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Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the 43rd Annual Meeting - Rockport, Indiana, August 25, 26 and 27, 1952
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DISCLAIMER The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.



43rd Annual Report

OF THE

Northern Nut Growers Association

Incorporated

AFFILIATED WITH THE AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY

Annual Meeting at

ROCKPORT, INDIANA

August 25, 26 and 27, 1952



Table of Contents

Officers and Committees 1952-53 4

State and Foreign Vice Presidents 5

Constitution and By-laws 7

Call to Order, Forty-Third Annual Meeting 11

Address of Welcome—Hilbert Bennett 11

Business Session 15 Treasurer's Report—Carl Prell 18 Committee Reports 21

President's Address—L. H. MacDaniels 27

The Future of Your Nut Planting—W. F. Sonnemann 32

The Value of a Tree—Ferd Bolten 35

Methods of Getting Better Annual Crops on Black Walnut. Panel discussion led by W. W. Magill 38

The 1952 Hickory Survey—H. F. Stoke 46

A Discussion of Hickory Stocks—Gilbert L. Smith 49

Filbert Varieties. Panel discussion led by G. L. Slate 53

My Experiences with Chinese Chestnuts—W. J. Wilson 62

Persian Walnuts in the Upper South—H. F. Stoke 66

Varieties of Persian Walnuts in Eastern Iowa—Ira B. Kyhl 69

Commercial Production and Processing of Black and Persian Walnuts—Edwin L. Lemke 71

Black Walnut Processing at Henderson, Kentucky—R. C. Mangelsdorf 73

Nut Shells: Assets or Liabilities—T. F. Clark 77

The Propagation of Hickories—Panel discussion led by F. L. O'Rourke 81

A Promising New Pecan for the Northern Zone—J. W. McKay and H. L. Crane 89

The Hickory in Indiana—W. B. Ward 91

The Merrick Hybrid Walnut—P. E. Machovina 93

Producing Quality Nuts and Quality Logs—L. E. Sawyer 94

Colchicine for Nut Improvement Programs—O. J. Eigsti and R. B. Best 99

An Early Pecan and Some Other West Tennessee Nuts—Aubrey Richards 101

Scab Disease in Eastern Kentucky on Busseron Pecan—W. D. Armstrong 102

Further News about Oak Wilt—E. A. Curl 102

Life History and Control of the Pecan Spittle Bug—Stewart Chandler 106

Insect Enemies of Northern Nut Trees—Howard Baker 112

Tuesday Evening Banquet Session Resolutions and Election of Officers 118

Chestnut Breeding—Arthur H. Graves and Hans Nienstaedt 120

Effect of Vermiculite in Inducing Fibrous Roots on Tap Rooting Tree Seedlings—Herbert C. Barrett and Toro Arisumi 131

Eastern Black Walnut Survey 1951—H. F. Stoke 133

Crath's Carpathian English Walnuts in Ontario—P. C. Crath 136

Nut Tree Plantings in Southeastern Iowa—Albert B. Ferguson 146

Rockville as a Hickory Interstock—Herman Last 147

A Fruitful Pair of Carpathian Walnut Varieties in Michigan—Gilbert Becker 147

Suggested Blooming Data to be Recorded for Nut Tree Varieties—J. C. McDaniel 148

Note on Chinese Chestnuts—Harwood Steiger 149

Scott Healey—An Obituary 149

A Letter from Dr. W. C. Deming 150

Sweepstakes Award in Ohio Black Walnut Contest—L. Walter Sherman 152

Attendance Record, Rockport, Ind. 1952 156

Membership List—Northern Nut Growers Association 158



Officers for 1952-53

President Richard B. Best, Eldred, Illinois

Vice-President George Salzer, Rochester, New York

Secretary Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tennessee

Treasurer Carl F. Prell, South Bend, Indiana

Directors Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, New York Dr. William Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa



EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS 1952-53

Program Committee:

Dr. J. W. McKay, Royal Oakes, Gordon Porter, Gilbert Becker, A. A. Bungart, W. D. Armstrong.

Local Arrangements:

George Salzer, Victor Brook.

Place of Meeting Committee:

R. P. Allaman, Dr. Lloyd L. Dowell, Edwin W. Lemke, Alfred L. Barlow.

Publication Committee:

Professor George L. Slate, Professor Lewis E. Theiss, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels.

Varieties and Contests Committee:

Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, J. C. McDaniel, Sylvester M. Shessler, H. F. Stoke, Royal Oakes.

Standards and Judging Committee:

Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Dr. H. L. Crane, Louis Gerardi, Spencer Chase, Professor Paul E. Machovina.

Survey and Research Committee:

H. F. Stoke (With all the state and foreign vice-presidents).

Exhibits Committee:

Sylvester M. Shessler, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, H. F. Stoke, Royal Oakes, A. A. Bungart, J. F. Wilkinson.

Root Stocks Committee:

Professor F. L. O'Rourke, J. C. McDaniel, Albert F. Ferguson, Dr. Aubrey Richards, Louis Gerardi, Dr. Arthur S. Colby, Max Hardy, Gilbert Smith.

Auditing Committee:

Raymond E. Silvis, Sterling A. Smith, Edward W. Pape.

Legal Advisor:

Sargent H. Wellman.

Finance Committee:

Sterling A. Smith, Ford Wallick, Edward W. Pape.

Necrology:

Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mrs. C. A. Reed, Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman.

Nominating Committee:

(Elected at Rockport, Indiana), Max Hardy, Gilbert Becker, Dr. William Rohrbacher, Professor George L. Slate, J. Ford Wilkinson.

Membership Committee:

George Salzer (With all the state and foreign vice-presidents).

State and Foreign Vice-Presidents

Alabama Edward L. Hiles, Loxley

Alberta A. L. Young, Brooks

Arkansas W. D. Wylie, Univ. of Ark., Fayetteville

Belgium R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, Korbeek-Lo

British Columbia, Canada J. U. Gellatly, Box 19, Westbank

California Thos. R. Haig, M.D., 3021 Highland Ave., Carlesbad

Colorado J. E. Forbes, Julesburg

Connecticut A. M. Huntington, Stanerigg Farms, Bethel

Delaware Lewis Wilkins, Route 1, Newark

Denmark Count F. M. Knuth, Knuthenborg, Bandholm

District of Columbia Ed. L. Ford, 3634 Austin St., S. E. Washington 20

Florida C. A. Avant, 960 N. W. 10th Ave., Miami

Georgia William J. Wilson, North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley

Hawaii John F. Cross, P. O. Box 1720, Hilo

Hong Kong P. W. Wang, 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central

Idaho Lynn Dryden, Peck

Illinois Royal Oakes, Bluffs (Scott County)

Indiana Edw. W. Pape, Rt. 2, Marion

Iowa Ira M. Kyle, Box 236, Sabula

Kansas Dr. Clyde Gray, 1045 Central Ave., Horton

Kentucky Dr. C. A. Moss, Williamsburg

Louisiana Dr. Harald E. Hammar, 608 Court House, Shreveport

Maryland Blaine McCollum, White Hall

Massachusetts S. Lathrop Davenport, 24 Creeper Hill Rd., North Grafton

Michigan Gilbert Becker, Climax

Minnesota R. E. Hodgeson, Southeastern Exp. Station, Waseca

Mississippi James R. Meyer, Delta Branch Exp. Station, Stoneville

Missouri Ralph Richterkessing, Route 1, Saint Charles

Montana Russel H. Ford, Dixon

Nebraska Harvey W. Hess, Box 209, Hebron

New Hampshire Matthew Lahti, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro

New Jersey Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Route 1, Flemington

New Mexico Rev. Titus Gehring, P. O. Box 177, Lumberton

New York Stephen Bernath, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie

North Carolina Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College, Greensboro

North Dakota Homer L. Bradley, Long Lake Refuge, Moffit

Ohio Christ Pataky Jr., 592 Hickory Lane, Route 4, Mansfield

Oklahoma A. G. Hirschi, 414 North Robinson, Oklahoma City

Ontario, Canada Elton E. Papple, Cainsville

Oregon Harry L. Pearcy, Route 2, Box 190, Salem

Pennsylvania R. P. Allaman, Route 86, Harrisburg

Prince Edward Is. Canada Robert Snazelle, Forest Nursery, Route 5, Charlottetown

Rhode Island Philip Allen, 178 Dorance St., Providence

South Carolina John T. Bregger, P.O. Box 1018, Clemson

South Dakota Herman Richter, Madison

Tennessee W. Jobe Robinson, Route 7, Jackson

Texas Kaufman Florida, Box 154, Rotan

Utah Harlan D. Petterson, 2076 Jefferson Ave., Ogden

Vermont A. W. Aldrich, R. F. D. 2, Box 266, Springfield

Virginia H. R. Gibbs, Linden

Washington H. Lynn Tuttle, Clarkston

West Virginia Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale

Wisconsin C. F. Ladwig, 2221 St. Lawrence, Beloit



CONSTITUTION

of the

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED

(As adopted September 13, 1948)

NAME

ARTICLE I. This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers Association, Incorporated. It is strictly a non-profit organization.

