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Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting
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DISCLAIMER The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.



Northern Nut Growers

Association

INCORPORATED

Affiliated with The American Horticultural Society

38th Annual Report



CONVENTION AT GUELPH, ONTARIO

SEPTEMBER 3, 4, 5

1947



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Officers and Committees 3

State Vice Presidents 4

List of Members 5

Constitution 21

By-Laws 22

Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention 23

Address of Welcome—Dr. J. S. Shoemaker 23

Response—Dr. L. H. MacDaniels 24

Report of Secretary—Mildred M. Jones 25

Report on the Ohio Contest—Sterling Smith 27

Report of Treasurer—D. C. Snyder 28

Other Business of the Association 29

Factors Influencing the Hardiness of Woody Plants—H. L. Crane 30

Nut Culture in Ontario—I. C. Marritt 37

Nut Growing at the Hort. Sta., Vineland Station, Ont.—W. J. Strong 39

Soil Management for Nut Plantations in Ontario—J. R. van Haarlem 43

Report from Southern Ontario—Alex Troup 45

Nut Trees Hardy at Aldershot, Ontario, Canada—O. Filman 45

Report from Echo Valley, 1947—George Hebden Corsan 48

Report from Beamsville, Ontario—Levi Housser 50

Nut Growing in New Hampshire—L. P. Latimer 51

Nut Notes from New Hampshire—Matthew Lahti 52

A Simplified Schedule for Judging Black Walnut Varieties—L. H. MacDaniels and S. S. Atwood 55

Test Plantings of Thomas Black Walnut in the Tennessee Valley—Spencer B. Chase 60

West Tennessee Variety, Breeding and Propagation Tests, 1947—Aubrey Richards, M. D. 68

Notes on Some Kansas and Kentucky Pecans in Central Texas—O. S. Gray 69

Experiences of a Nut Tree Nurseryman—J. F. Wilkinson 70

Morphology and Structure of the Walnut—C. C. Lounsberry 72

A Method of Budding Walnuts—H. Lynn Tuttle 74

Questions asked Mr. Stoke after his demonstration of grafting and budding 76

Importance of Bud Selection in the Grafting of Nut Trees—G. J. Korn 78

The Hemming Chinese Chestnuts—E. Sam Hemming 79

Results of a Chinese Chestnut Rootstock Experiment—J. W. McKay 83

Breeding Chestnut Trees: Report for 1946 and 1947—Arthur Harmount Graves 85

Chinese Chestnuts in the Chattahoochie Valley—G. S. Jones 92

Some Results with Filbert Breeding at Geneva, N. Y.—George L. Slate 94

Nut News from Wisconsin—Carl Weschcke 101

Home Preparation of Filbert Butter and Other Products—Mrs. Jeanne M. Altman 102

Notes from Central New York—S. H. Graham 103

Experience with the Crath Carpathian Walnuts—Gilbert L. Smith 104

Observations on Hardiness of the Carpathian Walnuts at Poughkeepsie, New York—Stephen Bernath 106

Discussion after Graham, Smith, and Bernath Persian walnut papers 107

Nuts About Trees—R. E. Hodgson 108

Report on Nut Trees at Massillon—Raymond E. Silvis 111

Planting of Nut Trees on Highways Undesirable—R. P. Allaman 113

Nut Growing for the Farm Owner—H. Gleason Mattoon 114

Tree Crop and Nut Notes from Southern Pennsylvania—John W. Hershey 116

Notes from the New Jersey Section of the Northern Nut Growers Association—Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter 119

Report of Resolutions Committee 120

Report of the Necrology Committee—Gerardi, Ferris 121

Exhibitors 123

Attendance 125

Pictures Made on 1947 Tour 124, 126, 127

Announcements 128



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION

President—JOHN DAVIDSON, 234 E. Second St., Xenia, Ohio

Vice President—DR. L. H. MACDANIELS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Treasurer—D. C. SNYDER, Center Point, Iowa

Secretary—J. C. MCDANIEL, Tennessee Dept. of Agr., State Office Bldg., Nashville 3, Tenn.

Director—CLARENCE A. REED, 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N. W., Washington, D. C.

Director—CARL WESCHCKE, 96 S. Wabasha St., Saint Paul, Minn.

Dean—DR. W. C. DEMING, 31 S. Highland, W. Hartford 7, Conn.

Constitution Committee—L. H. MACDANIELS, GEORGE L. SLATE, MISS MILDRED JONES

EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS

Press and Publication—-Editorial Section: Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Dr. W. C. Deming, Miss Mildred Jones, Dr. J. Russell Smith, Dr. A. S. Colby, George L. Slate, H. F. Stoke

Publicity Section: Dr. J. Russell Smith, H. F. Stoke, C. A. Reed, A. A. Bungart, J. C. McDaniel Printing Section: J. C. McDaniel, H. F. Stoke

Program—Spencer B. Chase, J. C. McDaniel, C. A. Reed, Dr. O. D. Diller, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Miss Mildred Jones

Place of Meeting—George L. Slate, D. C. Snyder, Royal Oakes, Dr. A. H. Graves

Varieties and Contests—T. G. Zarger, L. Walter Sherman, Sterling Smith, J. F. Wilkinson, Gilbert Becker, Gilbert L. Smith, A. G. Hirschi, Seward Berhow. Standards and Judging Section of this Committee: Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Spencer Chase, C. A. Reed, H. F. Stoke

Survey and Research—R. E. Silvis, S. H. Graham, G. A. Gray, E. F. Huen, Dr. Kenneth W. Hunt, Dr. C. H. Skinner, H. S. Wise, Dr. G. F. Gravatt, John T. Bregger, Dr. A. H. Graves

Membership—Mrs. S. H. Graham, Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mrs. Harry Weber

Exhibits—H. F. Stoke, Jay L. Smith, L. Walter Sherman, J. F. Wilkinson, G. L. Smith, H. H. Corsan, G. H. Corsan, Carl Weschcke, Royal Oakes, H. G. Mattoon, George Brand, Seward Berhow

Necrology—Mrs. William Rohrbacher, Mrs. John Hershey, Mrs. J. F. Johns

Audit—Dr. William Rohrbacher, E. P. Gerber, R. P. Allaman

Finance—Carl Weschcke, Harry Weber, Carl F. Walker, D. C. Snyder

Legal Advisers—Harry Weber, Sargent Wellman

Official Journal—American Fruit Grower, 1370 Ontario St., Cleveland 13, Ohio



State Vice-Presidents

Alabama LOVIC ORR Alberta, Canada A. L. YOUNG Arkansas A. C. HALE British Columbia, Canada J. U. GELLATLY California DR. THOMAS R. HAIG Colorado W. A. COLT Connecticut WILLIAM G. CANFIELD Delaware EDWARD S. LAKE Florida C. A. AVANT Georgia G. CLYDE EIDSON Idaho FRED BAISCH Illinois LOUIS GERARDI Indiana CARL F. PRELL Iowa IRA M. KYHL Kansas FRANK E. BORST Kentucky DR. C. A. MOSS Louisiana J. HILL FULLILOVE Manitoba, Canada A. H. YOUNG Maryland WILMER P. HOOPES Massachusetts DR. R. A. VAN METER Mexico FREDERICO COMPEAN Michigan GILBERT BECKER Minnesota R. E. HODGSON Mississippi JAMES R. MEYER Missouri ADOLPH GIESSON Nebraska GEORGE BRAND New Hampshire MATTHEW LAHTI New Jersey MRS. A. R. BUCKWALTER New York CLARENCE LEWIS North Carolina DR. R. T. DUNSTAN Ohio A. A. BUNGART Oklahoma A. G. HIRSCHI Ontario, Canada G. H. CORSAN Oregon S. M. DOHANIAN Pennsylvania H. GLEASON MATTOON Rhode Island PHILIP ALLEN South Carolina JOHN T. BREGGER South Dakota HOMER L. BRADLEY Tennessee THOMAS G. ZARGER Texas KAUFMAN FLORIDA Utah GRANVILLE OLESON Vermont A. W. ALDRICH Virginia DR. V. A. PERTZOFF Washington F. D. LINKLETTER West Virginia WENDELL W. HOOVER Wisconsin W. S. BASSETT Wyoming W. D. GREENE



Northern Nut Growers Association

Membership List as of December 1, 1947

ALABAMA

Orr, Lovic, Penn-Orr-McDaniel Orchards, Rt. 1, Danville

ARKANSAS

Hale, A. C., Rt. 2, Box 322, Camden Harris, Lt. Col. Oscar B., Rt. 1, Fayetteville Stanley, Julian G., Rt. 1, Box 239, Camden Winn, J. B., Westfork

CALIFORNIA

Armstrong Nurseries, 408 N. Euclid Ave., Ontario Gaston, Eugene T., Rt. 2, Box 771, Turlock Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3344 H. St., Sacramento Kemple, W. H., 22 West Ralston St., Ontario Logan, George F., 16125 Hoover Street, Gardena Parsons, Chas. E., Felix Gillet Nursery, Nevada City Pozzi, P. H., 2875 S. Dutton Ave., Santa Rosa. Walter, E. D., 899 Alameda, Berkeley Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan St., Taft

CANADA

Brown, Alger, Rt. 1, Harley, Ontario Cahoon, Dr. E. B., 333 O'Connor Dr., Toronto 6, Ontario Casanave, John A., 909 Patterson Rd., Lulu Island, Vancouver, B. C. Corsan, George H., Echo Valley, Islington, Ontario Crath, Rev. Paul C., Rt. 2, Connington, Ontario Eddie & Sons, Ltd., Pacific Coast Nurseries, Sardis, B. C. Elgood, H., 74 Trans Canada Highway West, Chilliwack, B. C. English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, B. C. Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario Gellatly, J. U., Box 19, Westbank, B. C. Giegerich, H. C., Con-Mine, Trail, B. C. Goodwin, Geoffrey L., Rt. 3, St. Catherines, Ontario Harrhy, Ivor H., Rt. 1, Burgessville, Ontario Housser, Levi, Beamsville, Ontario Lawes, E. H., 412 Westmoreland Ave., Toronto 4, Ontario Little, Wm. J., Rt. 1, St. George, Ontario Maillene, George, Rt. 1, Fulford Harbor, B. C. Manten, Jacob, Rt. 1, White Rock, B. C. *Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 McDonald Ave., Guelph, Ontario Papple, Elton E., Rt. 3, Cainsville, Ontario Porter, Gordon, Y. M. C. A., Windsor, Ontario Stephenson, Mrs. J. H., 1539 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver, B. C. Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ontario Willis, A. R., Rt. 1, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B. C. Wharton, H. W., Rt. 2, Guelph, Ontario Wood, C. F., Hobbs Glass, Ltd., 7 Dale Ave., Toronto, Ontario Yates, J., 2150 E. 65th Ave., Vancouver, B. C. Young, A. H., Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Young, A. L., Brooks, Alta.

