NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE
FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING
NEW YORK CITY SEPTEMBER 3, 4 and 5, 1924
Officers and Committees of the Association 3 State Vice-Presidents 4 Members of the Association 5 Constitution 10 By-Laws 13 Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Convention 15 Secretary's Report 15 Treasurer's Report 18 Address—Dr. Britton 19 Reports from State Vice-Presidents 20-30 Top Working Hickories in the North—W. C. Deming 32 Notes on Mediate and Immediate Grafting at All Times of the Year—R. T. Morris 44 Stocks For Hickories—W. G. Bixby 48 The Search for Blight-resisting Chestnut Sprouts—J. F. Collins 57 Protection of Wounds in Nut Trees—J. F. Collins 61 A Harangue on the Nut Situation in Iowa—S. W. Snyder 65 Some of the More Important Insects Attacking Northern Nuts—Fred E. Brooks 68 Developing a Nut Industry in the Northeast—G. A. Zimmerman 75 Transplanting Nut Trees—W. G. Bixby 78 Heredity in Trees and Plants—A. F. Blakeslee 81 Progress Report on Nut Culture in Canada—J. A. Neilson 88 Notes by Professor A. S. Colby 93 Address by Prof. MacDaniels 99 Nut Tree Crops as a Part of Permanent Agriculture Without Plowing—J. R. Smith 103 Notes at Mr. Bixby's Nut Orchards and Nurseries, Baldwin, N. Y. 107 Exhibits at the House of W. G. Bixby 113 Notes Taken at Merribrooke, Dr. Morris' Estate Near Stamford, Conn. 114 Amendment to By-Laws 121 Nuts—R. S. Copeland 125 Hardiness in Nut Trees—C. A. Reed 127 Walnut Grafting Investigations—T. J. Talbert 135 Care and Preparation of Nuts for Seed Purposes—E. R. Lake 137 Exhibits 140 Members Present 142
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION
President HARRY R. WEBER, Gerke Building, Cincinnati, Ohio
Vice-President MRS. W. D. ELLWANGER, 510 East Avenue, Rochester, N. Y.
Secretary C. A. REED, Box 485 Pa. Ave. Station, Washington, D. C.
Assistant Secretary MRS. B. W. GAHN, 485 Pa. Ave. Station, Washington, D. C.
Treasurer H. J. HILLIARD, Sound View, Conn.
HARRY R. WEBER, DR. ROBT. T. MORRIS, WILLARD G. BIXBY, DR. W. C. DEMING, JAMES S. MCGLENNON
Auditing—MRS. KARL W. GREENE, P. H. O'CONNOR
Executive—HARRY R. WEBER, MRS. W. D. ELLWANGER, C. A. REED, H. J. HILLIARD, W. S. LINTON, J. S. MCGLENNON
Finance—T. P. LITTLEPAGE, W. G. BIXBY, DR. W. C. DEMING
Hybrids—DR. R. T. MORRIS, J. F. JONES, W. G. BIXBY, HOWARD SPENCE
Membership—HARRY R. WEBER, H. D. SPENCER, DR. J. R. SMITH, R. T. OLCOTT, W. G. BIXBY, J. A. NEILSON, DR. W. C. DEMING, J. W. HERSHEY
Nomenclature—C. A. REED, DR. R. T. MORRIS, J. F. JONES
Press and Publications—DR. W. C. DEMING, W. G. BIXBY, M. G. KAINS
Program—HARRY R. WEBER, F. A. BARTLETT, C. A. REED, DR. ROBT. T. MORRIS, A. S. COLBY
Promising Seedlings—C. A. REED, J. F. JONES, W. G. BIXBY, J. A. NEILSON, S. W. SNYDER
Arkansas Prof. N. F. Drake Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville
California Will J. Thorpe 1545 Divisadero St., San Francisco
Canada James A. Neilson Hort. Exp. Sta., Vineland, Ontario
China P. W. Wang Sec'y Kinsan Arboretum, 147 N. Sechuan Road, Shanghai
Connecticut Dr. W. C. Deming 983 Main St., Hartford, Conn.
Dist. of Columbia Karl W. Greene Ridge Road, N. W., Washington
England Howard Spence The Red House, Ainsdale, Southport
Georgia J. M. Patterson Putney
Illinois Henry D. Spencer Decatur
Indiana J. F. Wilkinson Rockport
Iowa S. W. Snyder Center Point
Kansas James Sharp Council Grove
Maryland P. H. O'Connor Bowie
Massachusetts C. Leroy Cleaver 496 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
Michigan Dr. J. H. Kellogg Battle Creek
Missouri P. C. Stark Louisiana
Nebraska William Caha Wahoo
New Jersey C. S. Ridgway Lumberton
New York L. H. MacDaniels Cornell Univ., Ithaca
North Carolina H. M. Curran N. C. Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh
Ohio James L. Brooke Pleasantville
Oregon Knight Pearcy Salem
Pennsylvania John Rick 438 Penn Square, Reading
Tennessee J. W. Waite Normandy
Utah Joseph A. Smith Edgewood Hall, Providence
Vermont F. C. Holbrook Brattleboro
Virginia D. S. Harris Roselawn, Capital Landing Road, Williamsburg, R. F. D. 3
Washington Richard H. Turk Washougal
West Virginia Dr. J. E. Cannaday Box 693, Charleston
MEMBERS OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
(Compiled November 12, 1924)
ARKANSAS *Drake, Prof. N. F., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Dunn, D. K., Wynne
CALIFORNIA Thorpe, Will J., 1545 Divisadero Street, San Francisco
CANADA Neilson, Jas. A., Ontario Hort. Exp. Sta., Vineland.
CHINA *Wang, P. W., Sec'y, Kinsan Arboretum, 147 No. Szechuan Road, Shanghai.
CONNECTICUT Bartlett, Francis A., Stamford Deming, Dr. W. C., 983 Main St., Hartford Hardon, Mrs. Henry, Wilton Hilliard, H. J., Sound View Hungerford, Newman, Torrington, R. F. D. No. 2, Box 100 Ives, E. M., Sterling Orchards, Meriden Montgomery, Robt. H., Cos Cob, Conn. (1924) *Morris, Dr. Robt. T., Cos Cob, Route 28, Box 95 Pomeroy, Eleazer, 120 Bloomfield Ave., Windsor Sessions, Albert L., 25 Bellevue Ave., Bristol
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Agriculture, Library of U. S. Dept. of Close, Prof. C. P., Pomologist, Dept. of Agriculture Greene, Karl W., Ridge Road, N. W. Gravatt, G. F., Forest Pathology, B. P. I. Agriculture *Littlepage, T. P., Union Trust Building Reed, C. A., Dept. of Agriculture Williams, A. Ray, Union Trust Bldg. Von Ammon, S., Bureau of Standards Gahn, Mrs. B. W., U. S. Department of Agriculture
ENGLAND Spence, Howard, The Red House, Ainsdale, Southport
GEORGIA Patterson, J. M., Putney Steele, R. C., Lakemont, Rabun County Wight, J. B., Cairo
ILLINOIS Brown, Roy W., 220 E. Cleveland St., Spring Valley Casper, O. H., Anna Flexer, Walter G., 210 Campbell St., Joliet Foote, Lorenzo S., Anna Illinois, University of, Urbana (Librarian) Mosnat, H. R., 10910 Prospect Ave., Morgan Park, Chicago Mueller, Robert, Decatur Nash, C. J., 1302 E. 53rd St., Chicago Potter, Hon. W. O., Marion Riehl, E. A., Godfrey, Route 2 Rodhouse, T. W., Jr., Pleasant Hill, R. R. 2 Shaw, James E., Champaign, Box 644 Spencer, Henry D., 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur Swisher, S. L., Mulkeytown Vulgamott, Chas. E., Cerro Gordo
INDIANA Clayton, C. L., Owensville Copp, Lloyd, 819 W. Foster St., Kokomo Gilmer, Frank, 1012 Riverside Drive, South Bend Staderman, A. L., 120 South 7th St., Terre Haute Wilkinson, J. F., Rockport
IOWA Adams, Gerald W., Moorhead Armknecht, George, Donnellson. (1923) Bricker, C. W., Ladora Snyder, S. W., Center Point
KANSAS Bishop, S. L., Conway Springs, Route No. 1 Fessenden, C. D., Cherokee Hardin, Martin, Horton Hitchcock, Chas. W., Belle Plaine Gray, Dr. Clyde, Horton Sharpe, James, Council Grove
MARYLAND Jordan, Dr. Llewellyn, 100 Baltimore Ave., Takoma Park Keenan, Dr. John F., Brentwood O'Connor, P. W., Bowie Wall, A. V., Baltimore Watkins, Asa H., Mount Airy. (1924).
MASSACHUSETTS *Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Bldg., Boston Bowles, Francis T., Barnstable Cleaver, C. Leroy, Hingham Center Sawyer, James C., Andover
MICHIGAN Bonine, Chester H., Vandalia Charles, Dr. Elmer, Pontiac Graves, Henry B., 2134 Dime Bank Bldg., Detroit Kellogg, Dr. J. H., 202 Manchester St., Battle Creek *Linton, Hon. W. S., Saginaw Penney, Senator Harvey A., 425 So. Jefferson Ave., Saginaw Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor. (1924).