PURPOSES

ARTICLE II. The purposes of this Association shall be to promote interest in the nut bearing plants; scientific research in their breeding and culture; standardization of varietal names; the dissemination of information concerning the above and such other purposes as may advance the culture of nut bearing plants, particularly in the North Temperate Zone.

MEMBERS

ARTICLE III. Membership in this Association shall be open to all persons interested in supporting the purposes of the Association. Classes of members are as follows: Annual members, Contributing members, Life members, Honorary members, and Perpetual members. Applications for membership in the Association shall be presented to the secretary or the treasurer in writing, accompanied by the required dues.

OFFICERS

ARTICLE IV. The elected officers of this Association shall consist of a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary and a Treasurer or a combined Secretary-treasurer as the Association may designate.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

ARTICLE V. The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the Association who shall be the officers of the Association and the two preceding elected presidents. If the offices of Secretary and Treasurer are combined, the three past presidents shall serve on the Board of Directors.

There shall be a State Vice-president for each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the Association, who shall be appointed by the President.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE VI. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendments having been mailed by the Secretary, or by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.

BY-LAWS

(Revised and adopted at Norris, Tennessee, September 13, 1948)

SECTION I.—MEMBERSHIP

Classes of membership are defined as follows:

ARTICLE I. ANNUAL MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Three Dollars ($3.00).

ARTICLE II. CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Ten Dollars ($10.00) or more.

ARTICLE III. LIFE MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of the Association who contribute Seventy Five Dollars ($75.00) to its support and who shall, after such contribution, pay no annual dues.

ARTICLE IV. HONORARY MEMBERS. Those whom the Association has elected as honorary members in recognition of their achievements in the special fields of the Association and who shall pay no dues.

ARTICLE V. PERPETUAL MEMBERS. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as "Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event the Association becomes defunct or dissolves, then, in that event, the Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at the time he makes the bequest of the donation.

SECTION II.-DUTIES OF OFFICERS

ARTICLE I. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Association and Board of Directors, and may call meetings of the Board of Directors when he believes it to be the best interests of the Association. He shall appoint the State Vice-presidents; the standing committees, except the Nominating Committee, and such special committees as the Association may authorize.

ARTICLE II. Vice-president. In the absence of the President, the Vice-president shall perform the duties of the President.

ARTICLE III. Secretary. The Secretary shall be the active executive officer of the Association. He shall conduct the correspondence relating to the Association's interests, assist in obtaining memberships and otherwise actively forward the interests of the Association, and report to the Annual Meeting and from time to time to meetings of the Board of Directors as they may request.

ARTICLE IV. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive and record memberships, receive and account for all moneys of the Association and shall pay all bills approved by the President or the Secretary. He shall give such security as the Board of Directors may require or may legally be required, shall invest life memberships or other funds as the Board of Directors may direct, subject to legal restrictions and in accordance with the law, and shall submit a verified account of receipts and disbursements to the Annual meeting and such current accounts as the Board of Directors may from time to time require. Before the final business session of the Annual Meeting of the Association, the accounts of the Treasurer shall be submitted for examination to the Auditing Committee appointed by the President at the opening session of the Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE V. The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of the association between meetings. Four members, including at least two elected officers, shall be considered a quorum.

SECTION III.—ELECTIONS

ARTICLE I. The Officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and hold office for one year beginning immediately following the close of the Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE II. The Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers on the first day of the Annual Meeting and the election shall take place at the closing session. Nominations for any office may be presented from the floor at the time the slate is presented or immediately preceding the election.

ARTICLE III. For the purpose of nominating officers for the year 1949 and thereafter, a committee of five members shall be elected annually at the preceding Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE IV. A quorum at a regularly called Annual Meeting shall be fifteen (15) members and must include at least two of the elected officers.

ARTICLE V. All classes of members whose dues are paid shall be eligible to vote and hold office.

SECTION IV.—FINANCIAL MATTERS

ARTICLE I. The fiscal year of the Association shall extend from October 1st through the following September 30th. All annual memberships shall begin October 1st.

ARTICLE II. The names of all members whose dues have not been paid by January 1st shall be dropped from the rolls of the Society. Notices of non-payment of dues shall be mailed to delinquent members on or about December 1st.

ARTICLE III. The Annual Report shall be sent to only those members who have paid their dues for the current year. Members whose dues have not been paid by January 1st shall be considered delinquent. They will not be entitled to receive the publication or other benefits of the Association until dues are paid.

SECTION V.—MEETINGS

ARTICLE I. The place and time of the Annual Meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the Board of Directors shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the President and Board of Directors.

SECTION VI.—PUBLICATIONS

ARTICLE I. The Association shall publish a report each fiscal year and such other publications as may be authorized by the Association.

ARTICLE II. The publishing of the report shall be the responsibility of the Committee on Publications.

SECTION VII.—AWARDS

ARTICLE I. The Association may provide suitable awards for outstanding contributions to the cultivation of nut bearing plants and suitable recognition for meritorious exhibits as may be appropriate.

SECTION VIII.—STANDING COMMITTEES

As soon as practical after the Annual Meeting of the Association, the President shall appoint the following standing committees:

1. Membership 2. Auditing 3. Publications 4. Survey 5. Program 6. Research 7. Exhibit 8. Varieties and Contests

SECTION IX.—REGIONAL GROUPS AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES

ARTICLE I. The Association shall encourage the formation of regional groups of its members, who may elect their own officers and organize their own local field days and other programs. They may publish their proceedings and selected papers in the yearbooks of the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

ARTICLE II. Any independent regional association of nut growers may affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers Association provided one-fourth of its members are also members of the Northern Nut Growers Association. Such affiliated societies shall pay an annual affiliation fee of $3.00 to the Northern Nut Growers Association. Papers presented at the meetings of the regional society may be published in the proceedings of the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

SECTION X.—AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

ARTICLE I. These by-laws may be amended at any Annual Meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present provided such amendments shall have been submitted to the membership in writing at least thirty days prior to that meeting.



Forty-Third Annual Meeting

Northern Nut Growers Association

August 25, 26, 27, 1952

Spencer County Court House, Rockport, Ind.

The opening session of the Forty-third Annual Meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association convened at 9:20 o'clock, a.m., at the Spencer County Court House, President L. H. MacDaniels presiding.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The gavel with which we open this forty-third annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association has some historical significance. It was made from a pecan tree which grew in the orchard of Mr. Thomas Littlepage in Maryland, near the city of Washington, and it has been the custom of the Association to open its meetings with that gavel.

The forty-third meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association will be in order. To open the session we will have the presentation of the colors. You will all stand, please, and remain standing through the invocation. (Colors presented by Boy Scouts and the invocation given by the Reverend William Ellis of Rockport.)

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: At this time we will call on Mr. Hilbert Bennett to bring us greetings from the people of Rockport. Mr. Bennett of Rockport.

Address of Welcome

HILBERT BENNETT, Rockport, Ind.

Some are here that were here in 1935 and 1939. I was on the Citizen's Committee in each of those years. It was the purpose of the Citizen's Committee to take notice of your coming and to try to make you appreciate our interest in you and in your coming.

Why was I on that Committee in 1935?

Why was I on that Committee in 1939?

Why am I on that Committee in 1952?

I will tell you.

When I was a boy two other young men, somewhat older than I, were young men in the same township and somewhat closely located. I knew those boys and I knew them well. You came to know them and know them well. One of those boys was the late Thomas P. Littlepage, a charter member of this Association. It was my good pleasure to teach school with him. We attended College together. At college we roomed together. We attended conventions together and were close personal friends. I think I was in position to know him and know him well. The other boy was R. L. McCoy. We too, were close personal friends. We too, taught school in the same territory and contemporary with T. P. Littlepage. Prior to any organization of the N.N.G.A. I went with these two boys (men by that time) on trips of investigation and inspection of certain nut trees about which they had heard and which they wanted to examine.