COLORADO

Colt, W. A., Lyons Hyde, Arthur, P. O. Box 417, Dolores

CONNECTICUT

Canfield, William G., 463 West Main St., New Britain **Deming, Dr. W. C., 31 S. Highland, West Hartford 7 Gresecke, Paul, 379 Weed Ave., Stamford Graham, Mrs. Cooper, Darien Graves, Dr. A. H., 255 So. Main St., Wallingford Huntington, A. M., Stranerigg Farms, Bethel Kydd, Dr. D. M., 19 Westwood Rd., New Haven 15 McSweet, Arthur, Clapboard Hill Rd., Guilford Milde, Karl F., Town Farm Rd., Litchfield Newmaker, Adolph, Rt. 1, Rockville Page, Donald T., Box 391, Rt. 1, Danielson Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater Rodgers, Raymond, Rt. 2, Westport Rozanshi, Joseph, 130 La Salle St., New Britain Scazlia, Jos. A., 372 Matson Hill Rd., So. Glastonbury Senior, Sam P., Rt. 1, Bridgeport White, George E., Rt. 2, Andover

DELAWARE

Brugmann, Elmer W., 1904 Washington St., Wilmington Lake, Edward S., Sharpless Road, Hockessin Wilkins, Lewis, Rt. 1, Newark

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Borchers, Perry E., 1329 Quincy St., N. W., Washington 11, D. C. Graff, Geo. U., 242 Peabody St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Kaan, Dr. Helen W., National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington 25, D. C. Librarian, American Potash Institute, Inc., 1155-16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Reed, C. A., 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N. W., Washington 12, D. C.

FLORIDA

Avant, C. A., 960 N. W. 10th Ave., Miami

GEORGIA

Eidson, G. Clyde, 1700 Westwood Ave., S. W., Atlanta Hammar, Dr. Harold E., U. S. Pecan Field Sta., Box 84, Albany Hunter, H. Reid, 561 Lake Shore Dr., N. E., Atlanta Neal, Homer A., Neal's Nursery, Rt. 1, Carnesville Skyland Farms, S. C. Noland & C. H. Crawford, 161 Spring St., N. W., Atlanta Wilson, Wm. J., North Anderson Ave., Ft. Valley

IDAHO

Baisch, Fred, 627 E. Main St., Emmett Dryden, Lynn, Peck Falin, Mrs. John, Riggins Hazelbaker, Calvin, Lewiston Kudlac, Joe T., Box 147, Buhl McGoran, J. E., Box 42, Spirit Lake, Idaho Swayne, Samuel F., Orofino

ILLINOIS

Albrecht, H. W., Delaven Allen, Theodore R., Delevan Anthony, A. B., Rt. 3, Sterling Baber, Adin, Kansas Best, R. B., Eldred Bolle, Dr. A. C., 324 E. State St., Jacksonville Bradley, James W., 1307 N. McKinley Ave., Champaign Bronson, Earle A., 800 Simpson St., Evanston Churchill, Woodford M., 4333 Oakenwold, Chicago Colby, Dr. Arthur S., University of Illinois, Urbana Dietrich, Ernest, Rt. 2, Dundas Dintelman, L. F., Belleville Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frey, Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frierdich, Fred, 3907 W. Main St., Belleville Gerardi, Louis, Rt. 1, Caseyville Haeseler, L. M., 1959 W. Madison St., Chicago Heberlein, Edw. W., Rt. 1, Box 72 A, Roscoe Helmle, Herman C., 123 N. Walnut St., Springfield Hockenyoo, G. L., 213 E. Jefferson St., Springfield Holland, Dr. W. W., 512 N. Randolf St., Macomb Johnson, Hjalmar W., 5811 Dorchester Ave., Chicago 37 Jungk, Adolph, 817 Washington Ave., Alton Kilner, F. R., American Nurseryman, 343 S. Dearborn St., Chicago 4 Klein, A. F., 1026 Harrison St., Galesburg Knobloch, Miss Margaret, Arthur Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Hammond Langdoe, Wesley W., Erie Community High School, Erie Leighton, L. C., Arthur Mandrell, C. Wayne, Box 642, Tolono Oakes, Royal, Bluffs Pray, A. Lee, 502 North Main St., LeRoy Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia Seaton, Earl D., 2313 6th, Peru Terril, Mark, 726 Greenleaf Ave., Wilmette Urush, R. A., 1022 N. Dearborn, Chicago 10 Whitford, A. M., Farina Williams, Jerry F., 2704 Walnut St., Shelbyville Youngberg, Harry W., Port Clinton Rd., Prairie View

INDIANA

Behr, J. E., Laconia Boyer, Clyde C, Nabb Cole, Chas. Jr., 220 West La Salle Ave., South Bend Garber, H. G., Indiana State Farm, Greencastle Gentry, Herbert M., Rt. 2, Noblesville Glaser, Peter, Rt. 1, Box 301, Evansville Hite, Charles Dean, Rt. 2, Bluffton Pritchett, Emery, 1340 Park Ave., Fort Wayne Prell, Carl F., 803 West Colfax Ave., South Bend Ramsey, Arthur, Muncie Tree Surgery Co., Muncie Simpson, Paul F., 5951 Indianola, Indianapolis 20 Skinner, Dr. Charles H., Rt. 1, Thornton Sly, Miss Barbara, Rt. 3, Rockport Sly, Donald R., Rt. 3, Rockport Stephenson, Walter, Delta Electric Co., Marion Stierwalt, G. W., Rt. 4, Greencastle Wallick, Ford, Rt. 4, Peru Warren, E. L., New Richmond Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport

IOWA

Berhow, S., Berhow Nurseries, Huxley Boice, R. H., Rt. 1, Nashua Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut St., Atlantic Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point Ferguson, Roy, Center Point Ferris, Wayne, Hampton Gardner, Clark, Gardner Nurseries, Osage Harrison, L. E., Nashua Huen, E. F., Eldora Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg Iowa Fruit Growers' Association, State House, Des Moines Kaser, J. D., Winterset Kivell, Ivan E., Rt. 3, Greene Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula Lanman, Harry, Hamburg Last, Herman, Steamboat Rock Lounsberry, C. C., 209 Howard Ave., Ames Martazahn, Frank A., Rt. 3, Davenport McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant Meints, A. Rock, Dixon Rodenberg, Henry, Guttenberg Rohrbacher, Dr. Wm., 811 East College St., Iowa City Schlagenbusch Bros., Rt. 3, Ft. Madison Snyder, D. C., Center Point Steffen, R. F., Box 1302, Sioux City 7 Swartzendruber, D. B., Kalona Wade, Ida May, Rt. 3, LaPorte City Widmer, H. R., Bloomfield Welch, H. S., Mt. Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah Wood, Roy A., Castana

KANSAS

Baker, F. C., Troy Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee St., Leavenworth Boyd, Elmer, Rt. 1, Box 95, Oskaloosa Burrichter, George W., c/o Mrs. James Stone, 3011 N. 36th St., Kansas City Fisher, Richard W., 704 N. 12th St., Leavenworth Funk, M. D., 1501 N. Tyler St., Topeka Gray, Dr. Clyde, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton Hofman, Rayburn, Rt. 5, Manhattan Leavenworth Nurseries, Rt. 3, Leavenworth Mendere, John, Lansing Threlenhaus, W. F., Rt. 1, Buffalo

KENTUCKY

Alves, Robert H., Nehi Bottling Co., Henderson Baughn, Cullie, Rt. 6, Box 1, Franklin Cornett, Chas. L., Box 566, Lynch Moss, Dr. C. A., Williamsburg Palmeter, Clarence, Rt 1, Mt. Sterling Tatum, W. G., Rt. 4, Lebanon Whittinghill, Lonnie M., Box 10, Love

LOUISIANA

Fullilove, J. Hill, Box 157, Shreveport

MARYLAND

Crane, Dr. H. L., Bureau of Plant Industry Sta., Beltsville Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., Dover Rd., Easton Fletcher, C. Hicks, Lulley's Hillside Farm, Bowie Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Forest Pathology, Plant Industry Sta., Beltsville Harris, Walter B., Worton Hodgson, Wm. C, Rt. 1, White Hall Hoopes, Wilmer P., Forest Hill Kemp, Homer S., Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne Mannakee, N. H., Ashton McCollum, Blaine, White Hall McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 4514-32nd St., Mt. Rainier Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown Purnell, J. Edgar, Spring Hill Road, Salisbury Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Ave., Baltimore Thomas, Kenneth D., 2826 Rosalie Ave., Baltimore 14

MASSACHUSETTS

Babbitt, Howard S., 321 Dawes Ave., Pittsfield Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State St., Boston Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro Fritze, E., Osterville Garlock, Mott A., 17 Arlington Rd., Longmeadow Gauthier, Louis R., Wood Hill Rd., Monson Hanchett, James L., Rt. 1, East Longmeadow Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon La Beau, Henry A., North Hoosic Rd., Williamstown Pinkerton, E. G., 177 Lowden St., Dedham Rice, Horace J., 5 Elm St., Springfield *Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley Short, I. W., 299 Washington St., Taunton Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton Ave., Hyde Park Swartz, H. P., 206 Chicopee St., Chicopee Van Meter, Dr. R. A., French Hall, M.S.C., Amherst Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topsfield Westcott, Samuel K., 70 Richview Ave., North Adams Weston Nurseries, Inc., Brown & Winters Sts., Weston Weymouth, Paul W., 183 Plymouth St., Holbrook

MEXICO

Compean, Senor Federico, Gerente, Granjas "Cordelia" Apartado 141, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

MICHIGAN

Achenbach, W. N., Petoskey Andersen, Charles, Andersen Evergreen Nurseries, Scottsville Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5 Becker, Gilbert, Climax Blackman, Orrin C., Box 55, Jackson Bogart, Geo. C., Rt. 2, Three Oaks Boylan, P. B., Cloverdale Bradley, L. J., Rt. 1, Springport Bumler, Malcolm R., 1097 Lakeview, Detroit Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Rt. 2, Union City Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Co., Galesburg Burr, Redmond M., 320 S. 5th Ave., Ann Arbor Buskey, James, 2932 Marlborough, Detroit 15 Cook, E. A., M. D., Director, County Health Dept., Corunna Corsan, H. H., Rt. 1, Hillsdale Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Ave., Highland Park 3 Germer, C. F., Rt. 2, Burr Oak Hackett, John C, 315 Diamond Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids 6 Hagelshaw, W. J., Box 314, Galesburg Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence Healey, Scott, Rt. 2, Otsego *Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek King, Harold J., Sodus Korn, G. J., 140 N. Rose St., Kalamazoo 24 Lee, Michael, Lapeer Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit 14 Mann, Charles W., Box 357 Saugatuck Miller, Louis, 130 N. O'Keefe, Cassopolis O'Rourke, Dr. F. L., Hort'l Dept., Michigan State College, E. Lansing Otto, Arnold G., 4150 Three Mile Drive, Detroit Pickles, Arthur W., 760 Elmwood Ave., Jackson Prushek, E., Rt. 3, Niles Scofield, Carl, Box 215, Woodland Stahelin, C. A., Bridgeman Stocking, Frederick N., Harrisville Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester St., Birmingham Wiard, Everett W., 510 S. Huron St., Ypsilanti Witbeck, Mrs. V. H., Rt. 2, Woodland Whallon, Archer P., Rt. 1, Stockbridge Zeket, Arnold, 1955 Catalpa Ct., Ferndale 20

