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New York at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis 1904 - Report of the New York State Commission
by DeLancey M. Ellis
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NEW YORK

AT THE

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION

ST. LOUIS, 1904

REPORT OF THE

NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION

PREPARED AND COMPILED BY DELANCEY M. ELLIS

1907



REPORT

ALBANY, N.Y., March 25, 1907

Hon. CHARLES E. HUGHES, Governor:

DEAR SIR.—We beg to submit herewith, in accordance with the provisions of the statute, the final report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State of New York.

Very respectfully

EDWARD H. HARRIMAN LOUIS STERN EDWARD LYMAN BILL WILLIAM BERRI FREDERICK R. GREEN LEWIS NIXON JOHN C. WOODBURY FRANK S. McGRAW JOHN K. STEWART JAMES H. CALLANAN JOHN YOUNG MRS. NORMAN E. MACK

CHARLES A. BALL

Secretary and Chief Executive Officer

[Transcriber's note: Certain cross-references originally appearing as "See page N" have been changed to refer to chapter and section instead.]



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

1. Introduction and historical sketch

2. Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, State of New York

3. New York State Building

4. Functions held in the New York State Building

5. Dedication Day

6. New York State Week

7. Brooklyn Day

8. Thanksgiving Day

9. Educational exhibit and schedule of awards

10. Fine arts exhibit and schedule of awards

11. Agriculture and live stock exhibit and schedule of awards

12. Horticulture exhibit and schedule of awards

13. Forest, fish and game exhibit and schedule of awards

14. Mines and metallurgy exhibit and schedule of awards

15. Social economy exhibit and schedule of awards

16. Financial statement



Table of Full Page Illustrations [this table did not appear in the original book]

Frontispiece: HONORABLE BENJAMIN B. ODELL, JR. GOVERNOR 1901-1904

Page 8 FESTIVAL HALL AND GRAND BASIN 15 EDWARD H. HARRIMAN, PRESIDENT, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION 25 WILLIAM BERRI, VICE PRESIDENT, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION 35 EDWARD LYMAN BILL, TREASURER, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION 45* LOUIS STERN, CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION 50 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING 59 NEW YORK STATE BUILDING 71* JOHN K. STEWART, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 80 NEW YORK STATE BUILDING, MAIN ENTRANCE 87* JAMES H. CALLANAN, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 95 NEW YORK STATE BUILDING, ASSEMBLY HALL 104 APOTHESIS OF ST. LOUIS (NIEHAUS) 109* LEWIS NIXON, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 112 GERMAN PAVILION 121 NEW YORK STATE BUILDING, ENTRANCE HALL (See section "THE ARCHITECTURE" in chapter III) 126 EAST PAVILION AND CASCADE 133* JOHN C. WOODBURY, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 145* FREDERICK R. GREEN, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 155* FRANK S. McGRAW, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 162 PALACE OF LIBERAL ARTS 171* JOHN YOUNG, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 181 MRS. NORMAN E. MACK, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSIONER 190 STATUE OF JOSEPH HENRY, ELECTRICIAN (FLANAGAN) 195 CHARLES A. BALL, SECRETARY AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, NEW YORK STATE COMMISSION 200 PALACE OF EDUCATION, WEST ENTRANCE 207 EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT 215 EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT, COMMON SCHOOL STATISTICS 227 EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT, FOURTH GRADE ALCOVE 239 EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT, TRADE SCHOOLS, SPECIAL SCHOOLS, BUSINESS EDUCATION ALCOVE 250 "SHOOTING UP THE TOWN" (REMINGTON) 257 FESTIVAL HALL AND CASCADE GARDENS 267 DE LANCEY M. ELLIS, Director of Education and Social Economy CHARLES H. VICK, Superintendent of Horticulture CLARENCE LUCE, Architect J. H. DURKEE, Superintendent of Agriculture and Live Stock HARRY W. WATROUS, Chairman Committee on Art 277 GRAND BASIN AND PALACE OF ELECTRICITY 284 FLORAL CLOCK AND AGRICULTURAL BUILDING 287 AGRICULTURE EXHIBIT, DISPLAY OF VEGETABLES 301 AGRICULTURE EXHIBIT, DISPLAY OF SEEDS 313 AGRICULTURE EXHIBIT 325 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING (See chapter VI) 337 EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT, FROM ENTRANCE (See section "THE INSTALLATION" in chapter IX) 349 LOUISIANA PURCHASE MONUMENT, PLAZA ST. LOUIS, AND VARIED INDUSTRIES BUILDING 360 GRAND BASIN, BOAT LANDING 365 HORTICULTURE EXHIBIT 373 HORTICULTURE EXHIBIT, DISPLAY OF GRAPES 385 HORTICULTURE EXHIBIT 397 EXHIBIT OF STATE INSTITUTIONS FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENTS (see section "STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES" in chapter XV) 409 EXHIBIT OF BERTILLON AND FINGER PRINT SYSTEMS OF IDENTIFICATION (see section "STATE DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS" in chapter XV) 421 MINES AND METALLURGY EXHIBIT, SLATE MANTEL (see section "SLATE" in chapter XIV) 427 FOREST, FISH AND GAME EXHIBIT, CAMP ADIRONDACK 436 APPROACH TO WEST PAVILION 445 FOREST, FISH AND GAME EXHIBIT, NATIVE BIRDS 457 FOREST, FISH AND GAME EXHIBIT, CAMP ADIRONDACK, INTERIOR (see section "ATTRACTIVE FEATURES" in chapter XIII) 470 PHYSICAL LIBERTY (MCNEIL) 477 MAGNETIC SEPARATOR WORKING ON NEW YORK ORES 487 MINES AND METALLURGY EXHIBIT 495 MINES AND METALLURGY, LIBERAL ARTS, AND LAGOON 500 MACHINERY BUILDING AND LAGOON 507 ANCIENT AND MODERN METHODS OF CARING FOR THE INSANE 515 EXHIBIT OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS (see section "STATE DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS" in chapter XV) 523 EXHIBIT OF STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES, CARE OF DESTITUTE ADULTS (see section "STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES" in chapter XV) 528 ON THE PIKE 535 EXHIBIT OF STATE COMMISSION IN LUNACY, HOSPITALS FOR THE INSANE (see section "STATE COMMISSION IN LUNACY" in chapter XV)

* These photographs are also labelled "Copyright 1903 [or 1904], by Pirie MacDonald, Photographer of Men, N.Y."



CHAPTER I

Introduction and Historical Sketch

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE



The Louisiana Purchase Exposition was held in the city of St. Louis in 1904, in commemoration of the acquisition in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi, then called Louisiana. The transfer is generally regarded as one of the most important events in our national history and stands on record as the greatest acquisition of territory ever made by peaceful methods. An American historian of great prominence says: "The annexation of Louisiana was an event so portentous as to defy measurement; it gave a new face to politics and ranked in historical importance next to the Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the Constitution."

The territory was ceded to France by Spain by the secret treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800. This aroused to intense excitement the people of the West, who were inclined to give credit to the rumor that the army of forty thousand men sent by Napoleon (who was responsible for the negotiation of that treaty) were in reality to take military possession of Louisiana and the Floridas instead of to suppress the insurrection in San Domingo, the ostensible object. France and England had been struggling for many years for supremacy in the Western Continent, and in the possession of this vast territory Napoleon foresaw a prosperous New France. But there were many complications arising at home. Important political questions demanded attention, and the great Napoleon soon realized that he could not hope to cope successfully with the two great problems lying at such a great distance apart.

NEGOTIATIONS FOR TRANSFER OF TERRITORY

At that time our country was interested in procuring possession of the site of New Orleans and the free passage of the Mississippi river forever for all American citizens, and negotiations were opened for their purchase by Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, and at that time third President of the United States.

During the negotiations Napoleon suggested the transfer of the whole Louisiana territory and the transaction was brought to a most successful conclusion, the signers of the treaty being James Monroe, Robert R. Livingston, and F.B. Marbois, the representative of Napoleon. It was a significant bargain. By it Napoleon formed closer bonds of friendship between France and the United States, and prevented any possibility of the territory falling into the hands of Great Britain. He prophesied that this Republic would eventually become a world power and a commercial rival to England. How completely his prophecy was fulfilled. Our country attained possession of a vast territory embracing more than a million square miles, an area greater than the combined areas of the British Isles, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, the consideration being a figure less than that representing the value of a single square block in any one of our great cities, or an amount much smaller than has been yielded by any one of many mines within the boundaries of the territory. Twelve flourishing states and two territories have since been carved out of Louisiana, and the center of our population is rapidly moving towards that region which was once known as the wilderness of the West.