If the trees examined met the proper standards, they wanted to use them in propagation. If not they would pass them up.

Another boy somewhat younger than myself and the two above mentioned boys, joined most heartily into the nut discussions and investigations and explorations of promising clues. With them he helped to run down clues when they would hear of a promising prospect. The jungles were never too dense, the distance too far, the road too muddy or rough, for those three characters to run down in those horse and buggy days, any prospect in which they were interested. This boy also became a member of your most valued organization. I have a special interest in this boy. I was, especially closely associated with him and his family. He went to school to me. My signature appears on his Common School Diploma. Their home was my home whenever I sought to make it so. I was free to come and go. I came a lot. Ford Wilkinson, the third character, and I have been close friends ever since.

Another one of your fine members became a good friend of mine. He came into our county and planted a farm to nut trees and nut production. It is now the largest nut orchard in the county. I am informed that at that time it was the largest nut farm of hardy northern varieties in the world. I got acquainted with him early and became endeared to him. It was none other than the late Harry Weber.

When it became known that you were to meet here in 1935, it was a natural sequence that Ford Wilkinson, knowing that I would gladly help in any way I could and knowing I was his genuine friend saw fit to place me on the Citizen's Committee. If he had not, I positively would have climbed aboard anyway. You couldn't have driven me out with a peeled hickory club. I was just going to be in on it whether or no.

Whether I performed well in 1935 or whether he couldn't find any one else to serve in my place, I never knew; but he again placed me on the Committee in 1939.

Now here I am in 1952 an old broken down fossil, broken in health, but not in spirit, of little consequence to anybody or anything, I am still on the Committee.

That answers the question of some of you of why that old man Bennett is always on the local committee and that you have wondered if there is no other person in this whole community that will serve but him. No, friends, we have many who would gladly serve and I doubt not that would serve much more efficiently.

I have prepared a short "skit" that I wish to present.

* * * * *

1st. Introducing Joan Flick, of Washington, D. C.

I am a pecan plucked from a small orchard planted by a retired business man. He had some surplus ground near his premises that was too rough for easy cultivation. He thought that he would plant it to pecans so that his family and his children's families would have nuts for their own use and pleasure. He took good care of the trees. He fertilized them every year and sometimes oftener. In the course of a few years he not only had more pecans than all of the families could use, but he sold hundreds of pounds of nuts from these trees. He developed a commercial orchard unconsciously.

2nd. Palma Smith of Cincinnati, Ohio.

I am the hican, I have no commercial value of consequence. I demonstrate the ability, the interest, the development and the possibilities of improvement by the determined efforts of the members of your association. Knowing your ability and determination to make improvements in nut culture, I have every feeling that in the not too distant future you will develop me into a profitable commercial product.

3rd. Sandra Wright of Rockport, Indiana.

I am the walnut, a most valuable tree for fine fruit and fine timber for many uses. I have been noted for my fine grain and my ability to take a fine polish. Our forefathers immediately found the walnut to be the choice timber out of which to build fine furniture, gun stocks, home furnishings and many other things that required high grade material. We have never lost sight of its significance.

Thin shelled nuts, easily cracked, and hulled out in halves have been developed. Walnuts will grow almost any where. Originally it was a common forest tree and would continue to be if it had the opportunity. There is little danger of the walnut becoming extinct. It is too valuable. I suggest that you plant liberally to high grade walnut trees.

4th. Jo Ann Hall of Rockport, Indiana.

I am the once popular beech under whose folds thousands of picnickers have gathered and enjoyed life's most savory and pleasant moments. I have built thousands of American homes and farm barns. I have built thousands of miles of old farm plank fences. I have built car load after car load of beautiful, useful and valuable furniture. In the early period of this country I furnished mast for thousands of swine that fed many families. I have filled many minor places of usefulness. As sad as it is to do and as much as I hate to do so, I am now bidding you a last farewell.

Self interest, the slowness of my growth and the impracticability of propagation of this once valuable tree leaves but one course, that I pass to my reward with the firm hope that the other trees now being developed, and grown will fill all of the purposes for which I have been so useful, and fill them with increased usefulness. With this sad but necessary adieu, I bid you one and all goodbye.

5th. Pattie Jones of Rockport, Ind.

I am the oak, the sturdy oak, the king of the forests. I am stout. They make beams, spars, sills, fulcrums and what not from me that require strength. I grow fairly fast. I came into usefulness as the world came into need of heavy timbers.

I am dainty and refined as well as strong. I am used in making fine flooring, fine furniture and many other useful things. Please do not discard me from production. Please do not let me pass into oblivion. I am very very valuable. I deserve to be perpetuated.

6th. Marcia Smith of Cincinnati, Ohio.

I am a pecan plucked from the tree of a man who in the early years of his married life planted pecan trees in unused spots on his farm that were unsuitable for cultivation. As the trees grew into nut bearing trees his family of children grew. In the October days, with great gaiety, glee and happiness, the children would gather the fruit of those trees. The children grew to maturity and went to the city to work; but when those October days came they returned home and with similar happiness as of their youth they gathered the nuts from those trees. With pleasure I say I am one of those trees.

7th. Jean Morris, Joyce Morris and Sandra Wright, all of Rockport, Indiana.

We are a group of clusters, the filbert, the pecan and the walnut. We came from a nut farm within the bounds of Spencer County. This farm was planted and developed by a former enthusiastic member of your wonderful organization. He spent much time and energy in behalf of your organization. He developed the largest nut orchard in the county. I refer to Harry Weber, who came from a neighboring state and endeared himself to this community by his superb manhood, his genial disposition and his intense interest in his subject matter. We commend his efforts to others.

8th. Virginia Mae Daming of Rockport, Ind. She was carrying the former Reports of the N.N.G.A.

This cluster is plucked from a "Tree" of great magnitude and significance. Today it has its roots firmly set in Rockport, Indiana. Its branches reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Canada to Mexico. Its influence is felt throughout the world.

Its inception was in Spencer County, Indiana, not specifically detailed, but in the main, by boys that were reared among the native nut trees of this community of which there were many. It was born in the great City of New York under the care of the late Thomas P. Littlepage, Dr. Wm. C. Deming, Dr. Robert T. Morris and Prof. John Craig. It was nurtured throughout the land of the detailed history you know much more than I.

It has had an enormous growth. It is a most meritorious organization. Language will not express the extent of its benefits to humanity and to civilization. It adds to the comfort of untold thousands of happy homes. It furnishes employment for thousands of people. It furnishes food of vital importance to many families. It is the main stay in the manufacture of all kinds and grades of furniture. It furnishes food for thought. It keeps the scientific and investigating minds busy in the constant development and improvement of its processes and benefits. Its possibilities are boundless.

That this "Tree" may continue to grow and develop in the future as it has in the past in the interest of humanity and help us to realize its importance and help us to continue its forces in accord with nature and nature's God is my earnest prayer. May God bless you one and all.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: Thank you very much, Mr. Bennett. You have made us feel most welcome in Rockport, as you have before on two other occasions. I don't believe that there is any other man who has welcomed this organization three times in the same locality.

We also thank you for bringing in the trees and the children to greet us on this occasion. It isn't very often that the trees themselves come into the assembly room to greet us, and we appreciate your effort in doing this for us.

We will now proceed with the business of the Association.

There appears to be no record of the members elected to serve on the nominating committee for this session. As near as we can determine this committee is as follows: Mr. Silvis, Mr. Allen, Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. McKay and Mr. Gerardi.

Is there a motion to approve these names?

The committee was approved by vote.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: This Committee will bring in a slate of officers of the Association for the next year at our final business session.

I will now call for the reports of standing committees. There are eight of these. The Program Committee. Royal Oakes is the chairman. The fact that we are having a meeting indicates the functioning of the Program Committee.

MR. OAKES: I believe I have nothing to report at this moment. I would like to say the other members did a good part of the committee work.

PRESIDENT MACDANIELS: We appreciate the part that all of you have played in arranging these meetings.

The Publications Committee, Editorial Section. Dr. Theiss, I believe, is not here. Dr. Theiss received the manuscripts and either had them read or read them himself.

The Printing Section of the Publications Committee, Mr. Slate.