MINNESOTA

Andrews, Miss Frances E., 48 Park View Terrace, Minneapolis Hodgson, R. E., Dept, of Agriculture, S. E. Exp. Sta., Waseca Mayo Forestry & Horticultural Institute, Box 498, Rochester Skrukrud, Baldwin, Sacred Heart Weschcke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul

MISSISSIPPI

Meyer, James R., Delta Branch Exper. Station, Stoneville

MISSOURI

Bauch, G. D., Box 66, Farmington Blake, R. E., c/o International Shoe Co., 1509 Washingtin Ave., St. Louis 3 Campbell, A. T., Robinson Pike, Rt. 1, Grandview Fisher, J. B., R. R. H. 1, Pacific Giesson, Adolph, River Aux Vases Hay, Leander, Gilliam Howe, John, Rt. I, Box 4, Pacific Huber, Frank J., Weingarten Hudson, Perry H., Smithton Johns, Mrs. Jeannette F., Rt. 1, Festus Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove Ochs, C. T., Box 291, Salem Richterkessing, Ralph, Rt. 1, St. Charles Schmidt, Victor H., 4821 Virginia, Kansas City Stanage, John L., 135 So. Rock Hill Rd., Webster Groves Stark Brothers Nurs. & Orchard Co., Louisiana Tainter, Nat A., 714 N. Fifth St., Saint Charles Thompson, J. D., 600 West 63rd St., Kansas City 2 Weil, A. E., c/o Dow Chemical Co., 3615 Olive St., St. Louis 8

NEBRASKA

Brand, George, Rt. 5, Box 60, Lincoln Caha, William, Wahoo Ginn, A. M., Box 6, Bayard Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron Hoyer, L. B., 7554 Maple St., Omaha Lenz, Clifford Q., 3815 Maple St., Omaha 3 Marshall's Nurseries, Arlington Van Arsdale, D. N., 701 N. Fifth St., Beatrice White, Bertha G., 7615 Leighton Ave., Lincoln 5 White, Warren E., 6920 Binney St., Omaha 4

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro Latimer, Prof. L. P., Dept of Horticulture, Durham Malcolm, Herbert L., The Waumbek Farm, Jefferson Messier, Frank, Rt. 2, Nashua

NEW JERSEY

Bangs, Ralph E., Allamuchy Beck, Stanley, 12 South Monroe Ave., Wenonah Blake, Dr. Harold, Box 93, Saddle River Bottom, R. J., 41 Robertson Rd., West Orange Brewer, J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn Buch, Philip O., 106 Rockaway Ave., Rockaway Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Flemington Buckwalter, Geoffrey R., Route 1, Box 12, Flemington Canfield, Roger I., 549 Fairview Ave., Cedar Grove Cumberland Nursery, Rt. 1, Millville Donnelly, John H., Mountain Ice Co., 51 Newark St., Hoboken Dougherty, Wm. M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton Franek, Michael, 323 Rutherford Ave., Franklin Gardenier, Dr. Harold C., Westwood Hostetter, Amos B., 17 So. Beechcroft Rd., Short Hills *Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly Place, Jersey City Jewett, Edmund Gale, Rt. 1, Port Murray Lovett's Nursery, Inc., Little Silver McCulloch, J. D., 73 George St., Freehold McDowell, Fred, 905 Ocean Ave., Belmar Mueller, R., Rt. 1, Box 81, Westwood Ritchie, Walter M., Rt. 2, Box 122R, Rohway Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Andover Sorg, Henry, Chicago Ave., Egg Harbor City Sutton, Ross J., Jr., Rt. 2, Lebanon Szalay, Dr. S., 931 Garrisin Ave., Teaneck Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Rd., South Orange Yorks, A. S., Lamatonk Nurseries, Neshanic Station

NEW YORK

Barber, Geo. H., Rt. 1, Stockton Barton, Irving Titus, Montour Falls Bassett, Charles K., 2917 Main St., Buffalo Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Rd., E. Amherst Benton, William A., Wassaic Bernath's Nursery, Rt. 1, Poughkeepsie Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I. Blauner, Sidney H., 290 West End Ave., New York Bradbury, Captain H. G., 30 Fifth Ave., New York 11 Brinckeroff, John H., 161-19 Jamaica Ave., Jamaica Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham St., Rochester Brooks, William G., Monroe Bundick, C. U., 35 Anderson Ave., Scarsdale Carter, George, 428 Avenue A, Rochester 5 Cowan, Harold, 643 Southern Bldg., The Bronx, New York 55. Dasey, Mrs. Eva B., 210 High Bridge St., Fayetteville Dutton, Walter, 264 Terrace Park, Rochester Ellwanger, Mrs. William D., 510 East Ave., Rochester Elsbree, George Jr., Stanfordville, Dutchess Co., New York Engle, Mrs. Charle, Rt. 1, Port Crane Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Rd., Hilton Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport Fribance, A. E., 139 Elmdorf Ave., Rochester 11 Fruch, Alfred, 34 Perry St., New York Garcia, M., c/o Garcia & Diaz, 82 Beaver St., New York 5 Graham, S. H., Rt. 5, Ithaca Graham, Mrs. S. H., Bostwick Road, Ithaca Gressel, Henry, Rt. 2, Mohawk Haas, Dr. Sidney V., 47 West 86th St., New York City Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., New Platz Hubbell, James F., Mayro Bldg., Utica Iddings, William, 165 Ludlow St., New York Irish, G. Whitney, Valatie Kelly, Mortimer B., 17 Battery Place, New York Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park, West, Apt. 1406, New York Kraai, Dr. John, Fairport Larkin, Harry H., 189 Van Rensselaer St., Buffalo 10 *Lewis, Clarence, 1000 Park Ave., New York Little, George, Ripley Lowerre, James D., 1121 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn 16 *MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca Maloney Brothers Nursery Co., Inc., Dansville Miller, J. E., Canandaigua Mitchell, Rudolph, 125 Riverside Drive, New York 24 *Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E. 44th St., New York Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo Muenscher, Prof. W. C., 1001 Highland Road, Ithaca Newell, P. F., Lake Road, Rt. 1, Westfield Oeder, Dr. Lambert R., 551 Fifth Ave., New York Overton, Willis W., 3 Lathrop St., Carthage Page, Charles E., Rt. 2, Oneida Rauch, Basil, Barnard College Columbia U., New York 27 Rebillard, Frederick, 164 Lark St., Albany 5 Rightmyer, Harold, Rt. 4, Ithaca Salzer, George, 169 Garford Rd., Rochester Sameth, Sigmund, 38 E 65th St., New York 21 Schlegel, Charles B., 990 South Ave., Rochester Schlick, Frank, Munnsville Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Ave., Buffalo Shank, W., 141 Parkway Road, Room 9, Bronxville Shannon, J. W., Box 90, Ithaca Sheffield, Lewis J., c/o Mrs. Edna C. Jones, Townline Rd., Orangeburg Slate, Prof. George L., Experiment Station, Geneva Smith, Gilbert L., State School, Wassaic Smith, Jay L., Chester Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook Stern-Montagny, Hubert, Erbonia Farm, Gardiner Szego, Alfred, 77-15 A 37th Ave., Jackson Heights, New York Timmerman, Karl G., 123 Chapel St., Fayetteville Todd, E. Murray, 55 Liberty St., New York Waite, Dr. R. H., Willowwaite Moor, Perrysburg Wichlac, Thaddeus, 3236 Genesee St., Cheektowaga (Buffalo) 21 Windisch, Richard P., c/o W. E. Burnet & Co., 11 Wall St., New York *Wissman, Mrs. F. De R., G. W. 54th St., New York

NORTH CAROLINA

Brooks, J. R., Box 116, Enka Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro Finch, Jack R., Bailey Parks, C. H., Rt. 2, Asheville Rice, Clyde H., Rt. 2, Box 158, Mars Hill, N. C.

OHIO

Barden, C. A., 215 Morgan St., Oberlin Bitler, W. A., 322 McPheron Ave., Lima Bungart, A. A., Avon Bush, David G., Rt. 3, Warren Chapman, Floyd B., 1944 Denune Ave., Columbus 3 Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20 Clark, R. L., 1184 Melbourne Rd., East Cleveland 12 Cook, H. C., Rt. 1, Box 125, Leetonia Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira Davidson, John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia Davidson, Mrs. John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia De Leon, Donald, Box 244, Sta. G., Columbus 7 Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Experiment Sta., Wooster Dubois, Miss Frances M., 4623 Glenshade Ave., Cincinnati 27 Elliott, Donald W., Rogers Emch, F. E., Genoa Evans, Maurice G., 335 S. Main St., Akron 8 Fickes, Mrs. W. R., Rt. 1, Wooster Foraker, Maj. C. Merle, 152 Elmwood Ave., Barberton Foss, H. D., 875 Hamlin St., Akron 2 Franks, M. L., Rt. 1, Montpelier Frederick, Geo. F., 3925 W. 17th, Cleveland 9 Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 11190 East Blvd., Cleveland Gauly, Dr. Edward, 1110 Euclid Ave., Cleveland Gerber, E. P., Kidron Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond S. W., Massilon Goss, C. E., 922 Dover Ave., Akron 2 Gray, G. A., 3317 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati 20 Grad, Dr. Edw. A., 1506 Chase St., Cincinnati 23 Haydeck, Carl, 3213 West 73rd St., Cleveland 2 Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Rd., Cleveland Hoch, Gordon F., 6292 Glade Ave., Cincinnati 30 Hunt, Kenneth W., Yellow Springs Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent Jacobs, Mason, 3003 Jacobs Rd., Youngstown Kappel, Owen, Bolivar Kintzel, Frank M., 2506 Briarcliffe Ave., Cincinnati 13 Kirby, R. L., Rt. 2, Blanchester Kratzer, George, Rt. 1, Dalton Krok, Walter P., 925 W. 29th St., Lorain Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9 Lashley, Charles V., 216 S. Main, Wellington Lehmann, Carl, Union Trust Bldg., Cincinnati Lorenz, R. C., 121 N. Arch St., Fremont Madson, Arthur E., 13608 5th Ave., E. Cleveland 12 McBride, William B., 2398 Brandon Rd., Columbus 8 Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Ave., Toledo 5 Neff, William, Martel Nicolay, Chas., 2259 Hess Ave., Cincinnati 11 Oches, Norman M., Rt. 2, Brunswick Osborn, Frank C, 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland Pomerene, W. H., Coshocton Poston, E. M., Jr., 2640 E. Main, Columbus Ranke, William, Rt. 1, Amelia Rowe, Stanley M., Rt. 1, Box 73, Cincinnati 27 Rummel, E. T., 16613 Laverne Ave., Cleveland 11 Scarff's Sons, W. N., New Carlisle Schaufelberger, Hugo, Rt. 2, Sandusky Seas, D. Edw., 721 South Main St., Orrville Shelton, Dr. E. M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood 7 Sherman, L. Walter, Mahoning Co., Exp. Farm, Canfield Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Ave., N. E., Massillon Smith, L. A., Rt. 1, Uniontown Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South St., Vermilion Spring Hill Nurseries Co., Tipp City Strauss, Jos., 3640 Epworth Ave., Cincinnati 11 Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F. St., Lorain Sylvarium Gardens, L. E. Crawford, 5499 Columbia Rd., North Olmsted Thomas, W. F., 406 S. Main St., Findlay Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Rd., South Euclid 21 Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Ave., Apt. B-1, Newark Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland Weaver, Arthur W., 318 Oliver St., Toledo 4 *Weber, Harry R., Esq., 123 E. 6th St., Cincinnati Weber, Mrs. Martha R., Rt. 1, Morgan Rd., Cleves Whitney, Charles E., West Mansfield Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore William, Harry M., 221 Grandon Rd., Dayton 9, Ohio Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Dr., N. E., Cleveland 10 Yoder, Emmet, Smithville