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON

It is a matter of the utmost gratification that the State of New York played so important a part in this great event in the person of Robert R. Livingston, who was then United States Minister to France. Dr. Livingston, the title of LL.D. having been conferred upon him by the University of the State of New York, was one of the leading statesmen of his day. A graduate of Kings (now Columbia) College, he began his career in the practice of law in New York city, and was made Recorder of the city in 1773. Elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, he was appointed one of a committee of five to draft the Declaration of Independence, but enforced absence from Philadelphia made it impossible for him to sign the document. He was soon after elected Chancellor of the State of New York, and as such administered the oath of office to George Washington as first President of the United States. His previous training in public affairs admirably fitted him for assuming the important duties leading to the transfer of the Louisiana territory, and to him as much as to any individual belongs the credit for the successful consummation of the transaction.

At the Exposition a handsome statue of Livingston, by Lukemann, was erected in the Cascade Gardens, on the approach to the West Pavilion. Upon the front of the New York State Building appeared this legend: "Robert R. Livingston of New York, Minister to France 1801-1805, inaugurated the negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase and was the first to sign the treaty."

ORIGIN OF THE EXPOSITION

The first action looking towards the commemoration of the Louisiana Purchase was taken at a meeting of the Missouri Historical Society in September, 1898, when a committee of fifty citizens was appointed to take the preliminary steps looking to the observance of the occasion. This committee recommended the submission of the question to a convention of delegates, representing all the Louisiana Purchase states, and at this convention, which was held at the Southern Hotel, St. Louis, January 10, 1899, it was decided to hold a World's Fair as the most fitting commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the acquisition of the Louisiana territory. An executive committee, with the Hon. David R. Francis as chairman, was appointed to carry out the undertaking, and this committee determined that at least $15,000,000, the amount paid to France for the territory, would be needed.

ACTION BY CONGRESS

Congress passed a bill in June, 1900, carrying a provisional appropriation of $5,000,000, and pledging governmental support if the city of St. Louis raised $10,000,000. The people went to work with a will and had raised $5,000,000 by popular subscription early in January, 1901, and the following January thirtieth an ordinance was passed by the St. Louis Municipal Assembly authorizing the issuance of $5,000,000 in city bonds. On March twelfth President McKinley appointed a National Commission of nine members, and in August issued a proclamation inviting all the nations of the world to participate in the Exposition. Owing to labor difficulties and delay in securing construction material it soon became evident that it would be impossible to hold the fair during the year 1903, as originally planned. Legislation being necessary in order to provide for the necessary postponement, a bill was passed by Congress and approved by President Roosevelt June 25, 1902, authorizing the holding of the fair in 1904 instead of 1903, as originally determined.

Beginning with the basic appropriation of $15,000,000, [Footnote: In the winter of 1904 a bill was passed by Congress authorizing a Government loan of $4,600,000 to the Exposition Company, to be repaid in instalments from the gate receipts. The loan was entirely canceled early in November, 1904.] as described above, to which had been added $1,000,000 appropriated by the State of Missouri, the great enterprise was projected on a $50,000,000 basis. It was planned to make the universal Exposition at St. Louis the most comprehensive and wonderful that the world had ever seen. How well its projectors succeeded is a matter of recent history. How completely all previous expositions were eclipsed has been told many times in picture and in print.

THE SITE

The site chosen for the Exposition included the western portion of Forest Park, one of the finest parks in the United States. Its naturally rolling ground afforded many opportunities for effective vistas, which were quickly embraced by the Exposition Company's landscape artists. Containing 1,240 acres, it was a tract approximately two miles long and one mile wide.

The grounds might be said to have been divided into two general sections, the dividing line being Skinker road. To the east was the main picture, so called, which was formed by the grouping of eight magnificent exhibit palaces around Festival Hall, the Colonnade of States and Cascade Gardens.

THE MAIN PICTURE

Festival Hall stood upon a rise of ground well above the principal exhibit palaces, and its majestic dome surmounted by a gilded figure of "Victory," the first "Victory" to take the form of a man, was visible from most any part of the grounds. The grouping of the exhibit palaces was geometric in arrangement, in shape like an open fan, the ribs of the fan being the waterways and plazas between which the exhibit palaces were located.

THE ARCHITECTURE

The architecture, while varied and in some instances striking, was still so modified as to make a most harmonious whole. For purity in architecture the best example was the Palace of Education, which was built on the lines of the Italian Renaissance. For most striking architectural effects the Mines and Metallurgy building was invariably pointed out. It was of composite architecture, comprising features of the Egyptian, Byzantine and Greek. The stately obelisks which guarded its entrance ways and the bas-relief panels which formed its outer facade, were objects of universal interest.

To the southeast of the main group of buildings, and gracefully clustered among the trees, were the state pavilions. Along the extreme northern portion of the grounds for a mile stretched the amusement highway, known as the Pike.

OTHER FEATURES

To the west of Skinker road were located the Administration buildings, and, with one or two exceptions, the pavilions of foreign governments, the Agriculture and Horticulture buildings, the Philippine Reservation and the Department of Anthropology. The Intramural railroad, seven miles in length, passed the principal points of interest and enabled visitors to get about the grounds with speed and comfort.

To convert this great tract of land into a beautiful park with well-kept roadways embellished with velvety lawns and magnificent flower beds, would seem to be a task greater than man could perform within the short space of time available for the completion of the Exposition. That it was done, and well done, is a matter of history.

PROCESSES AS WELL AS PRODUCTS

It was early determined that the great Fair should be one of processes, as well as of products; wherever possible there should be life and motion; that the exhibits should answer the question, "How is it done?" as well as "What is it?" The result was that the Exposition became a constantly changing scene of moving objects and an educational force many times greater than any of its predecessors. The student of Mechanics, Electricity, Pedagogy, the Applied Arts, and other kindred subjects could obtain here within a limited area valuable data, which otherwise could only be collected at the expense of much time and considerable money.

DEDICATION CEREMONIES

The formal dedication ceremonies covered three days, beginning April 30, 1903, the actual date of the Centennial Anniversary of the signing of the treaty, and one year previous to the opening of the Exposition. Our commonwealth was fittingly represented at that time, a special appropriation of $50,000 for the same having been made by the Legislature. Governor Odell and staff, State officers, a joint committee from the Legislature and the members of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission attended. There were also present a provisional regiment of infantry of the National Guard, under command of Colonel S. M. Welch, N.G., N.Y.; a provisional division of the Naval Militia under command of Lieutenant E.M. Harman, Second Battalion; and Squadron "A" of New York, under command of Major Oliver H. Bridgman.

THE FIRST DAY'S PROGRAM

The program for the first day consisted of a grand military parade in the morning and exercises in the Liberal Arts building at two o'clock in the afternoon, followed by fireworks in the evening. The day was cold and unpleasant, and a chill wind blowing from the north caused visitors to seek comfort in heavy wraps.

The Governor of the State of New York and her troops met with a continuous ovation along the line of march of the great military parade, and from every side compliments and felicitations were bestowed upon the State's representatives for so hearty and imposing a participation in an event a thousand miles from home.

The occasion was graced by the presence of the President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, and by ex-President Grover Cleveland, both of whom made extended remarks at the afternoon exercises.

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT.

The address of President Roosevelt was replete with historical allusions and pointed epigrams. He drew many lessons from the valor and patriotism of the early settlers of the west, and said, among other things:

"Courage and hardihood are indispensable virtues in a people; but the people which possesses no others can never rise high in the scale either of power or of culture. Great peoples must have in addition the governmental capacity which comes only when individuals fully recognize their duties to one another and to the whole body politic, and are able to join together in feats of constructive statesmanship and of honest and effective administration. ... We justly pride ourselves on our marvelous material prosperity, and such prosperity must exist in order to establish a foundation upon which a higher life can be built; but unless we do in very fact build this higher life thereon, the material prosperity itself will go for but very little. ... The old days were great because the men who lived in them had mighty qualities; and we must make the new days great by showing these same qualities. We must insist upon courage and resolution, upon hardihood, tenacity, and fertility of resource; we must insist upon the strong, virile virtues; and we must insist no less upon the virtues of self-restraint, self-mastery, regard for the rights of others; we must show our abhorrence of cruelty, brutality, and corruption, in public and in private life alike."

ADDRESS OF EX-PRESIDENT CLEVELAND

Ex President Cleveland delivered an eloquent panegyric and in closing said:

"... We may well recall in these surroundings the wonderful measure of prophecy's fulfillment, within the span of a short century, the spirit, the patriotism and the civic virtue of Americans who lived a hundred years ago, and God's overruling of the wrath of man, and his devious ways for the blessing of our nation. We are all proud of our American citizenship. Let us leave this place with this feeling stimulated by the sentiments born of the occasion. Let us appreciate more keenly than ever how vitally necessary it is to our country's wealth that every one within its citizenship should be clean minded in political aim and aspiration, sincere and honest in his conception of our country's mission, and aroused to higher and more responsive patriotism by the reflection that it is a solemn thing to belong to a people favored of God."

