, boys, gave her to mother when she was married. Your grandfather was a miller. The old mill that I went to see to-day, was his. It was the first mill built in this part of Pennsylvania.
"O, this was a beautiful country! my eyes never were tired of looking out over these mountains and valleys. But I saw that mother's face was getting thinner and whiter every day; they said she was homesick, and before we had been in the colony a year, a grave was made under an elm-tree close by, and that grave was mother's.
"I thought my heart was broken then, but I soon forgot my sorrow: I still had father, sister Mary, and Lizzie.
"In this part of Pennsylvania at that time there were very few white people, and besides our own, there was no other colony within ten miles. But our people being so near together, and well armed, felt quite safe.
"Ten miles away on the Susquehanna, was a small village established by a colony from the north, which was used as a trading-post. There the friendly Indians often came to trade.
"Father went twice a year to this village to get supplies that came up the river. He often spoke of Red Feather, an old Indian warrior. Father liked Red Feather, and he learned to trust him almost as he would have trusted a white man.
"Time passed on until I was thirteen years old, a tall, strong girl, and very brave for a girl. I could shoot almost as well as father.
"Little Mary was very quiet and shy, not like me at all. I loved fishing, and often went out hunting with father, but she staid at home with Lizzie, or sat down under the trees by the spring, watching the shadow of the trees moving in it.
"Our colony had by this time become quite prosperous. A good many of the settlers had built houses for themselves more like those they had left behind on the Delaware.
"The spring that I was fourteen, father built this house. The mill had already been grinding away for two years. We were very happy when we moved out of our little log cabin into this pleasant house.
"We had but little furniture, but we had plenty of room. Up to this time, there had not been much trouble with the Indians, and though we had often dreaded it, and lived in fear many days at a time, only four of our men had been killed by them.
"We had trusted many of the friendly Indians, and Red Feather had frequently spent days at our settlement. He seemed to like the mill.
"I became quite attached to the old man; but Mary was always afraid of him, and Lizzie kept her sharp eyes on him whenever he came into the house. She hated him, and he knew it.
"One beautiful clear morning in August of that year, father went down to the mill as usual. Lizzie was busy with her work, and little Mary was playing with some tame doves, when looking up, I saw Lizzie start suddenly.
"She had seen something in the woods that frightened her. Without speaking, she went to the door, closed and fastened it, then turned and looked out of the window. She never told mo what she saw.
"Father came home early that day; he looked anxious, and I knew that something troubled him. Without waiting to eat his supper, he went out, and very soon most of the men of the colony had gathered round him at the spring."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—With what tone of voice should this lesson be read?
What other lessons before this, have been read with the same tone of voice?
Name two emphatic words in the following exclamation:
"O, this was a beautiful country!"
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Change the exclamation given above to a statement. What word would be omitted? How would the punctuation be changed?
Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: Delaware, thinner, Susquehanna, grinding.
* * * * *
con fu'sion, disorder.
sense'less, without the power of thinking or acting; seemingly lifeless.
re vived', came back to life; recovered.
cun'ning, slyness; skill.
pro voke', make angry.
stunned, made senseless by a blow on the head.
meek'ly, in a gentle manner.
his'to ry, what is told of the past; a story.
tot'ter, shake as if about to fall.
* * * * *
THE STORY OF INDIAN SPRING.
"It was as I had feared; we were in danger of an attack from the Indians.
"Something had happened at the trading-post to provoke them, and rouse their thirst for blood. But a quiet night passed by and the sun shone again over the hills in wonderful beauty.
"Suddenly, there sounded from the forest a scream. I had never heard it before, but I knew it. It was the terrible war-whoop. Then all was confusion and horror.
"I saw Nanito, an Indian that I knew, who had eaten at our table. I saw him strike down our father, while Lizzie fought to save him.
"But it was no use, there was no mercy in the heart of the Indian. They carried Lizzie away from us, and we never saw her again.
"Poor little frightened Mary and I were tied together, our hands fastened behind us, and we were given, to—whom do you think, Robbie?—to Red Feather. Then I hated him, and resolved that I would kill him if I could.
"After a while he took us out of the house, and then I saw that most of the houses in the little village were burning. The women and children were saved alive, but nearly all the men were killed.
"I was very quiet, for I wanted my hands untied, and I thought perhaps Red Feather would pity me and unfasten them.