OKLAHOMA

Butler, Roy, Rt. 2, Hydro Cross, Prof. Frank B., Dept, of Hort., Stillwater Hirschi's Nursery, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City Hubbard, Orie B., Kingston Hughes, C. V., Rt. 3, Box 564, Oklahoma City 8 Jarrett, C. F., 2208 W. 40th, Tulsa Meek, E. B., Rt. 2, Wynnewood Pulliam, Gordon, 407 Osage Ave., Bartlesville Ruhlen, Dr. Chas. A., 114 W. Steele, Cushing Swan, Oscar E., Jr., 1226 E. 30th St., Tulsa 5

OREGON

Borland, Robert E., 219 Mill St., Silverton Butler, Joe C., Sherwood Carlton Nursery Co., Forest Grove Dohanian, S. M., P. O. Box 246, Eugene Miller, John E., Rt. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego Pearcy, Harry L., H. L. Pearcy Nursery Co., Rt. 2, Box 190, Salem Schuster, C. E., Horticulturist, Corvallis Sheppard, Chas. M., Tucker Road, Hood River

PENNSYLVANIA

Allaman, R. P., Rt. 1, Harrisburg Anundson, Lester, 2630 Chestnut St., Erie Banks, H. C., Rt. 1, Hellertown Beard, H. K., Rt. 1, Sheridan Berst, Chas. B., 655 Brown Ave., Erie Bowen, John C., Rt. 1, Macungie Breneiser, Amos P., 427 N. 5th St., Reading Buckman, C. M., Schwenkville Catterall, Karl P., 734 Frank St., Pittsburgh 10 Clarke, Wm. S., Jr., Box 167, State College Colwell, F. A., R.F.D., Collegeville Creasy, Luther P., Catawissa Damask, Henry, 1632 Doyle St., Wilkinsburg Dewey, Richard, Box 41, Peckville Dible, Samuel E., Rt. 3, Shelocta Eckhart, Pierce, 573 Haddington St., Philadelphia 31 Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters Gardner, Ralph D., Box 425, Colonial Park Gibson, Ralph, 331 Center St., Williamsport Good, Orren S., 316 N. Fairview St., Lock Haven Gorton, F. B., Rt. 1, East Lake Road, Harbor Creek, Erie Co. Heasley, George S., Rt. 3, Beaver Falls Heckler, George Snyder, Hatfield Hershey, John W., Nut Tree Nurseries, Downingtown Hostetter, C. F., Bird-In-Hand Hostetter, L. K., Rt. 5, Lancaster Hughes, Douglas, 1230 East 21st St., Erie Johnson, Robert F., Rt. 5, Box 56, Crafton Jones, Mildred M., 301 N. West End Ave., Lancaster Jones, Dr. Truman W., Coatesville Kaufman, M. M., Clarion Kirk, DeNard B., Forest Grove Knouse, Chas. W., Colonial Park Laboski, George T., Rt. 1, Harbor Creek Leach, Hon. Will, Court House, Scranton Long, Carleton C., 138 College Ave., Beaver Mattoon, H. Gleason, Narbeth McCartney, J. Lupton, Rm. 1, Horticultural Bldg., State College Mercer, Robert A., Rt. 1, Perkesmenville, New Hanover Miller, Elwood B., c/o The Hazleton Bleaching & Dyeing Works, Hazleton Miller, Elwood B., c/o The Hazleton Bleaching & Dyeing Works, Moyer, Philip S., U. S. F. & G. Bldg., Harrisburg Niederriter, Leonard, 1726 State St., Erie Parloff, Robert, 2018 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. Ranson, Flavel, 728 Monroe Ave., Scranton 10 Reece, W. S., Clearfield Reidler, Paul G., Ashland Rial, John, 528 Harrison Ave., Greensburg *Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Sq., Reading Rupp, Edward E., Jr., 57 W. Pomfret St., Carlisle Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, Rt. 2, Homer City Stewart, John H., Yule Tree Farm, Akeley Stinson, George, Box 77, Bedminster Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., Bucknell University, Lewisburg Twist, Frank S., Northumberland Washick, Dr. Frank A., S. W. Welsh & Veree Rds., Philadelphia 11 Weinrich, Whitney, 134 S. Lansdowne Ave., Lansdowne *Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore Wood, Wayne, Rt. 1, Newville Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 6th St., Erie Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., Piketown, R. D., Linglestown

RHODE ISLAND

*Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance St., Providence R. I. State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston

SOUTH CAROLINA

Bregger, John T., Clemson Gordon, G. Henry, Union, Union Co. Poole, M. C., Cross Anchor

SOUTH DAKOTA

Bradley, Homer L., Sand Lake Refuge, Columbia

TENNESSEE

Chase, S. B., Norris Garrett, Dr. Sam Young, Dixon Springs Holdeman, J. E., 208 Shrine Bldg., Memphis 3 Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater Lowe, Dr. Jere., Thayer Vet. Hospital, Nashville 5 McDaniel, J. C., Tenn. Dept. of Agriculture, 403 State Office Bldg., Nashville 3 Rhodes, G. B., Rt. 2, Covington Richards, Dr. A., Whiteville Shadow, Willis A., County Agt., Decatur Roark, W. F., Malesus Zarger, Thomas G., Norris

TEXAS

Arford, Charles A., Box 1230, Dalhart Bailey, L. B., Box 1436, Phillips Buser, C. J., Rt. 1, Arp Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan Gray, O. S., P. O. Box 513, Arlington Kidd, Clark, Arp Nursery Co., Tyler Price, W. S., Jr., Gustine Winkler, Andrew, Moody

UTAH

Jeppeson, Chris, Wildwood Hollow Farm Nursery, Provo City Oleson, Granville, 1210 Laird Ave., Salt Lake City 5 Peterson, Harlan D., 2164 Jefferson Ave., Ogden

VERMONT

Aldrich, A. W., Rt. 3, Springfield Collins, Jos. N., Rt. 3, Pultney Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven, Perpetual Membership "In Memoriam" Farrington, Robert A., Vermont Forest Service, Montpelier Foster, Forest K., West Topsham Ladd, Paul, Hilltop Farm, Jamaica

VIRGINIA

Acker, E. D., Co., Broadway Burton, George L., 728 College St., Bedford Case, Lynn B., Rt. 1, Fredericksburg Dickerson, T. C., 316-56th St., Newport News Gibbs, H. R., McLean Gunther, Eric F., Rt. 1, Box 31, Onancock Nelson, C. L., 964 Avenel Ave., Lee Hy. Ct., Roanoke Nix, Robert W., Jr., Lucketts Pertzoff, Dr. V. A., Carter's Bridge Pinner, H. McR., P. O. Box 155, Suffolk Stoke, H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke Stoke, Mrs. H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke Stoke, Dr. John H., 408-10 Boxley Bldg., Roanoke Thompson, B. H., Harrisonburg Variety Products Co., 5 Middlebrook Ave., Staunton Webb, John, Hillsville Zimmerman, Ruth, Bridgewater

WEST VIRGINIA

Cannaday, Dr. John E., Charleston General Hospital, Charleston 25 Cross, Andrew, Ripley Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale Glenmount Nurseries, Arthur M. Reed, Moundsville Gold Chestnut Nursery, Arthur A. Gold, Cowen Hoover, Wendell W., Webster Springs White, Roscoe R., 635 Mulberry Ave., Clarksburg White, Wayne G., 833 Glendale Ave., So. Charleston 3

WASHINGTON

Altman, Mrs. H. E., 2338 King St., Bellingham 9 Barth, J. H., Box 1827, Rt. 3, Spokane 16 Bartleson, C. J., Box 25, Chattaroy Biddle, Miss Gertrude W., W. 923 Gordon Ave., Spokane 12 Brown, H. B., Greenacres Bush, Carroll D., Grapeview Clark, R. W., 4221 Phinney Ave., Seattle Denman, George L., 1319 East Nina Ave., Spokane 10 Garvin, Mrs. Mildred S., W. 3408 2nd Ave., Spokane 9 Harrison, Geo. C., Greenacres Hyatt, L. W., 2826 West La Crosse, Spokane 12 Jessup, J. M., Cook Kling, William L., Rt. 2, Box 230, Clarkston Latterell, Ethel, Greenacres Linkletter, F. D., 8034-35th Ave., N. E., Seattle 5 Lynn Tuttle Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston Naderman, G. W., Rt. 1, Box 381, Olympia Rodgers, W. R., N. 1411 Mamer, Opportunity Shane Bros., Vashon Watt, Mrs. L. J., W. 203 16th Ave., Spokane 9

WISCONSIN

Bassett, W. S., 1522 Main St., La Crosse Brust, John J., 135 W. Wells St., Milwaukee 3 Dopkins, Marvin, Rt. 1, River Falls Heberlein, Edw. W., Box 747, Milwaukee Johnson, Albert G., Rt. 2, Box 457, Waukesha Koelsch, Norman, Jackson Ladwig, C. F., 2221 St. Lawrence, Beloit Mortensen, M. C., 2117 Stanson Ave., Racine Reische, Frank C., Rt. 1, Plymouth Zinn, Walter G., P. O. Box 747, Milwaukee

WYOMING

Greene, W. D., Box 348, Greybull

* Life Member ** Honorary member



CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE I—NAME

This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers Association, Incorporated.