THE SECOND DAY'S PROGRAM

The second day was designated "Diplomatic Day," and was devoted to a luncheon to the visiting diplomats in the Administration Building, followed by exercises in Festival Hall, at which time addresses were made by Honorable John M. Thurston of the National Commission, who was president of the day; Honorable David R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company; M. Jean J. Jusserand, the French Ambassador, and Senor Don Emilio de Ojeda, the Spanish Minister. In the evening a brilliant reception was given to the Diplomatic Corps at the St. Louis Club.

THE THIRD DAY'S PROGRAM

The third day, Saturday, May second, was officially designated "State Day," and the exercises consisted of a huge civic parade, which consumed two hours in passing a given point, and exercises at two o'clock in the Liberal Arts building, over which ex-Senator William Lindsay of the National Commission presided. Addresses were made by Governor Dockery, who welcomed the governors and delegations from the various states and by Governor Odell of New York, who responded. His brilliant address, which was frequently punctuated by applause, follows:

ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR ODELL

"Governor Dockery, Ladies and Gentlemen:

"There is no phase of American history which should inspire us with greater pride than the consummation of the purchase of the Louisiana tract, an event which opened the pathway to the West, and made possible the powerful nation to which we owe our allegiance. Trade, the inspiration for travel, which brought about the discovery and civilization of the Western Hemisphere, would have demanded inevitably the cession to the United States of the vast regions beyond the Mississippi. Except, however, for the peaceful and diplomatic measures adopted through the wisdom of Thomas Jefferson, this territory could only have been acquired by the sacrifice of human life and the expenditure of untold treasure. That Robert Livingston, a citizen of the Empire State, became the ambassador of the great commoner at the court of France and that it was due to his skill and intelligence that Napoleon was brought to an understanding of the conditions as they existed and of the determination of our then young Republic to prevent the building up of foreign colonies at our very threshold, is a cause for congratulation to the people of the State I represent, and renders the duty which has been assigned to me, therefore, doubly pleasant. Memorable as was this event, and of great importance to the future growth of the Republic, it left its imprint not only upon America, but upon Europe as well. Through it the Napoleonic ambition to develop a vast plan of colonization which threatened the peace of the world was thwarted. The dismemberment of the French possessions which soon followed resulted in the grouping together of the various states of Europe into vast empires whose relations with our country are such that encroachment or territorial aggrandizement upon this hemisphere are forever impossible. Spain, whose waning power was then apparent, was no longer a menace, and thus rendered possible the acquisition of the remaining stretch of territory which made our possessions secure from the Gulf to the Canadian line. While, therefore, as Americans we are prone to the belief that if the necessity had arisen we should have been able to wrest this rich and fertile territory from even the strongest hands, it is well for us to understand, however, that even the diplomacy of which we boast would have been futile except for the failure of Napoleon in San Domingo and his pressing need of funds to permit him to face the enemies of the French. 'Westward Ho!' was the cry of the Old World. From the time when the genius of Columbus accepted the theories of the earlier astronomers the imagination and cupidity of adventurous spirits had been excited by tales of 'far off Cathay.' One hundred years ago the protocol for this territory was signed; one hundred years of history has been written; a nation of three millions has expanded into an empire of eighty millions of souls. Our country has not only become a power among the nations of the world, but has taken an advanced position in the progress and work of civilization. A westward passage to India was sought by Columbus and was still the aim of La Salle in his adventurous voyage along the mighty Mississippi. To-day the American flag floats at the very gates of China, and almost in sight of its walls, placed there by American valor and by American arms in a struggle for human rights, and liberty. Trackless forests and undulating prairies have become the highways for the speeding engines bearing the burdens of traffic to the Orient. No longer are they the pasturage for the buffalo, but the source of food supply for the whole world. Treasures of untold value have been laid bare by the ingenuity of man, but far beyond this wealth are the products in grain and lowing kine which add their hundreds of millions to the resources of our country, extending even beyond the dreams or the imagination of those who sought only the precious metals with which to return with a competence to their native land.

"This is but the span of a century and to commemorate its glories we come from the eastern section, from the earlier colonies to congratulate the people of the West upon the results which we as a nation have achieved. So few the years, yet how notable the history. Upon this soil began those battles which ended in the emancipation of the slave. From this border, and almost from within this territory, came the great Emancipator, a man who struggled with the vicissitudes of fortune in early life, who aided in developing the great West, and whose name will be forever enshrined as the one who in his act as chief magistrate of this country removed the stain which the earlier Dutch had fastened upon our body politic like a 'festering sore.' The past, with all of its achievements, with all of its successes, is to us but an incentive and guide for the future progress of our country. America still beckons to the oppressed of all lands and holds out the gifts of freedom, and we at this time, and upon this occasion, should renew our adherence to those policies which have made us great as a nation. The future is before us, and the patriotism and self-sacrifice of those who made the country's history so glorious should be an inspiration to us all for higher ideals of citizenship. Through the golden gates of commerce pours an unceasing stream of immigration, which must be amalgamated with American ideas and American principles. From the earlier settlers has come a blending of the vigor of the Anglo-Saxon with the Teutonic and Latin races, resulting in that composite type which we are wont to recognize and regard as the type of the true American. Aside from the commercial and industrial results which followed the acquisition of this vast and fertile territory, and the building up of the large marts and towns which everywhere blend with its magnificent scenery, the definition of the power and extent of our Constitution was most important. At its inception, coming at a time when the framers of the Constitution were not only able to interpret their work, but to give to it their moral force and support, it was demonstrated that no constitutional limitations should retard the onward growth, the onward rush of American civilization, until it should have reached the farthermost bounds of the far-off Pacific. The barriers to human progress were by this interpretation removed and ranges of new States have given effect to the democratic principles of our great Republic, and have made of our country a Union—not of weak, impotent States—but a commonwealth of nations, bound to each other through a centralized government by ties of allegiance, common interest and patriotism, where freemen rule and where suffrage is more esteemed than wealth.

"These rights and their protection should receive our earnest thought. The battles of the past have been for freedom and liberty, and the struggles of the future will be for their preservation, not, however, by force of arms, but through the peaceful methods which come through the education of our people. The declaration which brought our Republic into existence has insured and guaranteed that liberty of conscience and that freedom of action which does not interfere with the prerogatives or privileges of a man's neighbors. Capital and labor are the two great elements upon which the prosperity and happiness of our people rest, and when, therefore, aggregations of the one are met by combinations of the other, it should be the aim of all to prevent the clashing of these great interests. The products of toil are worthless unless there be some means by which they can be substituted or transferred for that which labor requires. The concrete form in which these transactions are conducted is the money power or the capital of the land. Without work all of these fertile fields, these teeming towns, would have been impossible, and without a desire to benefit and elevate humanity, its onward progress would have been useless. To work, to labor, is man's bounden duty, and in the performance of the tasks which have been placed upon him, he should be encouraged, and his greatest incentive should be the knowledge that he may transmit to his children and his children's children a higher civilization and greater advantages than he himself possessed. Trade conditions which would permit to the toiler but a bare sustenance, the bare means of a livelihood, would be a hindrance to human progress, a hindrance not to be removed by all of the maxims of the philosopher or the theories of the doctrinaire. Promise without fulfillment is barren, but when you can place before the mechanic the assured fact that the performance of his duty means success in life, and that his non-performance means failure; when you can show him that this law is immutable, you have made of him a useful citizen and have instilled into his mind a firm belief that the freedom and liberty of which we boast is not an inchoate substance to be dreamed of and not enjoyed. But this desired result cannot be secured if combinations of capital, which produce the necessaries of life cheaper and better, are assailed as the enemies of mankind. There is always a mean between those who seek only a fair recompense and return for that which they produce, and those who seek undue advantages for the few at the expense of the many. The laws which have been enacted, if properly executed, are sufficient in their force and effect to encourage the one and to punish the other, but in our condemnation let us not forget that with the expansion that has come to our country, an expansion of our business relations is also necessary. This growth has brought us into intimate contact with the markets of the world, and in the struggle that is always before us, the competition of trade, if we are to hold our own among the world's producers, we should encourage and not hinder those who by their energy, their capital and their labor have banded together for the purpose of meeting these new conditions—problems which our individual efforts alone cannot solve, but which require the concentrated force and genius of both capital and labor. Incentive for good citizenship would indeed be lacking if there were taken from us the opportunities for development, the opportunities for the young man to follow in the footsteps of those who have written their names in the history of our country as the great captains of industry. Success will always follow perseverance and genius. Every heresy, every doctrine which would teach the young man of this country differently, is an insult to the intelligence of our people, and is in the direction of building up a dangerous element in American society which in time would threaten not only the peace and prosperity we enjoy, but our very institutions themselves. When you have placed before the young man all of his possibilities, you have made it impossible to make of our Republic a plutocracy controlled by the few at the expense of the many. The individual should count for as much as the aggregation of individuals, because an injury to the one will lead to the destruction of the many. The question of adjusting and harmonizing the relations of capital and labor is the problem before us to-day and is one which will become more urgent in the future. Its solution must be along those lines of constitutional right which every citizen has been guaranteed. Every man is entitled in the prosecution of his work to the broadest possible liberty of action and the protection of law, of that law which is the outgrowth of necessity and which seeks to encourage and not to oppress. Such recognition can always be secured if there is a determination upon the part of those charged with the responsibility of government to have it. And who is not? Every man possessed of a ballot is responsible and has the power, not only to formulate but to criticise and to punish as well. If this right be properly exercised, an honest and efficient administration of our affairs can always be secured. To aid in this work we have given to the press the broadest possible liberty, a freedom which, however, should never be abused. It should never be used as the medium for the circulation of charges or of calumnies which are without foundation, and which please but the fancies of those in whose minds there always exists envy and discontent. Such a misuse of privileges should be condemned by all right-minded citizens. In its virtuous indignation with those who abuse public place and power, it should be careful to do exact justice because in our busy and active lives we have come to depend to a very great extent upon the wisdom and the honesty of these who edit our newspapers for the information rightly to judge of the conditions, events and necessities of our country. By means of the press, and with an intelligent citizenship, we may always feel sure that there will come into our public life influences for good which will render our government more stable, will add to its renown and to its glory and will insure for all the perpetuation of those principles which have come down to us through the wisdom of our forefathers and which have been amplified by the knowledge of succeeding generations.