"Little Mary was frightened nearly to death. She had not spoken since she saw the Indian strike father down,—when she screamed and fell senseless.
"For a good while I thought she was dead. She had revived a great deal, but had not spoken.
"About sundown Red Feather led us down past the spring, out into the woods, but not far away. We could still see the smoke rising from the burning houses. The Indians had gone some distance farther and camped with the white prisoners.
"Red Feather could speak English, so I told him if he would untie my hands, I would make his fire, and bake his corn cake for him.
"He was old and feeble, and had lost much of his natural cunning. He knew me, and trusted me; so without speaking, he took his hunting knife from his belt, cut the cords, and I was free.
"I took the hatchet that he gave me to cut some branches for a fire, and went to work very meekly, with my head down.
"I dared not speak to Mary, for fear he might see me, for his eyes were fixed on me every moment. I baked his corn cake in the ashes, and gave it to him. By this time it was dark, but the light from our fire shone far out into the woods.
"I noticed Red Feather did not watch me so closely, and his eyes would now and then shut, for he was very tired.
"He leaned forward to light his pipe in the ashes, when instantly, almost without thinking, I seized the hatchet, and struck him with all my might.
"With a loud scream, I plunged into the woods toward home. Turning an instant, I saw Mary spring up, totter, and fall. With another sharp report came a twinge of pain in my side. Suddenly I fell, and in the darkness of the woods, they passed on, leaving me stunned and nearly dead.
"I will not tell you now, my dear Robbie, how I was cared for, and who brought home little Mary and laid her to rest under the elm, beside mother—but the bullet that struck me then, I still carry in my side, and shall as long as I live.
"Many years have passed since that terrible day, but I can never forget it. As long as the history of this country lasts, Indian Spring will be remembered, and other boys will listen, with eyes as wide open as yours, to the tale it has to tell."
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—Should the second or third paragraph of the lesson be read the faster?
When do we speak more rapidly—in telling an exciting story, or in common conversation?
Do our feelings guide us when we speak slowly or rapidly?—when, we speak quietly or forcibly?
Point out three paragraphs in the lesson that you would read as slowly as Lesson XIII.; three that you would read more rapidly.
In reading rapidly, be careful not to omit syllables, and not to run words together. (See Directions for Reading, page 42.)
 See Lesson VII.
* * * * *
aft, near the stern of a ship.
anch'or, a large iron for holding a ship.
aimed, directed or pointed at, as a gun.
car'tridge, a small case containing powder and ball.
mood, state of mind; temper.
sul'try, very hot.
cleav'ing, cutting through; dividing.
dis cov'ered, found out; seen clearly.
buoys, floats, made of wood, hollow iron, or copper.
re sults', what follows an act.
* * * * *
AN ADVENTURE WITH A SHARK.
Our noble ship lay at anchor in the Bay of Tangiers, a town in the north-west part of Africa.
The day had been very mild, with a gentle breeze sweeping to the northward and westward. Toward the close of the day the sea-breeze died away, and hot, sultry breathings came from the great, sunburnt desert of Sahara.
Half an hour before sundown, the captain gave the cheering order to call the hands to "go in swimming"; and, in less than five minutes, the forms of our sailors were seen leaping from the arms of the lower yards into the water.
One of the sails, with its corners fastened from the main yard-arm and the swinging boom, had been lowered into the water, and into this most of the swimmers made their way.
Among those who seemed to be enjoying the sport most heartily were two boys, one of whom was the son of our old gunner; and, in a laughing mood, they started out from the sail on a race.
There was a loud ringing shout of joy on their lips as they put off; they darted through the water like fishes. The surface of the sea was smooth as glass, though its bosom rose in long, heavy swells that set in from the ocean.
One of the buoys which was attached to the anchor, to show where it lay, was far away on the starboard quarter, where it rose and fell with the lazy swell of the waves.
Towards this buoy the two lads made their way, the old gunner's son taking the lead; but, when they were within about sixty yards of the buoy, the other boy shot ahead and promised to win the race.
The old gunner had watched the progress of his son with great pride; and when he saw him drop behind, he leaped upon the quarter-deck, and was just upon the point of urging him on by a shout, when a cry was heard that struck him with instant horror.
"A shark! a shark!" shouted the officer of the deck; and, at the sound of those terrible words, the men who were in the water, leaped and plunged toward the ship.