MR. SLATE: Our proceedings are on the press and probably will be finished and in the mail this week.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The Place of Meeting Committee. Mr. Allaman is the chairman. In the absence of Mr. Allaman, I present the invitation secured by Mr. Salzer, to meet in Rochester, New York in 1953. Their convention bureau offers very attractive facilities and the invitation is seconded by the Mayor, Joseph J. Naylor, the president of the Rochester Convention and Publicity Bureau, the President of the Rochester Hotel Association, the President of the Junior Chamber of Commerce of Rochester, and the Deputy Commissioner of the Rochester Parks, which just about covers the board.

It doesn't seem to me worthwhile to read all of this material. What it boils down to is that Rochester would be a very good place to meet. The Rochester parks are very interesing places to go, and as I understand it, there are facilities which would not be expensive to the Association. Is that true, Mr. Salzer?

MR. SALZER: Yes, there would be no charge for exhibit rooms if they are held in the hotel, because we are classed as a scientific organization. And we would have the facilities of the Bausch Memorial Museum. There would be facilities for showing moving pictures or slides, and for an exhibit.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: It would be in order at the present time to take definite action on this Rochester invitation, if you care to do so. A motion would be in order to accept.

It has been moved, seconded, and carried that we have our 1953 convention in the City of Rochester, the dates will be determined by the Board of Directors.

The general thinking of the Board of Directors is that we will go to Lancaster, Pa. again in 1954, and in 1955 come back into the Middle West. Mr. Allaman has been working on the Lancaster proposal and I think there has been some spade work done in Michigan already. Have you anything to say about that, Mr. O'Rourke?

MR. O'ROURKE: We will be very glad to have you at Michigan State College at any time. Unfortunately, however, we do not have any nut plantings there. The nut plantings are either in the eastern part of the state or the western part. It's quite a drive either way.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I don't think we have to make a commitment at this time, but it is something to be brought to the attention of the Place of Meeting Committee.

I think we might have a little further explanation from Mr. Best about his bacon breakfast.

MR. BEST: We said in our membership drive that anyone who would go out and work would bring home the bacon, and we further fortified the deal that we were going to furnish the bacon here at Rockport at this session. So in the morning over at Cotton's restaurant we will have bacon, all you want to eat, and the only requirement is that you either got a member last year in the membership drive we have been working on, or that you tried to get a member. That's all that's necessary.

MR. GRAVATT: You have spoken about the meeting in 1954. As you know, I have represented this country at the International Chestnut Meeting for two years. There has been some talk about the possibility of the N. N. G. A. inviting the International Chestnut Meeting to meet in this country in 1954 or '55. At the last meeting the delegates from Japan recommended that they meet in the United States in 1954. The matter is not decided, and I think if you will put off decision about Lancaster until later, it would be a little better.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The committee on Standards and Judging, Mr. Spencer Chase.

MR. SPENCER CHASE: Mr. President, we contemplated having a report on hickory standards for this meeting, but because of circumstances beyond our control, we didn't get the project under way.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I will call on our secretary at this time for the report of the meeting of the directors.

MR. McDANIEL: There were several things brought up last night at the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Northern Nut Growers Association. One matter was the subscription to the American Fruit Grower magazine which we give our membership.

The American Fruit Grower had been selling subscriptions to the Association for its members at 30 cents a year. Since the first of July this year their rate is 50 cents. The opinion of the directors and committee members present last night was that we should drop that subscription to the American Fruit Grower for our members. It will be sent to all members who join for this year and up to the beginning of the next fiscal year. After October 1st, no subscriptions to the American Fruit Grower through the Association. Do we have any discussion on this proposal? (Considerable discussion followed.)

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I suggest that we hear the report of the Board of Directors and then act on the various items one by one in executive session.

MR. McDANIEL: You have heard something about the membership drive, and we will have more on that later. The directors suggested that we encourage more memberships, contributing memberships and sustaining memberships in the Association at $5.00 and $10.00 per year. Some of us feel we can't pay any more than $3.00 for our membership; others will be able to support the organization financially by taking memberships at the $5.00 or $10.00 rate, and we are still offering our life membership at $75.00.

Another matter discussed was offering the set of 34 volumes of back reports in The Nutshell at the price of $20.00 for the 34 volumes now available.

We suggest also that the Association authorize the appointment of a Publicity Committee to work with the Membership Committee in attracting new members.

That is about all I have as the report of the directors' meeting last night, Mr. President.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: This matter of the Board of Directors reporting to the business session is a pattern which I think is a good one. The proposition has been placed before you as to whether or not you wish to continue our affiliation with the American Fruit Grower magazine. As you will recall, the reason the question comes up at the present time is that they have raised their rate from 30 cents a member to 50 cents a member, which is 50 cents of our $3.00, which with the 50 cents secretarial expenses leaves but $2.00 to run the society. As the Treasurer will explain to you later, we are in somewhat of a financial difficulty.

It has been moved and seconded that the Association subscription to the American Fruit Grower be discontinued.

This matter is up for discussion.

MR. MCDANIEL: We have much more space available in The Nutshell than in the American Fruit Grower, and there is the possibility of more frequent publication.

MR. DOWELL: If we could actually get it bi-monthly or quarterly, in place of the Fruit Grower, I think most all of us would be better informed and actually have more information. And The Nutshell is a very excellent means of showing somebody what the organization is about. You give them a copy of the American Fruit Grower, and if he is interested in nuts, most copies aren't going to convince him of much.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I think this question is related to the appointment of a Publicity Committee which will explore what can be done to secure more publicity and give more information about nuts to our members than has been possible in the Fruit Grower.

The members of the Board of Directors felt that $300-plus is a high price to pay for what we got out of The American Fruit Grower.

(The question was called for.)

The motion is passed without dissent.

The question of authorizing the appointment of a Publicity Committee is introduced mainly as a matter for your information, also because it's much better if the society as such were to authorize such a committee. Do I hear such a motion?

Moved by Mr. Salzer, seconded by Colby and passed that the appointment of a Publicity Committee be approved.

I will ask for the report of the Treasurer, Mr. Prell.

Treasurer's Report

MR. PRELL: Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, Mr. Best has asked that I help in connection with his report. That certainly is not because I can make his report better than he can, but probably because a new member is not a new member until his check has arrived and has been recorded, and I happen to have those figures. I will be happy to do that, but perhaps we should start first with the report that the President has asked for, the Treasurer's report.

I imagine that you are uninterested in an itemized, detailed report of receipts and expenditures; I imagine you are interested in the question: How are we doing? We are not doing too well. The annual report for this year indicates that our financial condition is not satisfactory. For the second successive year we have spent more money than we have taken in, and that would be the third successive year, if it hadn't been for the fact that due to the lateness of the publication in 1950—that it, the annual report—we did not pay for an annual report that year. That means there are three years in a row that we have gone downhill.

The picture is not entirely black, however. There are some bright spots. For instance, all our bills are paid. Second, we have money in the bank. Third, our $3,000 investment in Government bonds is still intact, and fourth, our deficit this year was less than it was last year, which may indicate that we have already touched bottom and are starting up.

The cause of our deficit is easy to put your finger on. We are operating on budgets that are ten years old, and costs have gone way, way beyond. Dues were increased several years ago, but even at that time they were not increased adequately, and since then costs have skyrocketed.

The membership situation is not too bad, though the cost situation is bad. The two don't jibe at all. The reason we have a lesser deficit this year than last is Mr. Best's work and the work of his vice-presidents in increasing the membership, and the results of that work; I think, have only begun to show.

Specifically, we came within $417 of collecting enough money this year to pay our expenses. It was over $500 last year, making a total of a thousand dollars that we have spent above our receipts. While we have some money in the bank, there will be a bill due in about 30 days on the publication of the annual report, that will be mailed within the next few days. And that will take all the money that is in the bank, plus what we are able to collect in dues immediately, and I hope that many of them are paid at once. But that still leaves us without money to operate through the year, and by January, unless conditions change, we will be borrowing money.

The Board of Directors has discussed this. They have some thoughts on the subject which will be presented to you by Dr. MacDaniels. I think that one of the obvious things that you all think of and I may mention is the matter of increased membership. That's an obvious solution, and as I said a minute ago, it's a very possible solution.

The work that was started by Mr. Best last February is only now beginning to bear fruit. New memberships, even as late as this for this year, in August, are coming in very, very well. I personally see no reason why the membership cannot be increased to a thousand members next year, providing all of us bring in a member or two.