ARTICLE II—OBJECT

Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.

ARTICLE III—MEMBERSHIP

Membership in this society shall be open to all persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on membership.

ARTICLE IV—OFFICERS

There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and a board of directors consisting of six persons, of which the president, the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.

ARTICLE V—ELECTION OF OFFICERS

A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.

ARTICLE VI—MEETINGS

The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the board of directors shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the president and board of directors.

ARTICLE VII—QUORUM

Ten members of the Association shall constitute a quorum but must include two of the four officers.

ARTICLE VIII—AMENDMENTS

This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS

ARTICLE I—COMMITTEES

The Association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on exhibits, on varieties and contests, on survey, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the Association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.

ARTICLE II—FEES

Annual members shall pay two dollars annually. Contributing members shall pay ten dollars annually. Life members shall make one payment of fifty dollars and shall be exempt from further dues and shall be entitled to the same benefits as annual members. Honorary members shall be exempt from dues. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as "Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in the Treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event the Association becomes defunct or dissolves then, in that event, the Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at the time he makes the bequest or the donation.

ARTICLE III—MEMBERSHIP

All annual memberships shall begin September 1st. Annual dues received from new members shall entitle the new member to full membership until the next August 31st, including a copy of the Annual Report published for the fiscal year in which he joins the Association.

ARTICLE IV—AMENDMENTS

By-Laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any meeting.

ARTICLE V

Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are due and, if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of non-payment of dues and are not entitled to receive the annual report.

At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third notice shall be sent notifying such members that, unless dues are paid within ten days from the receipt of this notice, their names will be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.



PROCEEDINGS

of the

Thirty-eighth Annual Convention

of the

Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc.

Meeting At

ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE GUELPH, ONTARIO, CANADA

SEPTEMBER 3-5, 1947



The meeting was called to order by Dr. L. H. MacDaniels in the absence of Clarence A. Reed, our President, who was ill and could not attend the meeting.

Telegram from the Rev. Paul C. Crath: "Let the Lord bless you and keep you. I am sorry I am unable to attend the present meetings."



Address of Welcome

DR. J. S. SHOEMAKER, Head of Horticulture Department, Ontario Agricultural College.

Our President, Mr. W. R. Reek, had hoped to be here in person to extend this welcome to you but he has found it necessary to go to Toronto today. He regrets that he cannot meet with you at this time, and has asked me to welcome you. Mr. Reek has shown a great deal of interest in this convention and I am sure you will find definite evidence of this in our hospitality while you are here.

In looking through your 37th Annual Report I noticed that the address of welcome at your meeting in Wooster, Ohio, last year was given by Dr. L. H. Gourley. I held the position of Associate Horticulturist at Wooster and Columbus for some 10 years, and so knew Dr. Gourley intimately. His sudden death was a great shock to myself and his many other friends, and a great loss to horticulture. My 10 years with Dr. Gourley was a very pleasant, helpful, and exceedingly important part of my career.

I am very happy that you have come to the Ontario Agricultural College for your convention this year. As a simple matter of fact, the O. A. C. is one of the oldest and largest colleges of agriculture in the British Empire. It is the second oldest agriculture college in North America, Michigan State being the only older one.

We are an affiliated college of the University of Toronto and function as the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Toronto. I believe the enrollment at the University of Toronto is in the neighborhood of 18,000 students.

There will be about 1,500 students on this campus in a few weeks. Most of these will be in the four-year course which leads to the B.S.A. degree. Some will be in the two-year course. The Ontario Veterinary College is also located on this campus, as is the MacDonald Institute which provides courses for girls.

The O. A. C, like the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, comes under the Minister of Agriculture, the Honourable T. L. Kennedy. The Vineland Station and we ourselves co-operate closely in horticultural work. No doubt many of you have visited Vineland and met Director E. F. Palmer. You will hear from two members of the Vineland staff, Mr. Strong and Mr. Van Haarlem on tomorrow's programme.

I spent some 13 years in the United States—at Ames, Iowa; East Lansing, Michigan; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Wooster and Columbus, Ohio. There are in this audience some good friends of long standing whom I first met in the United States. They are probably surprised to hear that I graduated from this institution, but as an Irishman would say "That I did," some 26 years ago.

I expect that all of you are familiar with the contributions made by James A. Neilson in the field of nut growing. Mr. Neilson was a member of the staff here some years ago. He left his mark throughout Ontario, and in the field of nut growing in general. We are happy that Mrs. Neilson, who is a life member of the Association, is attending this Convention.

I am sure you will agree that the campus here is a very beautiful one. The dining hall and the residence may surpass what you expected to find. It is a real privilege to have you in our Horticulture building. We made certain plans for your entertainment at the mixer and banquet. In brief, we are delighted that you have come, we know from the programme that the meetings will be good ones, and we hope that our hospitality will meet with your full approval. We indeed welcome you here.

RESPONSE

Dr. L. H. MacDaniels: "In reply to Dr. Shoemaker's address of welcome we are certainly happy to be here and appreciate the excellent arrangements which have been made for our entertainment. Dr. Shoemaker spoke about the work done on nut trees several years ago by Mr. Neilson in Canada. I am familiar with the work of Mr. Neilson and hope that at some time someone on the staff in Canada will give more time to the culture of nut trees. That goes for the United States as well. Nut trees, if you have the facilities and good varieties, are something that will make living more enjoyable and worthwhile. I do appreciate very heartily the trouble you have gone to in making facilities so acceptable and useful."

Presidential Address—Mr. Reed was unable to be present and preside at the meeting because of illness. This telegram was sent to him:

Telegram to Clarence A. Reed, Garfield Hospital, Washington, D. C.

"The Northern Nut Growers Association last night received the news of your illness with deepest regret. We appreciate your long and earnest work in our field. You have been one of the 'spark plugs' of our organization and we all miss your presence. SECRETARY."

COMMITTEES APPOINTED

Resolutions Committee—W. Rohrbacher, Sterling Smith, J. Russell Smith, Wm. Hodgson.

Auditing Committee—Royal Oakes, R. P. Allaman, Gilbert Smith.

SECRETARY'S REPORT, SEPT. 3, 1947

Miss Mildred M. Jones

The duties of the Secretary during the year were of the usual routine nature. Three separate mailings of information to all members were made. The 1944 report is now exhausted, partly because of the long season in which it was current, and partly because there were several articles in it which were of vital interest to a number of people who were not members of the Association. In March of this year an article appeared in Organic Gardening magazine which referred to our report and the Hemming chestnut trees which were described in the 1944 report. As a result of this one article I was obliged to return more than $30.00 which had been sent to me, a dollar from each person, for this report. I returned the money with a letter to each person telling them Mr. Hemming would bring his report up to date at our meeting this year, telling them about the work of our Association, and inviting them to join our group so they could keep up with progress being made in nut tree culture as the information became available. The sale of reports other than membership this past year amounted to $135.00. This amount includes 5 sets of reports which sell for $8.00 per set. About $95.00 of this amount was for single copies at $1.00 per copy to non-members. Since our printing costs have increased considerably, and since we are handling the mailing and printing of these reports at $1.00 per copy at almost a loss, it would seem advisable to raise the price to non-members.

Every member can help us increase our membership. We have a number of members who are equipped with writing ability and by writing articles about interesting nut trees and mentioning our Association and the Secretary many, many inquiries are received. To these inquiries we can send our four page information folder or answer questions and thus we can increase our membership by letting people who are interested in nut trees know about our Association. On February 28, 1947, Mr. George L. Denman wrote me that at different times he had two articles about nuts and nut trees in the Spokesman-Review of Spokane. He said the result was rather surprising and he requested fifty copies of our folder to assist him and make it easier to answer inquiries. If our Association can be mentioned in the article, many inquiries will come direct to the Secretary and thus save the author the work of answering questions if he does not have time to do so. The article written by Mr. Davidson in December, 1946, American Fruit Grower brought in over 100 inquiries to the Secretary's office.

The Secretary's office has a number of calls for information regarding sources of nuts and nut kernels for private consumption or planting. Chestnuts seem to head the list the past year—mostly for planting. Requests are also received regarding information for market outlets, nut cracking equipment, nut shelling plants, trees, budwood and graftwood. Anything you may do to supply this and other kinds of information about nut trees will be appreciated.

The Secretary of the American Horticultural Society, Inc., with whom we are affiliated, has expressed the desire of that Society for ideas as to how we may both profit more from this affiliation. Their need, like ours, is for more members, more and better articles for the National Horticultural Magazine. Mr. Reed has contributed several worthwhile articles to this magazine. The Editor would like to have more articles about nut trees from our members. The National Horticultural Magazine is nicely printed and bound, issued four times a year, and is well illustrated with pictures of the horticultural subjects described in each issue. Dues in this society are $2.00 per year if you are a member of our Society, $3.00 if you are not. You can ask our Treasurer to bill you for membership at the same time membership in our Association is billed, or membership may be sent direct to The American Horticultural Society, 821 Washington Loan and Trust Building, Washington 4, D. C.

Our membership at present is 621 according to my present mailing list which has been corrected to paid-up members. During the war all members who were thought to be in the armed forces were carried along without the payment of dues according to our Treasurer's report of last year. For this reason we can use only our income as an indication of our growth during those years.

The question of a seal for the Association came up at the time of the Ellis legacy. Our member, Sargent H. Wellman, Boston, Mass., represented the Association, and payment was made finally without our seal being shown. It may be well to consider whether we may need a seal in the future and if so to take the necessary steps to have one made.

The American Fruit Grower magazine has printed quite regularly the column "Nut Growers News". They also refer nut tree inquiries to us and have indicated their interest and further cooperation. They devoted an entire issue to nuts last December.

A number of our members during the year do much work for the Association and it is here that I wish to acknowledge all of the help and assistance the Secretary has had from the various committees and members. The printing of the report for 1946 and the responsibility of getting it mailed was due mostly to the work and effort of Mr. Stoke, and Mr. Reed.

It was a real pleasure to work with the members of the Staff at Ontario Agricultural College with whom I had considerable correspondence during the year in arranging for our meeting this year.

It has been a real pleasure to serve in the capacity of Secretary to this organization and I regret that lack of time to do this work as it should be done makes me feel it is necessary to relinquish this post. I shall always continue my interest in the Association.