MISSOURI Stark, P. C., Louisiana Tiedke, J. F., R. F. D., Rockville. (1924). Youkey, J. M., 2519 Monroe Ave., Kansas City
NEBRASKA Caha, William, Wahoo Thomas, Dr. W. A., Lincoln
NEW JERSEY Clarke, Miss E. A., W. Point Pleasant, Box 57 Gaty, Theo. E., 50 Morris Ave., Morristown *Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly St., Jersey City Landmann, Miss M. V., Cranbury, R. D. No. 2 Ridgeway, C. S., Lumberton
NEW YORK Abbott, Frederick B., 1211 Tabor Court, Brooklyn Ashworth, Fred L., Heuvelton Bennett, Howard S., 851 Joseph Ave., Rochester Bethea, J. G., 243 Rutgers St., Rochester Bixby, Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin, L. I. Bixby, Mrs. Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin Brinton, Mrs. Willard Cope, 36 So. Central Pk., N. Y. City Buist, Dr. G. L., 3 Hancock St., Brooklyn Clark, George H., 131 State St., Rochester Cothran, John C., 104 High St., Lockport Corsan, G. H., 55 Hanson Place, Brooklyn Diprose, Alfred H., 468 Clinton Ave., South, Rochester Dunbar, John, Dep't. of Parks, Rochester Ellwanger, Mrs. W. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester Gager, Dr. C. Stewart, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Gaty, Theo. E. Jr., Clermont Gillett, Dr. Henry W., 140 W. 57th St., New York City Graham, S. H., R. D. 5, Ithaca Hart, Frank E., Landing Road, Brighton Haws, Elwood D., Public Market, Rochester Hodgson, Casper W., Yonkers, (World Book Co.) *Huntington, A. M., 15 W. 81st St., New York City Johnson, Harriet, M. B., 40 Irving Place, New York City Krieg, Fred J., 11 Gladys St., Rochester Liveright, Frank I., 120 W. 70th St., N. Y. C. MacDaniel, S. H., Dept. of Pomology, New York State College of Agriculture, Ithaca Motondo, Grant F., 198 Monroe Ave., Rochester Nolan, Mrs. C. R., 47 Dickinson St., Rochester Nolan, M. J., 47 Dickinson St., Rochester Olcott, Ralph T. (Editor American Nut Journal), Ellwanger and Barry Building, Rochester Paterno, Dr. Chas. V., 117 W. 54th St., N. Y. City Pomeroy, A. C., Lockport Rawnsley, Mrs. Annie, 242 Linden St., Rochester Rawnsley, James B., 242 Linden St., Rochester Reinold, O. S., Yonkers-on-Hudson, (1924). Schroeder, E. A., 223 East Ave., Rochester Shutt, Erwin E., 509 Plymouth Ave., Rochester Solley, Dr. John B., 968 Lexington Ave., New York City Teele, Arthur W., 120 Broadway, New York City Tucker, Geo. B., 110 Harvard St., Rochester Vollertsen, Conrad, 375 Gregory St., Rochester Waller, Percy, 284 Court St., Rochester Wile, M. E., 955 Harvard St., Rochester Wissman, Mrs. F. de R., Westchester, New York City Wyckoff, E. L., Aurora
NORTH CAROLINA Hutchings, Miss L. C., Pine Bluff Matthews, C. D., North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh
OHIO Beatty, Dr. W. M. L., Route 3, Croton Road, Centerburg Coon, Charles, Groveport Dayton, J. H., (Storrs & Harrison), Painesville Fickes, W. R., Wooster, R. No. 6 Hinnen, Dr. G. A., 1343 Delta Ave., Cincinnati Neff, Wm. N., Martel *Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6th St., Cincinnati
PENNSYLVANIA Althouse, C. Scott, 540 Pear St., Reading Baum, Dr. F. L., Boyertown Bohn, Dr. H. W., 24 No. 9th St., Reading Boy Scouts of America, Reading Davis, Miss E. W., Walnut Lane and Odgen Ave., Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. (1923). Druckemiller, W. H., 31 N. 4th St., Sunbury Fritz, Ammon P., 35 E. Franklin St., Ephrata Gribbel, Mrs. John, Wyncote Hershey, John W., E. Downingtown Hess, Elam G., Manheim Hile, Anthony, Curwensville Jenkins, Charles Francis, Farm Journal, Philadelphia *Jones, J. F., Lancaster, Box 527 Kaufman, M. M., Clarion Leach, Will, Cornell Building, Scranton Mellor, Alfred, 152 W. Walnut Lane, Germantown, Philadelphia Minick, C. G., Ridgway Paden, Riley W., Enon Valley Patterson, J. E., 77 North Franklin St., Wilkes-Barre Pratt, Arthur H., Kennett Square *Rick, John, 438 Penn Square, Reading Rose, William J., 55 North West St., Carlisle Rush, J. G., 630 Third St., Lancaster Smedley, Samuel L., Newton Square, R. F. D. No. 1 Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Swarthmore Wilhelm, Dr. Edward A., Clarion *Wister, John C., Clarkson and Wister Sts., Germantown Zimmerman, Dr. G. A., Piketown
RHODE ISLAND Allen, Philip, Providence
TENNESSEE Waite, J. W., Normandy
UTAH Smith, Joseph A., Edgewood Hall, Providence
VERMONT Aldrich, A. W., Springfield, R. F. D. No. 3 Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven Holbrook, F. C., Battleboro
VIRGINIA Gould, Katherine Clemons, Boonsboro, Care of C. M. Daniels, via Lynchburg, R. F. D. 4 Harris, D. S., Roselawn, Capital Landing Road, Williamsburg, R. 3 Hopkins, N. S., Dixondale Jordan, J. H., Bohannon Moock, Harry C., Roanoke, Route 5
WASHINGTON Berg, D. H., Nooksack Turk, Richard H., Washougal
WEST VIRGINIA Brooks, Fred E., French Creek Cannaday, Dr. J. E., Charleston, Box 693 Hartzel, B. F., Shepherdstown Mish, A. F., Inwood
WISCONSIN Holden, Dr. Louis Edward, Beloit
* Life Member.
Name. This society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION.
Object. Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.
Membership. Membership in the society shall be open to all persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on membership.
Officers. There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and an executive committee of six persons, of which the president, the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.
Election of Officers. A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.
Meetings. The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the executive committee shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the president and executive committee.
Quorum. Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum, but must include two of the four elected officers.
Amendments. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.
Committees. The association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on nomenclature, on promising seedlings, on hybrids, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.
Fees. Annual members shall pay three dollars annually, or four dollars and a half including a year's subscription to the American Nut Journal. Contributing members shall pay ten dollars annually, this membership including a year's subscription to the American Nut Journal. Life members shall make one payment of fifty dollars, and shall be exempt from further dues. Honorary members shall be exempt from dues.
Membership. All annual memberships shall begin either with the first day of the calendar quarter following the date of joining the association, or with the first day of the calendar quarter preceding that date as may be arranged between the new member and the Treasurer.
Amendments. By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any annual meeting.
Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are due, and if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of non-payment of dues, and are not entitled to receive the annual report.
At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third notice shall be sent notifying such members that unless dues are paid within ten days from receipt of this notice, their names will be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.
REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
FIFTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION
NORTHERN NUT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION, INC.
September 3, 4 and 5, 1924
Held in the
MUSEUM OF THE BOTANICAL GARDENS
BRONX PARK, NEW YORK CITY
Baldwin, Long Island, Sept. 4 Stamford, Connecticut, Sept. 5
Chairman—PRESIDENT HARRY R. WEBER
FIRST DAY—MORNING SESSION
THE PRESIDENT: The meeting will please be in order, and we will have the secretary read his report.
THE SECRETARY: Secretary's Report for 1924.—Fourteen years ago, on November 17, 1910, two women and ten men, seers and prophets, met for organization in this building at the invitation of Dr. N. L. Britton, at that time and now, Director of the New York Botanic Gardens. We meet here again today by reason of his unfailing kindness.
Of the twelve persons present at that first meeting, three are here again, Dr. Britton, Dr. Morris and myself, and two are known to be dead, Prof. Craig of Cornell University, and Mr. Henry Hales, of Ridgewood, New Jersey.
The association has held an annual convention each year of its existence except during the war, in 1918, when no formal meeting was held. An annual report has been published every year, except that the report of the proceedings of the first meeting was incorporated in the report of the second meeting, and the ninth report, that for 1918, has not yet been issued.
The present secretary has held the office every year except in 1918 and 1919, during military service, when Mr. Bixby took his place.
From an educational and scientific standpoint I think the association may be said to have fulfilled creditably its original declaration of purpose, "the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture." Many choice nuts have been brought to notice and perpetuated. The establishment of nurseries where grafted nut trees of choice varieties may be obtained has been encouraged. The art of grafting and propagating nut trees has been brought to a high degree of success by members of the association. Experimental orchards, both of transplanted nursery trees and of topworked native trees, have been established in widely separated parts of the country.
Acting on the suggestion and request of members of the association, Mr. Olcott established the American Nut Journal, one of the most important of our accomplishments. Finally, and perhaps best of all, a number of horticultural institutions have taken up seriously the study of nut culture and the planting of experimental orchards. Testimony to this will be found in letters to be read by the secretary and in the presence on our program today of representatives of several horticultural and other institutions of learning. I believe that the association can take credit to itself for having, by its publications and other means of influence, in large degree brought about this interest and action.