I asked a friend of mine on The Country Gentleman for some data on state population compared to farm population. I forget just exactly now how it runs on various states, but I do recall Indiana. We have a population here of four million people. There are about 700,000 of these people on 166,000 farms. The farms in this state produce a wealth of $75,000,000 a year. With 700,000 farmers in this state and population of 4,000,000 with a wealth of $75,000,000 a year, it would seem to me that the State of Indiana should have more than only 39 members. Out of that group we should certainly increase that ten times. We should have 400 members, and if the same proportion is carried throughout the nation, why, this organization can easily obtain a roll of 7500 to 10,000 members. A thousand members next year should be a pushover. So much for the financial report.

Mr. Best's campaign started last February. His vice-presidents were given material and the inspiration to work for new members, and they responded. For Mr. Best I compiled the list of the new members who have been brought in, with the people who have brought in the greatest number, but that thing went galley-west in the last few days by the strong finishers. Mr. Best himself came in yesterday with a pocket full of 11 new members, and he already had a couple on the list. Up to that time—and I am not giving credit to the Secretary, because several of the members that show his sponsorship have come naturally through his office. So disregarding the sponsored members of the Secretary, Spencer Chase was top man, up until Mr. Best upset him yesterday, followed by Dr. Rohrbacher, who was a late finisher with members who were not recorded in this report. All through the year it was a battle between Pennsylvania and Illinois as to who would have the greater number of members.

Illinois, with 36 members, hopped up to 60, and Mr. Best's 11 make 71. And just this morning they got two others from Illinois, making 73. So I think Illinois has the second place position firmly nailed down.

Last year we had 563 members all together. This year now we have 170 new members. We can't add that to 563, because in every organization there is a loss of membership every year, and it's to be expected that our membership should have a 10 per cent turnover through circumstances of people leaving their places where they have their nut tree plantings, deaths and other circumstances. So there was a net gain of 86 members to date.

TREASURER'S REPORT

August 25, 1951 to August 18, 1952

RECEIPTS

Membership Dues $1,907.00 Sales of Annual Reports 190.00 Interest on U. S. Bonds 37.50 Donations 48.95 U.S.P.O. Unused Balance, Permit 3.05 Petty Cash 1.97

TOTAL $2,188.47

DISBURSEMENTS

41st Annual Report (Pleasant Valley) $1,375.86 Plates and printing, 900 copies $1,271.16 Envelopes, 2500 31.65 Mailing 73.05 The Nutshell 86.55 Printing & mailing Vol. 4, No. 3 28.64 Printing & mailing Vol. 5, No. 1 57.91 American Fruit Grower 191.60 582 Subscriptions at 30c 174.60 34 Subscriptions at 50c 17.00 Urbana Meeting 163.68 General Expenses 20.28 Reporting & Transcribing 143.40 Secretarial Help, 50c per member 317.00 Stationery and Supplies 179.81 Association Promotion 114.91 Application Folder, 5000 90.02 Supplemental Folder, 650 17.69 Things-of-Science 7.20 Secretary's Expense 77.23 Treasurer's Expense 94.04 Dues, American Horticultural Society 5.00

TOTAL $2,605.68

Cash on deposit, First Bank, South Bend $1,313.78 Disbursements 2,605.68

$3,919.46 — — — — On hand August 26, 1951 $1,730.99 Receipts 2,188.47

$3,919.46 — — — — U. S. Bonds in Safety Deposit Box $3,000.00

I know that Mr. Best has still some more material that he will supply to any of you who are anxious to go out and help in getting the new members. It's only a matter of every person getting a couple, or like Spencer Chase getting 10. That would put us well toward our goal of a thousand members, on which the Association probably can operate without deficit. I thank you. (Applause.)

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: Thank you very much, Mr. Prell. We are very much indebted to you for your business-like handling of the affairs of the society. It is sometimes bitter to know the facts, but the only way that we are ever going to get anywhere is by knowing the facts and facing them. Either fortunately or unfortunately we are not like the federal government, which can go on piling up deficits. We have to do as each one of us as individuals has to do: If our operating-expense exceeds income, we either have to get more income or cease out-go. That is the situation under which we are confronted at the present time.

A little later we can take up some of the things we have in mind. Did you have a further report, Mr. Secretary?

I think probably the Treasurer stole some of the thunder that you might otherwise have.

MR. MCDANIEL: He did that, and the Membership Committee also. You know something of the activities of the secretary's office during the current year, a matter of getting out three issues of The Nutshell and assisting with the editing of the annual report, which I hope you will receive about the time you get home.

One other activity in which the Secretary participated, in addition to the usual task of answering letters to beginning nut growers, was this project "Things of Science". Perhaps Dr. McKay could tell us more about that. Is Dr. McKay in the room? Will you come up now?

DR. MCKAY: We being near Washington, were, of course, the logical people to come in contact with this suggestion early when it was made. As a matter of fact, the very beginning of this movement goes back to Harry Dengler. Some of you may know of him. He is Extension Forester at the University of Maryland and is also Secretary of the American Holly Association.

Harry Dengler was very much interested in this "Things of Science" program and happened to mention to the Science Service paper, of which Watson Davis is editor, that it would be a desirable thing to work up a test on nuts.

For the benefit of those of you who do not know what "Things of Science" is, it is a movement sponsored by Science Service, located in Washington, D. C, whereby 12,000 subscribers to "Things of Science" receive every month a little kit through the mails dealing with all kinds of subjects in science. It is usually a little box, as in the case of the one on nuts, or it may be simply an envelope with some things in it to taste. The idea is to give people all over the country who are interested enough to pay $5.00 a year one kit a month, each one dealing with a different phase of science.

Many groups subscribe to this service; for instance a boy scout troop, libraries and industrial plants. So it goes to literally many thousands more people than the 12,000 actual subscribers that it has.

So when Science Service came to us and said, "Would you be interested in helping us work up a kit on nuts", naturally, we wanted to do what we could towards helping these people, and our first thought was this organization as an official sponsor for it. So we contacted the directors, the officers, Dr. MacDaniels and J. C. McDaniel, and as a result, the Northern Nut Growers, through its board of directors, because we had no other means to authorize it, went ahead and sponsored this move.

To do it, we approached the California Walnut Growers Association, the California Almond Growers Association, the Northwest Nut Growers Association, and the Southeastern Pecan Growers Association, with the idea of having their names mentioned in the kit, and in return they would furnish samples to distribute. The Northern Nut Growers Association furnished the hickory nut samples. The kit was composed of, as I recall, six different kinds of nuts—Persian walnuts and almonds from California, filberts from the Northwest, Pecans from the Southeast, hickory nuts from the Northern Nut Growers Association, and pistachio nuts furnished through the Department of Agriculture by Captain Whitehouse at Beltsville. He secured the pistachio nuts from the trees in California. The kit was composed of a little box about four inches long, an inch and a half deep and three inches wide, containing two or more nuts of the various kinds, together with a brochure that we helped the science people work up. Dr. MacDaniels and the various cooperating groups worked up this brochure of information. The kits include a set of directions for the subscriber to follow in using the material. There are several different possibilities, all along the lines of scientific experimentation.

The idea is to get these youngsters and young people to become familiar with different kinds of nuts.

I think that's all I should say, Mr. President. That covers pretty well the effort that was made and those who made the effort. (Applause.)

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: Thank you very much, Dr. McKay. This project is one in which there were deadlines as to time, and we had to work rather fast. Air mail, special delivery, the long distance telephone and telegraph played quite a part in it. The Science Service was paying the cost of assembling and mailing. The only cost to the Association was for the hickory nuts.

MR. MCDANIEL: We were late on that and unable to get the quality nuts we would like, but we did get enough to fill the kits, not all of which were worthy.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: We would like to have secured Carpathian walnuts, but the nuts from known sources of supply were so discolored with husk maggot that we were ashamed to send them out. We were not able to locate and to furnish any considerable amount of any kind of northern nuts. Twelve thousand of these kits went out, and each one of them is in a position where it probably contacted a dozen or more on the average, so that I am sure as a result of the effort a great many people not only became more familiar with nuts and their various sources and uses, but also learned that the contest was sponsored by the Northern Nut Growers Association. Mr. Prell, who knows something about advertising, thought it was a very worthwhile project.

That completes the reports of the officers and of the committees. We will now take ten minutes recess.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The session will be in order.