Dr. MacDaniels: "More articles should be written for magazines as one way in which to increase membership."

Telegram from Dr. W. C. Deming was read:

"Infirmities of age detain me. Congratulations on membership and on accomplishments. Everything depends on good officers. Present officers are ideal but young members should now take over. Don't wear out the old ones.

W. C. DEMING, Dean."

This telegram was sent to Dr. W. C. Deming:

Sept. 3, 1947.

"We had hoped you would be with us. Your telegram evoked many warm appreciations of your great and long service to our organization and the cause of nut growers in the North. Warmest greetings from N.N.G.A.

SECRETARY."

J. Russell Smith: "Dr. Deming was one of the five founders of the Association. He did an excellent job on the reports and in compiling the cumulative index. He is Dean of the Association."

Report of Committee on Time and Place: Prof. Slate reported three invitations, the most attractive at the present time being the invitation to meet at Norris, Tenn.

Prof. Slate: "In order to bring the matter to a head, I move we hold our 1948 meeting at Norris, Tenn., or wherever arrangements can be made convenient to that point."

Stoke: "Second."

Passed with unanimous approval.

Report on the Ohio Contest—Sterling Smith: "The Ohio contest had 692 entries. Mr. Chase helped with the judging. A number of good walnuts were brought out. The data for the first ten is given in the 1946 annual report. We are trying to find out what the parent trees are doing—what they were bearing in the past and also this year. This is to be done for 5 years. Ohio has 90 members which puts them in the lead—ahead of New York."

J. Russell Smith: "I greatly appreciate the report given. I approve of the 5 year plan. It would bring in members."

Sterling Smith: "Couldn't we offer $100.00 or more for a really outstanding black walnut that would meet certain specifications? Our good walnuts now run about 25 grams and 32% kernel."

Dr. MacDaniels: "Is there anyone present who helped with the judging of this contest?"

Mr. Chase: "It required over 2 weeks with 4 to 6 persons to crack and cull out the ones we knew were not worth further consideration. One-tenth passed the screening test. The nut selected is one in ten-thousand expectancy. This contest brought out some outstanding nuts. The judges didn't have much trouble selecting No. 1. The next four were harder to place. The third prize went to Pennsylvania and the eighth prize to West Virginia."



Report of Treasurer

For Period from September 1, 1946 to August 30, 1947.

INCOME:

Annual Memberships $1,212.00 Philip Allen Life Membership 50.00 Sale of Reports 44.00 Ellis Legacy 12.50 Miscellaneous 5.60 ————- Total Income $1,324.10

DISBURSEMENTS:

Fruit Grower Subscriptions $ 80.80 President's Expense 10.00 Secretary's Expense 59.50 Treasurer's Expense 45.80 Supplies 77.66 Banquet 1946 Meeting 22.32 Reporter 1946 Meeting 25.00 Ellis Legacy Bond & Addition 1,000.00 Treasurer's Bond 12.50 Report for 1945 569.84 Report for 1946 821.83 Postage & Envelopes 49.03 Miscellaneous 19.20 ————- Total Disbursements $2,793.54

Balance on Hand September 3, 1946 $3,259.88 Receipts for the Year 1,324.10 ————- Total $4,583.98 Disbursements for Year 2,793.54 Balance August 30, 1947 $1,790.44 ————- In Walker Savings Bank $ 633.92 In Peoples Savings Bank 1,056.44 Cash and Checks on hand 100.08 ————- Subtotal $1,790.44 Secretary has on hand 26.71 ————- Balance $1,817.15

D. C. SNYDER, Treasurer

* * * * *

Member: "The charge of $1.00 to non-members for the current report—shouldn't the price of the reports be increased to cover the increased costs of printing?"

Mr. Snyder: "I think the amount should be increased as the cost of the report is almost $1.00 now, and with handling and mailing we are doing this at a loss if we continue to sell the report for $1.00."

McCollum: "Shouldn't the price of a full set of reports be raised? They are sold at the same price now as they were a number of years ago. Several volumes have been added. I believe the price should be increased."

Prof. Slate: "Some years go out of print about as soon as new ones come along."

Dr. Rohrbacher: "I move we sell our current and last year's report at $2.00 per copy."

Second by Mr. Silvis.

Mr. Corsan: "Nut enthusiasts and nut groups haven't the slightest hesitancy in parting with $2.00."

Member: "A non-member paying $2.00 for the annual report would automatically become a member."

J. Russell Smith: "I would like to recommend that if at all possible an index be included in each volume of our report as it is published. A volume like this has 50 or 75 different articles but no mention in the title reveals the content of the article which makes it a job to try to refer back to or use these reports for reference. An index would make them much more valuable. This is not a job for the Secretary, it is a technical job. I would like to make a motion, if the Executive Committee finds it feasible, that this be done."

Second by Mr. Silvis.

Dr. Colby: "Don't you think that index should begin with the volume Dr. Deming finished? I suggest that the executive Committee arrange for compiling of the index subsequent to and including 1940."

Mr. Corsan: "I would like to suggest that the nut exhibit be left at O.A.C. permanently because of the large number of visitors who come here and who would see it. This would help to increase our membership."

* * * * *

Report from the Constitution and By-Laws Committee—Dr. MacDaniels.

* * * * *

Dr. Crane: "I move we accept the report of the Committee and suggested changes be voted on item by item."

Mr. Silvis: "Second."

The question of whether the entire Constitution and By-Laws should be read at this meeting or mimeographed and mailed to each member was considered.

Prof. Slate: "I move the Constitution be taken up now."

Dr. Colby: "Second."

The motion was carried. Dr. MacDaniels read the Constitution and By-Laws and they will be voted on at the 1948 meeting.

J. Russell Smith: "I move that '10 days' notice for change in the Constitution be changed to '30 days'."

Seconded by Mr. Silvis.

Motion carried.

On fiscal year—Dr. Rohrbacher: "I suggest the fiscal year be changed to January 1 through to the end of December."

Mr. Snyder: "I can see no improvement in changing the fiscal year. If we are to hold our meetings the first part of September each year it would be better to have our fiscal year ended August 31."

Dr. MacDaniels: "I move that our fiscal year be from September 1st to August 31st and I move that the annual dues include a report for only the year you join."

Motion carried.



Factors Influencing the Hardiness of Woody Plants

H. L. CRANE, Principal Horticulturist[1]

There is hardly any soil or climatic condition found in the world where it is not possible for at least one or more kinds of plants to be grown. This is possible because the plants that can be grown under the most adverse conditions have special structures and adaptations with regard to periods of growth and rest or dormancy. One of the most important adaptations of nearly all trees and shrubs that shed their leaves in autumn and survive freezing weather without injury for a part of the year, is that of rest. This rest in plants is somewhat similar to sleep in animals in that it is a period in which the life process activities take place slowly. In other words, the plant physiologist defines rest in living plants as that period in which their buds will not open and grow even though the temperature, moisture, and other external environmental conditions are highly suitable for growth.

[Footnote 1: Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Disease, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture.]

Different kinds of deciduous plants have or require rest periods of different lengths, just as some people require more sleep than do others. Two or three weeks may be enough for soft-shelled almonds but three or four months may be required for butternuts, to cite extremes. The Eastern black walnut requires more rest than most Persian walnut clones, and they more than the Southern California black walnut. Even within a species there is considerable difference in the rest period of individual seedling trees and certain clones. For example, it has been found that the varieties of Persian walnut grown in northern California and in Oregon, such as Franquette and Mayette, have the longest rest period; and those grown in Southern California, such as Placentia, Ehrhardt, Chase, and others, have the shortest rest period. It is quite possible that the clones and seedlings of the Persian walnut brought to this country a few years ago by the Rev. Paul Crath from the Carpathian Mountains of Poland may require the longest rest period of all.

The question may be asked what causes or brings on this rest period in plants and what breaks it? The scientific answers to these questions are not known at this time, but we do know some of the factors which cause the initiation of rest and how it is broken.

Tree growth is initiated in the spring with coming of warm weather and other suitable conditions. At first the rate of growth is slow; but the rate increases and goes through a maximum and then slows up again and finally ceases. On the cessation of growth in length, a terminal bud is formed and the tree begins to go into rest. This period of growth is determined by the age of the tree, the suitability of moisture and nutrient supply. Young trees grow longer during the spring and summer than do old ones. Deficiencies of soil moisture or nutrients or both cause the cessation of growth and the beginning of rest. In some trees, such as tung, cessation of growth and the initiation of rest is caused by the change from long to short day-lengths.

After rest has begun, the longer it continues the more profound or deeper it becomes until a maximum is reached, i.e., it becomes increasingly difficult, up to a certain time, to make the trees start growth again even though optimum conditions are provided. Some trees such as Persian walnuts and pecans, for example, are slow to go into deep or profound rest in late summer or fall. For this reason, there may be several cycles or periods of growth during the summer and early fall, depending on weather conditions and whether the leaves on the trees have remained in a healthy condition. Under conditions of dry weather growth stops on the Persian walnut and pecan and when this is followed by a rainy period and warm weather growth begins again. In fact in early summer a walnut or pecan tree may form terminal buds on all the shoots and remain without growth long enough for an apple or pear tree to go into complete or profound rest; then later, new shoot growth may be made from all or nearly all of the walnut or pecan shoots. Not only is this an important factor in promoting susceptibility to cold injury but in the case of bearing trees more often than not this late growth prevents the proper development of the kernels in the nuts and they are poorly filled or shriveled at harvest. Should the leaves of these trees in midsummer or later be so seriously damaged by disease or insects as to result in partial or complete defoliation, new growth is generally sure to follow even in late fall if growing conditions are suitable. This habit permits such trees to grow so late that there is much greater danger of severe injury from late fall or early winter than is the case with most other deciduous fruit trees. Furthermore, it explains why we see so much cold injury in the shoots and limbs of trees; they had grown late and had no chance to develop hardiness before killing temperatures occurred.

After the rest in trees has become deep or profound a certain amount of chilling temperature must prevail before the rest period is broken so as to permit the buds to open and grow normally on the approach of warm weather. This is often spoken of as the chilling requirement. If the rest period is not broken by a suitable amount of chilling, tree growth is very slow to start in the spring, and then only certain of the longer and stronger twigs may force into growth; water sprouts may develop on the trunks and main limbs; flower buds may not open but fall off; and even though the trees may flower the flowering period is long and few or no fruits or nuts may be set. The most effective chilling temperature is not known but we can be reasonably certain that temperatures of 45 deg.F. to 32 deg.F. are just as effective in breaking the winter rest period as are those well below freezing, if not more so.

This chilling requirement is essentially the same as the rest period. Almonds have a short rest period and require 2 to 3 weeks of chilling, while butternuts, with a long rest period, may require 3 or 4 months. When the tree has been subjected to adequate chilling the rest period is broken and with the oncoming of warm weather growth, blossoming and fruit setting is normal.

