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Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the 41st Annual Meeting
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DISCLAIMER The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.



Northern Nut Growers Association

Incorporated

Affiliated with the American Horticultural Society

41st ANNUAL REPORT

Annual Meeting at

PLEASANT VALLEY, NEW YORK

August 28, 29 and 30, 1950



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cross-pollinating Chestnut Trees 3

Officers and Committees, 1950-51 6

State and Foreign Vice-Presidents 7

Attendance at the 1950 Meeting 8

Constitution 11

By-Laws 12

Proceedings of the Forty-first Annual Meeting. Starting on 15

Secretary's Report—J. C. McDaniel 15

Treasurer's Report—Sterling A. Smith 16

Report of Publications—Lewis E. Theiss 18

Discussion of Time and Place of Meeting 19

Report of Nominating Committee 20

President's Address—Mildred Jones Langdoc 22

Association Sends Greetings to Dr. Deming 24

Talk by the Oldest Member—-George Hebden Corsan 25

The 1949 Persian Walnut Contest with Notes from Persian Walnut Growers—Spencer B. Chase 27

Plans for the 1950 Carpathian Walnut Contest—Spencer B. Chase 30

Carpathian Scions for Testing 32

The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio—L. Walter Sherman 34

Notes on Persian Walnuts in England—Sargent Wellman 40

Prospects for Persian Walnuts in the Vicinity of St. Paul, Minn.—Carl Weschcke 43

Discussion on Persian Walnut Climatic Adaptation 46

Grafted Black and Persian Walnuts in Michigan—Gilbert Becker 48

The Carpathian Walnut in Indiana—W. B. Ward 51

Notes on Nut Growing in New Hampshire—Matthew Lahti 55

Is the Farmer Missing Something?—John Davidson 56

How to Lose Money in Manufacturing Filbert Nut Butter—Carl Weschcke 60

Filberts, Walnuts and Chestnuts on the Niagara Peninsula—Elton E. Papple 63

Nut Varieties: A Round Table Discussion—H. L. Crane, Chairman 66

SECOND DAY'S SESSION

Discussion on the Bunch Disease of Walnuts 89

The Japanese Beetle and Nut Growing—J. A. Adams 92

Insecticides for Nut Insects—E. H. Siegler 100

Nut Insects and Injuries 103, 105, and 107

Observations of Effects of Low Temperatures in the Winter 1949-1950 on Walnuts and Filberts in Oregon and Washington—John H. Painter 109

Effects of the Winter of 1949-1950 on Nut Trees in British Columbia—J. U. Gellatly 113

Recipes—J. U. Gellatly 116

Description of Filazel Varieties—J. U. Gellatly 116

Experiments with Tree Hazels and Chestnuts—J. U. Gellatly 118

Our Experience with Hickory Nut Varieties—Gilbert L. Smith 120

How About the Butternut?—L. H. MacDaniels 125

Progress in Nut Culture at the Pennsylvania State College—W. S. Clarke, Jr. 132

Nut Tree Culture in Missouri—T. J. Talbert 134

Chestnut Breeding: Report for 1950—Arthur Harmount Graves 145

A Method for Maintaining Blight—Susceptible Chestnut Trees—Arthur Harmount Graves 149

Experiences with Chestnuts in Nursery and Orchard in Western New York—George Salzer 152

Chestnuts in Upper Dutchess County, New York—Alfred Szego 154

Demonstration of Method of Propagating Nut Trees in Greenhouse—Stephen Bernath 156

Experiences in Nut Growing Near Lake Erie—Ross Pier Wright 165

Discussion of Mulches 168

Nominating Committee Elected 170

Resolutions 171

Report of Auditing Committee 172

Election of 1950-51 Officers 173

Note on the Annual Tour, August 30, 1950 175

Obituaries 176

Letters 177

List of Members, etc. 184



Officers of the Association

1951

President—William M. Rohrbacher, M.D., 811 E. College, Iowa City, Iowa

Vice-President—Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Treasurer—Sterling A. Smith, 630 W. South St., Vermilion, Ohio

Secretary—J. C. McDaniel, Dept. of Horticulture, U. of I., Urbana, Illinois

Additional Directors—Mildred Jones Langdoc (Ill.) and H. F. Stoke (Va.)

Nominating Committee—Dr. H. L. Crane, (Chairman) Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland; Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tenn.; Raymond E. Silvis, Massillon, Ohio

EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS, 1950-51

Program—Dr. A. S. Colby, Chm. (Ill.); J. C. McDaniel (Ill.); Prof. Geo. L. Slate (N. Y.); Royal Oakes (Ill.); Prof. W. D. Armstrong (Princeton, Ky.); Dr. H. L. Crane (Md.); D. C. Snyder (Ia.); W. W. Magill (Ky.); Prof. F. L. O'Rourke (Mich.); Ira M. Kyhl (Ia.); H. Gleason Mattoon (Pa.)

Publications—Editorial Section: Dr. Lewis E. Theiss, Chm. (Pa.); Dr. W. C. Deming (Conn.); Dr. J. Russell Smith (Pa.); Prof. George L. Slate (N. Y.); H. F. Stoke (Va.); John Davidson (O.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (Dept. of Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.)

Printing Section—John Davidson, Chm. (O.); J. C. McDaniel (Ill.); Prof. George L. Slate (N. Y.); Carl F. Prell (Ind.)

Place of Meeting—J. F. Wilkinson, Chm. (Ind.); R. P. Allaman (Pa.); John A. Gerstenmaier (O.)

Varieties and Contests—Spencer B. Chase, Chm. (Tenn.); G. J. Korn, (Mich.); J. F. Wilkinson (Ind.); A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); L. Walter Sherman (Mich.); Sylvester Shessler (O.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (N. Y.); Fayette Etter (Pa.); Gilbert L. Smith (N. Y.)

Standards and Judging Section of this Committee—Spencer B. Chase, Chm. (Tenn.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (N. Y.); Dr. J. Russell Smith (Pa.)

Survey and Research—H. F. Stoke, Chm. (Va.); and the State and Foreign Vice-presidents.

Membership—D. C. Snyder, Chm. (Ia.); Stephen Bernath (N. Y.); Sterling A. Smith (O.); Raymond E. Silvis (O.); Carroll D. Bush (Wash.)

Exhibits—J. F. Wilkinson, Chm. (Ind.); R. P. Allaman (Pa.); Fayette Etter (Pa.); A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); G. J. Korn (Mich.); H. F. Stoke (Va.); G. H. Corsan (Ont.); Edwin W. Lemke (Mich.); Carl Weschcke (Minn.)

Necrology Mrs. Herbert Negus, Chm. (Md.); Mrs. C. A. Reed (D. C.); Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman (Pa.)

Auditing Raymond E. Silvis (O.); Carl F. Walker (O.)

Finance Sterling A. Smith, Chm. (O.); Carl Weschcke (Minn.)

Legal Adviser Sargent Wellman (Mass.)

Official Journal American Fruit Grower, Willoughby, Ohio



State and Foreign Vice Presidents

Alabama Edward L. Hiles, Loxley Alberta, Canada A. L. Young, Brooks Belgium R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, Korbeek-Lo British Columbia, Canada J. U. Gellatly, Box 19, Westbank California Thos. R. Haig, M.D., 3021 Highland Ave., Carlsbad Connecticut A. M. Huntington, Stanerigg Farms, Bethel Delaware Lewis Wilkins, Route 1, Newark Denmark Count F. M. Knuth, Knuthenborg, Bandholm District of Columbia Edwin L. Ford, 3634 Austin St., S.E., Washington, 20 Florida C. A. Avant, 960 N.W. 10th Avenue, Miami Georgia William J. Wilson, North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley Hong Kong P. W. Wang, 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central Idaho Lynn Dryden, Peck Illinois Royal Oakes, Bluffs (Scott County) Indiana Ford Wallick, Route 4, Peru Iowa Ira M. Kyhl, Box 236, Sabula Kansas Dr. Clyde Gray, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton Louisiana Dr. Harald E. Hammar, 608 Court House, Shreveport Maryland Blaine McCollum, White Hall Massachusetts S. Lathrop Davenport, 24 Creeper Hill Rd., North Grafton Michigan Gilbert Becker, Climax Minnesota R. E. Hodgson, Southeastern Exp. Station, Waseca Mississippi James R. Meyer, Delta Branch Exper. Station, Stoneville Missouri Ralph Richterkessing, Route 1, Saint Charles Nebraska Harvey W. Hess, Box 209, Hebron New Hampshire Matthew Lahti, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro New Jersey Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Route 1, Flemington New Mexico Rev. Titus Gehring, P. O. Box 177, Lumberton New York George Salzer, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9 North Carolina Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College, Greensboro North Dakota Homer L. Bradley, Long Lake Refuge, Moffit Ohio A. A. Bungart, Avon Oklahoma A. G. Hirschi, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City Ontario, Canada George H. Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18 Oregon Harry L. Pearcy, Route 2, Box 190, Salem Pennsylvania R. P. Allaman, Route 86, Harrisburg Prince Edward Island, Canada Robert Snazelle, Forest Nursery, Rt. 5, Charlottetown Rhode Island Philip Allen, 178 Dorance St., Providence South Carolina John T. Bregger, P. O. Box 1018, Clemson South Dakota Herman Richter, Madison Tennessee W. Jobe Robinson, Route 7, Jackson Texas Kaufman Florida, Box 154, Rotan Utah Harlan D. Petterson, 2076 Jefferson Avenue, Ogden Vermont Joseph N. Collins, Route 3, Putney Virginia H. R. Gibbs, Linden Washington Carroll D. Bush, Grapeview West Virginia Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale Wisconsin C. F. Ladwig, 2221 St. Laurence, Beloit