"The greatest solvent for political heresies, for doctrines which are antagonistic to popular government, is education. To the educated mind there comes a conception of duty which is not possible to the ignorant. The great colleges and schools with which we are blessed are performing a vital work, and these institutions for developing a higher order of citizenship are of far more worth and of greater importance than all of the ships of war or the arms of the nation in maintaining and upholding those policies which have been adopted for our protection against foreign and domestic foes. But it is not alone a theoretical education which is necessary for this higher citizenship. It must be linked with the knowledge which comes of the study of the character, of the manner and methods of other nations than our own, which leads the artisan to inspect and to improve upon the ingenuity of his fellows of other lands. It is this feature in the exposition which is to take place upon this ground next year that is particularly significant and important in the solution of the problems to which I have referred. It is the contact, the friendly rivalry thus created, which brings about a betterment and improvement of conditions. It is appropriate, therefore, that at the one hundredth anniversary of this great event of our nation's history, we should gather here all of the ingenuity and the genius of the past and the present, that we may contrast and make note of our progress. This will be an inspiration for us in the performance of our duty, and will add to our affection for our native and adopted land, and thus make of America a still greater power for good. A patriotic people is possible only when there exists a love of country which has been inspired by the stories of the past. It is the stories of the glorious past which encourage us to grapple with the problems of the present and to look with disdain upon those who fail to solve them. What fills our mind with more gratitude; what inspires us with greater heroism; what instills more patriotism than the struggles of the early colonial wars? The Anglo-Saxon energy which swept from this continent the dominion of those who sought only wealth, and which substituted the thrift of the voyagers of the Mayflower and of the settlers of Jamestown—which Speaks of the battles with the Indians, which tells of the glories not only of victories but of the defeats of the heroes of the Revolution—all are incentives for purer and better citizenship. And so, too, as we recall the struggles to the death of the descendants of these earlier settlers in the greatest civil war that the world has ever known, let us to-day, both in charity and in patriotism, remember them all as heroes. While we may differ as to the principles for which they fought, there is no conflict of opinion, no divergence in thought, which bids us to-day to withhold our admiration for all those who took part in that great struggle. It was but a page in our nation's history, but a page shaded by human blood. It was but the working out the will of Divine Providence, so that from its baptism of blood our republic might emerge greater, stronger and more powerful than ever before, that there might thereafter be no sectional hate, no dividing line in the patriotism of our people. This it is which should inspire us to-day. More progress, a further advance in civilization, the extending of a helping hand to the afflicted and the welcoming word to the oppressed, should be concrete evidence of America's greatness and of the devotion of her people. Then it will be that our flag, now honored and respected, honored because of the power and the intelligence of our people, will take on additional lustre and additional significance as that of a nation that has accepted its duty to protect humanity at home and abroad, and to stand as the pacificator and preserver of the peace of the world."

At the conclusion of the afternoon exercises Governor Odell reviewed the New York State troops on the plaza in Forest Park. The review was held in the presence of a large assemblage and was an inspiring sight.

OPENING DAY

One year later, on April 30, 1904, the Exposition was formally opened to the public; elaborate exercises being held at eleven o'clock at the foot of the Louisiana Purchase Monument on the Plaza St. Louis. There were present a distinguished assemblage, including a delegation of the Senate and the House of Representatives, the National Commission, the Board of Lady Managers, representatives of foreign governments, Governors of States and their staffs, State Commissions, United States Government Board, Exposition officials, and others. The exercises were opened by a prayer by Rev. Frank W. Gunsaulus of Chicago, which was followed by an address by President Francis. The Treasurer of the Exposition, William H. Thompson, as chairman of the committee on grounds and buildings, introduced Isaac S. Taylor, who delivered the gold key to the buildings to President Francis and presented diplomas to his staff. An address followed by Director of Exhibits F.J.V. Skiff, who presented commissions to his staff, the chiefs of the various exhibit departments. Next followed addresses in behalf of the city of St. Louis by Hon. Rolla Wells, Mayor; in behalf of the National Commission by Hon. Thomas H. Carter, its President; in behalf of the United States Senate by Senator Henry E. Burnham; in behalf of the House of Representatives by Hon. James A. Tawney. New York State was especially honored in the selection of the president of her commission to speak in behalf of the domestic exhibitors. Hon. Edward H. Harriman was then introduced by President Francis.

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HARRIMAN

After briefly complimenting the President and Directors of the Exposition, Mr. Harriman said:

"Our 'Domestic Exhibitors' could have no higher testimonial than that furnished by the magnificent buildings and grounds of this Exposition. We have here combined in brilliant variety the charms and beauties of garden, forest, lake and stream, embellished by these splendid structures, forming an harmonious whole certainly not equaled by any former Exposition. All credit is due the President and Directors, whose intelligence and untiring labors have conquered all obstacles and brought this World's Fair to a most auspicious and successful opening. One cannot view the result of their labors without being deeply impressed with the magnitude of their undertaking, and when we consider the exhibits which have been assembled within these grounds, we are led irresistibly to an appreciation of the multitude of forces which contributed to this great work, and particularly to the co-operation which must have existed to produce the result before us.

"I have the honor on this occasion to speak for our 'Domestic Exhibitors.' They are well represented by their works before you, and by these works you can know them.

"These exhibits represent in concrete form the artistic and industrial development of this country, and in viewing them one cannot but be impressed with the great improvement in the conditions affecting our material and physical welfare and with the corresponding advancement in our intellectual and esthetic life.

"Let us consider for a moment the processes by which this result has been reached. We have here collected the products of our artistic, scientific and industrial life. The raw materials of the farm, the vineyard, the mine and the forest have been transformed by the skilled artisan, the artist and the architect into the finished products before you. By the co-operation of all these resources, of all these activities, of all these workers, this result has been accomplished. From the felling of the trees in the forest, the tilling of the soil and the mining of the ore, through all the steps and processes required to produce from the raw material the complicated machine or the costly fabric, there must have been co-operation, and all incongruous elements and resistant forces must have been eliminated or overcome.

"The chief factor, therefore, which has contributed to these results is the co-operation of all our people. The first law of our civilization is the co-operation of all individuals to improve the conditions of life. By division of labor each individual is assigned to or takes his special part in our social organization. This specialization of labor has become most minute. Not only is this true in scientific and philosophic research, in professional and business life, but in the simplest and earliest occupations of men, such as the tilling of the soil, the specialist is found bringing to the aid of his industry expert and scientific knowledge.

"... In the division of labor and the resultant specialization of human activity we have necessarily different classes of workers, some of whom have adopted the co-operative idea by forming organizations by which they seek to better their conditions. No doubt each class of workers has its particular interests which may be legitimately improved by co-operation among its members, and thus far the labor organization has a lawful purpose, but while standing for its rights it cannot legitimately deny to any other class its rights, nor should it go to the extent of infringing the personal and inalienable rights of its members as individuals. On the contrary, it must accord to its own members and to others the same measure of justice that it demands for itself as an organization.