Three or four hundred yards away, the back of a monster shark was seen cleaving the water. Its course was for the boys.
For a moment the gunner stood like one who had lost his reason; then he shouted at the top of his voice for the boys to turn; but they heard him not.
Stoutly the two swimmers strove, knowing nothing of the danger from the shark. Their merry laughter still rang over the waters, as they were both nearing the buoy.
O, what anxiety filled the heart of the gunner! A boat had put off, but he knew it could not reach the boys in time to prevent the shark from overtaking them.
Every moment he expected to see the monster sink from sight,—then he knew all hope would be gone. At this moment a cry was heard on board the ship, that reached every heart,—the boys had discovered their enemy.
The cry startled the old gunner, and, quicker than thought, he sprung from the quarter-deck. The guns were all loaded and shotted, fore and aft, and none knew their temper better than he.
With steady hand, made strong by sudden hope, the old gunner pricked the cartridge of one of the quarter guns; then he took from his pocket a percussion cap, fixed it on its place, and set back the hammer of the gun-lock.
With great exertions, the old man turned the heavy gun to its bearing, and then seizing the string of the lock, he stood back and watched for the next swell that would bring the shark in range. He had aimed the piece some distance ahead of his mark; but yet a moment would settle his hopes and fears.
Every breath was hushed, and every heart in that old ship beat painfully. The boat was yet some distance from the boys, while the horrid sea-monster was fearfully near.
Suddenly the silence was broken by the roar of the gun; and, as the old man knew his shot was gone, he covered his face with his hands, as if afraid to see the result. If he had failed, he knew that his boy was lost.
For a moment after the report of the gun had died away upon the air, there was an unbroken silence; but, as the thick smoke arose from the surface of the water, there was, at first, a low murmur breaking from the lips of the men,—that murmur grew louder and stronger, till it swelled to a joyous, deafening shout.
The old gunner sprung to his feet, and gazed off on the water, and the first thing that met his sight was the huge body of the shark floating on its back, the shot aimed by him having instantly killed it.
In a few moments the boat reached the daring swimmers, and, greatly frightened, they were brought on board. The old man clasped his boy in his arms, and then, overcome by the powerful excitement, he leaned upon a gun for support.
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—What paragraphs should be read rapidly? Does the feeling require it?
Use calling tones for the words, "A shark! A shark!"
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words: Tangiers, Sahara, percussion, excitement, support.
Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following
Analysis.—1. Where the ship was. 2. The race. 3. The shark. 4. The gunner's trial. 5. The result.
* * * * *
scant'y, not enough for use.
hu'man, belonging to man or mankind.
cubs, the young of wild animals.
le'gend, a story; a tale.
soot'y, blackened with smoke.
scar'let, of a bright red color.
self'ish ly, as if caring only for one's self.
knead'ed, pressed and rolled with the hands.
dough, unbaked bread or cake.
* * * * *
A LEGEND OF THE NORTHLAND.
Away, away in the Northland, Where the hours of the day are few, And the nights are so long in winter, They can not sleep them through;
Where they harness the swift reindeer To the sledges when it snows; And the children look like bear's cubs, In their funny, furry clothes:
They tell them a curious story— I don't believe 'tis true; And yet you may learn a lesson If I tell the tale to you.
Once, when the good Saint Peter Lived in the world below, And walked about it, preaching, Just as he did, you know;
He came to the door of a cottage, In traveling round the earth, Where a little woman was making cakes, In the ashes on the hearth.
And being faint with fasting— For the day was almost done— He asked her, from her store of cakes, To give him a single one.
So she made a very little cake, But as it baking lay, She looked at it and thought it seemed Too large to give away.
Therefore she kneaded another, And still a smaller one; But it looked, when she turned it over, As large as the first had done.
Then she took a tiny scrap of dough, And rolled and rolled it flat; And baked it thin as a wafer— But she couldn't part with that.
For she said, "My cakes that seem so small When I eat of them myself, Are yet too large to give away." So she put them on a shelf.
Then good Saint Peter grew angry, For he was hungry and faint; And surely such, a woman Was enough to provoke a saint.
And he said, "You are far too selfish To dwell in a human form, To have both food and shelter, And fire to keep you warm.
"Now, you shall build as the birds do, And shall get your scanty food By boring, and boring, and boring, All day in the hard dry wood."
Then up she went through the chimney. Never speaking a word; And out of the top flew a woodpecker, For she was changed to a bird.