As for any commercial success in nut-growing, brought about by our activities, when we compare nut-growing in our field with pecan-growing in the South, and with walnut, almond, and perhaps filbert-growing, on the Pacific Coast, our results are meagre indeed. Of course commercial production, the building of a new industry of food supply for the people, is our ultimate goal. Why are our results in this direction, after fourteen years of effort, so small? Is it because we have devoted ourselves too exclusively to the scientific and educational aspects of our problems and neglected, either from over-cautiousness or from inertia, to encourage commercial plantings? There are some of our members who think that we have. They say that we should have been bolder in assuring people of success to be attained in nut tree planting.
As for me I do not think that we have been too cautious. We who are so accused, can point to the disastrous results of following the advice of commercially interested persons, results which have had much to do with retarding and discouraging nut planting and counteracting the labors of our association.
But now, however, I believe that we have reached a state of knowledge where we can confidently recommend the commercial planting of nut orchards. We recommend the Indiana pecan in many states; the improved black walnuts over a much wider area, and the chestnut in many localities where it is not a native tree. The top-working of native hickories and black walnuts also can be confidently recommended. In every case, however, the adaptability of the kind of nut to the locality should be passed upon by an expert. In every case, also, even in that of top-working native hickories and walnuts, intelligent and generous care is essential for any degree of commercial success.
It is probable also, that the planting of the European filbert can be recommended under conditions of intelligent care.
Now what of the association's future? The field is boundless but the working cash is wanting. Faith is unlimited but works are conditioned by want of appeal to commercial powers. It is almost a vicious circle, no commercial appeal no money, no money no development to appeal to commerce. But we do make progress and it is accelerated progress. In time we must necessarily arrive at our goal. Our lines of advance are sketched out and our progress along these lines depends on the energy of the workers and the means with which they have to work.
I shall ask the association to establish a rule as to when members are in good standing and when they should be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.
I shall also ask for a clear understanding, in the form of an amendment to the by-laws, on the question of annual dues and their combination with the American Nut Journal.
It is desirable that we have a ruling as to a fiscal year.
The delay in the issuance of the annual report was due to my unwillingness to contract debts for the payment of which funds were not in sight.
The treasurer's report will show that we have a surplus in the treasury to date of about $50. The report of the treasurer is too long to be read at this time, so I will simply repeat that it shows on hand a cash surplus of $50. I will turn the detailed report over to the auditing committee for their action.
STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION FROM OCT. 3, 1923, TO AUG. 31, 1924, BOTH INCLUSIVE
NOTE—Owing to delay in mails, the report given below is a later one than that used by the secretary. The one here included should have reached the secretary previous to convention, and it is the final, correct statement.
Membership—Plan No. 1 $ 2.00 Membership—Plan No. 2 19.25 Membership—Plan No. 6 111.00 Membership—Plan No. 7 149.50 Membership—Plan No. 9 8.25 Membership—Plan No. 10 7.75 ———- Total receipts from membership $297.75 Transfer of Funds from Former Treasurer 104.13 Contributions 235.00 Sales of Literature 10.01 Interest .10 ———- Total $646.99
Cash on hand $ .80 Middletown National Bank, Middletown, Conn. (Deposit) 170.64 Litchfield Savings Society, Litchfield, Conn. (Deposit) 4.23 Charged to Loss. 2 Subs, to Amn. Nut Journal on former Treasurer's account 3.00 Expenses: Postage, Express and Insurance $ 9.79 Government Envelopes and Stamps 15.63 Adhesive Stamps 8.54 Postal Cards 1.25 Postal Cards and Printing 3.25 Registry Fee and Money Order Fee .18 Telegrams 1.18 Reporting Proceedings of Rochester Convention 50.00 Transcript of Proceedings of Rochester Convention 85.00 Reporting, etc., Proceedings of Washington Convention 60.00 Blank Account Book for the Association 5.00 Seal for the Association 7.00 1000 Letterheads 8.50 1500 Letters 8.50 500 Letters, double sheet 8.00 1500 Circulars 6.50 500 Reports, (92 pp., including cover) 184.00 500 Manila Envelopes 2.00 Printing 1.50 Addressing and Mailing 2.50 ———
$468.32 ———- $646.99
H. J. HILLIARD, Treas.,
Northern Nut Growers Ass'n, Inc.
* * * * *
THE PRESIDENT: We will now be addressed by Dr. Britton, Director of the Botanical Gardens in which we are assembled.
DR. BRITTON: Mr. President and Members of the Northern Nut Growers' Association: By curious coincidence, in looking over the records of the New York Botanical Society's reports, I find the printed account of the organization meeting of your association. It is printed in the Journal of the New York Botanical Gardens, No. 132, for December, 1910. The article is written by George B. Nash. I believe I will read this report and if, perchance, the document is not in your files, I will turn this copy over to your president for preservation.
ORGANIZATION MEETING, NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
A meeting was held in the museum building on November 17, (1910) for the purpose of organizing an association devoted to the interests of nut-growing. The meeting was called to order shortly after 2 p. m. by Dr. N. L. Britton, who welcomed those present and wished them success in their undertaking. During his remarks he referred to a recent visit to Cuba where he succeeded in collecting nuts of the Cuban walnut, Juglans insularis Griseb. Specimens of these were exhibited and some of them presented to Dr. R. T. Morris for his collection of edible nuts of the world, deposited at Cornell University.
Dr. W. C. Deming was made chairman of the meeting and a temporary secretary was elected. The chairman read a number of letters from various parts of the country expressing an active interest in the formation of an organization such as was proposed. A committee of three was appointed by the chair to draft a constitution. This committee, consisting of Mr. John Craig, Dr. R. T. Morris and Mr. T. P. Littlepage, submitted a report recommending that the name of the organization be the Northern Nut Growers' Association, that residents of all parts of the country be eligible to membership, and that the officers be a president, a vice-president and a secretary-treasurer. An executive committee of five was also provided for, two of said committee to be the president and secretary-treasurer. The annual dues were placed at $2.00, and life membership at $20.00. The recommendations of the committee were adopted.
An interesting exhibition of nuts, and specimens illustrating methods of grafting, formed a feature of the meeting. Chestnuts, walnuts, and hickory nuts, including the pecan, were illustrated in much variety. Mr. T. P. Littlepage had a series of nuts of the pecan which he had collected from a number of selected trees in Kentucky and vicinity. One of these, almost globular in form, was of particular excellence, being of clean cleavage and delicious flavor.
Dr. R. T. Morris was elected president; Mr. T. P. Littlepage, vice-president; and Dr. W. C. Deming, secretary-treasurer.
George V. Nash.
DR. BRITTON: May I say to you that our good wishes for your association, expressed at that time, are simply repeated now, and we hope that you will make yourselves at home and as comfortable as possible. We have made arrangement for the convention to leave here about one o'clock, for luncheon at Sormani's as guests of the Botanical Society. The autos will be at the door promptly, so I trust that you will adjust the session so as to be free to leave then.
THE PRESIDENT: We wish to extend our thanks to Dr. Britton for his kind remarks and for his hospitality.
We will now have the secretary read reports from our state vice-presidents.
THE SECRETARY: These are very interesting. The first one is from Mrs. Ellwanger, our state vice-president for New York.
(Reading in part) "My walnut trees are doing well and have many more nuts than ever before. The filberts planted two years ago, also have some, and the chestnuts, those the blight have left me, are covered with burs. There are beech nuts, too.—I intend to keep on planting chestnut trees, in spite of the blight."
Mr. C. S. Ridgway, Lumberton, New Jersey, writes as follows:
"There are very few nut trees in our vicinity. In fact, very few except what I have—some large old pecans at Mt. Holley, but the fruit is so small they are not gathered."
The next letter is from Mr. Howard Spence, of Ainsdale, Southport, England. Mr. Spence writes:
"During the last year I have got one of our horticultural research stations interested in the subject of walnut culture and just recently the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries also. The latter are using a small pamphlet on nut culture generally, to which I have contributed some facts. But a point of more definite interest at the moment is that the Minister has agreed to instruct all their inspectors over the country to make a collection of all walnuts of merit and forward them to me for classification and identification of varieties which may be worth perpetuating. As almost all the large number of trees in this country are seedlings I am hopeful that some interesting material may be located."
Here is a letter from Mr. Richard H. Turk, Vice-President for the state of Washington:
"Your request for a report from this Pacific Coast state came as a surprise. The Western Walnut Growers' Association is very strongly organized as regards Oregon and Washington, and it is difficult to persuade our nut growers here to join an association with its base of operations so far removed as the Northern Nut Growers' Association. I believe that I have been responsible for an additional membership of at least one or two which I think can be considerably augmented this fall.
Filbert growing has firmly caught hold of the enthusiasm of the people here. The acreage has reached 2,000 acres as compared to a bare 150 acres of six years ago. I estimate a planting of 1,500 additional acres to this quick bearing nut, this season. I have trees enough in my nursery to plant 600 acres but regard the majority of the plants as being too small. Planters plant even the smallest one-year layers out a distance varying from ten to twenty-five feet. I regard this as a waste of time, money and energy. Trees with two year old roots are none too big. The variety most planted is the Barcelona, closely followed by Du Chilly, and is supported by pollinizers for these two varieties at the rate of one pollinizer to every nine of the commercial sort. Intent eyes are watching every new seedling in search of new and superior varieties. Some have been found and will be propagated. Nut growers are but warming to the idea. I am putting out eight thousand four-year old seedling filbert trees in orchard form to be tested for qualities desired in a better filbert.