A distinction of great importance from a physiological and a practical point of view is made between rest and dormancy in plants. This difference can be simply stated: plants, trees, or seeds that will not grow when external environmental conditions are favorable for growth are in rest, but after the rest period has been broken and they do not grow because of unfavorable conditions they are said to be dormant.

The difference between rest period and dormancy is of great importance in the United States in determining the amount of cold injury that may be sustained by woody plants. Furthermore, it explains why certain plants may be successfully grown in much colder parts of the world and yet fail here. Our winter weather conditions are not uniform, in that it is quite common for us to have quite long periods of alternating warm and cold weather. Too often during mid-or late winter the weather may be quite warm for several days, with above-freezing temperatures even at night, only to be quickly followed by a sudden and extreme drop in temperature. Such conditions are almost certain to result in cold injury to at least certain kinds of woody plants in which the rest period had been broken prior to the occurrence of warm weather, especially so if conditions are favorable for initiation of growth. The plants that were still in the rest period at the time of the warm weather or those with high heat requirement to start growth (as for example, the pecan) would be the only ones that would escape injury. To illustrate with an example: The Chinese chestnut tree has a shorter rest period or less chilling requirement than does the average Persian walnut tree. Now suppose that during the months of November and December a sufficient number of hours of chilling temperatures were experienced to break the rest period or to satisfy the chilling requirement of the Chinese chestnut but not that of the Persian walnut. Then suppose there was a period of two weeks or more of warm weather in January and it was ended by a very sudden drop to below freezing temperatures. Later we would expect to find that some parts or tissues of the Chinese chestnut trees had been injured while the Persian walnut trees had survived without injury. Similar differences would be expected with other crops, such as peaches and apples, that have a difference in rest period or chilling requirement. Under the conditions just described the parts or tissues of the tree that are most likely to be injured are those that first become active with the coming of warm weather, such as the pith in the wood, the lower buds, and later the cambium or the leaf buds. This explains why peach fruit buds and the catkins of the European filbert are often killed in the East during the winter.

Some kinds of woody plants are very much hardier than are other kinds. For example, the butternut is hardier than the eastern black walnut and the almond is hardier than the tung tree. Hardiness is only a relative term and can be determined only when the different kinds of plants are in the same physiological condition as regards growth or activity. Just what it is that makes a difference in the hardiness or ability to withstand low temperatures without injury is not known. However, over the years, experience and research have taught us that there are a number of factors that affect the hardiness of woody plants.

There is a very great difference between the temperature that will cause injury to a tree tissue when it is in active growth and most tender in the spring and that required when it is most resistant in midwinter. With some trees this difference in temperature is as much as 50 deg. to 60 deg.F. or even more. With woody plants, the tissues are least hardy in spring when they are growing rapidly, and as the season progresses hardiness normally increases provided that second or late growth does not occur. There are many changes that take place in the tissues of a tree as hardiness is developed: the moisture content is reduced; cell walls are thickened; the concentration of sugars, starches, and other carbohydrates becomes greater; there is the formation of pentosans, gums, and waxes; and the respiration and other life processes become slower. However, none of these offer a full and satisfactory explanation of why the plant becomes as resistant to cold as it does. All of these changes and probably many others play a part in developing hardiness in woody plants.

Maximum hardiness is developed only by trees that support a large area of normal leaves continuously from the time of foliation in the spring until late fall when they are killed by frost. Attacks by insects or diseases that injure the leave or cause partial or complete defoliation at any time during the spring, summer, or before the occurrence of frost in the fall, not only prevent the development of maximum hardiness of the trees, but such defoliation results in reduced growth of the trees and in poor filling of the nuts. The importance of maintaining a large area of healthy leaves on the trees during the entire growing season can hardly be too strongly stressed. This is because trees that hold their leaves are strong, vigorous trees and are the ones best able to withstand cold, as well as other adversities, without injury. This, however, does not mean that fertilizer applications should be made in late summer or that cultivation should be practiced at that time, which would tend under suitable conditions to stimulate late growth of the trees. This is because some trees like the Persian walnut are slow to go into rest at best and practices that stimulate late growth of the trees cause them to be susceptible to cold injury especially in late fall or early winter. I have seen very severe injury and killing of pecan trees in south Georgia as a result of spring fertilizer applications which, because of drouth, did not become available to the trees until late August and early September and then caused second growth of the trees.

In the case of walnuts and pecans, especially, but also others than are not sprayed for the control of diseases and insects, it is not uncommon for the trees to become defoliated in late summer and while bearing a crop of nuts. Very often this premature defoliation results in the production of a new crop of leaves and some shoot growth. This is one of the worst conditions one can have in an orchard, for the nuts are certain to be very poorly filled and the trees especially susceptible to cold injury.

In such a case as this, the nuts withdraw carbohydrates, proteins and minerals from the leaves and wood of the tree for their development and the production of new leaves and shoots has a like effect. This all results in such a severe removal or using up of the materials involved in the development? of hardiness that such trees are very susceptible to cold injury.

Woody plants to be resistant to cold injury must be well nourished. Unbalanced mineral nutrition of trees is a very important factor in determining the amount of injury they may sustain from cold weather. In the various parts of the United States the soils on which fruit and nut trees are grown generally do not supply in adequate amounts some one or more of the essential elements required in their nutrition. This condition results in unbalanced nutrition, in that too much of certain elements is absorbed by the trees and too little of certain other elements. Under severe conditions this causes the leaves to be abnormal in size or in form, for them to be chlorotic or to scorch or burn, or for them to drop prematurely. Such leaves do not function properly, they are not able to carry on photosynthesis at a normal rate and hence do not make sufficient plant foods of the proper kinds to properly nourish the trees. This results in disorders of various kinds said to be due to mineral deficiencies. Among these deficiencies that have been found to reduce tree growth and yield and to increase susceptibility to cold injury are (1) boron, (2) copper, (3) iron, (4) magnesium, (5) manganese, (6) nitrogen, (7) phosphorus, (8) potassium, (9) zinc, and others. In all cases the corrective treatment to be given consists in supplying the trees with the element or elements in which they are deficient. These must be supplied in an available form and by such methods that they can be absorbed by the trees.

The size of the crop of fruit or nuts borne by a tree and the length of time between harvest and a killing freeze are important factors in determining the cold resistance of fruit or nut trees. In test winters many cases have been observed in which trees that matured heavy crops during the previous summer were severely injured. Cases have been observed in which the degree of cold injury sustained has been largely in proportion to the size of crop matured the previous growing season. Trees that mature the crop of fruits or nuts late in the season may be less hardy than those that mature the crop early. It seems not only that some material or materials are made in the leaves during late summer or early fall which move out of them into the wood and cause it become resistant to low temperatures, but that when a tree is maturing a crop so much of this material goes into the fruits or nuts that if the season is not a favorable one the wood may not attain its maximum hardiness. We have learned that a high percentage of certain of the minerals, carbohydrates, and oil that go to make up the kernels of the oily nuts are transported into them during a period comprising a month to six weeks before they are mature. In the production of a heavy crop the amount of minerals and elaborated food materials such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats removed from a tree is very large. If the trees do not carry a large healthy leaf area at the time of harvest or if there is a killing frost at that time, the leaves have no opportunity to elaborate more carbohydrates and other materials to replace those removed in the crop, and as a result the trees do not develop maximum hardiness.

To cite an outstanding example of this effect of the crop on hardiness, I want to describe some observations I made several years ago. The late J. B. Wight of Cairo, Ga., had a few hundred Satsuma orange trees that bore a very heavy crop of fruit. The fruit had all been harvested from certain of these trees for two weeks or more before the occurrence of a freeze the last of November. From other trees the fruit crop had only been partially harvested and none had been harvested from most of them. The day and night temperatures had been warm but there was a rather sudden drop into the low 20's during one night with the result that all of the trees from which no fruit had been harvested were killed to the ground. The trees from which a part of the fruit had been removed were defoliated and all but the large limbs were killed. The trees from which all the fruit had been removed two weeks or more before the freeze were defoliated, but little or no injury to the woods occurred. The severe injury was probably because the materials making for hardiness in the wood had been transported to the maturing fruits and the temperature dropped quickly before the trees had time to develop cold resistance.

It is a well-known fact that many kinds of non-woody as well as many woody plants develop hardiness or cold resistance on exposure to very gradually falling temperatures. This change, in the case of non-woody plants such as cabbage or wheat, is spoken of as "hardening off." It is not known how important this is in developing cold resistance in flower and leaf buds of woody plants. It is quite possible that buds that have become extremely tender as a result of rapid growth might, if held for some time at temperatures too low for further growth, become quite resistant to low temperatures just as do wheat or cabbage.

Generally speaking, the greatest amount of cold injury to the buds or above-ground portions of a tree occurs on a single night. The length of the cold period is of only indirect importance as influencing the rate of temperature fall or the acquiring of cold resistance by the trees. Trees that are subjected to low temperatures over a considerable period of time are not nearly so likely to be injured as are those that are subjected to a low temperature suddenly. That is really why there is so much severe cold injury to woody plants in the South. In the deep South freezing weather may be uncommon but when freezes do occur usually they follow a period of comparatively warm weather and the temperature falls quickly. It is this sudden change in temperature that causes the severe injury. Two different places may have had the same mean monthly temperature yet at one place severe injury may have occurred and no injury at the other place with plants normally having equal hardiness. A careful analysis of the situation, however, would probably show that at the place where the injury occurred a period of warm weather had existed which was followed by a rapid drop in temperature to a killing low on a single night, whereas the trees at the place where no injury occurred were not subjected to such changes in temperature. On the other hand, injury to the roots usually occurs only after prolonged periods of cold weather. This is largely because the soil cools slowly and it requires a long period of cold weather to reduce the soil temperature sufficiently and to such depths as to cause injury to the roots.

Under northern conditions where low temperatures for a rather long period are sometimes experienced, injury to the portion of the trees above ground may occur as a result of drying out of the wood. It is well known that a cake of ice will gradually evaporate and disappear when in the open and exposed continuously to below-freezing temperatures. We all know that the family wetwash when hung on a line and frozen will soon dry, especially if the wind blows. The principles operating in these cases may cause severe injury to trees. In the wintertime the root systems of trees take up water from the soil that is not frozen and this water moves in the tree to replace that lost by evaporation. Under conditions where the soil is frozen to such an extent that the water absorbed by the roots is continually less than that lost by the top of the trees by evaporation, drying out of the top occurs. If this is continued over a period of time a dryness of the wood and other tissues occurs that causes death of the dried-out portions. This type of injury does not show the typical symptoms of cold injury but rather those of drying out. The conditions that are most likely to cause such injury are a soil frozen to the effective rooting depths, a dry atmosphere, and a moderately high wind velocity. Injury of a similar nature to that just described very often affects trees transplanted in late fall or early winter, especially those that did not have their tops cut back to balance the loss of roots sustained in transplanting. During even very mild winters the tops of such trees dry out to such an extent that the small branches and even the leader may die. In extreme cases the entire top may die back to the root. In planting bare-root trees regardless of the time of the year they should be rather severely cut back immediately after transplanting to prevent such drying out and dying back of the wood. Cut-back trees generally will make more growth the first season following transplanting than will similar trees not cut back.