Attendance at the 1950 Meeting

Pleasant Valley, New York

Dr. J. Alfred Adams, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Route 33, Poughkeepsie, New York Mr. R. P. Allaman, 8032 16th St., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Mrs. R. P. Allaman, 8032 16th St., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Mr. R. D. Anthony, State College, Pennsylvania Mrs. Lillian V. Armstrong, 40 Earl Street, Toronto, Canada (Now Mrs. George Hebden Corsan) Mr. Richard Barcus, Massillon, Ohio Mr. Alfred L. Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan Mrs. Irene M. Barlow, 13079 Flanders Avenue, Detroit 5, Michigan Miss Betty Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan Mr. Leon Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan Mrs. Alice M. Bernath, Pleasant Valley, New York Mr. Stephen Bernath, R. D. 3, Poughkeepsie, New York Mr. Charles B. Berst, Erie, Pennsylvania Mr. Harold Blake, Saddle River, New Jersey Mr. Harold Blake, Jr., Saddle River, New Jersey Mrs. Katherine Blake, Saddle River, New Jersey Mr. George Brand, R. D. 45, Lincoln, Nebr. (Now in California) Mr. William G. Brooks, Monroe, New York Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Flemington, New Jersey Mr. Redmond M. Burr, 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan Mrs. R. M. Burr, 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan Mr. David H. Caldwell, 217 W. Hickory Street, Canastota, New York (New York State College of Forestry) Mr. Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tennessee Mr. William S. Clarke, Jr., Box 167, State College, Pennsylvania Dr. Arthur S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Mrs. Arthur S. Colby, Urbana, Illinois Mr. George Hebden Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18, Ontario Mr. George E. Craig, Dundas, Ohio Dr. H. L. Crane, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland Mrs. H. L. Crane, Hyattsville, Maryland Mr. L. H. Dowell, 529 North Avenue, N.E., Massillon, Ohio Mr. Aaron L. Ebling, R. D. 2, Reading, Pennsylvania Mr. Ralph W. Emerson, Highland Park, Michigan Mr. Edwin L. Ford, Washington, D. C. Mr. Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale, West Virginia Mr. Charles Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio Mr. John A. Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio Mrs. J. A. Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio Mrs. Bessie J. Gibbs, Linden, Virginia Mr. H. R. Gibbs, Linden, Virginia Mr. Ralph Gibson, Williamsport, Pennsylvania Mr. S. H. Graham, Bostwick Road, Ithaca, New York Mrs. S. H. Graham, Bostwick Road, Ithaca, New York Mr. Henry Gressel, R. D. 2, Mohawk, New York Mrs. Nora Gressel, R. D. 2, Mohawk, New York Mr. Earl C. Haines, Shanks, West Virginia Mr. Walter Hasbrouck, New Paltz, New York Mrs. Walter Hasbrouck, New Paltz, New York Mr. Andrew Kerr, Barnstable, Massachusetts Mr. Frank M. Kintzel, Cincinnati, Ohio Mr. Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula, Iowa Miss Bertha Landis, 425 Marion Avenue, Mansfield, Ohio Mr. James D. Lawrence, R. D. 3, Middletown, New York Mr. Frederick L. Lehr, Hamden, Connecticut Mr. James Lowerre, R. D. 3, Middletown, New York Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, New York Prof. J. C. McDaniel, 104 Horticultural Field Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Mr. J. W. McKay, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland Mr. Elwood Miller, Hazleton, Pennsylvania Mrs. Elwood Miller, Hazleton, Pennsylvania Mr. Louis Miller, Cassopolis, Michigan Dr. James K. Mossman, Ramapo, New York Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mount Ranier, Maryland Mr. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois Mrs. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois Mr. F. L. O'Rourke, Hidden Lake Gardens, Michigan State College, Tipton, Michigan Mr. John H. Page, Dundas, Ohio Mr. Philip P. Parkinson, 567 Broadway, Newark, New Jersey Mrs. Philip P. Parkinson, 567 Broadway, Newark, New Jersey Mr. Christ Pataky, Jr., Mansfield, Ohio Mrs. Christ Pataky, Mansfield, Ohio Mr. Gordon Porter, Windsor, Ontario Mrs. Penelope Porter, Windsor, Ontario Mrs. C. A. Reed, 7309 Piney Branch Road, Washington 12, D. C. Mr. John Rick, 438 Penn Street, Reading, Pennsylvania Dr. William M. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa Mrs. Elizabeth I. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa Mr. George Salzer, Rochester, New York Mrs. George Salzer, Rochester, New York Mr. Rodman Salzer, Rochester, New York Mr. L. Walter Sherman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Mrs. L. W. Sherman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (The Shermans now in Michigan) Mr. Raymond E. Silvis and Family, Massillon, Ohio Mr. George L. Slate, Geneva, New York Mr. Douglas A. Smith, Vermilion, Ohio Mr. Gilbert L. Smith, Millerton, New York Mr. Jay L. Smith, Chester, New York Mr. Sterling A. Smith, 630 W. South Street, Vermilion, Ohio Mr. Harwood Steiger, Red Hook, New York Mrs. Sophie H. Steiger, Red Hook, New York Mr. H. F. Stoke, 1436 Watts Avenue, Roanoke, Virginia Mrs. H. F. Stoke, 1436 Watts Avenue, Roanoke, Virginia Mr. Alfred Szego, 77-15A 37th Avenue, Jackson Heights, New York, N. Y. Prof. T. J. Talbert, Columbia, Missouri Dr. Lewis E. Theiss, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania Dr. Frank A. Washick, Philadelphia 11, Pennsylvania Mr. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio Mr. Sargent H. Wellman, Topsfield, Massachusetts Mrs. Laura L. Whiteford, Pleasant Valley, Duchess County, New York Mr. J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Indiana, Mr. William J. Wilson, Fort Valley, Georgia Mrs. William J. Wilson, Fort Valley, Georgia Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Route 1, Linglestown, Pennsylvania

Complete membership list is in back of this volume.



CONSTITUTION

of the

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED

(As adopted September 13, 1948)

NAME

Article I. This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers Association, Incorporated. It is strictly a non-profit organization.

PURPOSES

Article II. The purposes of this Association shall be to promote interest in the nut bearing plants; scientific research in their breeding and culture; standardization of varietal names; the dissemination of information concerning the above and such other purposes as may advance the culture of nut bearing plants, particularly in the North Temperate Zone.

MEMBERS

Article III. Membership in this Association shall be open to all persons interested in supporting the purposes of the Association. Classes of members are as follows: Annual members, Contributing members, Life members, Honorary members, and Perpetual members. Applications for membership in the Association shall be presented to the secretary or the treasurer in writing, accompanied by the required dues.

OFFICERS

Article IV. The elected officers of this Association shall consist of a President, Vice-president, a Secretary and a Treasurer or a combined Secretary-treasurer as the Association may designate.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Article V. The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the Association who shall be the officers of the Association and the two preceding elected presidents. If the offices of Secretary and Treasurer are combined, the three past presidents shall serve on the Board of Directors.

There shall be a State Vice-president for each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the Association, who shall be appointed by the President.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

Article VI. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendments having been mailed by the Secretary, or by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS

(Revised and adopted at Norris, Tennessee, September 13, 1948)

SECTION I.—MEMBERSHIP

Classes of membership are defined as follows:

Article 1. Annual members. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Three Dollars ($3.00).

Article 2. Contributing members. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Ten Dollars ($10.00) or more.

Article 3. Life members. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who contribute Seventy Five Dollars ($75.00) to its support and who shall, after such contribution, pay no annual dues.

Article 4. Honorary members. Those whom the Association has elected as honorary members in recognition of their achievements in the special fields of the Association and who shall pay no dues.

Article 5. Perpetual members. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as "Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event the Association become defunct or dissolves, then, in that event, the Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at the time he makes the bequest of the donation.

SECTION II.—DUTIES OF OFFICERS

Article 1. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Association and Board of Directors, and may call meetings of the Board of Directors when he believes it to be to the best interests of the Association. He shall appoint the State Vice-presidents; the standing committees, except the Nominating Committee, and such special committees as the Association may authorize.

Article 2. Vice-president. In the absence of the President, the Vice-president shall perform the duties of the President.

Article 3. Secretary. The Secretary shall be the active executive officer of the Association. He shall conduct the correspondence relating to the Association's interests, assist in obtaining memberships and otherwise actively forward the interests of the Association, and report to the Annual Meeting and from time to time to meetings of the Board of Directors as they may request.

Article 4. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive and record memberships, receive and account for all moneys of the Association and shall pay all bills approved by the President or the Secretary. He shall give such security as the Board of Directors may require or may legally be required, shall invest life memberships or other funds as the Board of Directors may direct, subject to legal restrictions and in accordance with the law, and shall submit a verified account of receipts and disbursements to the Annual meeting and such current accounts as the Board of Directors may from time to time require. Before the final business session of the Annual Meeting of the Association, the accounts of the Treasurer shall be submitted for examination to the Auditing Committee appointed by the President at the opening session of the Annual Meeting.

Article 5. The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of the association between meetings. Four members, including at least two elected officers, shall be considered a quorum.

SECTION III.—ELECTIONS

Article 1. The Officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and hold office for one year beginning immediately following the close of the Annual Meeting.