She had a scarlet cap on her head, And that was left the same, But all the rest of her clothes were burned Black as a coal in the flame.
And every country school-boy Has seen her in the wood; Where she lives in the trees till this very day Boring and boring for food.
And this is the lesson she teaches: Live not for yourselves alone, Lest the needs you will not pity Shall one day be your own.
Give plenty of what is given to you, Listen to pity's call; Don't think the little you give is great, And the much you get is small.
Now, my little boy, remember that, And try to be kind and good, When you see the woodpecker's sooty dress, And see her scarlet hood.
You mayn't be changed to a bird, though you live As selfishly as you can; But you will be changed to a smaller thing— A mean and selfish man.
* * * * *
Directions for Reading.—In what manner should this lesson be read at the beginning—quietly, or with much spirit?
On page 77, beginning with the second stanza, is what Saint Peter says quiet and slow, or emphatic and somewhat rapid?
Point out three places where two lines are to be joined and read as one.
What two lines in each stanza end with similar sounds?
 See stanza number 12 of the poem.
* * * * *
ex pres'sion, a look showing feeling.
a maze'ment, great surprise; astonishment.
mag'netisnm, an unknown power of drawing or pulling.
con tin'ued, went on; stayed.
con ven'ience, ease; the saving of trouble.
ex per'i ments, the trials made to find out facts.
* * * * *
A FUNNY HORSESHOE.
"What a funny horseshoe!" said Charlie, "It has no holes for the nails!"
I looked up and saw that he had taken up a small "horseshoe magnet."
"Why that isn't a horseshoe," I said. "It's a magnet."
"Magnet! What's that?"
Charlie turned it over in his hands, and pulled the bar a little. The bar slipped so that it hung only by a corner.
"Never mind," I said, as he looked up with a scared expression. "It isn't broken. Put the bar back."
Charlie put it back, and it sprung into place with a sharp click.
"That's funny!" he cried again. "What made it jump so? And what makes it stick? It doesn't feel sticky."
"We call it magnetism," I said. "Now, take hold of the bar, and see if you can pull it straight off."
"I can't. It sticks fast."
Charlie braced himself for a strong pull. Suddenly the bar came off, and he went tumbling backward.
"What did you say makes it hold so hard?" said he, getting up.
"Magnetism," said I again.
"But what is magnetism?"
"I couldn't tell you if I tried; but I think you could learn a great deal about it with that magnet. You will find a lot of things in that box that may help you."
Saying this, I left him to pursue his studies as best he could. When I came back, I found him more puzzled than when I left him.
"That's the queerest thing I ever saw," he said. "Some things just jump at it as though they were alive; some things it pulls; and some things it doesn't pull a bit."
"That's a very long lesson you have learned," I said. "What does it pull?"
"These," he said, pointing to a pile of things on one side of the box. "And these things it doesn't pull."
"Let us see what you have in this pile," I said, looking at the first little heap; "keys?"
"Trunk keys," said Charlie. "It doesn't pull door keys. I tried ever so many."
"Try this key," said I, taking one from my pocket. "This is a trunk key. See if the magnet pulls it."
"No-o," said Charlie, thoughtfully, "it doesn't; but it pulled all the rest of the trunk keys I could find."
"Try this key to my office door."
Charlie tried it, and to his great amazement the key stuck fast to the magnet.
"Surely," said I, "it pulls some door keys, and fails to pull some trunk keys."
Charlie was more puzzled than ever. He looked at the keys, thought a moment, then picked up my trunk key, and said: "This key is brass; the rest are iron."
"That's so," I said.
"And all these door keys that the magnet didn't pull," he continued, "are brass, too. Perhaps it can't pull brass things."
"Suppose you try. But first see if there are any brass things that the magnet pulled."
Charlie looked them over. Then we tried the casters of my chair, and all the other brass things we could find, none of which the magnet would pull.
"There's no use in trying any longer," said Charlie. "It won't pull brass."
"Then, there's another matter settled," I said. "The magnet does not pull brass. Is there any thing else it does not pull?"
"Wood," said Charlie. "I tried lots of pieces."
"Any thing else?"
"Stones," said Charlie, eagerly.
"What are these?" I asked, holding up a couple of heavy stones he had put among the things the magnet pulled.
"I guess I put those there by mistake," said Charlie, testing with, the magnet a number of stones in the other pile.