One of the most common types of injury to young nut trees as well as others is that known as "sun scald" or "winter injury". This occurs generally on the south or southwest sides of the trunk and for some distance between the ground and the head of the tree. Usually the injury is not evident until a year or so after it occurred and then it may be observed as a narrow strip of discolored and sunken bark which may crack where it meets the live tissue. This dead or injured area is usually invaded by borers of one or more kinds. This so-called sun scald injury is thought to be caused by the alternate freezing and thawing of the tissues on the south and southwest sides of the tree. On a bright, sunshiny day, even though cold, the sun's rays striking the bark of the tree quickly raise the temperature of the bark and wood. When the sun is obscured by clouds or at nightfall the temperature of the tissues drops rapidly and they may freeze again. It is thought that the rapid and rather great change in temperature of the bark and wood is the primary cause of sun scald. Whatever the cause, we know that it can be prevented by shading the tree trunk. This can be done by heading the trees low so that the branches shade the trunk, or by shading the south side of the trunk with a board 6 or 8 inches wide, or by wrapping the trunk with burlap or similar material. Much of the injury to Chinese chestnut, pecan, and hickory trees, especially, is caused by inexperienced growers who cut off the low branches in an effort to raise the head of young trees. The Chinese chestnut generally forms a very low-headed or bush-type tree. Most of the cold or winter injury I have seen on Chinese chestnut trees has been on the trunks and has resulted from removing the lower limbs so that they were not shaded.

Hardiness in woody plants is only a relative term and is determined by the condition of the plant at the time the low temperature occurs. Woody plants are most tender when they are most actively growing and most resistant to cold injury when they are in deep or profound rest. Strong, vigorous, well-nourished trees are much more resistant to cold injury than weak, poorly-nourished trees. Hence, the successful grower makes an effort through disease and insect control and proper fertilization and cultivation to keep his trees strong. These practices should be so carried out that the trees will make a strong, vigorous growth in the spring and early summer and then go into rest without a second or third flush of growth. The trees should carry their leaves until frost as there are some things made in them that cause the trees to develop resistance to cold injury. Winter or cold injury can destroy in a single night the hopes and expectations of several years' work but, in the main, if one grows well only those trees that are suited to the environment such losses are only rarely experienced.



Nut Culture In Ontario

I. C. MARRITT, District Forester, Ontario Department of Lands and Forests

It was suggested to me that a paper be prepared on nut culture in Ontario. The Department of Land and Forests of Ontario has not done specialized work on nut culture. The reason for this neglect is not that various members did not realize the importance of nut culture, but that there was always more work on general reforestation and woodlot extension than could be done. The work with nut trees has been along with their general work. We have not, as yet, had a member of the staff who has gone "nutty" over nuts. It is hoped that your meeting here will stir up interest in this worthy subject.

We are very proud in Ontario of the work that has been done on general reforestation and woodlot management. This is a subject that all nut enthusiasts are interested in, and we would like you to know what is being done in Ontario.

The Province of Ontario has been distributing trees free to landowners since 1907. There are three well-equipped tree nurseries, and a fourth is being developed in the eastern part of the province. A fifth nursery has been started in the northwest at Fort William on Lake Superior. The number of trees distributed varies considerably from year to year. The high distribution years were 1939 and 1940, when approximately seventeen million trees were planted each year. During the war years, on account of the labour situation and war activities, the distribution declined to between ten and eleven million trees. This past season, the demand was much larger than the supply. All the nurseries are expanding, as it is anticipated there will be a heavy demand by private planters, and also most of the counties are enlarging the area of their county forests.

The application form for forest trees includes seven evergreens and nineteen deciduous trees. Walnut and butternut are the only nut trees on the application form. Shagbark hickory has also been grown, but not in large enough quantity to include it in the list of available trees. The St. Williams tree nursery near Lake Erie has grown named varieties of walnuts and hickories. These have been given out to interested parties, and, in future years, will further the growing of the more desirable nut trees. About ten years ago, the citizens of St. Thomas planted nut trees two or three feet in height for seventy miles along No. 3 Highway which crosses Elgin County. A large number of these trees have survived.

A large acreage of forest trees has also been planted under the Counties Reforestation Act. Under this act the county purchases the land and the province plants and looks after the plantations for thirty years. The county then has three options re paying back the cost of planting and supervision. All the options are without interest charges. The county forests are largely on light sandy soils that, in most cases, are a liability to the municipalities if they are not growing trees.

The Ontario Government passed an act in 1946 that gave the counties the right to pass a by-law to regulate cutting on privately-owned woodlots. You will be interested to know that eleven counties have passed by-laws to regulate cutting. They are all based on a diameter limit. We realize that a diameter limit is a poor substitute for good forestry practice, but it is better than unrestricted cutting. The diameter limits range from ten to sixteen inches for most trees, and five to six inches for cedars.

Considerable extension work was done on nut growing in the period from 1920 to 1930. Mr. James A. Neilson, an Extension Horticulturist stationed at Vineland, became very interested and located many individual trees and gave numerous lectures on nut culture. A bulletin by Mr. Neilson on nut culture was published in 1925, and reprinted in 1930, by the Ontario Department of Agriculture. Mr. Neilson went to Michigan and did extension work on this subject until his untimely death. Mr. G. H. Corsan has also done considerable work to keep nut culture before the public by writing letters to the different newspapers.

There has always been a large demand for black walnut. The reason for this is the high value placed on this wood and the planting of these trees for shade and nut production, although the consumption of native nuts is comparatively low. The black walnut grew, originally, south of a line from Toronto to Sarnia. It has been planted as far north as Ottawa, and is distributed quite widely in Old Ontario now—being planted largely as shade trees. These shade trees are producing nuts, and with the aid of squirrels, the walnuts are seeding up along fence rows, around farm homes, and in woodlots. Walnut has been observed coming up in a woodlot, and the only possible source is a shade tree half a mile away. The walnut caterpillar defoliates the trees but seldom kills them, although it does lower their value as shade trees.

Walnut has been a favorite species for forest tree planting. It is planted in pure stands and in mixtures. The largest and best known walnut plantation was put out by Sir William Mullock in 1926 on the highway north of Toronto. There are numerous small plantations throughout the province. Foresters in Ontario generally recommend mixing walnut with other hardwoods and evergreens rather than planting in pure stands.

It has been advocated to plant walnuts with white spruce. The idea is that spruce will shade the ground, kill the side branches of the walnut, and help to force the walnuts to grow long slender poles. It is understood, and expected, that the spruce will be ruined, as their leaders would grow into the branches of the walnut. As far as we know, this experiment has not been undertaken.

The butternut tree is found growing naturally farther north than the walnut tree. Its northern boundary is roughly a line drawn from Midland on Georgian Bay to Ottawa. It is widely distributed, but is not in large enough quantity to have commercial value for lumber. An expert wood carver, who is employed by the Department of Lands and Forests, uses butternut largely in his work.

The shagbark and bitternut hickories make up the large percentage of the hickories growing in Ontario. The northern limit of the bitternut is approximately the same as the butternut—that is, Midland on Georgian Bay and Ottawa on the east; while the northern limit of the shagbark is thirty to forty miles south of the bitternut. The pignut and the mockernut hickories are found in the southern hardwood belt along Lake Erie.

The American chestnut was quite plentiful in different sections of the southern hardwood belt. It was valued quite highly for the nuts. It has been killed out by the chestnut blight and it is very rarely that live suckers are seen.

The beech was widely distributed in the woodland of southern Ontario. It has rarely been planted as a shade tree and it is not seeding up extensively in woodlots. There are many stories of hogs being fattened on beechnuts in pioneer days.

The Japanese heartnut has been planted in various parts of the province. A heartnut tree in Bruce County lived through a hard winter that killed many sugar maples and beech in the same area. Nut trees are seeding up in many pastured woodlots in southwestern Ontario. The reason for this is that stock do not relish their foliage as they do the maple, beech and basswood, etc., and because of this, it is likely that nut trees will make up a larger percentage of trees in Ontario woodlots than originally, as it is a sad fact that at least seventy-five percent on the farm woodlots in Ontario are still being pastured.

It is hoped that more interest will be shown in planting nut trees by farmers and home owners. The Department of Lands and Forests is enlarging its staff of Extension Foresters, and no doubt they will include the propagation of nut trees in their extension work.



Nut Growing at the Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland Station, Ontario

W. J. STRONG

There was very little interest in nut growing in the early days of the Horticultural Experiment Station although back in 1914 a few filberts and Persian (English) walnuts were planted.

The first nut orchard at the Station was set out in 1922 and since then several lots of nut trees have been added from time to time, principally filberts and Persian walnuts. Also a few black walnuts, Japanese heartnuts, Chinese chestnuts, hickories, pecan and several hybrids were planted.

In 1922 twenty varieties of filberts were obtained from a nursery near Rochester, N. Y. These were reputed to be some of the better sorts imported from Germany but when they came into bearing only one was true to name, this being Italian Red. Another un-named variety in this lot (field number 3 R 1 A T 10, 11, 12), proved to be hardy and very vigorous. The nuts were only of medium size but very well filled and of good quality. The rest of these were a nondescript lot of worthless varieties or seedlings and so after a few years nearly all were uprooted and discarded.

At this time (1922) four varieties of Persian walnuts were planted, Franquette, Mayette, Hall and Rush. The Franquette and Mayette have not grown very well here and have given very poor yields. Both Hall and Rush made good growth the first 15 or 20 years from planting but latterly, growth has been poor and yields have fallen off considerably, although this year (1947) there is a very fair crop showing, but with rather much dropping. The nut of the Hall variety is quite large but the husk is thick and the shell is thick and coarse, also in some seasons the kernel has not filled out very well. The Rush has given good crops of medium-size nuts. It seems to be rather susceptible to bacterial blight.

Five named varieties of black walnuts also were planted at this time (1922), Thomas, Ohio, Stabler, Ten Eyck and McCoy. The Thomas has proven to be the best of these and the value of the others was pretty much in the order named. The last two were quite inferior as to nut, while the Stabler lacked vigour and did not yield very well, although it is a nice nut and the kernel comparatively easy to extract.

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