"In working out this problem there has been much conflict. Indeed, according to human experience, such conflict could not entirely be avoided, but in the end each class must recognize that it cannot exist independently of others; it cannot strike down or defeat the rights or interests of others without injuring itself. Should capital demand more than its due, by that demand it limits its opportunities, and, correspondingly, the laborer who demands more than his due thereby takes away from himself the opportunity to labor. No one can escape this law of co-operation. Self-interest demands that we must observe its just limitations. We must be ready to do our part and accord to all others the fair opportunity of doing their part. We must co-operate with and help our colaborer. We should approach the solution of each question which may arise with a reasonable and, better still, a friendly spirit. He who obstructs the reasonable adjustment of these questions, who fosters strife by appealing to class prejudice, may justly be regarded by all as an enemy to the best public interests....

"In conclusion, permit me to advert to the Louisiana Purchase, which we are now celebrating, and call attention to the importance of that event in securing to our people the fullest benefit of the co-operative idea. Manifestly, if our Government were restricted to the original territory of the United States, as defined by the Treaty of 1783, we must have encountered in many ways the opposition of governments, some of them European, which would have occupied the territory beyond our original south and west boundaries. Our trade and commerce moving from or to our original territory would, necessarily, have been largely restricted by hostile foreign powers. The Louisiana Purchase not only more than doubled our territory by adding a country rich in material resources, but gave us control of the Mississippi river, and made possible the acquisition of the Oregon Territory, the Mexican cessions and the annexation of Texas. ...

"Though much has been done towards the development of this imperial domain, yet we may truly say that we have only seen the beginning of that development. The possibilities for the future are boundless. With a land of unparalleled resources, occupied by a people combining the best elements of our modern civilization and governed by laws evolved from the highest and best progress of the human race, no eye can foresee the goal to which a co-operation of all these forces must lead."

The Mexican Commissioner, A. R. Nuncio, spoke in behalf of the foreign exhibitors. The concluding address was made by Hon. William H. Taft, Secretary of War, who attended as the special representative of the President. At its conclusion the President of the United States, in the White House at Washington, pressed a key that started the machinery, unfurled the flags, set the cascades in motion, and thus opened the Exposition.

BENEFICENT RESULTS

To the question "Was the Louisiana Purchase Exposition a success?" the answer must be an unqualified affirmative. The value of any great exposition cannot be measured in dollars and cents any more than it can be measured in pounds and ounces. The great Fair at St. Louis was not projected as a money-making undertaking. It was held to commemorate a great event in American history and was designed to arouse a popular interest in the story of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory and its glorious results; to more closely knit together the peoples of the earth in good fellowship and brotherly love; to give to all nations an opportunity to demonstrate to each other their progress in material things; to awaken in the American people a sense of civic pride and a determined resolution to maintain and advance the prestige which they now enjoy among the nations of the earth. Having fulfilled all this, who shall say that the Exposition has been a failure?

FAIR OFFICIALS FROM NEW YORK

The State of New York has every reason to be proud of her connection with the great Fair, not only in her official participation, which through the generous action and hearty support of the Executive and the Legislature was on a most liberal and comprehensive scale, but many of her sons were prominent in its building, in the creation of its artistic effects, and no less in the administration of its various departments. At the very inception of the work New York was honored in the appointment of Martin H. Glynn, of Albany, N. Y., as a member of the National Commission. Mr. Glynn was afterwards elected Vice-Chairman of the Commission and was one of its most active members. Laurence H. Grahame, of New York city, was Secretary of the National Commission. His genial personality, his wide acquaintance and his long experience in newspaper work admirably fitted him for the duties of the position, which he performed with fidelity. Mrs. Daniel Manning, of Albany, was President of the Board of Lady Managers. The position was one requiring marked executive ability, dignity and tact. Mrs. Manning performed the arduous duties falling to her lot with a grace and cordiality which won for her the love and esteem of the official delegates to the Exposition from throughout the world. She was signally honored on many occasions and is one of New York's most distinguished daughters. Judge Franklin Ferriss, the general counsel for the Exposition Company, and one of St. Louis' most eminent lawyers, went forth from our State many years ago to seek and find his fortune in the West.

CHIEFS OF EXHIBIT DEPARTMENTS

Of the thirteen chiefs of departments in the division of exhibits New York lays claim to six. The Department of Education and Social Economy, as well as the Department of Congresses, was under the direction of Dr. Howard J. Rogers, now Assistant Commissioner of Education of the State of New York, and formerly Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction; also United States Director of Education and Social Economy at the Paris Exposition in 1900.

Milan H. Hulbert had charge of the great Department of Manufactures and Varied Industries. Mr. Hulbert is a native of Brooklyn and a graduate of the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He was in charge of the Department of Varied Industries for the United States Commission to Paris in 1900. The Art Department was presided over by Professor Halsey C. Ives, now of St. Louis, but formerly of New York State. The old school house in which he received the ground work of his education still stands at Montour Falls, Schuyler county. Professor Ives was also Chief of Arts at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. The Chief of the Department of Machinery, Thomas M. Moore, is a native, and has always been a resident, of New York city. He was in charge of the Departments of Machinery, Transportation, Agricultural Implements, Graphic Arts and Ordnance at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo.

Of late years Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, Chief of the Forest, Fish and Game Department, has been a resident of New York State. In 1895 he became the director of the Aquarium in New York city and rebuilt that establishment. He was Chief of the Department of Forestry and Fisheries for the United States at the Paris Exposition in 1900.

The Chief of the Department of Physical Culture, James E. Sullivan, has always been a New Yorker. He is an acknowledged athletic record authority and editor of the official athletic almanac. He was in charge of the American contingent that competed in the Olympic games at the Paris Exposition, and was also director of athletics at the Pan American Exposition.

SCULPTORS

The heroic equestrian statue "The Apotheosis of St. Louis," generally considered one of the finest works of its kind, which stood at the very gateway to the Fair grounds, symbolizing the cordial welcome extended by the city to her guests from every part of the world, was the work of Charles H. Niehaus, of New York city. The sculpture of the Louisiana Purchase monument, the surmounting figure typifying "Peace" and the base decoration of groups representing scenes connected with the purchase, was by Karl Bitter, chief of sculpture of the Exposition, another New Yorker. Just in front of the monument and looking upon the grand basin were four groups portraying frontier life, entitled "The Buffalo Dance", "A Step to Civilization", "Peril of the Plains", and "A Cowboy at Rest", all being the work of Solon Borglum, another New Yorker. The crowning artistic and architectural effects of the whole Fair were embraced in Festival Hall and the Cascades. These were the work of two New York men, Cass Gilbert and Emanuel S. Masqueray. Mr. Gilbert was the architect of Festival Hall and Mr. Masqueray designed the Cascades and the Colonnade of States. Mr. Masqueray had other notable pieces of work in evidence about the grounds.

The Palace of Manufactures, standing just to the east of the Plaza St. Louis, was the work of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings, also New Yorkers. It was regarded as one of the most successful structures upon the grounds from an architect's point of view and it was appropriate that to New York men should have been intrusted the construction of the building in which exhibits of manufactures were displayed, in view of the pre-eminence of our State from a manufacturing and commercial standpoint.

And so throughout all the departments of the great Fair and throughout the season, one constantly encountered those who by some tie were bound to New York. Many of her sons who had gone forth in their youth came back and called at the New York State building and recalled some pleasant incident of the old days or made grateful acknowledgment of some benefit which had come to them from their native state. One of the most delightful features of all the experiences of those who had the honor officially to represent the Empire State at St. Louis was the meeting of the sons and daughters who had long since left home.

CONCLUSION

The gates had scarcely closed for the last time when the work of destruction and demolition began. All of the beauties of the dream city which for seven months had been the admiration of thousands and an inspiration to all to do higher and better things, were swept away almost in a night and soon the whole scene will be restored to a park. To those who had come to love its majestic structures, its placid waterways, its attractive vistas and its fairy like illumination, comes a pang of regret tempered with the feeling of gratefulness that it ever existed and that it was their privilege to witness it secure in the knowledge that it shall always be theirs to remember and to dream of. Most effectually was the whole story told in an address on Chicago Day, by Ernest McGaphey, a poet from that city.

"In its truest sense this Exposition is epic and dramatic. The mere prose of it will come to lie neglected on the dusty shelves of statisticians, but its poetry will be a priceless legacy to generations that will follow. And thus there is one light only which may not fade from the windows of Time—one glint to illuminate the flight of the dying years—that gleam which lives in fancy and in memory.

"And when this vision of magic departs; when the ivory towers have vanished, and the sound of flowing waters has been stilled, there will exist with us yet the recollection of it all. And so at the end the most enduring fabric known to man is woven of the warp and woof of dreams. The canvas of the great painters will crumble, the curves of noble statuary be ground into dust by Time, and all this pageantry of art and commerce disappear. But memory will keep a record of these days as a woman will treasure old love letters, and in the last analysis the height and breadth, the depth and scope of this splendid achievement shall be measured by a dream."



CHAPTER II

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, State of New York



The first steps looking toward the official participation of the State of New York in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were taken by the Legislature of 1902, which passed the following act, receiving executive approval on April 7, 1902:

CHAPTER 421, LAWS OF 1902

An Act to provide for the representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri, and making an appropriation therefor.

