DISCLAIMER The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.
Northern Nut Growers Association INCORPORATED
Affiliated with The American Horticultural Society
37th Annual Report
CONVENTION AT WOOSTER, OHIO
SEPTEMBER 3, 4, 5 1946
Table of Contents
Officers and Committees 3 State Vice Presidents 4 List of Members 5 Constitution 21 By-Laws 22 Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Convention 23 Address of Welcome—Dr. J. H. Gourley 23 Response—John E. Cannaday, M.D. 24 Address of Retiring President—Carl Weschcke 24 Report of Secretary—Mildred M. Jones 25 Report of the Treasurer—D. C. Snyder 26 Aims and Aspirations of the Ohio Nut Growers—A. A. Bungart 27 Notes on the Annual Meeting 31 Nut Growing Under Semi-Arid Conditions—A. G. Hirschi 32 Weather Conditions versus Nut Tree Crops—J. F. Wilkinson 37 Nut Tree Notes from Southwestern Ohio—Harry R. Weber 39 Black Walnut Nursery Studies—Stuart B. Chase 40 My Experiments, Gambles and Failures—John Davidson 42 Nut Trees in Wildlife Conservation—Floyd B. Chapman 45 Commercial Aspects of Nut Crops as far North as St. Paul, Minnesota—Carl Weschcke 48 The 1946 Status of Chinese Chestnut Growing in the Eastern United States—Clarence A. Reed 51 Bearing Record of the Hemming Chinese Chestnut Orchard—E. Sam Hemming 58 Walnut Notes—G. H. Corsan 60 Self-fruitfulness in the Winkler Hazel—Dr. A. S. Colby 60 Hickories and Other Nuts in Northwestern Illinois—A. B. Anthony 61 Nut Trees for Ohio Pastures—Dr. Oliver D. Diller 62 How Hardy Are Oriental Chestnuts and Hybrids?—Russell B. Clapper and G. F. Gravatt 64 Growing Chestnuts for Timber—Jesse D. Diller 66 Improved Methods of Storing Chestnuts—H. L. Crane and J. W. McKay 71 Essential Elements in Tree Nutrition—W. F. Wischusen 73 Nut Tree Propagation as a Hobby for a Chemist—Dr. E. M. Shelton 83 Notes on Propagation and Transplanting in Western Tennessee—J. C. McDaniel 87 Propagating Nut Trees Under Glass—Stephen Bernath 90 The Economic, Ecological and Horticultural Aspects of Intercropping Nut Plantings—Dr. F. L. O'Rourke 91 Nut Work at the Mahoning County Experiment Farm, Canfield, Ohio—L. Walter Sherman 93 The Ohio Black Walnut Contest of 1946 96 1946 Iowa Black Walnut Contest 98 Grafting Methods Adapted to Nut Trees—H. F. Stoke 99 Beginnings in Walnut Grafting—C. C. Lounsberry 103 Forest Background—John Davidson 106 Graft the Persian Walnut High in Michigan—Gilbert Becker 111 Pecan Growing in Western Illinois—R. B. Best 112 Random Notes from Eastern New York—Gilbert L. Smith 114 Yield and Nut Quality of the Common Black Walnut in the Tennessee Valley—Thomas G. Zarger 118 The 1946 Field Tour—C. A. Reed 124 Report of Resolutions Committee 126 Obituary—Gourley, Bixby 126 Letters to the Secretary; Notes; Extracts 128 List of Exhibits 133 Attendance 134
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION
President—CLARENCE A. REED, 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N.W., Washington, D. C.
Vice President—DR. L. H. MACDANIELS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Treasurer—D. C. SNYDER, Center Point, Iowa
Secretary—MILDRED M. JONES, BOX 356, Lancaster, Penna.
Director—CARL WESCHCKE, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul, Minn.
Director—DR. A. S. COLBY, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.
Dean—DR. W. C. DEMING, Litchfield, Conn.
Parliamentarian—JOHN DAVIDSON, 234 E. Second St., Xenia, O.
PARLIAMENTARIAN John Davidson
LEGAL ADVISERS Sargent Wellman, Harry Weber
AUDITING E. P. Gerber, G. A. Gray, R. E. Silvis
FINANCE Carl Weschcke, Harry Weber, D. C. Snyder
PRESS AND PUBLICATION L. H. MacDaniels, George L. Slate, G. H. Corsan
VARIETIES AND CONTESTS—Gilbert Becker, Gilbert L. Smith, L. Walter Sherman, A. G. Hirschi, Seward Bethow
SURVEY John Davidson
EXHIBITS—H. F. Stoke, Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Mrs. Herbert Negus, I. W. Short, Gilbert L. Smith, H. H. Corsan, G. H. Corsan, L. Walter Sherman, J. F. Wilkinson, Royal Oakes, Seward Berhow, George Brand, A. G. Hirschi, R. T. Dunstan, Spencer B. Chase and Abe Margolin, Carl Weschcke,
PROGRAM—Mildred Jones, George L. Slate, L. H. MacDaniels, O. D. Diller, Thomas G. Zarger, R. P. Allaman, Clarence A. Reed
MEMBERSHIP—Mrs. S. H. Graham, A. A. Bungart, Mrs. Herbert Negus, George Kratzer, Lewis A. Theiss
NECROLOGY—Mrs. H. F. Stoke, Mrs. John Hershey, Mrs. William Rohrbacher, Mrs. John Davidson, Mrs. J. F. Jones
PLACE OF MEETING (Both 1947 and 1948)—George L. Slate, L. H. MacDaniels, G. H. Corsan, D. C. Snyder, G. J. Korn
OFFICIAL JOURNAL—American Fruit Grower, 1770 Ontario St., Cleveland, Ohio
State Vice Presidents
Alabama LOVIC ORR
Alberta, Canada A. L. YOUNG
Arkansas SEARLES JOHNSON
British Columbia, Can. J. U. GELLATLY
California DR. THOMAS R. HAIG
Canal Zone L. C. LEIGHTON
Colorado W. A. COLT
Connecticut WILLIAM G. CANFIELD
Delaware EDWARD C. LAKE
Georgia G. CLYDE EIDSON
Idaho FRED BAISCH
Illinois JOSEPH GERARDI
Indiana DR. CHARLES H. SKINNER
Iowa E. F. HUEN
Kansas H. S. WISE
Kentucky DR. C. A. MOSS
Louisiana J. HILL FULLILOVE
Maine RADCLIFFE B. PIKE
Maryland WILMER P. HOOPES
Massachusetts DR. R. A. VAN METER
Mexico JULIO GRANDJEAN
Michigan GILBERT BECKER
Minnesota R. E. HODGSON
Mississippi DR. ERNEST A. COOK
Missouri DR. F. M. BARNES, JR.