Tree filberts instead of bushes is a new idea that is fast gaining headway against the old method of removing the suckers by hand each season. Corylus colurna, the Turkish species, and Corylus chinensis, the Chinese tree hazel, are most favored as stocks. It has been found that these trees are easily grafted to filberts, that they are extremely hardy and grow twice as fast as the filbert, and that the vigor of the stock enlarges the size of the nut, regardless of variety. Foremost in the recommendation of grafted tree filberts, I have correspondents in many foreign countries and have arranged for the delivery of several thousand pounds of these nuts to grow seedlings of.
The tree hazel is of the future as yet, and one must recognize the demand for layered stock until replaced by what appears to be better. To add at least thirty acres to my present filbert plantings this year is my desire. I am planting at least 400 trees to the acre as interplants in a grafted walnut orchard. No use in wasting time before the trees begin to bear profitable crops. Three and four years at most for man-sized returns when using a ten foot planting.
One planting of Du Chilly filberts last year produced an average of close to 40 pounds per tree on nine-year-old trees and an average of 10 pounds on four-year-old trees. The spread of the latter trees was scarce four feet, and I counted 22 nuts on a branch eight inches in length. Mr. A. W. Ward reports an average crop of 200 nuts to each two-year-old filbert tree in his four-acre planting this season. These are also Du Chillys that are fast building up a sentiment favoring them before the lower-priced Barcelona variety. The Barcelona is a more vigorous tree and shells out of the husk 75% whereas the Du Chilly is but 40% self husking, but that will not offset the differential of five to ten cents per pound in favor of the great, oblong nuts.
The walnut acreage of Washington and Oregon is approximately 12,000 acres and is now taking a new hold with all the additional planting being made up of grafted trees. The VROOMAN FRANQUETTE variety grafted on the California black walnut stock is the tree used in these plantings. Formerly, seedlings of the so-called second generation type were quite popular, but when it became evident that seedlings would not transmit the superior qualities of the parent, that method of propagation was thrown into the discard. Eight thousand acres of the acreage now out, are seedling trees that must be topworked before Oregon will be truly famous for the quality of the nuts it produces. These seedling trees are paying at present under our present high prices after many years of barrenness.
My own 900 seedling trees I top-worked last year to the Vrooman Franquette variety, placing as many as thirty grafts in some trees and obtained an average of 70 per cent successful grafts. These grafts have made wonderful growth this season, and are quite capable of bearing large quantities of nuts next season. My crew of walnut grafters are becoming well known over a radius of 100 miles, and the work they are doing is a road to profit for many an owner of unproductive nut trees.
This fall I intend publishing some of the leading articles of the nut-growing authorities of this section, in conjunction with a catalogue well illustrated and containing my experience as a nut grower. Anyone contemplating planting walnuts or filberts may well send in their reservation of copy. Generally speaking, nut tree nurserymen and nut tree planters have not had time nor desire to add to the literature on this subject. I believe that when the nurserymen get behind the move to plant nut trees there will be some very interesting developments. There is one good thing in sight, and that is that it will not be the old-fashioned seedling that they will push this time. I think that you people of the East have got to make another determined effort to drive home the impossibility of seedlings ever being satisfactory. Outside the association a nut tree is a nut tree regardless of seedling and grafted trees, and one is expected to bear just as many fine large nuts as the other and just as soon. After losing twenty to thirty thousand dollars in delayed returns from a seedling walnut orchard, is it any wonder that I oppose the planting of more seedlings by the unwary?
In concluding this report I wish to state that I have talked nuts before a score of different meetings during the last year, and in the press of Oregon and Washington have done much to encourage the prospective grower."
THE SECRETARY: It seems to me that this report is one that will be very useful to nut growers in the East and very suggestive to beginners in nut growing. I would like to ask Mr. Reed if he has any comments to make on the report.
MR. REED: As I know conditions in the Pacific Northwest Mr. Turk has given an accurate report. The one criticism that I might make would be, perhaps, that there seems to be a probability of over-enthusiasm. This often occurs in any part of the country with respect to new things. It has been most conspicuous with the pecan in the South, and the almond industry in the West. As the pioneers in the nut industry in Oregon and Washington are acquiring greater experience they are increasingly more cautious with regard to such matters as varieties, planting sites, planting distances, interpollination, and others of kindred nature.
The industry in the Northwest is still comparatively small. It is centered mainly in the Willamette Valley of Oregon and to some extent in a narrow strip running north towards Seattle. The best informed are planting only in fertile, moist, properly drained soils so situated that air drainage is good. The local soils are much more variable than would be suggested by casual observation. Also, greater attention is being paid to air drainage in that part of the country than in the East. Several years ago there was a sudden drop in temperature from 32 degrees above to 24 degrees below zero, at McMinnville, Oregon. This proved fatal to trees and plants of many kinds, particularly those on flat bottoms or on hillsides from which, for any reason, the cold air was prevented from blowing to lower levels.
In addition to the species of nuts discussed by Mr. Turk, something might be said regarding the possibilities of chestnut culture in the Pacific Northwest. Numerous trees, planted singly or even in small groups found there, grow so well as to indicate plainly that the genus is capable of adapting itself to existing environment. However, both planters and consumers are generally prejudiced against the chestnut. This is easily explained for the reason that either sufficient numbers of varieties have not been planted together to ensure interpollination, or Japanese chestnuts have been planted. Early planters were evidently not aware that most varieties are largely self-sterile, and they did not know that the average Japanese chestnuts are fit for consumption only when cooked. Had these two facts been taken into consideration by them, it is not improbable that there would now have been an entirely different situation regarding the chestnut in that part of the country.
THE SECRETARY: I have a few more reports. Is it the sentiment of the meeting that I go on reading them?
MR. REED: I would like to hear the reports.
* * * * *
THE SECRETARY: Knight Pearcy, from Salem, Oregon, writes:
"Both filbert and walnut planting have continued in Oregon during the past year. There has been a steady increase in the acreage of these two nut crops during the past five years but, fortunately, no planting boom.
The older walnut orchards are almost all seedling groves and many of these seedling groves are producing a very attractive revenue. Practically all of the new plantings are of grafted trees, it having been amply demonstrated that, while seedlings are often revenue producers, the grafted orchards bring in more revenue and at no greater cost of operation. Seedling orchards are offered for sale, but very few grafted plantings are on the market. The Franquette continues to be the principal tree planted; probably 95% of the new plantings being of this variety.
A co-operative walnut marketing association has been formed, and this year for the first time carlot shipments of Oregon nuts will be sent East.
The filbert, a younger member of the Oregon horticultural family than the walnut, is being planted as heavily as the walnut, if not more heavily. Probably 60,000 trees were planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon last year. Production of filberts has not yet become heavy enough to supply home markets. It will probably be some time before Oregon filberts reach eastern markets.
No other nuts are grown commercially in the state, although the chestnut does well here."
Mr. T, C. Tucker, State Vice-President from California, writes:
"The principal consideration in relation to the California nut situation is a recognition of the tremendous increase in planting within the last ten years. Many of these newly planted orchards have already come into bearing. The marketable almond tonnage of California has increased until it is now over three times that of ten years ago. The walnut tonnage has doubled during the same period.
New plantings are going forward very slowly at the present time due to the conditions prevailing in the fruit industry in general.
Economic conditions, coupled with the keenest kind of foreign competition have interfered materially with the sale of almonds in this country, with the result that almond growers have been losing money every year for the past four years. At the same time the tremendously increased domestic tonnage has resulted in keeping the prices to the consumer very low in relation to pre-war prices and costs. The consumer has been getting the benefit of maintaining the domestic almond producers in the business. The fact that domestic tonnage cannot be kept down, as soon as a profit is in sight, warrants the American public in maintaining a sizable industry in this country by means of a protective tariff, even though it may appear on the surface as though it might mean increased prices. The experiences of the last four years have demonstrated beyond a doubt that increases in import duties have not resulted in increased prices to the consumer. They have, in fact, increased the competition to a point where prices have dropped rather than risen.
The same situation applies to walnuts, except possibly as regards losses to growers during recent years. The fact that walnuts ordinarily take longer to come into bearing than almonds has prevented any rapid increase in production such as has taken place with almonds. They are, however, facing many of the same conditions of keen competition from countries where costs of production are very, very low.
Conditions this year point to both almond and walnut crops of approximately the same size as last year. That means the walnut crop will be around 25,000 tons and the almond crop around 10,000 tons. The condition of the walnut crop seems to be about normal. Where irrigation is not available they are suffering from lack of water. Almonds this year are showing in many districts the disastrous effects of the unusually dry season. This will show up most strongly, however, in reduced tonnage for next year, and stick-tights for this year. These latter, however, are not saleable, so the consumer need not worry but that the almonds received in the markets will be good, edible almonds. What the final outcome of the drought will be it is a little too early to tell.