Article 2. The Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers on the first day of the Annual Meeting and the election shall take place at the closing session. Nominations for any office may be presented from the floor at the time the slate is presented or immediately preceding the election.

Article 3. For the purpose of nominating officers for the year 1949 and thereafter, a committee of five members shall be elected annually at the preceding Annual Meeting.

Article 4. A quorum at a regularly called Annual Meeting shall be fifteen (15) members and must include at least two of the elected officers.

Article 5. All classes of members whose dues are paid shall be eligible to vote and hold office.

SECTION IV.—FINANCIAL MATTERS

Article 1. The fiscal year of the Association shall extend from October 1st through the following September 30th. All annual memberships shall begin October 1st.

Article 2. The names of all members whose dues have not been paid by January 1st shall be dropped from the rolls of the Society. Notices of non-payment of dues shall be mailed to delinquent members on or about December 1st.

Article 3. The Annual Report shall be sent to only those members who have paid their dues for the current year. Members whose dues have not been paid by January 1st shall be considered delinquent. They will not be entitled to receive the publication or other benefits of the Association until dues are paid.

SECTION V.—MEETINGS

Article 1. The place and time of the Annual Meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the Board of Directors shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the President and Board of Directors.

SECTION VI.—PUBLICATIONS

Article 1. The Association shall publish a report each fiscal year and such other publications as may be authorized by the Association.

Article 2. The publishing of the report shall be the responsibility of the Committee on Publications.

SECTION VII.—AWARDS

Article 1. The Association may provide suitable awards for outstanding contributions to the cultivation of nut bearing plants and suitable recognition for meritorious exhibits as may be appropriate.

SECTION VIII.—STANDING COMMITTEES

As soon as practical after the Annual Meeting of the Association, the President shall appoint the following standing committees:

1. Membership 2. Auditing 3. Publications 4. Survey 5. Program 6. Research 7. Exhibit 8. Varieties and Contests

SECTION IX.—REGIONAL GROUPS AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES.

Article 1. The Association shall encourage the formation of regional groups of its members, who may elect their own officers and organize their own local field days and other programs. They may publish their proceedings and selected papers in the yearbooks of the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

Article 2. Any independent regional association of nut growers may affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers Association provided one-fourth of its members are also members of the Northern Nut Growers Association. Such affiliated societies shall pay an annual affiliation fee of $3.00 to the Northern Nut Growers Association. Papers presented at the meetings of the regional society may be published in the proceedings of the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

SECTION X—AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

Article 1. These by-laws may be amended at any Annual Meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present provided such amendments shall have been submitted to the membership in writing at least thirty-days prior to that meeting.



REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS at the Forty-First Annual Meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc.

Held at PLEASANT VALLEY, DUTCHESS COUNTY, NEW YORK on AUGUST 28, 29 and 30, 1950

TOGETHER WITH OTHER PAPERS ON NUT CULTURE



MONDAY MORNING SESSION

The meeting was called to order by the Vice-President, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, in the absence of the President.

DR. MacDANIELS: I have here the official gavel of The Northern Nut Growers Association, which was sent to me by Mildred Jones Langdoc, who unfortunately is not able to come to this meeting. She, of course, is our president. She expected to come until fairly recently but on her doctor's orders changed her plans and wrote to me a very short time ago asking me if I would preside at this meeting.

Does anyone present know the history of this gavel?

MR. GEORGE SLATE: It was presented to the Association by Mr. Littlepage, and was made from Indiana pecan wood.

DR. MacDANIELS: But anyway here it is, and we declare the Association in session.

This morning the meeting is quite brief. We will start the meeting with the report from the Secretary, Mr. McDaniel.



Secretary's Report

J. C. McDaniel

MR. J. C. McDANIEL: My report before the meeting will be very brief. It may be extended a little later for the publication.

The last count for this Association's membership made last week shows the Association has 575 paid members, plus 20 subscribers and one foreign exchange membership, totalling 596. There have been a few more members come in since then, so I might say we have in round figures about 600 members to date in 1950, a few less than last year.

I probably owe the members an explanation on the delay in the printing of the Fortieth Annual Report. That was finally taken up by the printing company and should be printed by now. It was ready to put on the press—in fact, some of it was on the press when I left Nashville two weeks ago, and we have every reason to believe that it will be ready for mailing in about another week. The Treasurer said he heard me say that six months ago. That's six months nearer to being the truth now.

I requested that the printer send up two copies, whether they are bound or not, so they may be in to show you later during the meeting.

I believe that's about all I will say at this time, Mr. President.

DR. MacDANIELS: This matter of the report not being here I know is the cause of considerable dissatisfaction, and it arises out of our attempt to get the report printed cheaply. We have had the same trouble before. The Corse Press did this at one time and did it cheaply, because they would work it in with the other business. The last time they did it, and other business was so heavy that it was delayed.

The printers who do it at Nashville also did the Legislative printing and other things cut in, so that it was not carried on. Now, I think that we have some ideas in mind for printers for the next issue, so that if we get the papers in on time, the report will be coming out fairly promptly.

Is the Treasurer ready with his report? Mr. Sterling Smith.

Treasurer's Report

Sept. 1, 1949 to Aug. 25, 1950

RECEIPTS:

Annual Membership Dues $1,689.55

(Contributing Members: Arp Nursery Co. and Mr. Hjalmar W. Johnson $10.00 each) Life Membership (Herschel L. Boll) 75.00

Contributions Mr. A. M. Huntington 50.00 Mr. Geo. L. Slate 2.00

Sale of Reports 186.00 Interest on U. S. Bonds 31.25 Worcester County (Mass.) Hort. Society 25.00 Advertisement 5.00 Miscellaneous 18.00 ———- Total Income $2,081.80

DISBURSEMENTS:

U. S. Bond "G" $ 500.00 American Fruit Grower Subscriptions 224.00 Supplies, Stationery, etc. for Secretary 96.75 Secretary's 50c per Member 275.00 Secretary's Expense 88.00 Treasurer's Expense 66.52 Reporting Beltsville Meeting 60.00 Mr. Reed's Memorial 10.00 Bank Service Charge 3.33 Miscellaneous 21.00 ———- Total Disbursements $1,344.60

Cash on deposit at Erie County United Bank $2,292.97 Petty Cash on Hand 12.70 Disbursements 1,344.60 ————- Total $3,650.27

On Hand Sept. 1, 1949 $1,568.47 Receipts Sept. 1. 1949, to Aug. 25, 1950 2,081.80 ————- Total $3,650.27

U. S. Bonds in Safety Deposit Box $3,000.00

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Smith. I think it is usual to accept the report and then refer it, I believe, to an auditing committee.

A MEMBER: I so move.

DR. MacDANIELS: It is moved that the report be accepted and turned over to the auditing committee.

MR. SZEGO: Second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Seconded. Any remarks? (No response.)

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: I'd like to appoint Mr. Royal Oakes and Mr. Weber as Auditing Committee, and I think they report at the final business session, which comes at the banquet.

I will say that matter of $25.00 I didn't know anything about, except now I recall the circumstances. At the convention I took over what was left of the exhibits—nobody wanted them—and took them back to Ithaca, thinking I would send them to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. I didn't have time to do that, but I did send them to Worcester (Mass.) Horticulture Society, and apparently I was out of the country and they sent the award to the Treasurer, and that accounts for the $25.00. It's the first I have heard of it, but anyway, we have it.

The treasurer's report indicates we have some little surplus in the treasury, but after our report is paid for, that will be reduced to the amount of about $800.00. That is the net surplus at the present time, and if we face the facts of the matter, it means that we are not living within our income, that is, with printing costs going up. The reports used to cost $600.00, instead of $1400.00, and what not.

The reason we have kept going has been the use of life memberships and the extra contribution of Mr. Archer Huntington.

The matter of deficit financing seems to be good for the Government, but I don't think it is any good for the society. I think, however, we can adjust our affairs so as to get along. It is proposed we make a change in the by-laws which will set up another type of membership. That is, at the present time we have an annual membership of $3.00 and a contributing membership of $10.00 and life membership for $75.00. Taking the pattern from some other societies, it at least was discussed that we put up a membership of $5.00, which was a sustaining membership, and anybody who felt that he could do that easily could do so, not receiving any additional benefits, except, perhaps, a star in front of his name,—just considering it a contribution to the society.

What we had in mind is that we know that there are some of the membership that find the $3.00 is plenty high enough. There are others to whom probably it means another dinner, or something of that kind, and it doesn't make so much difference. And what we propose to do is to make it easy for those who can to give that additional support.

That amendment will be proposed at the last business meeting in some form, and it will have to go over until the next meeting, according to our constitution, which provides for the amendment of the by-laws.

Mr. Secretary, do we have a report of the editor?

MR. J. C. McDANIEL: Yes, I have that here, a short report from Dr. Lewis E. Theiss, who will be at the meeting in the morning.



Report of Publications and Publicity

DR. LEWIS E. THEISS, Chairman

The annual Report, which should be issued very soon, will speak for itself. Delay more than usual was occasioned by an effort to make the publication fully complete. To that end, printing was held up so that, for one thing, we could include Dr. J. Russell Smith's remarkable summary or survey of nut experimentation in the U. S. and Canada.

We cannot overemphasize the great services of our secretary, Mr. McDaniel, in the preparation of this work. He collected the material, forwarded it to me for editing, did much editing himself, secured the printing contract, and in general oversaw the production of the volume.