As your treasurer said, there are several other things which we discussed in the directors' meeting. We discussed this matter of how, the situation being such as it is, the Association could improve its position through gaining more members and through either making more money or cutting down expenditures.

The Publicity Committee was one of those suggestions, who were to explore this matter of getting better publicity for less money. That is, whatever publicity we got from the American Fruit Grower cost us about $300, and we think we can do a lot better in some other way.

Another matter was to place the financial situation of the society squarely before the membership and ask that as many as could and felt so inclined take out a contributing or a sustaining membership. We felt quite strongly that raising the dues was not the answer, because there are a lot of people sort of on the fringe who don't work too actively for the society but who do take out regular memberships but who, if we raised the dues even another 50 cents, would probably fail to renew their memberships. So that at least for the present we are not going to go ahead on that basis, unless you want that to come up for further discussion.

Another point which we, I think, should explore was the matter of advertising in the proceedings. Some other associations, the pecan association, particularly, as Dr. McKay pointed out, make a substantial part of their revenue from advertising in the proceedings. We have tried that before, but times have changed, and I think it should be considered again.

Then the matter of speeding up sales of sets of the proceedings to libraries, that is, further publicity in The Nutshell about sets that are for sale and, perhaps, circularizing the library lists to sell complete sets, or as complete as we have.

Another matter that might be explored is having some kind of a "give-away program", some inducement for those who take out memberships for the first time. Other societies do it in one way or another. Unfortunately, our material does not lend itself to that sort of thing as well as some others, but we might be able to give nuts of Carpathian strains that could be used as seed nuts, or perhaps the hybrid hazels.

MR. MCDANIEL: One suggestion made in a letter from Dr. Crane was to distribute hybrid walnuts to grow to fruiting size. That might be explored if there is a source of enough seedlings or seed nuts of Juglans Regia crossed with Juglans Nigra.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: We would welcome any further suggestions which you may have, either as to saving money or making money, or increasing our membership, which amounts to making money, of course.

Another thing that might be done to present the possibilities of nut growing to your communities is to sponsor exhibits at your own county or state fairs.

Mr. Slate wanted to make a comment along these lines.

MR. SLATE: That matter of urging sustaining and contributing memberships has been mentioned by you. I think it would be one of the best things we could do to send a statement of our financial condition to the members of the Association pointing out the need for additional funds and suggesting that all who can possibly afford it take out sustaining and contributing memberships. It seems to me that this is just about the only alternative to increasing the dues. I am not sure whether an increase in the dues would result in the loss of many members or not. Perhaps they are getting rather used to the higher price level, and it might be well to have an expression of opinion from some of those here as to whether they thought there would be serious objections to an increase in the dues. Surely, there are many who can afford to carry sustaining or contributing memberships.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: That is the opinion of the Board of Directors. Mr. Slate has raised a question as to the validity of the conclusion of the Directors regarding the advisability of raising the dues. Our thinking was that to raise the dues beyond the present level would result in sufficient loss of membership to offset any gain in revenue. The last time we raised the dues what was the effect?

MR. MCDANIEL: When we raised the dues to $3.00 we had a membership of 650. It dropped to about 580; a loss of 60 or 70.

MR. PRELL: We in effect raised dues 50 cents this morning. It won't affect new members, but it may cause some of the older ones who are members to drop. They know that at present 50 cents of their dues are going to the Fruit Grower; now they aren't getting the Fruit Grower.

MR. MACHOVINA: They were getting for $2.50 what they will now get for $3.00.

PRESIDENT MACDANIELS: Any other discussion?

MR. KINTZEL: I have given this problem of increasing the membership quite a bit of thought, and have an idea which might be used. Let's see by a show of hands how many live in the city but own farms outside of the city.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The question is how many live in the city but have farms outside. Sixteen or 17, probably about 20.

MR. KINTZEL: You might call me a city farmer. Like many other city people, I own a small farm near the city in which I live, which is Cincinnati, Ohio. I am intensely interested in the work of the N.N.G.A. There must be many others who, too, are owners of land but who use the land for experimental farming and to get a little diversion from the daily grind in the busy, noisy city. These people would consider it a favor to have their attention called to the interesting work of our organization.

A practical plan for getting in touch with this reservoir of future members is to secure the names and addresses of such land owners from the records at the various county court houses fringing the cities. A personal letter should be written to these future members. A friendly invitation to join the N.N.G.A. should be extended, and a printed brochure describing and explaining its work and objects should be included.

I believe that by working systematically on the city dweller, who also owns acreage outside the city limits, we could give our membership list a big boost.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: That is a good suggestion for the Membership Committee.

Is there anything further?

MR. CALDWELL: This is not a suggestion, but a comment following up the idea of the previous speaker. In Syracuse there was a woman with an estimated 160 acres of land, who about 15 or 16 years ago became interested in planting hybrid chestnuts. Unfortunately, the land was not suitable for raising chestnuts and the two or three hundred trees she planted failed to grow. I don't think there are two alive there now. So you will have to be a little bit careful in encouraging city people to plant nut trees. She spent a lot of money and right now if you mention that, she will just practically tear you apart. She wasted money and time, so be careful in getting people going too strong unless you are sure the trees are going to grow for them.

MR. SNYDER: According to the chart outside, cutting off the Fruit Grower will leave us just a few cents per member in the red.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: Right.

MR. SNYDER: Well, don't we have $3,000 in bonds? What are they for, if it isn't to tide us over a hard period like this?

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: That is a suggestion for the Board of Directors.

MR. SNYDER: If inflation keeps up, the bonds will be worth nothing. We might as well use them up. I would suggest we use every method to balance the budget without them, but if necessary, use some of them up. If it is necessary, use the bonds to balance the budget.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The question of whether or not we use the bonds, I think, would have to be considered very carefully. I think one of the Ohio men has a suggestion.

MR. DOWELL: This discussion would follow along with that on membership. The active members of the Ohio section were organized back in 1946, and in 1948 the national body put in its by-laws a provision that there could be state sections formed. That is Article 1 and also Article 2, that you could have affiliated bodies. Now, as far as I know, there is no other state section.

MR. MCDANIEL: Michigan has one, now.

MR. DOWELL: Michigan has not actually affiliated yet, and when it does come in it will be an affiliated society. According to the by-laws it will not be necessary for all its members to be members of the N. N. G. A.

Now, we feel that some strong state section is the main support in membership interest and a lot of other lines, and I think that if you check the rolls you will find where you have had a state organization, whether it's affiliated or otherwise, particularly Ohio and Michigan, that our membership has not really dropped down in total numbers. Of course, there is a turnover every year. If it has dropped down, it's been slight in comparison with the overall drop down.

MR. MCDANIEL: Ohio is only holding its own now. You have one more member than you had a year ago.

MR. DOWELL: That's right, we are holding our own, and previous to this last run, the total number in the Association was down a hundred. That has not dropped in Ohio, which has the state section. Neither has it recently in Michigan, which has recently organized the Michigan Nut Growers.

The Executive Committee of the Ohio section wishes to present the following resolution for the consideration of this body:

RESOLUTION

"WHEREAS we feel that membership in a state section has been a definite advantage in maintaining and increasing membership in the National Organization, as has been demonstrated in the Ohio Section of the N. N. G. A.;

WHEREAS a National Organization becomes strong because of its strong local sections which help maintain interest;

THEREFORE the National Organization should encourage and foster the formation of local sections.

We therefore submit the following motion: That the N. N. G. A. amend its constitution to provide for the organization of local sections. These amendments should include the following provisions:

1. Membership in the N. N. G. A. shall be a requirement for full membership in the local section; however this shall not exclude local sections from accepting associate members.

2. That each member of the N. N. G. A. shall automatically become a member of a local section when he resides in a location where a recognized local section exists.

3. Wherever a local section has become established, the local chairman shall serve as vice president of the N. N. G. A. for that area.

4. The N. N. G. A. shall refund to the treasurer of each local section ten percent (10%) of the N. N. G. A. dues paid annually by members of that section."

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I conclude that you are presenting this for the consideration of the Association. It would be an amendment to the by-laws, I take it, rather than the constitution. Such an amendment would have to come up for consideration at the next meeting after consideration by the Board of Directors; either that, or else vote on it by mail.