Pecans and filberts are produced in such small quantities in California that they do not affect the market in any way except possibly locally. There is nothing to indicate any abnormal condition affecting either of these in the few places where they are grown. No large plantings of either of these nuts are being made, since there seems to be considerable question as to how successful they will be from a commercial standpoint.
Chestnuts are not being planted as fast as they might be, especially in those sections of the state to which they are well adapted. With the rapid disappearance of the chestnut forests of the eastern states, through the ravages of the chestnut bark disease, there is no reason why chestnuts could not be grown in California, especially in many of the foot-hill districts. This, of course, presupposes that the chestnut bark disease can be kept out of the state, and we believe it can be. The general price situation, however, is such as to discourage any extensive plantings at this time. The interest that is being taken in possible future plantings, however, is such that it appears reasonable to believe that the next few years will see materially larger plantings made, provided there is any improvement in agricultural economy conditions."
Mr. James Sharp, Vice-President from Kansas, writes:
"The only nut native here is black walnut, and the crop is heavy. There are some Stabler and Thomas planted here, and some grafted on native black are bearing. We have something like fifty grafted pecans planted of all varieties, but none bearing yet. The pecan is a native south and east of here in Kansas, and the crop is good, I understand. We also have a few grafted sweet chestnuts growing in Kansas which are bearing well, and more are being planted. I have one English walnut growing near my house, which had male blooms last spring, but no nuts. We do not think they will be a success in Kansas but we hope to grow some nuts on our tree next year, the first in Kansas."
Mr. U. H. Walker, Nacla, Colorado, who says he is probably the only one in that state attempting to grow nut trees, instead of fruit, writes of his attempts. His place is at an altitude of 5,800 feet, where he can at times look down into the clouds, and on clear days can look up into perpetual snow. Mr. Walker has black walnut trees that have produced crops each year for the last ten years, three pecan trees and two persimmons. He has been experimenting with nut trees obtained from the government for the last ten or twelve years, and is willing to plant and care for any trees which the members of the association would like to have tried out in the center of the Rocky Mountain district.
Prof. V. R. Gardner, Michigan Agricultural College, in a letter to C. A. Reed, says: "We are getting a very nice collection of hardy nuts started on our Graham Station grounds near Grand Rapids. These are for the most part young trees being planted in orchard form. We are also doing some top-grafting and as soon as we shall be able to accumulate more data upon which to base recommendations, I am inclined to think that we will put on a number of nut grafting demonstrations in the state. I am sure there will be a demand for it.
If your meetings could be held later in the year, perhaps some time during the winter, I think it would be easier for some of the station men to attend them."
MR. REED: Might I add that Prof. Gardner was at one time Assistant in Horticulture at Corvallis, in the heart of the walnut district of Oregon. From there he went to Missouri as State Horticulturist. During the three years at that place he top-worked a considerable number of walnut trees with scions of supposedly hardy varieties of Persian walnuts, especially the Franquette, and such varieties of Eastern black as he could obtain. The Persian practically was killed out during the first winter. The black walnut tops are now coming into bearing, and considerable attention is being attracted to them throughout the Mid-West. Prof. Colby may know something further regarding the work in Missouri.
THE SECRETARY: I hope you notice how many more reports we are getting from the men connected with the horticultural departments of the state institutions. Here is a letter from H. H. Bartlett, Director of the Botanical Gardens at Ann Arbor, University of Michigan:
"Our Botanical Garden in its present location is relatively new, having been established only in 1914. The development of permanent plantings has been mostly in the last two or three years, so you see we have as yet done nothing with nut trees other than to assemble what varieties we could get hold of. I must confess that the poor little things look much as if the wrath of heaven had overtaken them. We had 8 degrees of frost on the night of May 22d, when all the trees were in young leaf. All the nut trees were badly killed back, some below the graft, so I've had to pull some out. Since they had only a miserable start last year, they look pretty sad now. However, I'll replace where necessary, and hope for better luck next time.
If there should be an opportunity in the course of the discussion to state that we are prepared to receive and take care of nut trees that originators wish to try out in this region, I shall appreciate it. We are receiving occasional nut-bearing plants from the Office of Seed and Plant Introduction of the Department of Agriculture, and are very glad to act as a testing station for new introductions or productions.
In order not to give a false impression as to the extent of our work, I feel impelled to say that we haven't yet a nut tree in bearing, and only one over three feet high."
Mr. Conrad Vollertsen writes that he will not be able to be here as he had planned. He states that all of his 31 varieties of filbert trees, except one, have fairly good nut crops. His place, as you know, is in Rochester, N. Y.
Mr. F. A. Bartlett, of Stamford, Conn., writes:
"You may be interested to know that some of my nut trees are giving some results this year. A number of varieties of filberts are fruiting, three varieties of black walnuts, almonds, Chinese chestnuts, heartnuts, besides the native hickory and butternuts."
MR. REED: According to Mr. Bartlett the Lancaster heartnut, which was introduced by Mr. Jones, is starting out in highly encouraging manner at his place near Stamford. It has grown well and is now a handsome, symmetrical tree. Indications are that it will bear well.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. Bartlett takes good care of his trees. We shall hope to pay a visit to his place.
I have a letter from Mr. Hicks, Westbury, Long Island. He will be with us today, and he proposes in his letter that we make an excursion to his place on Long Island.
Mr. J. W. Killen, Felton, Delaware, in a letter to Mr. Reed, writes as follows:
"This year we are maturing some nuts on the cordiformis and sieboldiana types of the Japanese walnut (young trees 3 to 5 feet high) that had no staminate blossoms. These we are producing by crossing with the pollen from one of our best Persians. We are looking for something interesting from there nuts when planted and the trees come into bearing. But all this takes time and patience. We had more chestnuts last fall than ever before, and the prices averaged higher, about 20 cents per pound, wholesale. Our best chestnuts are looking good now. Will soon be opening; usually begin about the 5th to the 10th of September, to open up.
"We have not succeeded very well in propagating Mollissima (Chinese chestnut) but we find the quality of the nuts very good. All of our American sweet and all of the European type, including Paragon, Numbo, Dager, Ridgely, etc., have been gone for years, and left our Japs just about as healthy looking as they were 20 years ago, yet they were all set in the same block."
THE SECRETARY: It is encouraging to know that Mr. Killen has a strain of chestnuts that will grow there without being destroyed by blight.
MR. REED: Blight is not serious with his trees.
THE SECRETARY: It is with mine. But Mollissima has resistance.
MR. REED: The real pest in Mr. Killen's chestnut planting is the weevil. The nuts have to be marketed promptly in order to avoid destruction by this insect.
THE SECRETARY: I have a letter from Mr. Littlepage, who regrets that he will not be able to be with us.
Another letter is from Mr. Riehl, who regrets that because of his age he will not be able to take the long trip from Godfrey, Ill., to New York City. He writes to us of the place of the chestnut in northern nut culture, as follows:
"Blight and weevil are the greatest enemies of this nut. Blight in all probability will destroy practically all native chestnut where it is native, and in all such districts the planting of chestnut orchards for profit will be useless until varieties are found or produced that are immune to that disease. In time this, no doubt, will be done. If I were fifty years younger and lived in a blight section, it would appeal to me to do something in that line.
Where the chestnut does not grow naturally it can be grown without fear of the disease. I have the largest chestnut orchard in the West, of all ages from seedlings to sixty years, with no blight.
Even were there no blight it would not be advisable to plant chestnut orchards where it is native because of the weevil. The weevil appears to be worse on the large improved varieties than on the smaller native. Of course any one planting a chestnut orchard now would plant the newer, larger varieties, as they will always outsell the smaller. No one who has not talked with handlers of chestnuts can have any idea of the handicap the weevil is to sales and prices. Where the chestnut is not native the nuts produced will be free of weevils.
The place to plant chestnut orchards is where the chestnut is not native, on soils that are not wet. Such situations exist in the central west and westward to the Pacific coast. I have had reports of chestnut trees growing and bearing in all this territory, and have had favorable reports of trees that I sent there of my improved varieties.
There is a good market at good prices for good, homegrown chestnuts. My own crops so far have sold readily at 25 to 40 cents per pound wholesale, and the demand is always for more after the crop is all sold.
Of all the nuts that I have experimented with I have found the chestnut to come into profitable bearing sooner and more profitably than any other."
DR. MORRIS: Some of the state vice-presidents have spoken of native chestnuts of good kinds. One obstacle, however, in the distribution of good chestnuts, has been the state laws which prevent us from sending chestnuts from one state to the other. I would like to ask Mr. Reed if it would be possible to make some arrangement at Washington whereby scions might be sent under government inspection to the West and to other parts of the country where blight does not exist. On my property at Stamford I had several thousand choice chestnut trees. The blight appeared and I cut out 5,000 trees that were from fifty years to more than a hundred years old. Among them there was one sweet American chestnut superior to the others. It had a very large, high-quality nut, and very beautiful appearance, having two distinct shades of chestnut color. The tree was the first to go down with the blight but I have kept it going ever since by grafting on other chestnut stock. I would like mighty well to have that chestnut grow in other parts of the country. It would be an addition to our nut supply.
Furthermore I have among a large number of hybrids, two of very high quality between the American sweet chestnut and the chinkapin. I gave these to Mr. Jones. He found, however, that he had no market for them because of the fear of blight. I would like to present scions of this to anybody outside the chestnut area where chestnuts are being grown, provided I can do this under government methods. We should find a way to do this.