To edit the manuscripts for a book of this size is in itself quite a chore. Proof reading is a great burden. In the preparation of this Report, we have had the hearty cooperation and help of Mrs. Herbert Negus (Md.); Professor George Slate (New York); Dr. A. S. Colby (Ill.); Mr. Spencer Chase (Tenn.); and Mr. Alfred Barlow (Mich.). We are indebted to all of these members for their fine support. We hope that this present issue will be a worthy successor to the many fine ones that have preceded it.

LEWIS E. THEISS, Chairman Publications Committee Read at meeting 8/28/50.

MR. J. C. McDANIEL: I might say, by the way, it will be 8 pages larger than last year's, totalling 232 pages.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Secretary.

The question is going to arise as to the size of our report. That is, the reports up to the last two have been something less than 200 pages, I believe. This one is running over considerably, and the question comes up as to whether or not we should economize by reducing the size of the report. It was the general opinion of the Directors in discussing the matter that perhaps somewhat closer editing should be done, but we realize that for many members of the Association the report is the one tangible thing that they get out of the whole picture and that the reports should be kept, certainly, at a good length and high grade.

I think those are all of the officers' reports. Are there reports of the committees? Program Committee, Mr. Slate, do you have a brief report?

MR. GEORGE L. SLATE: The report of the Program Committee has been published, and the programs are on this table in the rear of the room.

DR. MacDANIELS: Brief and to the point. In other words, Mr. Slate has written around to the persons who are going to be on the program, sort of cranking them up. This society is in a situation where its members don't just flock to the call of requests for papers, and they have to be solicited. Well, Mr. Slate has done a very good job of soliciting papers, and the report speaks for itself in the program which has been prepared.

Reports of any special committees? Do we have a committee on contests?—of the Carpathian walnut contest?

MR. McDANIEL: I believe that will be taken up in the afternoon program.

DR. MacDANIELS: The matter of old business. Do we have any old business, Mr. Secretary?

MR. McDANIEL: I don't know of any that's carried over now.

Discussion on Time and Place of Meeting

DR. MacDANIELS: Coming to new business. There is always the time and the place of the next convention. I think that that is usually in the hands of a committee, but in the open meeting the matter is discussed, and we are open for any suggestions.

I have heard that Dr. Colby of Illinois is going to have a suggestion that we come to Illinois.

MR. McDANIEL: That's my understanding, and he should be here a little later.

DR. MacDANIELS: Anybody else have any suggestions?

I think, with regard to our time and place of meeting, we have in mind alternating between the East, and the Middle West. The center of membership appears to be about Central Ohio, is that right? And I don't think we have gone any farther west than Center Point, Iowa.

MR. WEBER: That was back in 1930.

DR. MacDANIELS: That probably is about as far West as we are going to get, unless we get a lot of members out farther.

Now, suggestions that have been made have been that next year the meeting would be in Illinois—at the University of Illinois—and the year following somewhere in the East, possibly Pennsylvania, although we haven't been invited to Pennsylvania. I don't know whether we can get one or not. And the next year west again, possibly Michigan, and beyond that we haven't thought. But I think there is a real advantage in having time blocked out in advance for at least two years so that people can make their plans as to where they will go. That is, I think often in planning vacations and what not, it goes that far ahead.

MR. JAY SMITH: Mr. Chairman, the last week in August seems to be better than the first week in September, from the point of view of the school openings in early September.

MR. WELLMAN: I think we should wait a little while and see what kind of attendance we get at this meeting this time of the year.

MR. RICK: If we could arrange it, we'd like to appeal to the membership to have a meeting in Lancaster County. I think Mr. Hostetter has quite a number of things that could be shown and perhaps some others in the neighborhood that might make it quite interesting.

DR. MacDANIELS: We can refer that to the committee.

MR. ALLAMAN: Mr. President, I think that is a very fine suggestion. One of our nut growers in Pennsylvania lives in Lancaster County, and he has told me he has 29,000 nut trees, including filberts, and is still planting.

DR. MacDANIELS: That sounds almost like the Government debt, only not quite.

We will let that matter go until the committee reports when Dr. Colby arrives.

Is there any other business which we ought to transact at this time? If not, I think the next item is the president's address, which has just arrived. Mrs. Bernath just brought it in. It just came in under the wire, I guess.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Stoke has just come in.

DR. MacDANIELS: We will have the report of the nominating committee, Mr. Stoke.



Report of Nominating Committee

MR. STOKE: We bore in mind when we were making nominations for the presidency that we will probably hold our next meeting in the West, so we have nominated Dr. William Rohrbacher of Iowa for president, and Dr. MacDaniels, our perennial vice-president be nominated again and hope that we get him across next year as president. He has served a pretty good apprenticeship. Our secretary, J. C. McDaniel, has been nominated for re-election and Sterling Smith as treasurer. The last two ex-presidents will be on the Board of Directors. Those, with the other officers named, constitute our entire Board of Directors.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Stoke.

You have heard the report of the nominating committee.

DR. CRANE: Move that they be accepted.

MR. ALLAMAN: Second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Are there remarks? (No response.) If not, we will take a vote.

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: The election comes at the time of the banquet, and nominations may be made from the floor at the time of election.

Dr. Colby, I believe, came in. Do you want to say something about Illinois as a meeting place for next year. Dr. Colby of the University of Illinois.

DR. COLBY: I don't know whether there was any malice aforethought in that committee nomination! Before I left Urbana a few weeks ago, Dean H. P. Rusk of our College of Agriculture asked me to invite you people to come to Urbana, Illinois for your meeting next year. So that, Mr. President, is an official invitation. We hope that you can all come. I see some of our Illinois friends here, and we are all working together to provide an interesting meeting at that time.

Now, as to the date, that will have to be settled a little later.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thanks very much, Dr. Colby. That makes it official.

MR. WEBER: Mr. President, I move we accept the invitation.

MR. JAY SMITH: I second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved and seconded we go to Illinois, the time to be arranged by the committee. Any remarks? (No response.)

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: That fixes that, and the time will depend somewhat on the availability of dormitories. If the meeting is held the last week in August, the dormitories would be available, would they not?

Mr. Weber: Get away from the Labor Day problem, too.

DR. MacDANIELS: Any other business? Has anyone else come in in the meantime who has a report?

If not, we will go ahead with the next item, which is the President's Address, and I will ask Mr. Weber of Cincinnati to read this. I am much pleased to do this because of Mr. Weber's friendship for the president.



President's Address

MILDRED JONES LANGDOC, Erie, Illinois

I have been a member of this organization for a good many years, and I have always had a deep interest in its success. Our members are in a position to encourage the planting of good varieties of nut trees which may some day be appreciated even more for food and other uses as our population increases than we as a nation appreciate them today. Tree crops are a means of conserving our soils, both from the point of erosion and moisture holding content. I like the opportunity we have to be far-sighted in encouraging the planting of nut trees which will play a large part in the future well-being of our country.

Our N.N.G.A., as it is today, has been built on the unselfish efforts of a number of far-sighted men who had an ideal and a will to see that ideal accomplished. I think I was fortunate to know a number of the early founders of the organization either through their visits to my home where my father and they would talk their favorite subject of nut varieties known, just found, or the ideal variety they hoped they'd locate—perhaps in the next nut contest. In lighter mood—usually around the dinner table—they would sometimes reminisce about this joke or that which some member played on another. Altogether our early founders and officers were really great men, bringing experiences from various walks of life. Today we have a still wider variety of occupations listed among our membership, and an even greater opportunity to make acquaintances and friends. I hope every member will make full use of his leisure time here at this convention to make new acquaintances and to renew old ones. Knowing the members as I do, I know you will treasure these acquaintances during your entire lifetime.

The Association can serve its members in a number of ways, but I would place special emphasis on our reports carrying from year to year a progressive report on varieties. In other words, I think our survey reports are one important part of our means of learning about the performance of varieties in various sections of the country where they are being tried. I would urge every member to make a definite effort to co-operate with the survey committee in sending the information they require, because these men making the survey are busy men, too, just like the rest of us, and they have to make a real effort to find time to tabulate the information they receive, and they want to receive more, so they are willing to do their part to tabulate the information which will help us as an organization to be more definite about encouraging or discouraging the planting of a certain variety.

There is a question in my mind whether the very best nut so far as cracking quality is concerned will be the best variety for the average home planter. I think we should consider whether the variety will bear good crops consistently, and if it doesn't bear well—why? Perhaps it is a matter of soil condition which can be corrected, a matter of a variety being planted in a climate where it cannot bear well, and perhaps elevation above sea level is another factor. We may even find with the hickories and walnuts that certain varieties will perform better with certain other varieties as pollinators. When we think of these things there is much to be done in the evaluation of varieties, although there has been a start in the right direction.

It seems to me that nut contests at regular intervals help to stimulate interest in better varieties of nuts and we do gain a certain amount of free advertising through newspapers and magazines. The results of the contest should state, in my opinion, the comparison of the varieties selected as the best of the contest with the ratings of varieties already named and now in propagation. This would mean using the same score card always. Remembering that the very best rated cracking nut is not always the best bearing variety, it would help to accompany this variety report with data as to the location of the tree—soil it is growing in—soil type—good drainage or a damp location—rainfall during the year—days between frost—whether the tree has had good care or not—whether it's a heavy bearer—and any other information which may have a bearing upon the health and vigor of the tree. If notes can be taken on the blooming and bearing habit of other trees of the same species close by which may influence this particular variety through cross-pollination, then we would have a good record immediately on each variety.