Nebraska GEORGE BRAND
New Hampshire L. A. DOUGHERTY
New Jersey MRS. A. R. BUCKWALTER
New York CLARENCE LEWIS
North Carolina DR. R. T. DUNSTAN
Ohio G. A. GRAY
Oklahoma A. G. HIRSCHI
Ontario, Can. G. H. CORSAN
Oregon E. RUSS
Pennsylvania H. GLEASON MATTOON
Quebec, Can. GORDON L. SOMERS
Rhode Island PHILLIP ALLEN
South America CELEDONIA V. PEREDA
South Carolina JOHN T. BREGGER
South Dakota HOMER L. BRADLEY
Tennessee THOMAS G. ZARGER
Texas KAUFMAN FLORIDA
Utah GRANVILLE OLESON
Vermont A. W. ALDRICH
Virginia DR. V. A. PERTZOFF
Washington F. D. LINKLETTER
West Virginia MEYER S. SLOTKIN
Wisconsin W. S. BASSETT
Wyoming W. D. GREENE
Northern Nut Growers Association
Membership List as of January 4, 1947
Orr, Lovic, Penn-Orr-MacDaniel Orchards, R. D. 1, Danville Richards, Paul N., R. D. 1, Box 308, Birmingham
Johnson, Searles, Japton Upham, Harry, "Quinta Nogalada", Cove Williams, Jerry F., R. D. 1, Viola
Armstrong Nurseries, 408 N. Euclid Ave., Ontario Field, Lt. Eugene A., USN, U.S.S. Whitney, c/o Postmaster, San Diego Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3344 H St., Sacramento Kemple, W. H., 222 West Ralston St., Ontario Parsons, Chas. E., Felix Gillet Nursery, Nevada City Walter, E. D., 899 Alameda, Berkeley Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan St., Taft
Brown, Alger, R. D. 1, Harley, Ontario Casanave, R. D. 2, Euburne, B. C. Corsan, George H., "Echo Valley", Islington, Ontario Crath, Rev. Paul C., R. D. 2, Connington, Ontario Eddie & Sons, Ltd., Pacific Coast Nurseries, Sardis, B. C. Elgood, H., 74 Trans Canada Highway West, Chilliwack, B. C. English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, B. C. Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario Gellatly, David, Box 17, Westbank, B. C. Gellatly, J. R., Westbank, B. C. Giegerich, H. C., Con-Mine, Yellow Knife, NWT Housser, Levi, Beamsville, Ontario Maillene, George, Naramata, B. C. Manten, Jacob, R. D. 1, White Rock, B. C. * Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 McDonald Ave., Guelph, Ontario Papple, Elton E., R. D. 3, Gainsville, Ontario Porter, Gordon, Y.M.C.A., Windsor, Ontario Somers, Gordon L., 37 London St., Sherbrooke, Quebec Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ontario Wood, D. F., Hobbs Glass Ltd., 54 Duke St., Toronto, Ontario Yates, J., 2150 E. 65th Ave., Vancouver, B. C. Young, A. L., Brooks, Alta.