THE SECRETARY: And not by boot-legging.
MR. REED: As Prof. Collins is more likely to be informed in regard to quarantine laws than I am he is the proper one to answer that question. I may say, however, that the federal department is unlikely to interfere in any way with the carrying out of state quarantine laws. Prof. Collins is now in the room. Dr. Morris, will you kindly re-state the question to him?
DR. MORRIS: In brief, I have some very superior chestnuts. They will be valuable for horticultural purposes in other parts, or in non-blight regions, of the country. I have kept them going by care and attention. I would be very glad to send those out of Connecticut, provided that the way may be found, by sending them through Washington to other states. It would be necessary, however, to have the scions treated in such a way as to make sure that the endothia spores had been destroyed.
THE PRESIDENT: I suggest that Prof. Collins give the matter some thought, and when he gives his paper he will be able to inform us about that. We will now ask Mr. Reed for a report as to promising seedlings.
MR. REED: There are quite a number of new things which might be mentioned. One is a group of Chinese walnuts now in their second or third year in the nursery of Mr. Jones, at Lancaster. In this lot there are many beautiful young trees grown from nuts obtained for Mr. Jones by Mr. P. W. Wang, of Shanghai. They are from North China, the territory which I visited more than two years ago and from which I also obtained considerable seed. Of the latter we have now several hundred seedlings ready for distribution. Personally I would like them to be distributed among members of this association. Mr. Jones has 300 or 400 of the Wang trees which he proposes to sell as seedlings. Others will be used as stocks for grafting varieties of regia.
Dr. Morris has already referred to the Chinese chestnuts. Mr. Dorsett, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, has recently arrived in China for a two-years' trip. He will doubtless send many chestnuts.
Another particularly interesting group of nut trees is a lot of hazel-filbert hybrids produced by Mr. Jones. These are between the Rush and the Barcelona, or other European varieties. He now has plants three to five years of age in bearing. They average as high as a man's head. Practically all are in bearing with attractive clusters of nuts, and some are fruiting heavily. The Rush variety, as most members know, is a native hazel of unusually prolific habits of bearing. The nuts are of fair size and quality.
Recently I have seen some interesting pecan trees in the East. Two of these are on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, one in the outskirts of Easton and the other at Princess Anne; the former is a trifle the larger, measuring 15 ft 5 inches in girth at breast height, the latter measuring 4 feet and 2 inches at the same distance and estimated to be 110 feet high. It was grown from a nut said to have been planted in 1800. The nuts from these trees are small but well filled and much appreciated by their respective communities.
THE PRESIDENT: We have the secretary down for a paper.
THE SECRETARY: This paper opens a symposium on topworking hickory trees.
TOP WORKING HICKORIES IN THE NORTH
By W. C. Deming, Connecticut
I do not recall a single modern improvement of importance in the art of grafting nut trees in the North that is not due to either Mr. Jones or Dr. Morris, except that to Mr. Riehl belongs, I believe, the credit of the idea of waxing the entire graft, which is now the accepted procedure. Therefore I speak before these two gentlemen with diffidence. I do so in the hope that perhaps I may recall something which they have forgotten to make known, or that what I say may elicit from them available emendatory remarks. My experience of fourteen years on my own place, and of five years grafting for others, is the basis of my observations.
Compatibility of Species and Varieties
This question will be particularly discussed by Mr. Bixby who has been conducting careful experiments that should soon settle the question for the commoner hickories. A few scattering observations of my own may be useful.
It is generally believed that any species of the genus hickory will catch on any other, though not necessarily that the union will be blessed. It is self evident that any hickory will thrive on any variety of the same species, shagbark on shagbark, pecan on pecan, though even here close observation will probably disclose differences of compatibility. Probably any hybrid hickory will thrive on either of its parents. In some cases this may turn out to be a test of hybridity. For instance, the Barnes is one of the few shagbarks known to thrive on mockernut. It shows other evidences of mockernut blood.
I have found no hickory, so far, that does not appear to thrive on the shagbark, except the pecan. Even here there are differences. I have one Major pecan on shagbark that is over twenty-five feet high that has a very healthy appearance and that has shown staminate bloom for two or three years. I have also an Indian pecan that looks fairly prosperous. The Iowa pecans, the Marquart, Greenbay, Campbell, Witte, and others, catch readily and grow vigorously, at least for the first years. There are many data, however, on the adaptability of the pecan to the shagbark and the consensus of opinion is that ultimate results are poor. This is probably because the shagbark starts early and makes its season's growth in about six weeks, while the pecan naturally has a much longer growing season. However, these observations have been made, mostly, in the South and it may be different in the North. The question is not yet finally decided.
The Stanley shellbark, H. laciniosa, is completely at home on the shagbark, apparently, but has not yet borne with me.
The Hatch bitternut grew luxuriantly on shagbark for a year but blew off.
The Zorn hybrid made a growth of one foot on shagbark but then was winter killed, apparently.
I have a back pasture full of vigorous pignuts, H. glabra, which for eleven years I have been grafting with faith which now seems childlike, that soon I would have fourteen acres of bearing hickory trees. Yet as a result of all these years of grafting the only hickories that I have found to thrive are the Brooks, which appears to be vigorous, the Terpenny, which is vigorous and bearing nuts in its fourth year, and possibly the Barnes. Not a single pecan survived more than a year, though many started. The Beaver hybrid makes a long spindling growth and then, in the first or second year, the leaves turn yellow and mosaic and the growth dies. The Kirtland, Kentucky, Hales, Taylor and several others, have all with me, proved failures on the pignut. Mr. Bixby's experiments appear to be showing somewhat different results.
The question of the compatibility of species and varieties is really a very important one because in some localities either the pignut or the mockernut is the prevailing species, and we wish to know with what species and varieties they may be successfully grafted. For instance, if the Barnes, which is an excellent shagbark, will do well on both the pignut and the mockernut, where so many other varieties fail, and the Brooks is at home on the pignut, these are highly important facts to be known by the man with fifteen acres of hilly woodland full of young pignuts and mockernuts.
Size of Stocks
I prefer stocks of moderate size, up to three inches in diameter. One gets greater results for the labor with these than with larger trees. Of course a tree of any size may be topworked but the labor is disproportionately greater, especially in the after care.
Cutting Back Stocks for Topworking
I doubt if it is important to cut back stocks during the dormant season, except that then there is more time. With larger trees this counts for a good deal, but in the smaller ones I like to cut them off just where I want to graft at the time of doing so. However, they may be cut off when dormant at the point of selection for grafting and later grafted without further cutting back. This reduces, or does away with the risk of bleeding. Except in very small stocks it is better to leave a number of the lower branches to prevent bleeding. When bleeding does occur it may be checked by making one or more cuts with the knife or saw into the sapwood of the trunk below the graft. Better results come when the cutting back is of the top branches and not the lower ones because of the stronger flow of sap toward the top of the tree. In my opinion a side branch should always be left at the point where the stock is cut off to maintain a circulation of sap. Otherwise the stub will often die back and the graft fail. Also, the cambium close to a side branch will be observed to be thicker and I infer that the circulation of sap is more active. I prefer to cut off the top half, or two-thirds of the tree and graft into the top and the side branches near the top.
Hickories in full foliage may usually be cut back without evident harm. Occasionally a tree will be apparently shocked to death. Sometimes when a tree in foliage is cut back severely the remaining leaves will turn black and partly, or completely, die, but the tree will throw out vigorous new growth later.
Trees up to three inches in diameter may have the whole top cut off, at the risk of occasionally shocking a tree to death. Such complete cutting back must be done in the dormant season or there will be severe and prolonged bleeding. This method has the advantage of forcing a tremendous growth in the grafts which will need careful support. This is much more easily done however, than when the grafts are in the top of the tree. Cutting back in the dormant season and painting with paraffine has not worked well for me as the paraffine has not adhered well for any length of time to the freshly cut surfaces. Probably this could be easily remedied if it were a real advantage. In the case of small stocks and branches where there is no bleeding and the paraffine adheres well green callus will often be seen spreading out beneath the paraffine over the cut surface.
Stocks should be vigorous. Dwarfed, stunted, submerged, hide bound trees make poor stocks. This is important, I believe.
The condition of the scion is the most important element for success in top-working hickory trees. The technique of grafting has been so simplified as to make it fairly easy, and native stocks are usually vigorous. But unless the scions have full vitality success will be limited. They should be plump and not pithy. A limited success is possible with scions of feeble growth, or those subjected to devitalising influences in keeping or handling, but the largest success will be had with well grown scions, cut from vigorous trees or grafts, whose buds are completely dormant, and have a fresh, green appearance on cutting. When the cambium layer shows a yellowish or brownish tint the scions are useless. Slender wood may make good scions but is more difficult to keep in good condition. Heavy wood from vigorous, young, grafted trees, or from cut back trees, makes the best scions and is the easiest to keep. Wood more than 1 year old and as large as one can handle makes good scions. Dr. Morris, with the use of the plane, has succeeded with astonishingly large scions and even branches. Sometimes buds are absent from these large scions or are very inconspicuous. They may be searched for with a lens.