Became a law, April 7, 1902, with the approval of the Governor. Passed, three-fifths being present.

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. The governor is hereby authorized to appoint twelve commissioners to represent the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition to be held at Saint Louis, Missouri, beginning on the first day of May, nineteen hundred and three, and ending on the thirtieth day of November, nineteen hundred and three, and for the purposes of this act such commissioners shall be known as the "Louisiana purchase exposition commission." Such commission shall encourage and promote a full and complete exhibit of the commercial, educational, industrial, artistic and other interests of the state and its citizens at such exposition, and shall provide, furnish and maintain, during the exposition, a building or room for a state exhibit and for the official headquarters of the state, and for the comfort and convenience of its citizens and its exhibitors.

2. The members of the commission shall receive no compensation for their services, but shall be entitled to the actual necessary expenses incurred while in discharge of duties imposed upon them by the commission. Such commission may provide a secretary whose compensation, to be fixed by it, shall be at the rate of not to exceed twenty-five hundred dollars a year for all services to be performed in carrying out the provisions of this act, and may also provide such other clerical assistance and office facilities as it deems necessary, but no salaries or expenses shall be incurred for a longer period than ninety days after the close of the exposition.

3. The sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated for the purposes of this act. Such money shall be paid by the treasurer on the warrant of the comptroller issued upon a requisition signed by the president and secretary of the commission, accompanied by an estimate of the expenses for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be applied. Within ninety days after the close of the exposition, such commission shall make a verified report to the comptroller of the disbursements made by it, and shall return to the state treasury the unexpended balance of money drawn in pursuance of this act. No indebtedness nor obligation shall be incurred under this act in excess of the appropriation herein made.

4. The commission shall, as requested by the governor, from time to time, render to him reports of its proceedings.

5. This act shall take effect immediately.

THE COMMISSION

Pursuant to the provisions of this act, Governor Odell named as the twelve members of the Commission: Edward H. Harriman, of New York city; Louis Stern, of New York city; Edward Lyman Bill, of New York city; William Berri, of Brooklyn; Cyrus E. Jones, of Jamestown; Lewis Nixon, of New York city; John C. Woodbury, of Rochester; Frank S. McGraw, of Buffalo; John K. Stewart, of Amsterdam; James H. Callanan, of Schenectady; John Young, of Geneseo; and Mrs. Norman E Mack, of Buffalo.

A few months after the appointment of the Commission, Cyrus E. Jones, of Jamestown, resigned, and the Governor named Frederick R. Green, of Fredonia, in his place.

The results accomplished by the Commission as attested by the number of awards received in all of the exhibit departments; in the beauty and utility of the State building; in the careful procedure as to the expenditure of State funds, all bear testimony to the wisdom of the Chief Executive in the appointment of a Commission, all of the members of which were of acknowledged prominence either in professional, business or social life.

Throughout its entire existence the Commission worked with a singular unanimity and with a hearty interest but seldom found in commissions of this character. It held twenty-five regular meetings and two special meetings, the aggregate of attendance at all meetings being two hundred thirty-one, making an average attendance of eight and fifty-nine hundredths at each meeting. When it is considered that each member had large personal interests, and that he served the State absolutely without compensation, only necessary expenses being allowed by statute, and that a majority of the members of the Commission were obliged to travel from 160 to 450 miles to attend the meetings, its record for faithfulness to duty as shown by the above figures is one in which it may take a pardonable pride.

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMISSION

By virtue of being first named by the Governor, Edward H. Harriman, of New York city, became President of the Commission, which completed its organization as follows: Vice-President, William Berri; Treasurer, Edward Lyman Bill. Executive Committee: Louis Stern, Chairman; William Berri, Lewis Nixon, John K. Stewart and James H. Callanan. Auditing Committee: James H. Callanan and John K. Stewart.

There was but one name presented for Secretary of the Commission, that of Mr. Charles A. Ball, of Wellsville. He was unanimously elected, with compensation of $2,500 per annum, the appointment taking effect December 8, 1902. In its choice of this officer the Commission was most fortunate. Efficient, faithful and courteous and with a wide circle of acquaintances, particularly among the prominent men of the Empire State, Mr. Ball was peculiarly qualified for the duties of the position. He was popular with his superiors and his subordinates, and so directed the work of the several departments within the Commission's jurisdiction as to procure the very best results.

Anthony Pfau was later appointed bookkeeper and assistant to the Secretary, and in the handling of a vast amount of detail work displayed commendable skill and patience. Seward H. French, stenographer to the Secretary, was always at his post of duty and cheerfully and faithfully served the Commission at all times. Herman Kandt, assistant bookkeeper, completed the office force.

An informal meeting was held in September, 1902, shortly after the names of the Commission were announced by the Governor. At this meeting an invitation was extended on behalf of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to attend the ceremonies in connection with the allotment of sites for the various State buildings. The President appointed Commissioners Stewart, Woodbury and Callanan a committee to represent the Commission on that occasion, and on behalf of the State of New York, to accept the site for its building. The ceremonies in connection with this occasion are described elsewhere. The first formal meeting of the Commission was called on December 3, 1902, at 120 Broadway, New York city.

At this meeting the Commission determined to maintain offices at 120 Broadway, New York city, until such time as the New York State building was opened at St. Louis, and for the expedition of business the following by-laws were provided:

BY-LAWS

First. The officers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State of New York shall consist of a President, Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary.

Second. Regular meetings of the Commission shall be held in the rooms of the Commission in New York city on the second Wednesday of every month, at two o'clock P. M., and all members shall be notified by the Secretary one week in advance of such meeting.

Third. Three members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum at all regular meetings.

Fourth. An Executive Committee of five members, appointed by the Commission, shall choose one of their number for Chairman, who shall act also as Chairman at the meetings of the Commission in the absence of the President or Vice-President. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once a month, and shall report at the regular meetings of the Commission. Three members of the Executive Committee shall form a quorum for the transaction of business.

Fifth. Any three members of the Commission may call for a special meeting, through the Secretary, of the entire Commission, at any time, by giving one week's notice.

Sixth. There shall be an Auditing Committee of two, whose duty it shall be to examine and audit all bills and accounts when properly verified. Such Committee shall report to the Commission at each meeting the amounts of bills and accounts so audited, together with the total thereof.

Seventh. A Treasurer shall be appointed by the Commission, who shall pay all bills when they have been properly verified and audited by the Auditing Committee.

Eighth. The Secretary shall prepare and forward to each member of the Commission a copy of the proceedings of the previous meeting in his regular monthly calls for meetings.

Ninth. The order of business at monthly meetings shall be as follows:

1. Reading of minutes of previous meeting 2. Report of Executive Committee 3. Report of the Treasurer 4. Report of regular and special committees 5. Unfinished business 6. Communications 7. New business

A STATE BUILDING

These preliminary formalities over, the Commission began in earnest the work of preparation for the State's participation at St. Louis. Believing that the most conspicuous feature of the State's participation in the Exposition, especially so far as the impression which would be made upon visitors was concerned, would be her State building, the Commission gave its first attention to this feature. Having been assigned such a commanding site, the Commission kept in mind that it was incumbent upon them to erect upon it a building of appropriate dignity and dimensions. It soon became evident that, with the appropriation already made, it would be impossible to erect a suitable building, maintain it and make suitable exhibits in the great departments of the Fair in which the State of New York stands pre-eminent. Steps were, therefore, taken to procure an additional appropriation from the Legislature of 1903, the matter being placed in the hands of the Executive Committee.

THE ARCHITECT

At the April meeting Mr. Clarence Luce, of New York city, was appointed the Commission's architect, and the plans for a State building presented by him were accepted. On June thirtieth a special meeting was called for the purpose of considering bids for the erection of the building and hearing the report of a special committee, consisting of Messrs. Luce and Van Brunt, who had visited St. Louis to further the interests of the Commission in this matter.

THE CONTRACTORS

Bids were received from several firms of contractors, ranging from $80,000 down to the contract price of the building, viz., $56,518, at which figure Messrs. Caldwell & Drake, of Columbus, Ind., contracted to complete the building in accordance with plans and specifications of the architect. The construction work was immediately inaugurated and was pushed forward so rapidly that the December meeting of the Commission, which was held on the eighteenth of that month, took place in the New York State building on the World's Fair grounds. After inspecting the building and carefully noting the progress which was being made, the Commission adjourned to meet at the Planters Hotel at seven o'clock in the evening. Through the courtesy of Honorable George J. Kobusch, president of the St. Louis Car Company, the private car "Electra" conveyed the members of the Commission to the grounds and return.