Leighton, L. C., Box 1452, Cristobal
Colt, W. A., Lyons Wilder, W. E., 915 West 4th, La Junta
Canfield, William G., 463 West Main St., New Britain David, Alexander M., 408 S. Main St., West Hartford Dawley, Arthur E., R. D. 1, Norwich **Deming, Dr. W. C., Litchfield Frueh, Alfred J., West Cornwall Graham, Mrs. Cooper, Darien * Huntington, A. M., Stanerigg Farms, Bethel Jennings, Clyde, 30 West Main St., Waterbury Lehr, Frederick L., 45 Elihu St., Hamden LeMieux, W. E., 44 Grove St., Rockville McSweet, Arthur, Clapboard Hill Rd., Guilford Milde, Karl F., Town Farm Rd., Litchfield Morencey, Edward, 37 Kensington St., Manchester * Newmaker, Adolph, R. D.,1, Rockville Page, Donald T., Box 228, R. 1, Danielson Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater Rodgers, Raymond, R. D. 2, Westport Rourke, Robert U., R. D. 1, Pomfret Center Scazlia, Jos. A., 372 Matson Hill Rd., South Glastonbury Senior, Sam P., R. D. 1, Bridgeport Tower, Sidney, 31 Birchwood Rd., East Hartford Walsh, James A., c/o Armstrong Rubber Co., West Haven Warfel, Robert, 1675 Main St., Glastonbury White, Heath E., Box 630, Westport White, George E., R. D. 2, Andover
Lake, Edward C., Sharpless Rd., Hockessin
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Librarian, American Potash Institute, Inc., 1155 16th St., N. W. Washington 6 Reed, Clarence A., 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N. W., Washington 12
Eidson, G. Clyde, 1700 Westwood Ave., S.W., Atlanta Hunter, H. Reid, 561 Lakeshore Dr., N.E., Atlanta Neal, Homer A., Neal's Nursery, R. D. 1, Carnesville Skyland Farms, S. C. Noland & C. H. Crawford, 161 Spring St., N. W. Atlanta
Baisch, Fred, 627 E. Main St., Emmett Dryden, Lynn, Peck Hazelbaker, Calvin, Lewiston Kudlac, Joe T., Box 147, Buhl Rice, E. T., Parma Swayne, Samuel F., Orofino
Adams, James S., R. D. 1, Hinsdale Allen, Theodore R., Delevan Anthony, A. B., R. 3, Sterling Baber, Adin, Kansas Best, R. B., Eldred Bolle, Dr. A. C., 324 State St., Jacksonville Bontz, Mrs. Lillian, 161 W. Massachusetts Ave., Champaign Bradley, James W., 1300 N. Prospect Ave., Champaign Breeden, Robert G., Lane Technical High School, 2501 W. Addison St., Chicago 18 Bronson, Earle A., 800 Simpson St., Evanston Churchill, Woodford M., 4250 Drexel Blvd., Chicago Colby, Dr. Arthur S., University of Illinois, Urbana Colehour, Francis H., 411 Brown Bldg., Rockford Dietrich, Ernest, R. D. 2, Dundas Dintelman, L. F., Belleville Edmunds, Mrs. Palmer D., La Hogue Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frey, Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frierdich, Fred, 3907 W. Main St., Belleville Gerardi, Joseph, Gerardi Nurseries, O'Fallon Haeseler, L. M., 1959 W. Madison St., Chicago Helmle, Herman C., 123 N. Walnut St., Springfield Johnson, Hjalmer W., 5811 Dorchester Ave., Chicago Jungk, Adolph, 817 Washington Ave., Alton Kilner, F. R., American Nurseryman, 508 S. Dearborn St., Chicago Knobloch, Miss Margaret, Arthur Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Hammond Livermore, Ogden, 801 Forest Ave., Evanston Logan, George F., Carpathian Nursery, Dallas City Maxwell, Leroy C., 1606 W. Washington St., Champaign Oakes, Royal Bluffs Powell, Charles A., Hickory St., Jerseyville Pray, A. Lee, 502 North Main St., LeRoy Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia Valley Landscape Co., Box 488, Elgin Walantas, John., 7048 S. Union Ave., Chicago Werner, Edward H., 282 Ridgeland Ave., Elmhurst Whitford, A. M., Whitford's Nursery, Farina Youngberg, Harry W., Port Clinton Rd., Prairie View
Behr, J. E., Laconia Boyer, Clyde C., Nabb Garber, H. G., Indiana State Farm, Greencastle Gentry, Herbert M., R. D. 2, Noblesville Glaser, Peter, R. D. 1, Box 301, Evansville Hite, Chas. Dean, R. D. 2, Bluffton Minton, Charles F., R. D. 5, Huntington Morey, B. F., 453 S. 5th St., Clinton Olson, Albert L., 1230 Nuttman Ave., Fort Wayne Pritchett, Emery, 1340 Park Ave., Fort Wayne 6 Prell, Carl F., 803 West Colfax Ave., South Bend Ramsey, Arthur, Muncie Tree Surgery Co., Muncie Skinner, Dr. Charles H., Indiana University, Bloomington Sly, Miss Barbara, R. D. 3, Rockport Sly, Donald R., R. D. 3, Rockport Tormohlen, Willard, 321 Cleveland St., Gary Wallick, Ford, R. D. 4, Peru Warren, E. L., New Richmond Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, R. 3, Rockport
Andrew, Dr. Earl V., Maquoketa Beeghly, Dale, Pierson Berhow, Seward, Berhow Nurseries, Huxley Boice, R. H., R. D. 1, Nashua Cerveny, Frank L., R. D. 4, Cedar Rapids Christensen, Everett G., Gilmore City Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut St., Atlantic Crumley, Joe F., 221 Park Rd., Iowa City Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point Ferris, Wayne, Hampton Gardner, Clark, Gardner Nurseries, Osage Harrison, L. E., Nashua Hill, Clarence S., Hilburn Stock Farm, Minburn Huen, E. F., Eldora Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg Iowa Fruit Growers' Association, State House, Des Moines Kaser, J. D., Winterset Kivell, Ivan E., R. D. 3, Greene Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula Lehmann, F. W., Jr., 3220 John Lynde Rd., Des Moines Lounsberry, Dr. C. C., 209 Howard Ave., Ames McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant Meints, A. Rock, Diron Miller, Robert H., Box 604, Spencer Rohrbacher, Dr. Wm., 811 East College St., Iowa City Schaub, John M., 911 Locust St., Ottumwa Schlagenbusch Bros., R. D. 3, Ft. Madison Snyder, D. C., Snyder Bros., Inc., Nurserymen, Center Point Steffen, R. F., Box 62, Sioux City Van Meter, W. L., Adel Welch, H. S., Mt. Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah Wood, Roy A., Castana
Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee St., Leavenworth Boyd, Elmer, R. D. 1, Box 95, Oskaloosa Burrichter, George W., c/o Mrs. James Stone, 3011 N. 36th St., Kansas City Funk, M. D., 1501 N. Tyler St., Topeka Hofman, Rayburn, R. D. 5, Manhattan Leavenworth Nurseries, R. D. 3, Leavenworth Schroeder, Emmett H., 800 W. 17th St., Hutchinson Wise, H. S., 579 W. Douglas Ave., Wichita Yoder, D. J., R. D. 2, Haven
Alves, Robert H., Nehi Bottling Co., Henderson Baughn, Cullie, R. D. 6, Box 1, Franklin Cornett, Lester, Box 566, Lynch Gooch, Perry, R. D. 1, Oakville Moss, Dr. C. A., Williamsburg Tatum, W. G., R. D. 4, Lebanon Watt, R. M., R. D. 1, Lexington Whittinghill, Lonnie M., Box 10, Love
Louisiana State U., A. & M. College, General Library, University Fullilove, J. Hill, Box 157, Shreveport
Pike, Radcliffe B., Lubec
Crane, Dr. H. L., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., Dover Rd., Easton Fletcher, C. Hicks, Lulley's Hillside Farm, Bowie Gravatt, G. F., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Harris, Walter B., Andelot Inc., Worton Hodgson, Wm. C., R. D. 1, White Hall Hoopes, Wilmer P., Forest Hill Kemp, Homer S., Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne Kienle, John A., Land's End Farm, Queenstown Kingsville Nurseries, H. J. Hohman, Kingsville Lewis, Dean, Bel Air Mannakee, N. H., Ashton McCollum, Blaine, White Hall McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 4514-32nd St., Mt. Rainier Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown Purnell, J. Edgar, Spring Hill Rd., Salisbury Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Ave., Baltimore Thomas, Kenneth D., 10 N. Ellwood Ave., Baltimore 24
Atwood, Gordon E., 60 Crescent St., Northampton Beauchamp, A. A., 603 Boylston St., Boston Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State St., Boston Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro Fritze, E., Osterville Garlock, Mott A., 17 Arlington Rd., Longmeadow Gauthier, Louis R., Wood Hill Rd., Monson Graff, George H., 46 Chestnut St., Brookline 46 Hanchett, James L., R. D. 1, East Longmeadow Kaan, Dr. Helen W., Wellesley College, Wellesley Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon Kibrick, I. S., 106 Main St., Brockton La Beau, Henry A., 1556 Massachusetts Ave., North Adams Rice, Horace J., 5 Elm St., Springfield * Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley Short, I. W., 299 Washington St., Taunton Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton Ave., Hyde Park Swartz, H. P., 206 Checopee St. Checopee Trudeau, Dr. A. E., 14 Railroad St., Holyoke Van Meter, Dr. R. A., French Hall, M. S. C., Amherst Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topsfield Westcott, Samuel K., 79 Richview Ave., North Adams Weston Nurseries, Inc., Brown & Winter Sts., Weston Weymouth, Paul W., 183 Plymouth St., Holbrook
Grandjean, Julio., Ave. Cinco de Mayo, num. 10, Mexico City
Andersen, Charles, Andersen Evergreen Nurseries, Scottsville Avery, R. O., R. D. 2, Brooklyn Aylesworth, C. F., 920 Pinecrest Dr., Ferndale 20 Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit, 5 Becker, Gilbert, Climax Blackman, Orrin C., Box 55, Jackson Bogart, Geo. C., R. D. 2, Three Oaks Boylan, B. P., Cloverdale Bradley, L. J., R. D. 1, Springport Buell, Dr. M. F., Dept. of Health and Recreation, Dearborn Bumler, Malcolm R., 1097 Lakeview, Detroit Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, R. D. 2, Union City Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Co., Galesburg Cook, E. A., M.D., Director, County Health Dept., Corunna Corsan, H. H., R. D. 1, Hillsdale Daubenmeyer, H., 7647 Sylvester, Detroit Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Ave., Highland Park 3 Gage, Nina M., 6550 Kensington Rd., Wixom Hackett, John C., 315 Diamond Ave., S.E., Grand Rapids 6 Hagelshaw, W. J., Box 314, Galesburg Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence Healey, Scott, R. D. 2, Otsego **Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek King, Harold J., Sodus Korn, G. J., 140 N. Rose St., Kalamazoo 24 Lee, Michael, Lapeer Leist, Dewey, 119 Livingston Dr., Flint Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit 14 Lewis, Clayton A., 1219 Pine St., Port Huron Mann, Charles W., 221 Cutler St., Allegan Mason, Harold E., 1580 Montie, Lincoln Park 25 McMillan, Vincent U., 17926 Woodward Ave., Detroit 3 Miller, Louis, 130 O'Keefe, Cassopolis O'Rourke, Prof. F. L., Hort'l Dept., Michigan State College, E. Lansing Otto, Arnold G., 4150 Three Mile Drive, Detroit Reist, Dewey, 119 Livingston Dr., Flint Scofield, Mrs. Carl, Box 215, Woodland Scofield, Carl, Box 215, Woodland Stocking, Frederick N., Harrisville Stotz, Raleigh R., 1546 Franklin, S.E., Grand Rapids 6 Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester St., Birmingham Wargess, R. D., 11 Rose St., Battle Creek Whallon, Archer P., R. D. 1, Stockbridge
Andrews, Miss Frances E., 48 Park View Terrace, Minneapolis Cothran, John C., 512 N. 19th Ave., E. Duluth Donaldson Co., L. S., 601 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis 2 Hodgson, R. E., Dept. of Agriculture, S. E. Exp. Sta., Waseca O'Connor, Pat H., Hopkins Skrukrud, Baldwin, Sacred Heart Vaux, Harold C., R. D. 4, Faribault Weschcke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul
Barnes, Dr. F. M., Jr., 4952 Maryland Ave., St. Louis Bucksath, Charles E., Dalton Campbell, A. T., 8117 Meadow Lane, Kansas City 5 Fisher, J. B., R. R. H. 1, Pacific Giesson, Adolph, Pine Hill Farm, Weingarten Hay, Leander, Gilliam Howe, John, R. D. 1, Box 4, Pacific Johns, Jeannette F., R. D. 1, Festus Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove Ochs, C. T., Box 291, Salem Richterkessing, Ralph, R. D. 1, St. Charles Schmidt, Victor H., 4821 Virginia, Kansas City Stark Brothers Nurs. & Orchard Co., Louisiana Stevenson, Hugh, Elsberry Thompson, J. D., 600 West 63rd St., Kansas City 2
Adams, Frederick J., 5103 Webster St., Omaha 3 Brand, George, R. D. 5, Box 60, Lincoln Caha, William, Wahoo Clark, Ivan E., Concord DeLong, F. S., 1510 Second Corso, Nebraska City Ferguson, Albert B., Dunbar Ginn, A. M., Box 6, Bayard Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron Hoyer, L. B., 7554 Maple St., Omaha Lenz, Clifford Q., 3815 Maple St., Omaha 3 Marshall's Nurseries, Arlington Weaver, Francis E., Box 312, Sutherland White, Bertha G., 7615 Leighton Ave., Lincoln 5 White, Warren E., 6920 Binney St., Omaha 4
Dougherty, L. A., University of N. H., Durham Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro Latimer, Prof. L. P., Dept. of Horticulture, Durham Malcolm, Herbert L., The Waumbek Farm, Jefferson Messier, Frank, R. D. 2, Nashua Ryan, Miss Agnes, Mill Rd., Durham
Bangs, Ralph E., Allamuchy Beck, Stanley, 12 South Monroe Ave., Wenonah Blake, Dr. Harold, Box 93, Saddle River Bottom, R. J., 41 Robertson Rd., West Orange Brewer, J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn Buch, Philip O., 106 Rockaway Ave., Rockaway Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Flemington Buckwalter, Geoffrey R., Route 1, Box 12, Flemington Cumberland Nursery, R. D. 1, Millville Donnelly, John H., Mountain Ice Co., 51 Newark St., Hoboken Dougherty, Wm. M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton Franek, Michael, 323 Rutherford Ave., Franklin Fuhlbruegge, Edward, R. D. Box 234, Scotch Plains Gardenier, Dr. Harold C., Westwood Goitein, Louis, 1081 S. Clinton Ave., Trenton * Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly Place, Jersey City Jewett, Edmund Gale, R. D. 1, Port Murray Lovett's Nursery, Inc., Little Silver Mann, Philip, 115 Bloomfield Ave., Newark McCulloch, J. D., 73 George St., Freehold Mueller, R., R. D. 1, Box 81, Westwood Piskorski, Mrs. Adelaide M., 604 Jersey Ave., Jersey City 2 Ritchie, Walter M., 402 St. George St., Rahway Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Andover Sheffield, O. A., 283 Hamilton Place, Hackensack Sorg, Henry, Chicago Ave., Egg Harbor City Sutton, Ross J., Jr., R. D. 2, Lebanon Szalay, Dr. S., 931 Garrison Ave., Teaneck Terhune, Gilbert V. P., Apple Acres, Newfoundland Todd, E. Murray, R. D. 2, Matawan Tolley, Fred C., Berkeley Ave., Bloomfield Trainer, Raymond E., Roller Bearing Co., Box 480, Trenton Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Rd., South Orange White, Col. J. H., Jr., Picatinny Arsenal, Dover Williams, Harold G., Box 344, Ramsey Yorks, A. S., Lamatonk Nurseries, Neshanic Station
Barton, Irving Titus, Montour Falls Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Rd., E. Amherst Benton, William A., Wassaic Bernath's Nursery, R. D. 1, Poughkeepsie Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I. Blauner, Sidney H., 290 West End Ave., New York Bradbury, Captain H. G., 30 Fifth Ave., New York 11 Brinckeroff, John H., 150-09 Hillside Ave., Jamaica Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham St., Rochester Brooks, William G., Monroe Cowan, Harold, 643 Southern Bldg., The Bronx, New York 55 Davis, Clair, 140 Broadway, Lynbrook DeSchauensee, Mrs. A. M., Easterhill Farm, Chester Dutton, Walter, 264 Terrace Park, Rochester Ellwanger, Mrs. William D., 510 East Ave., Rochester Fagley, Richard M., 29 Perry St., New York 14 Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Rd., Hilton Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport Frifance, A. E., 139 Elmdorf Ave., Rochester 11 Fruch, Alfred, 34 Perry St., New York Garcia, M., 62 Rugby Rd., Brooklyn Graham, S. H., R. D. 5, Ithaca Graham, Mrs. S. H., R. D. 5, Ithaca Graves, Dr. Arthur H., Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Gressel, Henry, R. D. 2, Mohawk Gunther, Eric F., 25 E. Waukena Ave., Oceanside, L. I. Gwinn, Ralph W., 522-5th Ave., New York Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., New Platz Hill, Ben H., 375 Beverly Rd., Douglaston, L. I. Hubbell, James F., Mayro Bldg., Utica Iddings, William, 165 Ludlow St., New York Irish, G. Whitney, Valatie Kelly, Mortimer B., 17 Battery Place, New York Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park, West Apt. 1406, New York Kraai, Dr. John, Fairport Larkin, Harry H., 189 Van Rensselaer St., Buffalo 10 Lewis, Clarence K., 1000 Park Ave., New York Lewis, H. W., c/o Ann Cangero, Roslyn Little, George, Ripley Lowerre, James D., 1121 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn 16 * MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca MacEwen, Harold, R. D. 5, Fulton Maloney Brothers Nursery Co., Inc., Danville Mevius, William E., E. Church St., Eden Miller, J. E., R. D. 1, Naples Mitchell, Rudolph, 125 Riverside Drive, New York 24 Mitchell, Thomas, 16 E. 48th St, New York * Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E. 44th St., New York Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo Newell, P. F., 53 Elm St., Nassau Oeder, Dr. Lambert R., 551 Fifth Ave., New York Ohliger, Louis H., R. D. 2, New City Page, Chas. E., R. D. 2, Oneida Penning, Tomas, R. D. 3, Box 158, Saugerties Price, Jacob, Price Theatre Co., 352 West 44th St., New York 18 Price, J., 385 Arbuckle Ave., Cedarhurst, L. I. Rasmussen, Harry, R. D. 1, 85 Frederick St., E. Syracuse Rebillard, Frederick, 164 Lark St., Albany 5 Salzer, George, 169 Garford Rd., Rochester Schlegel, Charles P., 990 South Ave., Rochester Schlick, Frank, Munnsville Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Ave., Buffalo Schwartz, Mortimer L., 1243 Boynton Ave., Bronx Sheffield, Lewis F., c/o Mrs. E. C. Jones, Townline Rd., Orangeburg Slate, Prof. George L., Experiment Station, Geneva Smith, Gilbert L., State School, Wassaic Smith, Jay L., Chester Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook Stern, Otto, Stern's Nurseries, Geneva Stern-Montagny, Hubert, Erbonia Farm, Gardiner Szigo, Alfred, 77-15 A. 37th Ave., Jackson Heights, New York Timmerman, Karl G., 123 Chapel St., Fayetteville Waite, Dr. R. H., Willowwaite Moor, Perrysburg Weis, John F., Jr., R. D. 1, Carter Rd., Fairport Wichlac, Thaddeus, 3236 Genesee St., Cheektowaga 21 Wilson, Mrs. Ida, Candor Windisch, Richard P., W. E. Burnet & Co., 11 Wall St., New York * Wissman, Mrs. F. de R., 9 W. 54th St., New York
Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro Finch, Jack R., Bailey Malcolm, Van R., Celo P. O., Yancey County Parks, C. H., R. D. 2, Asheville
Barden, C. A., 215 Morgan St., Oberlin Bitler, W. A., 322 McPheron Ave., Lima Bungart, A. A., Avon Chapman, Floyd B., 1944 Denune Ave., Columbus 3 Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20 Clark, R. L., 1184 Melbourne Rd., East Cleveland 12 Clay High School, R. D. 5, Toledo 5 Cole, Mrs. J. R., 163 Woodland Ave., Columbus 3 Cook, H. C., R. D. 1, Box 125, Leetonia Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira Crawford, L. E., Sylvarium Gardens, 5499 Columbia Rd., N. Olmsted Davidson, John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia Davidson, Wm. J., Old Springfield Pike, Xenia Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Experiment Sta., Wooster Dubois, Miss Frances M., 4623 Glenshade Ave., Cincinnati 27 Elliott, Donald W., Rogers Emch, Frank, Genoa Evans, Maurice G., 335 S. Main St., Akron 8 Fickes, Mrs. W. R., R. D. 1, Wooster Foraker, Major C. Merle, 152 Elmwood Ave., Barberton Foss, H. D., 875 Hamlin St., Akron 2 Franks, M. L., R. D. 1, Montpelier Frederick, Geo. F., 3925 W. 17th, Cleveland 9 Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 11190 East Blvd., Cleveland Gardner, Richard F., 1474 Wagar Ave., Cleveland 7 Gauly, Dr. Edward, 1110 Euclid Ave., Cleveland Gerber, E. P., Kidron Gerhardt, Gustave A., 3125 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond S. W., Massilon Goss, C. E., 922 Dover Ave., Akron 2 Gray, G. A., 3317 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati 20 Hamlin, Howard E., 1945 Waltham Rd., Columbus 8 Haydeck, Carl, 3213 West 73rd St., Cleveland 2 Headapohl, Miss Marjean, R. D. 2, Wapakoneta Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Rd., Cleveland Hoch, Gordon F., 6292 Glade Ave., Cincinnati Holley, Dr. C. J., 11 Elm St., Bridgeport Hunt, Kenneth W., Yellow Springs Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent Jacobs, Mason, 3003 Jacobs Rd., Youngstown Jacque, John V., 13722 N. Drive, Cleveland 5 Kappel, Owen, Bolivar Kintzel, Frank M., 2506 Briarcliffe Ave., Cincinnati 13 Kirby, R. L., Box 131, R. 1, Sharonville Kratzer, George, Kidron Krok, Walter P., 925 W. 29th St., Lorain Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9 Lashley, Chas. V., 216 S. Main, Wellington Lehmann, Carl, Union Trust Bldg., Cincinnati Livezey, Albert J., Barnesville Madson, Arthur E., 13608-5th Ave., E. Cleveland 12 McBride, William B., 2398 Brandon Rd., Columbus 8 Meikle, William J., 730 Thornhill Dr., Cleveland Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Ave., Toledo 5 Miller, Arthur R., R. D. 4, Wooster Mutchler, Glenn M., Box 10, Massillon Neff, Wm., Martel Nicolay, Chas., 2259 Hess Ave., Cincinnati 11 Oches, Norman M., R. D. 2, Brunswick Olney High School, R. D. 1, Eggleston Rd., Toledo 5 Osborn, Frank C., 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland Pomerene, W. H., Coshocton Poston, E. M., Jr., 2640 E. Main, Columbus Rowe, Stanley M., R. D. 1, Box 83, Cincinnati 27 Scarff's Sons, W. N., New Carlisle Schaufelberger, Hugo S., R. D. 2, Sandusky Shelton, Dr. E. M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood 7 Sherman, L. Walter, Mahoning Co., Exp. Farm, Canfield Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Ave., N. E., Massillon Soliday, E. C., 834 Madison Ave., Lancaster Southart, Dr. A. F., 24-1/2 South Main St., Mt. Gilead Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South St., Vermilion Spring Hill Nurseries Co., Tipp City Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F St., Lorain Sylvarium Gardens, L. E. Crawford, 5499 Columbia Rd., N. Olmsted Thomas, W. F., 406 S. Main St., Findlay Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Rd., South Euclid 21 Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Ave., Apt. B-1, Newark Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland Weaver, Arthur W., 318 Oliver St., Toledo 4 * Weber, Harry, R. Esq., 123 E. 6th St., Cincinnati Weber, Mrs. Martha R., R. D. 1, Morgan Rd., Cleves Weibel, A. J., 4130 Florida Ave., Cincinnati 23 Whitmer High School, 5530 Whitmer Drive, Toledo 12 Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Dr., N.E., Cleveland 10 Yates, Edward W., 3108 Parkview Ave., Cincinnati 13 Yoder, Emmet, Smithville