I realize in stating the above that we must rely on the human mind which colors and evaluates everything our senses perceive, so it's up to us as individuals to try constantly to train ourselves to evaluate a variety as it really is. I feel that much of the success of our organization in the gathering of nut tree varieties has been due to an honest effort towards reporting only facts and we will do well to enlist the aid of our college trained scientific minds to help us individuals in asking ourselves the necessary questions about our nut tree varieties.

According to the phrase "Life begins at 40," we are now just beginning to live as an organization. Let us then examine every means to set our course towards the definite goal of evaluating the worth of all the named varieties of northern grown nut trees, let us report our findings without prejudice, let us continue to make our annual reports so necessary as a clearing house for the year's progress in nut culture, so valuable, that anyone interested in nut culture can't afford not belonging to and being an active part of our group. I would especially like to see other active state groups as the Ohio group all bringing together their yearly information in one book form—our Annual Report. The Ohio group deserves special recognition on the wisdom of their officers to work towards a unified northern nut growers group, each helping the other where they can.

I want to express my appreciation to our Secretary, Mr. McDaniel, for his work this year which can be doubly appreciated by those who know the excellent job he has performed in spite of many adversities. I hope he will continue as Secretary.

Our Treasurer, Mr. Smith, has been right on the job, and we can all be of special help to him by sending or giving to him here and now our dues for the coming year. We would not waste any time by paying our dues promptly, but we would save a tremendous amount of time for him. We can in this way make his association and work for us most pleasant and in that way show him how much we appreciate his help. I express the hope that Mr. Smith will be our Treasurer for a long time.

I want to thank the Board of Directors and all of the committees who have labored so faithfully during the year. Our convention program for this year is evidence that our Program Committee has spent much time in thought, correspondence and work and we all appreciate and give them our hearty thanks.

Since I cannot be with you this year, Dr. MacDaniels has consented to occupy the Chair and the 41st annual meeting will now go forward under his able direction. I am with you in thought.

Sincerely, MILDRED JONES LANGDOC

* * * * *

MR. WEBER: By the way, since I am on the floor and I am on my feet, I will pass this attendance record. Will you all please sign your names and addresses. It doesn't bind you to anything.

MR. CORSAN: You might tell the audience—there are some strangers here—who the president is whose address you just read.

MR. WEBER: I read her name, the former Mildred Jones, whose father was the late J. F. Jones who was one of the pioneers in the propagating of nut trees, and was formerly living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, three miles south of Lancaster on U. S. 222. His daughter continued his work after his death, has since married and is now living out at Erie, Illinois, which is west of Chicago near the Mississippi River. Her name now is Langdoc.

DR. MacDANIELS: Our president brought out two points in which I most heartily concur. One is our search for new varieties and the evaluation of varieties, and the other, the more extensive rating of the varieties we already have. There will be this round-table this evening on evaluation of varieties, of which Dr. Crane will be the chairman.

Association Sends Greetings to Dr. Deming

DR. McKAY: I'd like to bring up this matter—I'd like to make this in the form of a motion, that in view of the long and active service of Dr. W. C. Deming to this organization, I think it would be appropriate for this organization to send him greetings. I would like to make that in the form of a motion.

MR. BERNATH: I second it.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved and seconded to send Dr. Deming greetings from the meeting. We had hoped that he would be here. He may come yet, unless somebody knows definitely to the contrary. George Slate saw him a while ago and said he hopes to get here.[1]

[1] Dr. Deming was present at the lunch stop on the Wassaic State School grounds during the third day's tour.—Ed.

MR. WEBER: I have just been informed that Dr. Deming will be 89 years old on September first.

DR. MacDANIELS: That's something.

How old is Mr. Corsan?

MR. WEBER: The question arises: How old is Mr. Corsan? The gentleman is here, and he will speak for himself.



Talk by the Oldest Member

MR. CORSAN: I don't know how old I am. I know I was born near Rockport, New York, and my father brought me across the river to Hamilton, Ontario, when I was seven, and according to my aunts and uncles and people who told me, they say I was born June 11, 1857. So here I am kicking around, but I am not blowing how long I will live. I don't know, but I will try my best.

I have joined the Vegetarian Society many years ago, and I am still hanging onto that idea, and I hope that we have a vegetarian banquet some of these times, because nearly all vegetarian associations are very deeply interested in the Northern Nut Growers Association. That's what they all told me at the convention at Lake Geneva last August a year ago. And I just came back from visiting Rodale. I thought I'd see Rodale. He looks a good deal like this gentleman here (indicating Mr. Bernath), our friend here, about the size and appearance of him. But he is of the greatest ancestry in the world. He is Jewish, and he doesn't know exactly how to eat, because he has jowls and dewlaps and he is too fat, but he is a very fine man; beautiful, clear, honest eyes, he has, and I hope to have him consider the planting of nut trees on his place. He has a disgraceful looking place in comparison to mine.

This year my place is just loaded down with nuts, except filberts. Last year I had so many filberts that I have half a ton left over yet. And I want to see people beautify the country. I started off one day with a thought that came to my head. I heard that there were a half a million widows and orphans buried in the Hudson Hill Cemetery. And I thought: Why, those dead people can be working; they can be doing something. Let them feed the roots of the Japanese heartnut. And as a try, I sent them 1100 seeds just as a start. And the Japanese heartnut, a stranger to this country, isn't anywhere near any other nut, and it grows true to form, and a lot of the trees are much hardier up on Lake Ontario. It does not grow well on the north of the lake, but south of the lake it grows enormous crops every year, and the nuts come out whole. But there is a better shaped nut without that kind of groove in the center, and it's the father or the mother—father, probably—of the finest heartnuts in the world, and there is nothing that beats a heartnut for eating. Every time I sell heartnuts to eat I have ruined myself, because they won't eat any other nut. So that shows just exactly what the general public thinks of it. Even Italians. There I have a half a ton of filberts. I bring the heartnuts down to Florida, the Fairchild and my hybrid trees and butternuts and Japanese heartnuts, and I have a package of almonds and another package of brazil nuts, and I let them taste those. They are woody in comparison to our heartnuts and hybrids. They are not anything, they are just like so much wood in comparison.

Now, I have received from John W. Fowler, Secretary to Albert Williams of the Department of Corrections on 100 Center Street. New York, a beautiful letter accepting those nuts, and I had my housekeeper—I was down in Florida—send them to them early in February, and they are planted. And the breezes going up and down the Hudson are going to wave the two-foot-long leaves of the most beautiful deciduous trees in the world, the Japanese heartnut, healthiest, hardiest nut in the world, and these dead people will be feeding them. Just think! five thousand children without a name or number. Now, they have erected a monument just recently, but the real monuments are the living trees. I am going to send them a lot more, because I want to see them working. I might come back and eat some of these nuts myself.

* * * * *

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Corsan.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Corsan is certainly well on his way to being a hundred, and I think if eating nuts and other vegetables will do that, more of us ought to pay attention.

I think we voted on that motion. I think it was unanimous that we send this greeting to Dr. Deming in his eighty-ninth year.

(The following telegram was sent to Dr. Deming:

"AT THIS FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION IN CONVENTION ASSEMBLED AT PLEASANT VALLEY, NEW YORK, THE MEMBERS SEND YOU THEIR LOVE AND ALSO EXTEND THEIR BEST WISHES FOR YOUR CONTINUANCE OF GOOD HEALTH.")

Any other business?

MR. McDANIEL: There is one elective committee that probably will need to be acted on, which is always done at the meeting before, and that's the nominations committee for next year. That's elective.

DR. MacDANIELS: The Resolutions Committee. Mr. Allaman, will you take chairmanship for that? And Mr. Porter of Windsor, will you help Mr. Allaman on the Resolutions Committee?

MR. PORTER: Do I act now, in this meeting?

DR. MacDANIELS: Yes, during the time you are here work out with Mr. Allaman the resolutions that pertain to this particular meeting.

Anything else? If not, this first session is adjourned. Meet again promptly this afternoon at one o'clock,

(Whereupon, at 10:40 o'clock, a.m., the meeting was recessed, to reconvene at 1:00 o'clock, p.m. of the same day.)

MONDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

DR. MacDANIELS: I will call the meeting to order, the afternoon session. This afternoon we have the session given over mostly to the Carpathian walnut. The first paper, by Spencer Chase of Norris, Tennessee.

MR. CHASE: First, with the president's permission, I thought perhaps a short report of the 1949 contest would be in order. As you probably recall, we conducted a Persian walnut contest last year for Northern Nut Growers members only. In this contest we had 31 entries submitted.



The 1949 Persian Walnut Contest with Notes from Persian Walnut Growers

SPENCER B. CHASE, Contest Chairman Tennessee Valley Authority Norris, Tennessee

The Persian Walnut Contest of 1949 attracted 31 entries from Association members. The following sent nut samples: E. W. Lemke (Michigan) (4), Ray McKinster (Ohio) (1), S. Shessler (Ohio) (2), F. S. Hill (N. Y.) (3), R. C. Lorenz (Ohio) (1), Benton and Smith Nut Tree Nursery (N. Y.) (16), A. S. Colby (Illinois) (2), E. M. Shelton (Ohio) (1), and N. W. Fateley (Indiana) (1). The Contest Committee appreciates their interest in this informal contest.