Preferably scions should be cut when entirely dormant. Buds that show signs of breaking should be removed. Scions cut after growth starts may be used with success if there are dormant buds. This "immediate grafting," as Dr. Morris calls it has not been fully studied. It may be of great value. It is quite successful with the apple and the pear. It appears to depend chiefly on the presence of dormant buds of vitality.
The later in the season the dormant scions are cut the shorter the time they have to be kept, though probably this is not of importance if the method of keeping is right.
The larger the scion the easier it is to keep it. Dr. Morris cuts whole branches and keeps them in the sawdust of his icehouse. I have cut them two inches in diameter and kept them lying uncovered on the barn cellar floor into the second summer looking fresh and green. The smaller the scion the more susceptible it is to moisture environment. Scions must be kept where it is neither too moist nor too dry. Usually the mistake is made of keeping them too moist. The buds may start if the scions are too moist even when the temperature is quite low. This happened for me when I stored scions for a week or two in the very cold bottom of an icebox. The most successful grafters keep scions with a sort of intelligent neglect. Dr. Morris buries them in the sawdust of his icehouse and it seems to make no difference if ice is there or not. I once tried keeping them in an icehouse over the ice and they became soaking wet. I have noticed that Dr. Morris's sawdust seems quite dry. Mr. Jones keeps some, at least, of his in bins or barrels covered with burlap bags. He says that heartnut scions keep best not packed away but kept in the open cellar. I notice that Mr. Jones has been using some kind of mill planings in place of sphagnum moss. Branches and large scions will keep well in a medium that seems dry to the touch. Small scions, such as those cut from old parent trees, require careful handling to prevent shriveling, on the one hand, or bud starting on the other. A low temperature is probably desirable, but the right condition of moisture is essential to the proper keeping of scions for any length of time. I should naturally prefer to keep them in darkness, but I am not sure that it is important. Undoubtedly the access of some air is necessary but it would be difficult to keep it altogether away. I do not know how long scions would keep if entirely covered with paraffine. One year I dipped all the cut ends of my scions in melted paraffine but I am not sure that it is worth the trouble. One year I packed away my scions in rather moist sphagnum moss. The first time I looked at them they were enmeshed in mold mycelium. Later many of the buds started to grow. As suggested by Mr. Jones, dipping either the scions or the moss in half strength Bordeaux mixture will remedy the mold trouble. Parenthetically, this should be of help in keeping chestnuts, chinkapins, and other nuts that spoil easily with mold, for planting in the spring. Packing scions tightly and heavily covered in boxes for any length of time has been, in my observation, disastrous. In shipping scions a method advised, and one that I have followed with satisfaction, is to wrap the scions, either separately or together, in paraffine paper without any packing next the scions but putting it, instead, outside the paraffine paper. This packing may be sphagnum moss or mill planings slightly moistened. This also is wrapped in a moisture impervious covering and then in ordinary wrapping paper. For shipping long distanced the moss or planings should be dipped in half strength Bordeaux mixture.
The surface of the bark of scions that are being kept should always be dry, never moist. But they should never be so dry as to look shrivelled. Until you know just what scions will do under the conditions you provide you should examine them frequently.
The essentials are a knife, raffia and the wax heater with brush. A saw is necessary if stocks are to be cut back, and pruning shears are convenient for cutting scions into proper lengths and for trimming and pruning stocks. The knife most used is the grafting knife of Maher & Gross, with a three inch straight blade and a round handle that gives a good grasp.
I used to suspect that the men who said that scions ought to be cut with two strokes of the knife were trying to establish an unattainable ideal. But after Mr. Jones and Dr. Morris had taught me how to sharpen my knife I found that I could cut one that way myself sometimes. Mr. Jones's method of sharpening is to hone the knife flat on the surface next the scion and with a bevel on the upper edge. I found that this made scion cutting so much easier that I thought it was the whole secret. But one day I saw another doubter come up to Mr. Jones and ask him if it was true that he could cut a scion with two strokes of the knife. Mr. Jones said he thought he could but he had no knife just then. The man pulled out his pocket knife and asked if that would do. Mr. Jones looked at it, took a stick and with two strokes cut a perfect scion. Since then I have felt that there is something to it besides the way you sharpen your knife.
A very important element in shaping scions is to give a drawing motion to the knife by keeping the handle well advanced before the blade. The cutting is done with a draw and not a push. This is one of the most important factors for success in shaping scions.
It seems hardly necessary to say that the stroke of the knife should be away from the grafter. Yet it is a common sight to see beginners cutting to the thumb.
Dr. Morris showed me that if, in sharpening your knife, you hold the little whetstone between the thumb and middle finger of the left hand you are less likely to put a feather edge on it. A feather edge is something to clip the sprouting wings of any budding saint of a grafter. When you get the right edge on your knife often you can use it the whole day without resharpening, or at most with simply a stropping on a piece of wood or leather. But improper use of the knife, or the least knick, will spoil the edge and sometimes it will be quite difficult to get it back. Therefore the blade should always be protected by a sheath, never laid down or used for cutting raffia, or anything but the actual cutting of the graft. For this purpose a leather sheath worn on the front of the belt, as first used by Dr. Morris, is almost a necessity. This sheath may be made by any leather worker and should have at least two pockets, one for the grafting knife and one for another knife to be used for trimming, cutting raffia and other odd things. It is convenient to have a little pocket for a pencil also and one may provide places for other articles of equipment at fancy.
I do not know that there is much to be said here about raffia. But a great deal has been said, and will be said, elsewhere, when the raffia is rotten and breaks in the middle of tying a graft. It is the devil's own stuff to carry when you don't carry it right. The right way to carry it is to tuck one end of the bundle under one side of your belt, pass the bundle behind your back and the other end under the other side of your belt. Then the raffia never gets mixed up with scions, tools and profanity and the end of a strand is as handy as the knives in your belt. On the whole I do not know of any binding material as satisfactory as raffia. It is stronger and easier to use when it is damp.
One of the great advances in the art of grafting is the use of melted wax. I believe that we have to credit Mr. Jones for this. The use of paraffine for grafting wax we owe to Dr. Morris. To him also we owe the Merribrook melter which has added so much to the comfort and convenience of grafting that it can be recommended as an outdoor sport for ladies. I do not like the brush that Dr. Morris recommends but prefer a stiffer one such as can be bought for ten cents.
Equipments vary with the individual and with the difference in the work to be done. Mr. Slaughter carries into the nursery, when he is working for Mr. Jones in the semi-tropical sun of Lancaster, a stool with parasol attachment. Mr. Biederman of Arizona has the most elaborate equipment which includes a table, planes, curved knives and gouges. Dr. Morris carries a knapsack. I like an ordinary light market basket that Mother Earth holds up for me when I'm not moving from place to place. When in a tree I stuff my pockets with scions.
A saw is usually a necessity. For portability I prefer a curved one that has a draw cut. It has also an aesthetic element and doesn't look like a meat saw, which can't be said of Mr. Jones's saw that seduced Dr. Morris from church. For heavy and steady work I much prefer a carpenter's sharp hand saw. A two-edged saw is an abomination devised by conscienceless manufacturers for the seduction of innocent amateurs.
For pruning shears I have a personal fancy for the French, hand-made instrument, each one individual, a work of art and a potential legacy to one's horticultural heir, if one doesn't let the village blacksmith monkey with it, as I did with mine.
On some grafts it is desirable to use a bit of paper, either beneath or outside of the raffia, to make waxing easier. For this I have found scraps of Japanese paper napkin very adaptive to surfaces and absorptive of wax.
On very heavy grafts Dr. Morris uses the Spanish windlass, as devised by him, for which he carries sisal cord, wooden or metal meat skewers, small staples and a mallet. He uses a chisel to cut slots in very thick bark and planes for shaping heavy grafts.
I have tried fastening in grafts with a nail, using iron and brass nails and bank pins. Mr. Jones has suggested cement covered nails. My experience with iron nails is that they damage the scions. The use of nails has not been fully worked out. They are almost essential in bridge grafting apple trees. I think that just the right kind of a staple might be a help with some kinds of grafts.
Paper bags, 2 pound size, are sometimes wanted, for protection from sun or insects or to make the grafts conspicuous. Mr. Jones shades grafts made close to the ground with a slip of paper.
For labels for immediate use the wooden ones, painted on one side and with copper wire fastening, are satisfactory. Attach them by the nurseryman's method, which it has taken me many years to recognize as the right one, by twisting the doubled wire around a convenient object. Do not separate the wires which will probably permit the label to flap in the wind and soon wear out the wires. I used to think that the nurseryman's method was the result of hurry or laziness.
Copper labels, to be written on with a stylus, cost 1-1/2 or 2 cents each, according to size. The smaller I consider preferable. I imagined that these would solve the label problem. Picture my disappointment when I found that many of them cracked, or broke off entirely near the eyelet, from flapping in the wind. If they are to be used they must be fastened so as not to move with the wind. Mr. Bixby has an excellent label made on an aluminum strip printing machine. It has a hole in each end and is fastened with a heavy copper wire. He uses two of these labels on each tree. Dr. Morris sometimes uses a heavy wire stake to which he fastens the labels. A good method of attaching labels, and one that does away with the risk of girdling the graft or tree, is to fasten the label to a staple driven into the tree. The matter of labels is a troublesome one for they will get lost no matter what you do.