Hirschi's Nursery, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City Hubbard, Orie B., Kingston Hughes, C. V., 5600 N. W. 16-R No. 2, Box 564, Oklahoma City 8 Jarrett, C. F., 2208 W. 40th, Tulsa Meek, E. B., R. D. 2, Wynnewood Pulliam, Gordon, 407 Osage Ave., Bartlesville Ruhlen, Dr. Chas. A., 114 W. Steele, Cushing Swan, Oscar E., Jr., 1226 E. 30th St., Tulsa 5
Borland, Robert E., 219 Mill St., Silverton Carlton Nursery Co., Forest Grove Dohanian, S. M., P. O. Box 246, Eugene Flanagan, George C., 909 Terminal Sales Bldg., Portland Miller, John E., R. D. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego Russ, E., R. D. 1, Halsey Schuster, C. E., Horticulturist, Cervallis
Allaman, R. P., R. D. 1, Harrisburg Anundson, Lester, 2630 Chestnut St., Erie Banks, H. C., R. D. 1, Hellertown Barnhart, Emmert M., R. D. 4, Waynesboro Beard, H. G., R. D. 1, Sheridan Blair, Dr. G. D., 702 N. Homewood Ave., Pittsburgh Bowen, John C., R. D. 1, Macungie Breneiser, Amos P., 427-N. 5th St., Reading Brenneman, John S., R. D. 6, Lancaster Brown, Morrison, Carson Long Military Academy, New Bloomfield Buckman, C. M., Schwenkville Catterall, Karl P., 734 Frank St., Pittsburgh 10 Clarke, Wm. S., Jr., Box 167, State College Creasy, Luther P., Catawissa DeHaven, Edwin, 404 Wall Ave., Pitcairn Dewey, Richard, Box 41, Peckville Dible, Samuel E., R. D. 3, Shelocta Diefenderfer, C. E., 918 Third St., Fullerton Driver, Warren M., R. D. 4, Bethlehem Ebling, Aaron L., R. D. 2, Reading Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lehmasters Gardner, Ralph D., Box 425, Colonial Park Gebhardt, F. C., 140 E. 29th St., Erie Gorton, F. B., 4110 Emmet Dr., Erie Heasley, George S., R. D. 2, Darlington Heckler, George Snyder, Hatfield Heilman, R. H., 2303 Beechwood Blvd., Pittsburgh Hershey, John W., Nut Tree Nurseries, Downingtown Hewetson, Prof. F. N., Fruit Research Lab., Arendtsville Hostetter, C. F., Bird-In-Hand Hostetter, L. K., R. D. 5, Lancaster Hughes, Douglas, 1230 East 21st St., Erie Jackson, Schuyler, New Hope Johnson, Robert F., R. D. 5, Box 56, Crafton Jones, Mildred M., 301 N. West End Ave., Lancaster Jones, Dr. Truman W., Coatesville Kaufman, M. M., Clarion Kirk, DeNard B., Forest Grove Knouse, Chas. W., Colonial Park Leach, Hon. Will, Court House, Scranton Long, Carleton C., 138 College Ave., Beaver Losch, Walter, 133 E. High St., Topton Mathews, Mrs. Geo., R. D. 2, Cambridge Springs Mattoon, H. Gleason, 258 South Van Pelt St., Philadelphia 3 McCartney, J. Lupton, Rm. 1, Horticultural Bldg., State College Mercer, Robert A., 435 E. Phil-Ellera St., Philadelphia 19 Miller, Elwood B., c/o The Hazleton Bleaching & Dyeing Works, Hazleton Miller, Robert O., 3rd & Ridge St., Emmaus Moyer, Philip S., Union Trust Bldg., Harrisburg Niederriter, Leonard, 1726 State St., Erie Reidler, Paul G., Ashland Rial, John, 528 Harrison Ave., Greensburg * Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Sq., Reading Robinson, P. S., Gettysburg Rupp, Edward E., Jr., 57 W. Omfret St., Carlisle Sameth, Sigmund, Grandeval Farm, R. D. 3, Kutztown Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy Schmidt, Albert J., 534 Smithfield St., Pittsburgh Sheibley, J. W., Star Route, Landisburg Shelly, David B., R. D. 2, Elizabethtown Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, R. D. 2, Homer City Stewart, John H., Yule Tree Farm, Akeley Stoebener, Harry W., 6227 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., Bucknell University, Lewisburg Twist, Frank S., Northumberland Waggoner, Charles W., 432 Harmony Ave., Rochester Washick, Dr. Frank A., 501 Cottman Ave., Philadelphia 11 Weinrich, Whitney, 134 S. Lansdowne Ave., Lansdowne Wicks, Dr. A. G., 227 Baywood Ave., Mt. Lebanon * Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore Wood, Wayne, R. D. 1, Newville Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 6th St., Erie Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., R. I, Linglestown
+ Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance St., Providence R. I. State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston
Pereda, Celedonia V., Arroyo 1142, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Bregger, John. T., Clemson
Bradley, Homer L., LaCreek National Wildlife Refuge, Martin
Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater McDaniel, Dr. J. C, Tenn. Dept. of Agriculture, 403 State Office Bldg. Nashville 3 Meyer, James R., Agronomy Dept., University of Tenn., Knoxville Rhodes, G. B., R. D. 2, Covington Richards, Dr. A., Whiteville Roark, W. F., Malesus Zarger, Thomas G., Norris
Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan Price, W. S., Jr., Gustine
Jeppesen, Chris., Wildwood Hollow Farm Nursery, Provo City Oleson, Granville, 1210 Laird Ave., Salt Lake City 5 Peterson, Harlan D., 2164 Jefferson Ave., Ogden
Aldrich, A. W., R. D. 3, Springfield Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven. Perpetual Membership "In Memoriam" Farrington, Robert A., Vermont Forest Service, Montpelier Foster, Forest K., West Topsham Ladd, Paul, Hilltop Farm, Jamaica