EMBELLISHMENT AND FURNISHING

An offer from the Aeolian Company, of New York city, to install, at its own expense, a pipe organ in the building was accepted, and an appropriation of $3,500 was made for an ornamental case to contain the organ which would be a distinctive addition to the decoration of the entrance hallway. In the meantime the matter of furnishing the State building had been in the hands of a Furniture Committee, who had made an exhaustive investigation upon the subject. In March a contract was made with Herter Brothers, of New York city, for furnishing the State building, in accordance with specifications prepared by the Commission, for $18,000.

THE COMPLETION OF THE BUILDING

By dint of prodigous effort the building was completed, entirely furnished and ready for the reception of guests on the opening day of the Exposition, at which time the offices of the Commission were opened in the State building, the New York offices remaining open throughout the summer in charge of Harry A. Sylvester.

The architect was commended for the prompt completion of his work in the following resolutions:

"*Whereas*, in originality of design, perfection in detail and attractiveness in equipment, the New York State building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition is thoroughly representative of the dignity and position of the Empire State,

"Resolved, therefore, that the thanks of this Commission be tendered to the architect, Mr. Clarence Luce, as a token of our appreciation of his skill, talent and artistic tastes in creating a structure which meets with the warmest approval of this Commission, and which is a fitting home for New York at the World's Fair of 1904.

"Resolved, that the secretary be instructed to forward to Mr. Luce a copy of these resolutions, suitably engrossed."

Throughout the entire Exposition period there were but very few days that from one to three Commissioners were not present at the State building.

By resolution the Commission determined that the lady Commissioner and the wives of Commissioners, assisted by the official hostess, should be hostesses of the State building during the period of the Exposition, and in the absence of those, that the official hostess should act in that capacity, and it was further determined that any Commissioner or a majority of the Commissioners present at the New York State building at any time should constitute a house committee, and have full charge of the State building.

PLANS FOR PARTICIPATION

During the earlier meetings of the Commission they were waited upon by representatives of the Exposition Company, and by committees or representatives of organizations within the State either offering to co-operate with the Commission in the preparation of exhibit material or requesting appropriations from the Commission's funds to enable them to prepare exhibits.

In February, 1903, Honorable George L. Parker, a representative of President Francis, addressed the Commission, urging them to see that New York State was properly represented. He, stated that the people of the West expected great things of New York State; that the city of St. Louis and the territory the acquisition of which was commemorated by the Fair, spent large sums of money in the city of New York alone, and for that reason it was hoped and expected that New York should lead the other States of the Union.

Later in the year, Dr. J. A. Holmes, chief of the Department of Mines and Metallurgy, appeared before the Commission by invitation and made some interesting remarks concerning the scientific exhibit, which he felt it incumbent upon the State to make. He stated that there was no geological survey, either national or State, as valuable as that of the State of New York, and strongly advocated that a model oil well derrick be erected.

The Legislature of 1903 passed two acts which affected either directly or indirectly the work of the Commission. The first act provided $50,000 for participation in the dedication ceremonies of the Exposition and is as follows:

CHAPTER 189, LAWS OF 1903

An Act making an appropriation for the due and appropriate participation by the state in the ceremonies attending the dedication of buildings of the Louisiana purchase exposition.

Became a law, April 22, 1903, with the approval of the Governor. Passed, three-fifths being present.

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. The sum of fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, payable to the order of the governor, as he may require the same, to be expended by him in such manner as he may deem proper, for the due and appropriate participation by the state in the ceremonies attending the dedication of buildings of the Louisiana purchase exposition, to be held on April thirtieth, and May first and second, nineteen hundred and three, in the city of Saint Louis; and for the transportation, subsistence and other necessary expenses of the commander-in-chief and his staff, and of such portion of the national guard or naval militia of this state as may be directed to attend, and for the replacement by purchase of such military property of the state, as may be rendered unserviceable by this duty; provided that officers and men performing this duty shall serve without pay.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately.

The second act amended the original act providing for State representation, and increased the Commission's appropriation by $200,000, making $300,000 in all.

The act follows:

CHAPTER 546, LAWS OF 1903

An Act to amend chapter four hundred and twenty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act to provide for the representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana Purchase exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri, and making an appropriation therefor."

Became a law, May 11, 1903, with the approval of the Governor. Passed, three-fifths being present.

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. Sections one, two and three, of chapter four hundred and twenty-one, of the laws of nineteen hundred and two, are hereby amended so as to read as follows:

Section 1. The governor is hereby authorized to appoint twelve commissioners to represent the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition to be held at Saint Louis, Missouri, beginning on the first day of May, nineteen hundred and four, and ending on the thirtieth day of November, nineteen hundred and four, and for the purposes of this act such commissioners shall be known as the Louisiana purchase exposition commission. Such commission shall encourage and promote a full and complete exhibit of the commercial, educational, industrial, artistic and other interests of the state and its citizens at such exposition, and shall provide, furnish and maintain, during the exposition, a building or room for a state exhibit and for the official headquarters of the state, and for the comfort and convenience of its citizens and its exhibitors. Such commission shall have power and authority, in their discretion, to sell or otherwise dispose of any building, furniture, fixtures or other property which shall have been acquired by it pursuant to the provisions of this section.

*Sec.*2. The members of the commission shall receive no compensation for their services, but shall be entitled to the actual necessary expenses incurred while in discharge of duties imposed upon them by the commission. Such commission may provide a secretary whose compensation, to be fixed by it, shall be at the rate of not to exceed four thousand dollars a year for all services to be performed in carrying out the provisions of this act, and may also provide such other clerical assistance and office facilities as it deems necessary, but no salaries or expenses shall be incurred for a longer period than ninety days after the close of the exposition.

*Sec.*3. The sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in addition to the sum of one hundred thousand dollars heretofore appropriated by chapter four hundred and twenty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred and two which is hereby reappropriated for the above specified purposes, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated for the purposes of this act. Such money shall be paid by the treasurer on the warrant of the comptroller issued upon a requisition signed by the president and secretary of the commission, accompanied by an estimate of the expenses for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be applied. Within ninety days after the close of the exposition, such commission shall make a verified report to the comptroller of the disbursements made by it, and shall return to the state treasury the unexpended balance of money drawn in pursuance of this act. No indebtedness nor obligation shall be incurred under this act in excess of the appropriation herein made. No member of such commission, nor such officer, shall be personally liable for any debt or obligation created or incurred by him as such commissioner, or such officer, or by such commission, or any such officer.

*Sec.*2. This act shall take effect immediately.

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

The title of the Secretary was thereupon changed to that of Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, and he was clothed with all the authority and duties pertaining to the latter position, his salary being increased to $4,000 per annum. Later his duties were further prescribed by the following resolution:

"Resolved, that the Chief Executive Officer shall exercise such direction and management of the office as shall make effective the various agencies employed. He shall nominate to the Commission all clerks and employees in all the departments. He shall fix and establish all salaries of officers, clerks and employees, subject to the approval of the Commission. He shall in like manner have power to suspend, without pay, for cause, upon charges made in writing and filed in the office of the Commission, with such suspended officers, clerks or employees, and with the Chairman of the Executive Committee, any and all officers, clerks and employees of the Commission. Discharges or removals of such officers clerks or employees must be approved by the Executive Committee of the Commission. He shall have power to visit and examine the work and management of the several departments created by the Commission. It shall be his duty to make regular monthly reports to the Commission, and at such other times as the Commission may be in session or request such report."

CHIEFS OF DEPARTMENTS

At the meeting of the Commission held in June, 1903, the following chiefs of departments were appointed:

Charles H. Vick, of Rochester, Superintendent of Horticulture and Floriculture, to take effect July 1, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per annum.

J. H. Durkee, of Florida, Superintendent of Agriculture, to take effect July 1, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per annum.

DeLancey M. Ellis, of Rochester, Director of Education, to take effect June 15, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per annum.

Later Mr. Ellis's title was changed to Director of Education and Social Economy, and he was placed in charge of the exhibits in the latter department in addition to those of the Department of Education.

APPROPRIATIONS FOR EXHIBITS

The following appropriations were made for exhibits:

Horticulture and Floriculture $20,000 Agriculture, including live stock and dairy products 25,000 Education 20,000 Social Economy: State Commission in Lunacy $1,800 State Board of Charities 1,200 State Department of Prisons 2,000 State Department of Labor 1,000 Craig Colony for Epileptics 500 General expenses 1,000 ———- $7,500 Forest, Fish and Game 18,000 Scientific 7,500 Fine Arts 10,000 ———- Total $108,000

In the departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Education and Social Economy the work was placed in charge of the chiefs above named. The Scientific exhibit was placed in charge of the Director of the State Museum. All of the above exhibits were subject to the supervisory control of the chief executive officer. The Forest, Fish and Game exhibit was placed under direct control of the chief executive officer, valuable assistance being rendered, however, by the Forest, Fish and Game Commission.