MR. DOWELL: It is purely a motion now, if passed or rejected. But if it is passed, then previous to the Rochester meeting, the proposal would have to be in a suitable form to be either passed or rejected for the by-laws.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: We have this resolution in printed form. That will be transmitted to the Board of Directors for consideration at the next meeting.

MR. DOWELL: We make it as a motion that the mass accept or reject it here.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The motion is, then, to accept the resolution and present it to the Board of Directors. Is that right? Is there a second?

MR. KINTZEL: I second it.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: Are there further remarks? If not, all in favor, signify by saying "Aye." (Chorus of "ayes"). Opposed? (None.) It is carried.

MR. O'ROURKE: I am very sorry I was not recognized before the vote was taken.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I am sorry.

MR. O'ROURKE: I am speaking, I think, for the Michigan Nut Growers, of which we have quite a group here today, and we are quite anxious to maintain an independent state organization. We feel that it is perfectly all right for this motion to have been adopted as it has been, if there will be no attempt made to delete that section which now refers to affiliation.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I think there would be no attempt to do that.

MR. O'ROURKE: Is that clearly understood that there will be no attempt made to delete the section on affiliation?

MR. DOWELL: That is the understanding. Now, there are two ways in the present by-laws. Now, this would either be a third or replace the first. It would have nothing to do with affiliating groups.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: I think that is right, and I think the thing to do, Mr. Dowell, would be to be sure that the new president is apprized of the Michigan point of view in that regard. He will be the chairman of the new Board of Directors, and this is simply a motion to consider it. It doesn't go any further than that.

Is there any further business to come before this group at this time? If not, the other item on the agenda, as it is stated, I believe, is a presidential address.



The Forward Look

Presidential Address, by L. H. MacDaniels

As the retiring president of our Association, it is a time honored custom and a privilege to give what is often referred to as the presidential address. I do not have in mind giving an address but rather to consider with you informally the present situation of the Northern Nut Growers Association and to give my ideas as to what we might do to improve our position and forward the purposes for which the Association was organized in 1910.

Time does not permit recounting the history of the development of the Association. This has been done on several previous occasions. I will, however, go back to the 1945 report in which under the title "Where Do We Go from Here" I tried to pick up various aspects of the condition of the Association immediately following the war and point out areas to which special attention should be given at that time.

Considering our situation in 1952, it appears that many of our problems are about the same as they were in 1945 although in some areas definite progress has been made. A quick look at our problems then and now is perhaps pertinent to the present discussion. One of these is variety evaluation. This still remains one of the important areas where we need much more information particularly as to the success or failure of different named clones of nut trees in various regions. Perhaps it is time for us to carefully summarize whatever data we have accumulated as to the adaptation of varieties or at least make plans for extending a program of evaluation. Since 1945 our survey committees have been active and have secured information that will certainly be helpful.

The problem of judging standards has been clarified somewhat. It is my personal opinion that the judging schedule for varieties of black walnuts worked out with the assistance of Dr. S. S. Atwood is on a sound basis and might well receive much wider use. Following along somewhat the same pattern, suggested schedules have been proposed for the hickories and butternuts. These should receive further consideration and adoption, if approved at least on a tentative basis. A schedule for Persian walnuts is very much needed as indicated by the recent contest in which confusion occurred related to there being no recognized standards of evaluation. With the Persian walnut such matters as the method of cracking and the importance of such characters as sealing of nuts, recovery of whole halves and others should be agreed upon.

Our procedure in naming varieties is still somewhat chaotic. Possibly we should adopt the general pattern of the American Pomological Society. Their example of setting up an approved list of varieties for planting on a regional basis is worthy of consideration. Even though such a list were tentative and incomplete, a start which would embody the best information we have would be valuable.

Securing new varieties of, hardy nut trees through breeding has made some progress. Most encouraging is the work of the Federal Experiment Station at Beltsville where Doctor Crane and Doctor McKay and their associates are using modern techniques in securing new varieties of hardy nut trees. Some progress in hybridization, of course, has been made, particularly with the filberts, the hybrids developed by J. F. Jones, G. L. Slate, S. H. Graham, Heben Corsan and some others, showing great improvement over previous European varieties in their adaptability to the northern United States. At the present time there are filbert varieties of hybrid origin better than those in the nursery trade which should be propagated and made available. Work with the Chinese chestnuts has also been valuable.

It is my opinion, which I believe is shared by most of those who are familiar with progress in securing new varieties, that we are not likely to find in the wild, varieties or clones which show any marked improvement over those already found and named. There is, of course, always the possibility of the "perfect nut" arising as a chance variation. The recent walnut and hickory contests, however, have been somewhat disappointing for they have not discovered any variety of black walnut better than the Thomas for instance, or a hickory much better than some of those located years ago. This does not mean that members of the Association should not keep a sharp lookout for new varieties occurring spontaneously which will be better than existing sorts. It does mean, however, that if real "breaks" are to be secured, it will be necessary to apply some of the more effective techniques which are known in the plant breeding field. Any such program is a long time project and can only be effectively attempted by experiment stations, or by some of the young men, who begin now to make crosses under the direction or at least with the advice of those who are familiar with plant breeding techniques.

Progress has been made in the Association organization. The constitution has been thoroughly overhauled and amended, particularly to provide for regional groups. Certainly such groups are to be encouraged and have done and will do much to strengthen the national organization in the various states. It is my personal opinion that these regional groups can be of particular value in working with the experiment stations and legislatures to promote the interests of the Association. The state associations should be on the alert to build on the interests of conservation departments as related to wildlife preserves and sportsmen's clubs and other agencies which put the growing of nut trees in proper perspective. I am not at all in favor of securing either federal or state support for every minor project which comes along. However, the Northern Nut Growers Association need make no apologies for its program, particularly as it is related to the conservation of our natural resources; to the promotion of better living on the farm and those values which are real and great, even though they do not show up large in dollar value of crops produced.

Unfortunately, projects in nut growing have been started in various states, particularly Ohio and Michigan only to be eliminated before they really got under way because of lack of support. Experiment station directors, if they are confronted with a shortage of funds, are likely to run the blue pencil through items which cannot be backed up with economic considerations. The approach of the Northern Nut Growers Association it seems to me should not be to seek support on an economic basis but rather on the basis of better living on the farm, improvement of gardens and farmsteads and the advantages of growing nut trees as compared with any other horticultural activity. There has been a real increase in the importance which is given to this approach in recent times and an active state association, which can keep in touch with local conditions and call on the national association for additional support, will certainly be of great assistance in the future.

I personally am not in favor of any sort of a set up by which the national association gives a kick back of national dues to a regional association. The dues are inadequate for the national association at the present time. Looking at the whole situation with some perspective, it would seem that the regional associations might contribute to the national association rather than the reverse. If the constitution and by-laws of the Association are not such as to make affiliation with the national association and the formation of regional associations easy, they can readily be changed to secure the very best pattern that can be devised.

Perhaps one of the most acute problems with which the Association is faced is the struggle to keep financially solvent. We are all aware of our changing economy, particularly the increased costs of printing and in fact of everything that our organization uses or needs, even postage. In my thinking, the finances of the Association are much the same as those of an individual, who is confronted with expenditures that exceed his income. The things that have to be done are obvious and the same in both cases. One is to spend less and the other is to secure more funds. In the judgment of your directors and executive committee, expenditures have been reduced as low as is safe in order to keep a going organization. Members join the Association for the value which they get out of it and a large part of this value is in the form of reports, newsletters, information made available and the organization of annual meetings. If these services were discontinued or curtailed, membership falls off. This has been the experience of other plant societies, of which there are many.

In my judgment retrenchment is not the answer in the present situation. Securing additional funds is the best forward-looking policy. The question comes up as to how this may be done. Experience in our Association and I believe other associations as well, has shown that $3.00 is about as far as dues can be raised. There comes a point with every society when, if the dues are increased, there is a falling off of membership, which more than offsets the gain. Other obvious procedures are: (1) increasing the number of members; (2) providing different types of memberships to encourage larger contributions; (3) gifts; and (4) special fund raising projects. Of these various ways and means, certainly increasing the number of members is by far the more promising. The overhead of the association is not increased with additional memberships anywhere near in proportion to the contributions of those members. This is particularly true for additional copies of the report and general office expense. The drive for new members under President Best's leadership has produced gratifying results and I believe if this is continued effectively through the next few years, a membership increase can be secured that will assure the Association's balancing its budget. Somewhere in the neighborhood of a thousand paid memberships would solve most of our financial difficulties. Provision is already made for different types of memberships and it is to be hoped that many who can do so will join the contributing member class at least until we are out of our present financial woods.