"Try them," I said.
"O!" he said, as the magnet lifted them; "I forgot. It does lift some stones."
"Well, what else have you in that pile of things the magnet did not pull?"
"Glass, leather, lead, bone, cloth, tin, zinc, corn, and a lot of things."
"Very well. Now let us see what the magnet does pull."
"Iron keys," said Charlie, "and nails."
"Here's a nail in this other pile."
"That's a brass nail. The magnet pulls only iron nails."
"What else have we in this pile?"
"Needles, hair-pins, screws, wire—iron wire," he added quickly. "Brass wire doesn't stick, you know."
"How about this?" I asked, taking a small coil of copper wire from my desk.
"I guess that won't stick," said Charlie. "Because that's copper wire, and the magnet doesn't seem to pull any thing that isn't iron."
Much to Charlie's satisfaction, the magnet did not pull the copper wire. Then I took up two stones, one rusty red, the other black, and said: "What about these?"
"I guess they must have iron in them too," said Charlie. "Have they?"
"They have," I replied. "They are iron ores from which iron is made. Why did you think there was iron in them?"
"Because they wouldn't have stuck to the magnet if there wasn't."
"Quite true. So you have learned another very important fact. Can you tell me what it is?"
"The magnet pulls iron," said Charlie.
"Good," said I; "and it is also true that the magnet does not pull—"
"Things that are not iron," said Charlie.
"True again," I said. "So far as our experiments go, the magnet pulls iron always, and never any thing else."
"But what makes it pull iron?"
"That I can not tell. We see it does pull, but just how the pulling is done, or what makes it, no one has yet found out.
"For convenience we call the pulling power magnetism. You may keep the magnet, and at some other time, I will tell you more about it."
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Name six words in the lesson, each of which is made up of two words by leaving out letters.
Write out the two words in each case.
What is the name of the mark which shows the omission of letters?
Point out the statement, command, question, and exclamation in the sentences given below.
"O, isn't it a funny horseshoe!"
"Put the bar back."
"What made it jump so?"
"The magnet pulls iron."
* * * * *
ex pos'es, shows.
mi mo'sa, a tree that grows in Africa.
mot'tled, marked with spots of different color.
re sem'bling, looking like.
ap proach', coming near.
pub'lic, open to all; free.
va'ri ous, different; unlike in kind.
de fend', take care of; protect.
gait, manner of stepping.
pre vents', keeps from; stops.
ca' pa ble, having power; able.
* * * * *
THE GIRAFFE OR CAMELOPARD.
There are few sights more pleasing than a herd of tall and graceful giraffes.
With, their heads reaching a height of from twelve to eighteen feet, they move about in small herds on the open plains of Africa, eating the tender twigs and leaves of the mimosa and other trees.
The legs of a large giraffe are about nine feet long, and its neck nearly six feet; while its body measures only seven feet in length and slopes rapidly from the neck to the tail.
The graceful appearance of the giraffe is increased by the beauty of its skin, which is orange red in color and mottled with dark spots.
Its long tail has at the end a tuft of thick hair which serves the purpose of keeping off the flies and stinging insects, so plentiful in the hot climate of Africa.
Its tongue is very wonderful. It is from thirteen to seventeen inches in length, is slender and pointed, and is capable of being moved in various ways. It is almost as useful to the giraffe as the trunk is to the elephant.
The horns of the giraffe are very short and covered with skin. At the ends there are tufts of short hair. The animal has divided hoofs somewhat resembling those of the ox.
The head of the giraffe is small, and its eyes, large and mild looking. These eyes are set in such a way that the animal can see a great deal of what is behind it without turning its head.
In addition to its wonderful power of sight, the giraffe can scent danger from a great distance; so there is no animal more difficult of approach.
Strange to relate, the giraffe has no voice. In London, some years ago, two giraffes were burned to death in their stables, when the slightest sound would have given notice of their danger, and saved their lives.
The giraffe is naturally both gentle and timid, and he will always try to avoid danger by flight. It is when running that he exposes his only ungraceful point.
He runs swiftly, but as he moves the fore and hind legs on each side at the same time, it gives him a very displeasing and awkward gait.
But though timid, he will, when overtaken, turn even upon the lion or panther, and defend himself successfully by powerful kicks with his strong legs.