The Fine Arts exhibit was provided for in the following resolution:

"Resolved, that Mr. W. H. Low, of the Society of American Artists; Mr. H. W. Watrous, of the National Academy of Design; Mr. J. Carroll Beckwith, a member of the Art Commission of the city of New York; Mr. Louis Loeb, of the Society of Illustrators; Mr. Frank C. Jones, delegate to the Fine Arts Federation from the National Academy of Design; Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury, of the Architectural League of New York, and Mr. Herbert Adams, of the National Sculpture Society, be named as an executive committee on art for the State of New York, whose duty it shall be to aid the chief executive officer of this Commission to develop the New York State art exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, said executive committee to serve without expense to this Commission."

By means of the various agencies provided for the preparation of exhibits, the work was pushed forward as rapidly as possible, the Commission keeping in touch with its progress through monthly reports filed with the chief executive officer by the heads of various departments.

ASSISTANCE BY EXPOSITION OFFICERS

By the time the Commission held its meeting in St. Louis in December space had been assigned for most all of the State exhibits. There was an evident disposition on the part of the Exposition Company to do all in their power to assist the State of New York in making its participation an unqualified success. In appreciation of this attitude the following resolution was passed at the meeting held in the city of St. Louis in December:

"Resolved, that the members of the New York Commission desire to express to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company and the heads of the various departments with whom they have been brought in personal contact, their appreciation of the delightful courtesy extended them. It is obvious that there is a desire on the part of the Exposition authorities to facilitate the departmental work of New York in connection with the Exposition. We cannot fail to express our admiration of the gigantic task which the officers of this great international fair have carried to such a successful culmination. In the entire history of expositions, there has been evidenced no greater progress, and such work could not have been accomplished save through the most prodigious efforts on the part of the projectors of this vast enterprise. When St. Louis opens her exposition gates next year, it will be to invite the world to witness the greatest exposition in all history. And be it further

"Resolved, that the secretary be instructed to forward a copy of this resolution to President Francis and the heads of the various departments of the Exposition."

NEW YORK DAY

The Commission took considerable care in the choosing of a day to be known as "New York Day." It was considered important that a date should be named upon which it would be possible for the Governor to be present. Moreover it seemed essential that no date during the heat of the summer should be designated, as but few New Yorkers would be apt to be present at St. Louis at that time, and, therefore, after mature consideration, October fourth was designated as New York State Day.

The Legislature of 1904 passed an additional appropriation of $40,000, by chapter 640, which is given below:

CHAPTER 640, LAWS OF 1904

An act, to make an additional appropriation to provide for the representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri.

[Became a law May 9, 1904, with the approval of the Governor.

Passed, three-fifths being present.]

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

Section 1. The sum of forty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, in addition to the money heretofore appropriated, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of providing for the representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri. The money hereby appropriated shall be applicable to the purposes specified in chapter four hundred and twenty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred and two, as amended by chapter five hundred and forty-six of the laws of nineteen hundred and three, and shall be paid out in accordance with the provisions of such act, by the treasurer on the warrant of the comptroller issued upon a requisition signed by the president and secretary of the commission, accompanied by an estimate of the expenses for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be applied.

*Sec.*2. This act shall take effect immediately.

This made possible the elaboration of some of the plans which the Commission had in mind.

HISTORY OF THE EXPOSITION PERIOD

The history of the Exposition period will be found in other chapters of this report. A description of the State building, detailed accounts of the dedicatory exercises and the exercises upon State Day, as well as other important functions, are given. The exhibits in the various departments are fully described, and the results of the inspection by the juries are given.

Throughout the entire life of the Commission death did not enter its ranks, nor the ranks of its attaches, nor did any untoward incident arise, although early in the morning of November twenty-first a catastrophe was narrowly averted. In the middle of the night a fire was found smouldering in the basement of the building, which, through the prompt action of the watchman on duty, was extinguished without doing extensive damage. Many were asleep in the building at the time, and but for the presence of mind and courage of those on duty the consequences might have been too fearful to contemplate.

DISPOSITION OF EXHIBITS

At a meeting of the Commission, held just before the close of the Exposition, the following resolution was passed:

"Resolved, that the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State of New York hereby authorizes the Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, Charles A. Ball, to turn over to the Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission of the State of New York any of the exhibits, or such part thereof as the latter may desire in the various exhibit departments working under the auspices of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State of New York for the use of said Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission, State of New York, with the proviso that in the case of individual exhibits forming a part of said exhibits the Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission, State of New York, must get the consent of the owners of said exhibits and relieve the Commission of all responsibility relating thereto and return said individual exhibits to their owners at the close of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, it being understood, however, that said Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission must take possession of these exhibits not later than December 15, 1904."

Upon requisition from the latter Commission the Secretary and Chief Executive Officer turned over to the Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission the following material: The complete exhibit of the State in the departments of Education and Social Economy; the complete exhibit in the Department of Forestry, Fish and Game, with the exception of the Log-cabin and the Forest Nursery and a portion of the State exhibits in the departments of Mines and Metallurgy and Agriculture.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO PRESIDENT FRANCIS AND OTHERS

President Francis and the Exposition officials generally throughout the entire Exposition period extended to the Commission every courtesy and evinced a hearty interest in the work of New York, endeavoring to further the interests of the Commission in every possible direction. Desiring to express in suitable terms its appreciation of these courtesies the Commission also passed the following resolutions at its meeting held at the close of the Exposition:

"WHEREAS, the Empire State is about to close its official connection with this, the greatest of World's Fairs; and,

"WHEREAS, the members of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State of New York, appointed by the Governor, desire to express to the officials of the Fair their sincere appreciation of the hearty co-operation which they have rendered the members of this Commission, in every way facilitating the work of New York in each department of State representation; and,

"WHEREAS, in all of the Commission's relations with the officers of the Exposition, not only has every courtesy been shown the Commission, but there has been a friendly desire to promote their interests; therefore, be it

"Resolved, that the cordial thanks of this Commission be extended to the President of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, Honorable David R. Francis; to the Secretary, Honorable Walter B. Stevens; to the Director of Exhibits, Honorable Frederick J.V. Skiff; to the Director of Works, Honorable Isaac S. Taylor, and to the chiefs of each exhibit department of the Exposition, with whom the Commission or its representatives have been brought in contact; be it further

"Resolved, that these resolutions be spread upon the permanent records of the Commission and a copy of the same forwarded to each of the above named Exposition officials."

COMMENDATION FOR STAFF

With the exception of closing up its affairs, this marked the end of the Commission's work and before adjournment the following resolutions commending the efficiency and faithfulness of its employees were spread upon the minutes, and a copy was sent to each attache:

"WHEREAS, this Commission is about to close its work, and for this reason must necessarily very soon dispense with the services of the appointees who have served under it since its organization and during the life of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, it is eminently fitting that we make record of the faithfulness and loyalty with which said appointees of every character whatsoever have discharged their respective duties; therefore, be it

"Resolved, that we take pleasure in certifying to the efficient manner in which our Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Charles A. Ball, has discharged the important duties attached to his position. From the very inception of the work upon which this Commission entered, Mr. Ball has proven to be most loyal and faithful, and has ever been ready and willing to carry out the instructions of this Commission. His wide acquaintance with the people of New York State, and especially with her official representatives, has been of inestimable service to this Commission, not only while the various exhibits were being developed, but also during the Exposition period itself. That Mr. Ball has popularized the Commission's work at St. Louis is attested by the universal commendation which he has received from New York people who have come in contact with him during their visits to the Exposition and to the New York State building. Mr. Ball has shown himself to be most capable in directing the various appointees at the State building and in the several exhibit departments in the discharge of their various duties, and has not only carried an this work to the best interests of the State, but in such a manner as to greatly endear himself to this Commission and to all of its employees as well. His foresight in providing for the necessary vigilance during the hours of the night in the protection of the lives of those in the State building, once seriously jeopardized by fire, as well as the property of the State from loss by fire, is especially entitled to the sincere thanks and gratitude of this Commission;

"Resolved, that in Chief Clerk Anthony Pfau, Stenographer Seward H. French, Clerks Herman W. Kandt and Harry A. Sylvester, the experience of this Commission has demonstrated that it made most worthy selections. They have been faithful assistants to Mr. Ball in the discharge of his duties and this Commission gladly records its commendation of the ability with which they have discharged their duties;

"Resolved, that we extend to the Honorable Frank J. Le Fevre, the Superintendent, and Mr. George B. Cowper, the Assistant Superintendent, our sincere appreciation for the most praiseworthy manner in which they have discharged the difficult duties falling to them, and our very pleasant relations with them shall be ever held in grateful remembrance;

"Resolved, that we have been especially gratified with the highly satisfactory manner in which Mrs. Dore Lyon, the hostess, Mrs. F. B. Applebee, the assistant hostess, and Miss Laura C. MacMartin, the matron at the State building, have acquitted themselves of the duties assigned to them. We especially accord them our highest appreciation;

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