It was not practical for all of the judges to convene at one place to evaluate the samples. Therefore, the following system was used: One nut from each sample was sent to H. F. Stoke (Va.), Gilbert Becker (Michigan), G. J. Korn (Michigan), and J. C. McDaniel. These four judges were asked to select the best five of the 31 entries. The Chairman then made the final selections based on their findings. Therefore, the samples were actually subjected to five evaluations. The results indicate that this method was very satisfactory.

First place went to the sample submitted by Ray McKinster, Columbus, Ohio., It is significant that four of the five judges selected this sample as the best entry. Mr. McKinster reports that his tree is a Carpathian obtained as seed from the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1939. The 11 year old tree has a circumference of 26 inches at the base and has withstood 17 degrees below zero without injury. It began bearing in 1944 and yielded approximately one-half bushel in 1949. The yield is an estimate since squirrels play havoc with the crop. The nuts weighed 12.9 grams with 6.8 grams of kernel. Four judges considered this an outstanding Carpathian.

Second place went to a sample submitted by Sylvester Shessler, Genoa, Ohio. Three judges selected this sample for second place, one placed it first and the other selected it for third place. Again it was significant that the judges were in close agreement. The parent tree is growing in Clay Center, Ohio, and is estimated to be 50 years old. It began bearing in 1920. It yielded an estimated two bushels in 1947, three pecks in 1948, and one bushel in 1949. It has withstood 15 degrees below zero without damage. The source of this seedling is unknown. The nut weighed 8.8. grams with 5.2 grams of kernel. The nut is round with a smooth shell and has a very attractive kernel. This selection has been named Hansen.

Third place, after some disagreement, also went to Mr. Shessler for his entry now named Jacobs. This sample received one vote for second place and one for third place. Two judges agreed on another sample for third place but in a comparative test involving more nuts the Jacobs sample was selected. The nut weighed 12.8 grams with 6.0 grams of kernel. The parent Jacobs tree is located in Elmore, Ohio, and is estimated to be 70 years old. Bearing since 1915, it yielded an estimated 300 pounds in 1947, 100 pounds in 1948, and 200 pounds in 1949. The tree has withstood 15 degrees below zero. The seed which produced this tree came from Germany.

Fourth and fifth places were awarded to samples S-66 and S-XD submitted by Benton and Smith Nut Tree Nurseries, Millerton, N. Y. Three judges selected these two entries for fourth and fifth places while the other two judges selected other entries. S-66 weighed 13.3 grams with 6.2 grams of kernel. S-XD weighed 12.6 grams with 7.1 grams of kernel. Both selections were raised from Carpathian walnuts obtained from the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1935. The nuts entered in the contest came from 9-year old grafted trees located at the Wassaic State School, Wassaic, N. Y. They began bearing a few nuts at six years of age. Both have withstood 34 degrees below zero.

In addition to the five prize winners other entries are worthy of mention. Four additional Benton, and Smith selections (S-61, S-25, S-9, S-32), selection Illinois 10 from Dr. Colby, and a sample from Mr. Lorenz were all considered in the first five by at least one judge. The Carpathian sample from N. W. Fateley was outstanding for size of nut and kernel. Unfortunately, the kernels were shriveled. Since this sample arrived late all of the judges did not have an opportunity to evaluate it. Mr. Lemke also entered a very large Persian walnut. It was considered for third place by two judges but was discarded in the final judging because of shriveled kernels. Both of these large selections should be tested further.

It must be borne in mind that in this, as in all similar contests, only nut characteristics of one year's crop could be evaluated. Whether these selections are adapted to our varying conditions will have to be determined. In other words, this contest should be considered as a preliminary exploration and not as a final selection of suitable varieties.

Following is a summary table containing data on the prize winners:

Results of Persian Walnut Contest

————————————————————————————————————— Nut Kernel Kernel Rank Entry Name and Address Weight Weight Per- centage ————————————————————————————————————— 1 No. 1 Ray McKinster, 1632 S. 4th St., Columbus 7, Ohio 12.9 6.8 52.7 2 Hansen S. M. Shessler, RFD, Genoa, Ohio 8.8 5.2 59.6 3 Jacobs S. M. Shessler, RFD, Genoa, Ohio 12.8 6.0 46.8 4 S-66 Benton & Smith Nut Tree Nursery, Rt. 2, Millerton, New York 5 S-XD Benton & Smith Nut Tree Nursery, Rt. 2, Millerton, New York 15.6 7.1 45.8 —————————————————————————————————————

To obtain information on the culture of hardy Persian walnut a questionnaire was sent to members known to have experience with Juglans regia. The following information, based on the reports of thirteen growers, should prove valuable to those interested in testing Persian walnut.

The members contacted are testing 35 named varieties in addition to many seedlings. Of the varieties, Broadview appears to be represented in more plantings than any other variety. Gilbert Becker (Michigan) has most of the named Crath selections in addition to seedlings. H. F. Stoke (Virginia) has a large assortment of Crath and other Persian varieties. Fayette Etter (Pennsylvania) reports that he has approximately 150 Persian walnut trees while Royal Oakes (Illinois), Sylvester Shessler, and Gilbert Becker each report 60 trees. Many others have from 25 to 40 grafts or trees while Ray McKinster has only one seedling Carpathian which took top honors in the contest. Most of these members have been testing Persian varieties for more than 13 years. Mr. Stoke has some trees 20 years old.

Yields—Most trees reported on began bearing at five to eight years. Topworked trees start bearing several years sooner. It is generally agreed that Persian varieties bear annually. Many trees are bearing only small nut crops. Lack of pollination is given as a reason for these low yields. In addition, winter injury and spring frosts can seriously reduce nut crops. Apparently, none of the trees have borne more than a bushel of nuts at 12 years of age. Accurate records of nut crops were generally lacking. Since this is a very important factor in the selection of varieties, growers should keep accurate yield records for each variety. Where pests are a factor in reducing final yield, a crop estimate should be made early in the season.

Varieties—Mr. Stoke considers Bedford, Broadview and Lancaster best under his conditions. Mr. Becker's choice is McDermid but he thinks Crath No. 1 a potential commercial variety. Mr. Oakes likes Crath No. 1 and Ill. No. 3. Mr. Etter lists Burtner and Alleman as his best varieties. Mr. Fateley especially favors one tree because of nut and bearing qualities. Other growers have not as yet evaluated their varieties.

Hardiness—Only several growers in the colder regions felt that lack of winter hardiness was a serious limiting factor with their varieties. Those with winter temperatures ranging from 10 to 23 degrees below zero report little damage. Spring frosts are serious to many, especially in the southern states.

Pests—Several insects causing damage to Persian walnut were reported. The butternut curculio was most frequently mentioned. Others included leaf hoppers, tent caterpillars, and husk maggots. Few effective control measures have been developed. Squirrels are an ever present threat to nut crops in some localities, as are blackbirds.

Cultural Practices—Most growers apply varying amounts of fertilizer or manure to their trees in some form or other. Few mulch their trees. All do some pruning, mainly of a corrective nature.

Pollination—Most growers agree that usually, but not always, pistillate flowers are produced several years before the occurrence of catkins. Generally, Persian varieties do not adequately pollinate themselves but exceptions are reported. The problem is one of variable dichogamy. Some varieties shed pollen before pistillate flowers are receptive; others shed pollen when pistillate flowers are no longer receptive. This unfortunate situation probably explains the low yields experienced by some growers. Mr. Stoke lists the flowering dates of 13 varieties in the 1942 NNGA Annual Report which clearly illustrates dichogamy in Persian walnut.

Some varieties are considered sufficiently self-pollinating to produce at least light crops. However, this may be influenced by weather conditions. During an unusually warm spring catkins develop more rapidly than terminal growth containing the pistillate flowers. Mr. Stoke reports that Bedford produces both flowers simultaneously and that Caesar is practically self-pollinating. Mr. Etter finds Burtner fully self-pollinating and Alleman partially. Mr. McKinster's tree is apparently self-pollinating.

To overcome dichogamy it is necessary to have varieties which pollinate one another. Again Mr. Stoke's list referred to above is useful in selecting varieties for cross-pollination. Mr. Becker finds that Crath No. 1 and Carpathian D pollinate each other under his conditions.

More information on the pollination of Persian varieties is definitely needed. Members are urged to record the flowering date of their varieties. Such information will be very helpful in variety selection.

Handling the Nut Crop—The nuts are harvested and dried promptly. Methods of drying vary. Some have drying screens in which the nuts are placed several layers deep. Some dry the nuts in the sun; others prefer a shady place. Following drying, the nuts are stored in a cool place.

At least one grower has enough walnuts to sell locally; others feel that local markets would take all they could produce. Many of the growers sell the nuts for seed purposes. Of course, all have a supply for home use.

Future Prospects—Growers see good prospects for Persian walnut in most of their respective regions if improved varieties are developed. Many growers are planning to increase the size of their plantings with promising varieties. Others would like more trees but lack the necessary space.

The 1949 contest uncovered several very promising selections. The 1950 National Contest should produce many more.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: I believe, Mr. Chase, your second paper has to do with the 1950 Carpathian walnut contest, which is just a matter of explanation, I take it, as to what is going to happen.



Plans for the 1950 Carpathian Walnut Contest

SPENCER CHASE, Norris, Tenn.

MR. CHASE: The 1950 contest plans have not been fully formulated. Our main problem will be one of advertising. Our good secretary has agreed to help out on that. Mr. Sherman and Dr. Anthony have agreed to help out in their region. I was successful in getting Mr. Neal of the Southern Agriculturist to promise to give us a little Southern publicity on contest.

MR. McDANIEL: I wrote him; also wrote Mr. Niven of the Progressive Farmer at Memphis and Chet Randolph with the Prairie Farmer at Chicago.