Other conveniences of equipment are a small whetstone, a small hammer, matches, and some volatile oil, like citronella, lavender, wintergreen, or other black fly and mosquito repellant. It is almost suicidal to slap a mosquito on the back of your neck with a keen grafting knife in your hand. A supply of parowax and alcohol for the lantern's sake should be remembered.
If the stocks are vigorous and active, and the scions full of vitality, I doubt if the technique is of chief importance, provided it is ordinarily good. However, a good technique will increase the percentage of success. One should have a variety of methods at command for varying conditions of stocks and scions.
One may come as near 100% success in grafting hickories as one is able and willing to observe all the known factors of success. I think that we can say now that the factors of success in hickory grafting are known. They are a vigorous and active stock, a scion of abundant vitality, coaptation of the freshly cut cambium layers and prevention of desiccation.
The stock and scion have already been considered. How is coadaptation best obtained? One of the best methods, one that can be used in all seasons and in most conditions of stock and scion, is the side graft, the one that Mr. Jones uses in his nursery work. That is the best argument for this graft. It is, perhaps, the simplest, and at the same time one of the most difficult, of all grafts. The scion is cut wedge shaped and pushed into a slanting incision in the side of the stock. Mr. Jones's modified cleft graft is only a side graft made in the top of the stock after cutting it off. The difficulty lies chiefly in cutting the scion and the incision in the stock so that the fit will be perfectly true. This requires practice.
The bark slot graft, as Dr. Morris calls it, I have used for several years. It can be used only during the growing season when the bark will slip. It is very successful, whether put in at the top of a cut off stock, or inserted in the side of a limb or the trunk. It is not convenient to use unless the scion is considerably smaller than the stock. The scion is cut with a scarf, or bevel, on one side only. When the slot is to be made in the top of a cut off stock two vertical cuts are made through the bark, as far apart as the scion is wide, the tongue of bark thus formed is raised slightly at the top, and the point of the scion is inserted, cut surface toward the center of the tree, and pushed down firmly into place. The superfluous part of the tongue of bark is then cut off. By slightly undercutting the edges of the slot, and slightly tapering it toward the bottom, the scion may be wedged, or dovetailed, in place so as to be very firm. It is even possible to dispense with tying, sometimes, but better not to do so.
When the slot is to be made in the side of a limb or trunk the same procedure is followed except that it is necessary before making the slot to remove a notch of bark, at right angles to the axis of the trunk, so as to free the upper end of the tongue of bark.
The bark slot graft is the easiest of all and readily mastered once the grafter learns to shape a true scion. It is much better than the old bark graft where the bark of the stock is forced away from the wood leaving considerable space to be filled or covered.
These two forms of graft, the side graft, of which Mr. Jones's modified cleft graft is only a variation, as before stated, and the bark slot, in its two variations as described, will meet all needs in topworking hickory trees.
Finally, prevention of desiccation of the graft is obtained by waxing. I have found Dr. Morris's method with melted paraffine satisfactory. The addition of raw pine gum, as advocated by Dr. Morris is undoubtedly an advantage under certain conditions, described by him, but I have not yet used it. The melted parowax is applied to the whole graft and wrapping, leaving no cut surface exposed and the whole scion being covered. If the paraffine is at just the right temperature it will spread at a touch, covering the surfaces without danger of scalding. It is much more effective thus applied than if colder and daubed on. The thicker the waxing the more likely to crack and separate. If the paraffine smokes it is too hot. If it does not smoke, and is dexterously applied, I think we can feel safely that it cannot be too hot. But if applied with a heavy hand it may be too hot even at a temperature so low that it will not spread.
Season for Grafting
According to Dr. Morris nut trees can be grafted successfully in any month of the year. But practically I think that grafting will be limited to that part of the year during which the cambium layer of the stock is active. At other times of the year preservation of the vitality of the scion will be too problematical, it seems to me, even if it is very carefully waxed. However, I may be mistaken. At any rate grafting is not very pleasant work out of doors in very cold weather. The success of bench grafting would be an argument for the success of dormant season grafting out of doors.
Without thoughtful after care the labor of topworking will almost certainly be lost. There are many ways in which the grafts can be lost but the two commonest are by being choked, or inhibited, by growth from the stock, and by being blown out by the wind. All new growth from the stock must be rigorously prevented. Grafts often make so heavy a growth that, if not blown out by the wind, they will be dragged out by their own weight. Consequently they must often be supported. When the grafts are in, or near, the trunk of the stock, and not too high, the handiest method of support is to cut a sapling of proper length, sharpen the butt, stick this into the ground at the base of the stock, and tie it in two places to the stock. When the grafts are too far out or too high for this method laths or slats or sticks may be tied or nailed to the branches. Support is likely to be even more necessary in the second season when the growth is often astonishing.
Bud worms will sometimes destroy your graft just as it is starting, but they are easily found if looked for. With my conditions the most harm by insects is done by the night feeding beetles, which are particularly exasperating as morning after morning you watch the progress of their destructive work without ever seeing them. Bagging is the only preventive and it pays to use bags when a particular graft is cherished.
Is Topworking Hickories Worth While?
Up to the present time it is the surest and easiest way, practically the only way, of getting good results with the hickories, excepting the pecan. The root systems of the native stocks are well established and push the grafts rapidly. I have had a Siers hybrid grow 11 feet Straight up in a season. A Taylor matured several nuts on the third season's growth. A Terpenny had a crop the fourth year, the Griffin bears annually since its fifth year, the Kirtland and Barnes since the sixth. The Kentucky is a little slower. None of the hybrids have yet borne with me but with others they have borne quite early. We can be sure that the hickories will bear when top worked as soon as the average apple tree. The size of the crop that any topworked hickory tree will bear will depend on the size to which you have been able to grow the tree and the habit of bearing of the particular variety. I think, also, that there is good evidence to show that the size of the tree, the size of the nuts and the size of the crop will depend largely on the amount of care and the amount of plant food that is given the tree.
Two years ago I topworked a number of hickory trees for Mr. Patterson of Wilkes-Barre, one of our members, and Mr. Patterson's foreman put in a few grafts under my observation. This summer I went to Wilkes-Barre to inspect my work. The foreman took me out into a field where he had done a lot of grafting the year before and I found that he had had a little better percentage of success than I had had. He had used the bark slot graft for everything, even when the scions were almost as big as the stocks. Before this I had thought that long experience was necessary for successful grafting. Now I see that if you have good scions, a Morris melter and a half hour of instructions, you will have all the essentials for immediate success. Hickory grafting is easy now. But let no one be contemptuous, for this ease has come only after many years of experiment and countless failures by many men. The former difficulty in grafting the hickory seems now like a mystery. The history of its evolution would make a very pretty story for the nut grower.
NOTES ON MEDIATE AND IMMEDIATE GRAFTING AT ALL TIMES OF THE YEAR
By Dr. R. T. Morris, Connecticut
Any newly described fact which releases information on the subject of tree grafting opens vistas of the new frontier in world agriculture.
Time was when men went from one country to another in search of fresh top soil. That was when they did not know better. It was when their cogs of habit turned their cogs of thought. They were engaged in raising annual plants at a considerable expenditure of time, labor and expense. They committed wastage of soluble plant foods (a variety of sin).
Malthus formulated a famous over-population fear-thought. It had basis in his ignorance of the fact that steam was soon to become a factor in the spreading of food supplies. Furthermore, he seemingly did not know that when old top-soil frontiers had gone to the rear, new frontiers would appear in the sub-soil. The tree digs deeper than the farmer ever plowed.
After Malthus came hunger prophets who were ignorant of coming possibilities of fleet transportation through the air. The caterpillar tractor plunging into the tropical jungle will allow of the production of a practically unlimited food supply. Famine in India, China, and Russia is a social matter and unnecessary. Trees cure famine.
Within the past decade a number of thinkers on one end of the see-saw have written heavily on the over-population question not knowing that they and their birth control ideas were to be tossed into the air by still heavier weight of fact on the other end of the see-saw.
The heavier weight of fact relates to the idea that famine does not belong to tree food regions. It relates to the fact that tree foods can supply all of the essentials of provender for men, livestock and fowls; proteins, starches, fats and vitamines in delicious form. It relates to the fact that tree foods come largely out of the sub-soil without apparent diminution of fertility of the ground. The tree allows top-soil bacteria and surface annual plants to manufacture plant food materials and then deep roots take these materials to the leaves for elaboration by sun chemistry.
Trees may be grown wherever crops of annual plants may be grown and where annual plants may not be grown profitably. They do not require the service of high cost labor for annual tillage of the soil. For example, four large pecan trees or black walnut trees on an acre of ground without tillage or fertilizer may average a thousand pounds of nut meats annually for a century. How often is the market value and food value of a thousand pounds of nut meats per acre equalled by crops from annual plants which would require from 100 to 200 plowings and harrowings during a hundred years of continuous cultivation leaving out the question of expensive fertilizers and labor. Large populations live upon dates, olives and figs. For trouble they have to look to religion.
Several centuries were required for the British farmers to raise the wheat crop from six bushels to thirty bushels per acre. Things move faster nowadays. It will not require so long a time to carry tree crops from the seedling phase to the phase of grafted kinds with greater productivity and quality. In the past the successful tree grafter was a specially skilled man. Now almost anybody may graft almost any sort of tree at almost any time of the year.