The natives of Africa capture the giraffe in pitfalls, which are deep holes covered over with branches of trees and dirt. When captured, he can be tamed, and gives scarcely any trouble during captivity.
Fifty years ago, but little was known about giraffes in Europe or America. Now we can find them in menageries and the public gardens of our large cities.
The giraffe thrives in captivity and seems to be well satisfied with a diet of corn and hay. It is a source of great satisfaction to those who admire this beautiful animal, that there is no reason which prevents him from living in a climate so different from that of his African home.
* * * * *
Language Lesson.—Write statements containing each of the following words, used in such a manner as to show their proper meaning: feet, feat; red, read; fore, four; gait, gate.
We are coming to see you to-morrow.
He stood watching the ships sailing on the sea.
* * * * *
ex pert', skillful.
ad vise', offer advice; give notice of what has happened.
civ'il ized, having laws, learning, and good manners.
quan'ti ty, a large amount; part.
in duce', lead one to think or act.
pre pared', made ready for use.
de part'ed, went away.
hence forth', from this time forward.
part'ner, one who shares with another, as a partner in business.
ar riv'ing, coming to; reaching a point.
con vince', make one believe.
* * * * *
THE TRADER'S TRICK.
Out in the West, where many Indians live, there are white men who go among them to trade for furs and skins of animals.
These furs and skins are collected and prepared by the Indians, and serve the purpose of money when the traders visit them to dispose of various kinds of goods.
In old times, before the white men came to this country, the Indians had only bows and arrows, and spears with which to hunt.
But the white men soon taught them to use guns, and to-day, nearly all the tribes in America are well supplied with rifles or shotguns.
They are very expert with these fire-arms, and as they use them a great deal, must have a large and constant supply of gunpowder.
A story is told of how, at one time, a tribe of Indians tried to raise gunpowder by planting seed. This shows how little they knew of civilized life and habits.
A trader went to a certain Indian nation to dispose of a stock of goods. Among other things he had a quantity of gunpowder.
The Indians traded for his cloths, hats, axes, beads, and other things, but would not take the powder, saying: "We do not wish for the powder; we have plenty."
The trader did not like to carry all the powder back to his camp; so thought he would play a trick on the Indians, and induce them to buy it.
Going to an open piece of ground near the Indian camp, he dug some little holes in the soft, rich soil; then mixing a quantity of onion seed with his powder, he began to plant it.
The Indians were curious to know what he was doing, and stood by greatly interested.
"What are you doing?" said one. "Planting gunpowder," replied the trader.
"Why do you plant it?" inquired another.
"To raise a crop of powder. How could I raise it without planting?" said the trader. "Do you not plant corn in the ground?"
"And will gunpowder grow like corn?" exclaimed half a dozen at once.
"Certainly it will," said the trader. "Did you not know it? As you do not want my powder, I thought I would plant it, and raise a crop which I could gather and sell to the Crows."
Now the Crows were another tribe of Indians, which was always at war with this tribe. The idea of their enemies having a large supply of powder increased the excitement, and one of the Indians said:
"Well, well, if we can raise powder like corn, we will buy your stock and plant it."
But some of the Indians thought best to wait, and see if the seed would grow. So the trader agreed to wait a few days.
In about a week the tiny sprouts of the onion seed began to appear above the ground.
The trader calling the Indians to the spot, said: "You see now for yourselves. The powder already begins to grow, just as I told you it would."
The fact that some small plants appeared where the trader had put the gunpowder, was enough to convince the Indians.
Every one of them became anxious to raise a crop of gunpowder.
The trader sold them his stock, in which there was a large mixture of onion seeds, at a very high price, and then left.
From this time, the Indians gave no attention to their corn crop. If they could raise gunpowder, they would be happy.
They took great care of the little plants as they came up out of the ground, and watched every day for the appearance of the gunpowder blossoms.
They planned a buffalo hunt which was to take place after the powder harvest.
After a while the onions bore a plentiful crop of seeds, and the Indians began to gather and thresh it.
They believed that threshing the onion seeds would produce the powder. But threshing failed to bring it. Then they discovered that they had been cheated.
Of course the dishonest trader avoided these Indians, and did not make them a second visit.
After some time, however, he sent his partner to them for the purpose of trading goods for furs and skins.
By chance they found out that this man was the partner of the one who had cheated them.
They said nothing to him about the matter; but when he had opened his goods and was ready to trade, they coolly helped themselves to all he had, and walked off.