MR. CHASE: As I say, we plan on handling it the same as we did the 1949 contest. It will be simply the submission of entries. We may want to consider the method of judging a little further.

The problem of prize money needs to be resolved, how much the Association is going to offer—feels that they could stand to offer—for first, second, or how many prizes we are going to have. That's about all that we have to report now concerning the contest. But we do need, before we can proceed too far, some commitment on prize money. Last year we did not offer prizes simply because it was for the membership, and there has been some question whether prizes are necessary. Of course, it wasn't necessary from the Association standpoint, but it probably will stimulate some others not in the Association to submit samples from their trees.

Do any of the contest committee or members have any suggestions? We'd be very happy to have them.

DR. MacDANIELS: Will this include all Persian walnuts?

MR. CHASE: That was another problem that came up the last time, and we talked about it as being a Carpathian contest, and we decided, who can tell a Carpathian from another Persian, and we decided to make it a Persian walnut contest.

DR. MacDANIELS: No Persian walnut will be refused?

MR. CHASE: Yes, sir.

DR. MacDANIELS: Should they be sent to you?

MR. CHASE: Yes.

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Spencer Chase at Norris.

MR. CHASE: Then, shall we exclude the Northwestern states?

MR. McDANIEL: Last year we limited it to those trees which stood at least zero temperature. That would eliminate most of California, at least.

DR. MacDANIELS: That makes sense.

MR. SHERMAN: How many nuts are expected?

MR. CHASE: Last year we asked and received fifteen. We'd like to have twenty-five. That gives us a better opportunity for the tasting department. We have a lot of tasters. We don't have many crackers, but a lot of tasters.

MR. McDANIEL: I found that the mice in the State Capitol at Nashville weren't very particular as to variety. They took to any that were open.

DR. MacDANIELS: Are we men, or are we mice?

MR. CHASE: In case you didn't notice, downstairs we have all the entries in the contest with the exception of some which human mice got from me, two samples, I believe. But all the rest I managed to save. And I, of course, have not seen too many Persian walnuts, being down there where the spring frost gets them. I was very favorably impressed by the appearance of all these samples. We simply picked five, as I said, and pointed out that this should be considered a preliminary finding and not definite, but all those samples were fine. Some were, of course, more bitter to the taste than others. That's where we lost a lot of nuts, trying to find out the least bitter. But many were an improvement on the commercial varieties, as far as I was concerned.

I think if we all get active on hunting out these Persians the way we have blacks, we can make very good progress.

MR. McDANIEL: Even on appearance I think some of them beat what you see in the stores.

MR. CHASE: Yes, on appearance. Of course, some of them were handed back and forth and competing against each other, that's what happened.

DR. McKAY: I'd like to ask how much importance you ascribe to tree characteristics and not the nut itself.

MR. CHASE: I asked for that information and tabulated it, and it didn't mean much. We found we couldn't do it. So then we came back to the nut first.

Carpathian Scions for Testing~

There is one other point I might mention. Last year you may recall that I reported on our planting of Carpathian seedlings at Norris, some 500 of them, which were frosted every single year. We have babied them along now for almost ten years, and I don't see any prospects of getting any nuts on them.

Now, among those 500 there must be one good one, and I will be very happy to collect scion wood of all those trees and send it to members who are willing to top-work them and see what they will do. So if any of you folks are interested in some of these varieties—not varieties yet, but seedlings—I'd like to see them fruit, and I am sure we never will at Norris.

DR. MacDANIELS: Where did you get the seed?

MR. CHASE: From the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society.

DR. MacDANIELS: In other words, it's just as good seed as any other.

MR. FRYE: You are in a frost pocket.

MR. CHASE: The whole place is a frost pocket. They are up on the hill—the frosty spot.

A MEMBER: When were they planted?

MR. CHASE: In the spring of 1939.

MR. CORSAN: Let me understand that. You say there are 500 trees that did nothing at all?

MR. CHASE: We have approximately 500 of the Crath seedlings, and each year they are frosted.

MR. CORSAN: Let me explain that. I have had the same trouble. Mr. Crath, not knowing the nature of my place, put some of the best nuts in wet places, in frost pockets, but he had two rows of one kind of nut that grew very rapidly the first year, but they are not any bigger now, and that was many years ago, back in 1935 they were planted. And there were about 80 varieties he got from Russia, he being able to speak four Russian dialects, his father being the Burbank of Russia and the gardener to the Czar, he had a lot of information, and he knew just what he was doing. But he was too hopeful and got some varieties from the foothills, some up a little higher, some up half way, some up towards the snow line, and they are tremendously hardy.

Now, I have given these nut trees away to people south of Lake Ontario. You see, I am north of Lake Ontario, and those are around St. Catherines. There trees will grow and succeed. I have been told there is no check by frost on them. I have given a lots of those away. But with me they are absolutely worthless north of the Lake, and there is a vast difference in them.

Now, I thought, looking at a great, big nut, the Rumanian giant, thought sure a nut that big would be bitter. I thought sure that it wouldn't be hardy, but at any rate, I planted a few, and I have a nearly perfect reproduction of those nuts, and one is very hardy and very productive, and the other is not quite so hardy. It's a huge nut and not so productive. However, size has nothing to do with it. I noticed a certain type and shape of nut was sometimes quite tender, and then again the same shape of nut but different variety was quite hardy.

I sold a lot of trees in varying sizes, keeping the small and the runts and those that were injured by the tractor and other trees for myself, but I have enough varieties every year to come down and see some wonderful results.

For instance, I slashed one up badly to dwarf it, and it had a little, wee nut that big (indicating). When I cracked that nut, the shell was crammed full of meat, and it was exceedingly sweet, and it tasted like a hickory nut. So I cut my own throat, as it were.

* * * * *

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Chase's problem right now is to get these trees out somewhere where they can be tested further, and he has asked any of you if you want scions to get in touch with him.

MR. CORSAN: I say, send them south.

DR. MacDANIELS: The farther south you go the worse they are.

MR. H. F. STOKE: May I also say a word? Also send them north. Sometimes the winter sun will start the growth activity, and then wind comes along and kills it. The original Crath that was started in Toronto, I had it killed back to five-year-old wood thick as my wrist one winter, when the sun moved it to activity. It was hardy in Toronto, but it wasn't hardy in Roanoke, Virginia.

DR. MacDANIELS: Let's have a showing of hands of those who have that trouble, starting in the spring and freezing back. (Showing of hands.) About five or six.

* * * * *

The next paper will be, "The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio," Mr. L. Walter Sherman.

MR. SHERMAN: Ladies and gentlemen, Mr. Chairman: First I'd like to tell you who I am. Some of you have been to my place and know who I am, but last fall Pennsylvania started something new—a little bit different. They put on a survey of the nut trees of Pennsylvania. Two of us were selected for the job, and I would like to introduce Dr. Anthony—stand up so they can see. He and I were the two that were selected to put on the tree crop survey of that State of Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania is a big state, and there is lots to see. They not only made it a survey of the nut trees, but any trees that are potential food for wildlife. Well, that made it the acorns and the honeylocust and, well, what have you, How big a job they hung on two fellows! Well, we have done the best we can, and we want to bring you this afternoon just a little of those results.



The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio

L. WALTER SHERMAN, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Tree Crop Survey, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

As members of the Northern Nut Growers Association, most of you are familiar with the early history of the Persian walnut, its introduction into the United States by the early settlers, and how it finally found a home in California. You also know of the more recent introduction into this country of nuts and other material from the Carpathian Mountains by the Rev. Mr. Crath, who was assisted by members of your organization. (1)

These recent Crath introductions are supposed to be much hardier than the former ones, and probably able to establish themselves in northern United States and southern Canada.

When the Pennsylvania legislature authorized a survey of the nut trees of the state, very few people realize the foothold that the Persian walnut already had in Pennsylvania.

Early in this survey, we visited Fayette Etter, who is Pennsylvania's Luther Burbank with nut trees. He is well informed concerning the Persian walnut in his section, and he surprised us by his estimate of several thousand trees in his county of Franklin. The adjoining counties of Adams, York, and Lancaster, along the southern border of the state, have fully as many trees of this species, so it is a very conservative estimate that there are ten thousand of these trees in Pennsylvania. These are located, for the most part, in the southeastern corner of the state below one thousand feet elevation.

Local grown Persian walnuts were found on sale last fall in the farm markets of York, Lancaster, and Harrisburg and at many grocery stores. Wherever we found such local nuts on sale, we asked where and by whom they were grown. Many of them came from Halifax and Linglestown, in Dauphin County; from Lampeter, Lancaster County; and from Seven Valleys, York County.

Farther investigation revealed the facts that in all but one of the centers of production, the trees were seedling trees and that there were from four to 23 trees planted relatively close together. In one instance, a lone tree produced the nuts being sold, and in another case the nuts were from several grafted trees.

The lone tree, which produced three bushels in 1949, was of interest. Investigation revealed that the nearest Persian walnut tree was at least a city block distant. Was this lone tree self pollinating or receiving pollen from a tree this far away? We still are not sure of the answer.

Jacob Houser, of Lampeter, was selling Pomeroy seedling nuts and nuts from three Rush Persian walnuts grafted on black walnut stock. They were growing close enough for cross-pollination.