Other societies raise considerable revenue through special projects such as the sale of publications of one kind or another, seed distribution or slide rental. The type of material with which the Northern Nut Growers Association deals is not comparable to some of these other organizations but certainly the possibilities of revenue through special projects need to be explored.

Research with northern nut trees is exceedingly important from the standpoint of accomplishing the objectives of the Association. The matter of breeding new varieties has already been touched on. Other types of research are such that a large part must be carried on by experiment stations which have a continuing program. Much has been done in securing observational information by Association members themselves but some problems are such that they must be continued over a long period of time and set up with adequate checks and provision for securing significant data. Otherwise the results are of no real value. Granted we need all the sound observational experience that all the members can bring to our problems, there are still aspects of culture of northern nut trees that need continuing program of scientific research.

Fortunately, much of the cultural information secured with nut crops of economic value is directly applicable to northern nut trees. This is true of the work with northwestern filberts, western walnuts, southern pecans and even the tung industry. There comes a point, however, when information thus gained needs to be checked under the specific conditions where the crops are grown and very little research has been done in the northern states where the hardy nuts are important.

Of special importance to the northern nut growers is the control of diseases and insects. At the present time the bunch disease of walnuts is becoming increasingly more troublesome and very little is known as to how this is spread or how it may be controlled. In my own filbert planting, the hazel bud mite during past years has made the crop practically a failure. Little apparently is known as to the life history of this insect or when miticides might be applied. Examples such as the bunch disease and mite damage are multiplied many times with other diseases of local or regional importance. In my thinking our best hope for getting something done is to encourage the Departments of Entomology and Plant Pathology in the experiment stations to take up these disease and insect problems, which might be attacked by graduate students as thesis subjects, even though the economic importance is not great.

As I see the situation of the Association, there is need for its members to produce more nuts of better quality. Nothing intrigues the interest of potential members as much as actually seeing and tasting locally grown samples of nuts of superior varieties. On several occasions I have tried to assemble collections of nuts for exhibit or to buy them for one purpose or another and found great difficulty in finding sources of supply. This was particularly true in the fall of 1951 when we were trying to assemble nuts for "The Things of Science" project. We wanted very much to secure Carpathian walnuts that could be sent out and used for seed purposes. There was no source to which we could turn. In several possible sources of supply, husk maggots had so infested the crop that the nuts were discolored and unattractive. It might have been possible to secure enough black walnuts to include in the kit but the problem of state quarantines against the bunch disease could not be easily adjusted.

Finally I believe the Northern Nut Growers Association is doing a very significant work. Our emphasis at the present time at least might very well be on nut growing as a hobby and for conservation, for better shade trees and for better living on the farms and homesteads rather than to emphasize the commercial angles. This will come in time if it can really be demonstrated that growing northern nut trees is a profitable venture. In these days of job specialization everyone needs a hobby and an outlet for special interests. I know of few other fields of endeavor for those who like growing things than the rewards that are to be found in the growing of hardy nut trees.



MONDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

The Monday afternoon session was convened at one o'clock p.m.

PRESIDENT MacDANIELS: The afternoon session will please be in order.

The first paper this afternoon will be, "The Future of Your Nut Planting," Mr. W. F. Sonnemann, Vandalia, Illinois.



The Future of Your Nut Planting

W. F. SONNEMANN, Vandalia, Ill.

Ladies and gentlemen, it is a great pleasure to appear before the Northern Nut Growers Association. I am just a sprout as far as nut growing is concerned, when we consider the age of some of our old hickory nut trees.

About 25 years ago, I became interested in nut growing and, in particular, the river-bottom hickory nut tree. Then we had so many nut trees growing in the bottom that we never thought of trying to plant a tree or look after one. People could gather all the nuts they wanted and often the trees were cut just to get the nuts. They'd lay a stick of dynamite at the base of the tree to shake the nuts off.

After a few years of that, I thought we might do something to save the nut trees for the future generations. That's when I first started to plant some nuts. Incidentally, I made a big mistake, by not joining the Northern Nut Growers Association.

Naturally, I wanted the largest pecan I could find. I went to the St. Louis market and bought and planted nice Papershell pecans—very nice pecans, but the trees do not mature their crop. Mr. McDaniel and I tried to top-work them, but that's a big job. Had I joined the Northern Nut Growers Association, I could have avoided a lot of those mistakes.

There are some things that I found out in practicing law that can very well apply to nut growing. If you will pardon the reference to personal experience, I can bring forth to you about four situations. One, a good, close friend of mine had a vacant lot close to his home. He had been planting nut trees and papaw trees and persimmon trees for years. On this vacant lot he had a 25-year-old Busch walnut growing back on the alley, on the lawn was a beautiful Japanese flowering cherry, and there were two pecan trees in the yard proper. He sold the lot to a neighbor whose wife was just crazy about flowers, little dreaming that those trees would ever be cut down. I don't believe the ink of the recorder had been cooled or dried before that English walnut was cut down, the Japanese cherry grubbed out of the front lawn, and one of the pecan trees was cut. It just about broke the old owner's heart, and all he could say was, "I am just disappointed in my neighbors." And now there is a house being erected there, and the pecan tree that was 12 inches in diameter was cut. That could have been prevented, had this man given thought to the future.

Another man, named Hagen, who was instrumental in getting me interested in nut growing, had a nice group of river-bottom shellbark trees growing in his field. One of these has been propagated and named the Hagen, and although it isn't a good cracking quality, it's a very large nut.

A pipe line was laid close to that field, and this man had the fore-*sight to put a clause in this pipe-line right of way which gave him the protection of collecting adequate damages for the destruction of the trees. Didn't even need a lawyer, which is something bad for the law business. It is a suggestion, that when a pipe line, or telephone company is buying a right of way, it is possible to protect your interests in valuable trees.

Another instance of protecting nut trees was when the new U. S. Highway 40 was built across Illinois. I had the job of condemning the right of way and when the engineer and I were out walking over it we noticed a fine group of hickory nut trees on the hillside. I remarked what a nice group of trees it was. He said, "Yes, that's going to be a borrow pit up there." I said, "You mean they are going to destroy those trees?" He said, "Yes, dirt from this borrow pit will make the fill across this bottom."

I said, "Why can't we get the dirt somewhere else? Dirt is dirt."

And the engineer said, "Well, that's the plans." We had a little contrariness there, and I had to threaten to drop the case as far as that tract of land was concerned. If you fight long enough and hard enough in such cases you may find some other person who is interested in nut trees. We did; we found an engineer higher up, and that group of hickory trees is now a picnic area. They used a borrow pit somewhere else, and it gives me a great pleasure to drive past that group of hickory trees and see them still standing there. In the fall of the year you'd be surprised at the number of people at that picnic area, and they keep those hickory nuts picked up clean as fast as they fall.

In our county hospital just started they happened to select a piece of ground I own an interest in for a county hospital. On that are some good hickory nut trees. I told them they'd never get the land until they made some arrangements in regard to those nut trees. The engineer that designed that hospital must have had some sense, because they are building a canopy around one of the trees adjacent to that hospital, and have arranged to cut only one scrub oak. The other trees will be mentioned in the deed with restrictive covenants to protect them.

If you sign anything a company gives you, you are liable to have anything cut on your land. Remember the saying that "the big print gives it to you and the fine print takes it away." And it's the fine print you want to watch in all your right of ways or in your condemnation proceedings.

I know a man who had almost 160 acres of river-bottom hickories. During his lifetime he was very careful about those trees. He would cut the brush around the trees and harvest those hickory nuts as if it was a crop of corn or beans. Upon his death his children were scattered over the various states. They didn't care anything for this hickory grove. It's been cut. Now there is a bulldozer in there trying to clean out those hickory stumps. They are not making much progress. All you now have in that farm is 160 acres of old tree stumps, wild honey-suckle vines, poison ivy and poison oak, and even a coon hunter gripes when he has to take his dogs through there on a coon hunt. Those heirs care nothing about it.

In selling land it doesn't make any difference whether it's a sale to a neighbor, or to a friend or a stranger, you should protect any trees that you have growing upon that land by what we term a covenant running with the land, and that means if a deed is made it will provide that certain trees shall not be cut within a certain period of time. In one case where I am forced to sell some land I am protecting the trees for 10 years.

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