Driving through the counties of southeastern Pennsylvania, we found many thousand seedling Persian walnut trees as shade trees about the farm homes. Investigations revealed that most of these trees never produced any nuts. Repeatedly we are told that, "my tree never has any nuts, but a certain tree on an adjoining farm always produces," or "I have two trees, one of which bears quite regularly but the other never has borne." They are the same age and both seem to be growing equally well. Some produce only a few handfulls of nuts when they should be producing five to ten bushels, judging by their size.

You as nut growers know the answer, but the general public does not. Even some of you have made the mistake of planting one tree by itself and expecting it to produce. This seldom happens. Mixed plantings of several varieties or several seedlings planted close together is the safe rule to plant by.

I know of one planting of ten grafted trees of one variety of Persian walnuts, now twenty years old, that has never produced any nuts even though they are planted so that cross-pollination would be expected. In 1950 only a few catkins developed. These produced pollen early and were on the ground before the pistilate bloom opened and was receptive. I never saw a nicer pistillate bloom on any Persian walnuts than these trees had, yet not a single nut set. They are in the center of a fifty-five acre black walnut orchard, and when the pistillate bloom was at its peak, the black walnuts surrounding were shedding pollen. Do not try to tell me that native black walnuts will satisfactorily pollinate the Persian walnut. After this demonstration, I know different. Were all the Persian walnut trees of Pennsylvania properly pollinated, the crop of nuts, in my estimation, would be increased a hundredfold over what it is normally. Lack of pollination is probably the greatest factor causing non-production in our Persian walnuts. It is far more important that the fertility factor which is so important in production of the common black walnut. (2)

Fayette Etter and Milo Paden both feel that the Broadview variety is self-pollinating, but even this variety may prove to be benefited by cross pollination.

The Persian walnut has developed in Pennsylvania and Ohio in a rather interesting pattern. Trees planted fifty to a hundred and fifty years ago managed to live and produce nuts. From these trees, seedlings were grown and planted by neighbors and friends. These trees and their seedlings in turn have now grown to producing age. Some few that produce good crops of nuts you hear about, but the vast majority are just non-producing shade trees. Until you look for them you little realize how numerous they are.

At Linglestown, Dauphin County, however, we find a striking exception to this. Here all the trees are productive. The question there is not why don't my trees produce, but is quite spirited as to who harvests the largest crop and best nuts.

About seventy-five years ago Alfred Kleopfer planted some Persian walnuts of unknown origin, but probably from Germany. He grew three trees which were planted, one beside the village blacksmith shop, one across the street, and the third at a neighbor's. One tree lived for only a short time. The blacksmith shop has been replaced by a modern dwelling but the walnut tree was saved and has grown to be a tree 6' 6" in circumference and probably 60 feet high. The one across the street is of nearly equal size but the top has been damaged by storm and the tree is not as tall.

These two trees were able to cross-pollinate and one tree was especially productive. Miles Bolton recognized its value and began growing seedling trees and distributing them to his neighbors. Some of them were quite skeptical and even refused to take them as a gift and plant them. However, he got the village pretty well planted to Persian walnut trees, so that today there are 145 nice trees within the village, and two small orchards on farms nearby.

Standing in the village square, one can see at least six Persian walnut trees higher than the house tops. Pollination is not a problem, and all trees are good producers. Young trees are in demand for planting, and seedling trees, coming up in the flower beds, compost piles, fence corners, and other places where squirrels have hidden nuts, are carefully transplanted to permanent locations.

The story of the development of the Persian walnut at Linglestown, with minor variations of course, can be repeated many times in southeastern Pennsylvania. In Linglestown, the development has been concentrated within a village, whereas in most places it has been spread over a farming community, with less opportunity for cross-pollination. The result has been a very high percentage of barren trees. However, Persian walnut seedling trees have taken over and are making good in this milder climate area of Pennsylvania.

About the same can be said of northern Ohio, though the development is probably 50 years behind that in Pennsylvania. The climate there apparently is not so well suited to the Persian walnut, and fewer trees have been able to thrive. A few, however, are growing nicely and their seedlings are rapidly spreading. The Jacobs tree at Elmore, Ohio, produced 300 pounds of nuts in 1947, at 30 years of age, and many nuts from this tree are being planted. The Ohio Nut Growers are propagating vegetatively from the outstanding trees and rapid development is taking place. Named varieties are thus being developed from superior trees, and future success will be based on these named varieties rather than on seedlings.

During the last few years, some of the seedlings developed from the Crath Carpathian importations are coming into bearing in parts of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and wherever I have seen them they look very promising indeed. The Crath Carpathians are doing well at Mt. Jackson, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, along with Broadview, for Riley Paden and Howard Butler. A. W. Robinson, of Pittsburgh, has five trees of Crath seedlings, two of which are in bearing. All these trees seem to be perfectly hardy. The nuts of course vary, but all are good.

Riley Paden, at Mt. Jackson, is grafting Broadview on black walnut stock, and for him this variety is doing well. He has about forty trees of it from two to fifteen years of age. His prize fifteen-year-old tree produced one bushel of nuts in 1949. A sample of these nuts is on the table for your inspection. Paden says he can grow Broadview anywhere peaches will do well. Fayette Etter at Lemasters, Franklin County, considers Broadview too bitter flavored for him. He thinks Burtner, which is a local seedling, superior for his section to all other varieties that he has tested.

With an estimated ten thousand Persian walnut seedlings growing in Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania nut growers are faced with a big task to sort out the best and get them tested in different sections of the state. We should find the best half dozen varieties for each section.

The Persian walnut is established in Pennsylvania and in northern Ohio. There are not just a few scattered trees having a hard time to survive but there are many thousands of them, growing vigorously, some producing big crops of fine nuts, others not producing any. They are ready now for the intelligent development you can give to them. Nature has gone about as far as she will without your assistance. The job now is up to you nut growers.

REFERENCES

(1) Northern Nut Growers Annual Report Vol. Page Persian walnuts history of in Penna. Rush 5 93 history of in Cal. Reed, C. A. 6 51 introduction of Carpathian. Crath 27 103 distribution of Carpathian. Rahmlow 27 112 survey in Penna. Fagan 6 23 (2) Persian walnut protandrous. Craig 2 106

Discussion

MR. FRYE: How about butternuts for pollenization?

MR. SHERMAN: I don't know. I have one hybrid, and that's a sample downstairs that I think is an English walnut crossed with a butternut. The nut looks like a butternut; the tree looks like an English walnut, but it has the butternut bark. They will occasionally pollinate, I think, but don't depend on them.

MR. CORSAN: I'll tell you how you can tell. That butternut-English walnut cross is the most powerful tree I ever came across, especially for good wood. I got a tremendous one.

MR. STOKE: I produced, I think, 22 seedling trees from the Lancaster Persian walnut. About five per cent are hybrids. There was one strong-growing black x Persian hybrid that I am sure of. There are three or four very dwarfish trees that undoubtedly were crossed with the heartnut. They were all dwarf. I haven't been able to get one to bear. I have had one grafted five or six years on a black walnut, but that was the heartnut and not the butternut.

MR. SHERMAN: That study of the hybrid is another story and really doesn't belong in this discussion at all.

MR. CORSAN: Here is a point on that. When they are only that high (indicating)—if they are only babies, I can tell them. You know, occasionally. Look at the leaflets on the compound leaf, and if there are over seven, they are hybrids, and if they are extra vigorous growing, they are hybrids, because they occasionally pollenize.

MR. SHERMAN: Those are all characteristics of the hybrids, but here is what I want to bring out now, and Dr. Anthony is going to stress it on his chestnuts a little bit later: You people have a wealth of material to select from. Nature has gone about so far, and I am just a believer enough in what the Bible says, that God made the heavens and the earth and put man here to tend and keep it, and made him master of everything above the earth and every creeping thing on the earth and everything beneath the earth, and it is up to you fellows to direct intelligently this mass of material you have to direct. You have got nuts growing where they are hardy, you have got big nuts, you have got little nuts, you have got everything under the sun you can think of. What more do you want for a nice job ahead? It's up to you fellows to do. It's going to be not a one-year job, not a two-year job, not a five-year job; you will be at this, and your children and your grandchildren.

MR. CORSAN: Make you live long.

MR. SHERMAN: Maybe you will live long enough, but it's a century's job, and not the job for one man's lifetime.

(Loud applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Sherman. Any questions?

MR. CHASE: Yes, sir. I want to ask Mr. Sherman, should I be thinking about receiving 10,000 entries in this contest?

MR. SHERMAN: No, because there aren't 10,000 trees producing. Out of that 10,000 maybe there are a thousand of them producing. The nine thousand others are nothing but shade trees, and never produce any nuts. You don't hear of them, but if you travel through York, Lancaster, and Adams Counties down there and look for Persian walnuts, you will find them on—I was going to say 50 per cent of the farm homes. You can see them along the road everywhere.

My wife travels with me a good deal of the time. She will say, "Why don't you stop and look at that Persian walnut? There are some over there. Why don't you stop there?"

A MEMBER: Don't they bloom a month later than most of the others?

MR. CORSAN: Did you find a good French variety?

MR. SHERMAN: But those French varieties—I can't take you to a good French variety in Southeastern Pennsylvania that has been producing the nuts. They produce the nuts, but folks won't even pick them up.

A MEMBER: They are good for pollen.

MR. SHERMAN: If you want a good pollenizer go to Fayette Etter and get his Burtner. It's a very late pollen producer. This year I took some buds from his Burtner and put them in the top of those ten trees in that 55-acre black walnut orchard to see if I can't do something. Maybe it won't stick—maybe I hadn't better tell you.

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