Acker, E. D., Co., Broadway Brewster, Stanley H., "Cerro Gordo", Gainesville Burton, George L., 728 College St., Bedford Case, Lynn B., R. D. 1, Fredericksburg Dickerson, T. C, 316-56th St., Newport News Gibbs, H. R., McLean Johnson, Dr. Walter R., Garrisonville Morse, Chandler, Valross, R. D. 5, Alexandria Nix, Robert W., Jr., Lucketts Pertzoff, Dr. V. A., Carter's Bridge Peters, John Rogers, P. O. Box 37, McLean Pinner, H. McR., P. O. Box 155, Suffolk Powell, Frank, Stuart Stoke, H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., Roanoke Stoke, Dr. John H., 408-10 Boxley Bldg., Roanoke Thompson, H. C., Short & Thompson, Inc., Hopewell Variety Products Co., 5 Middlebrook Ave., Staunton Virginia Tree Farm, Woodlawn Webb, John, Hillsville Zimmerman, Ruth, Bridgewater
Cannaday, Dr. John E., Charleston General Hospital, Charleston 25 Cross, Andrew, Ripley Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale Glenmont Nurseries, Arthur M. Reed, Moundsville, W. Va. Golden Chestnut Nursery, Arthur A. Gold, Cowen Gross, Andrew, Ripley Holcomb, Herbert L., Riverside Nurseries, P.O. Box 5, S. Charleston 3 Hoover, Wendell W., Webster Springs Margolin, Abe S., University of West Virginia, Morgantown Slotkin, Meyer S., 629-10th Ave., Huntington
Altman, Mrs. H. E., 2338 King St., Bellingham 9 Barth, J. H., Box 1827 R. D. 3, Spokane 6 Bartleson, C. J., Box 25, Chattaron Biddle, Miss Gertrude W., 923 Gordon Ave., Spokane 12 Carey, Joseph E., 4219 Letona Ave., Seattle Clark, R. W., 4221 Phinney Ave., Seattle Denman, George L., 1319 East Nina Ave., Spokane Ferris, Major Hiram B., P. O. Box 74, Spokane 1 Jessup, J. M., Cook Kling, William L., R. D. 2, Box 230, Clarkston Latterell, Ethel, Greenacres Linkletter, F. D., 8034-35th Ave., N.E., Seattle 5 Lynn Tuttle Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston Martin, Fred A., Star Route, Chelan Naderman, G. W., R. D. 1, Box 370, Olymphia Shane Bros., Vashon
Bassett, W. S., 1522 Main St., La Crosse Brust, John J., 135 W. Wells St., Milwaukee 3 Dopkins, Marvin, R. D. 1, River Falls Downs, M. L., 1024 N. Leminwah St., Appleton Johnson, Albert G., R. D. 2, Box 457, Waukesha Koelsch, Norman, Jackson Ladwig, C. F., 2221 St. Lawrence, Beloit Mortensen, M. C., 2117 Stanson Ave., Racine Zinn, Walter G., P. O. Box 747, Milwaukee
Greene, W. D., Box 348, Greybull
* Life Member + Contributing Member ** Honorary Member
This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers Association, Incorporated.
Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.
Membership in this society shall be open to all persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on membership.
There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and a board of directors consisting of six persons, of which the president, the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.
ARTICLE V—ELECTION OF OFFICERS
A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.
The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the board of directors shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the president and board of directors.
Ten members of the Association shall constitute a quorum but must include two of the four officers.
This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.
The Association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on exhibits, on varieties and contests, on survey, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the Association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.
Annual members shall pay two dollars annually. Contributing members shall pay ten dollars annually. Life members shall make one payment of fifty dollars and shall be exempt from further dues and shall be entitled to the same benefits as annual members. Honorary members shall be exempt from dues. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as "Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event the Association becomes defunct or dissolves then, in that event, the Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at the time he makes the bequest or the donation.
All annual memberships shall begin October 1st. Annual dues received from new members after April first shall entitle the new member to full membership until October first of that year and a credit of one-half annual dues for the following year.
By-Laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any meeting.
Members, shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are due and, if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of non-payment of dues and are not entitled to receive the annual report.
At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third notice shall be sent notifying such members that, unless dues are paid within ten days from the receipt of this notice, their names will be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.
Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Annual Convention
Report of the Proceedings of the Northern Nut Growers Association at its thirty-seventh Annual Convention, held at Wooster, Ohio, September 3, 4, 5, 1946, in the auditorium of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.
The convention was called to order at 10 A.M. with the President, Carl Weschcke, in the chair.
Address of Welcome
By Dr. J. H. Gourley, of the Wooster Experiment Station
The thing that would strike me particularly about this meeting we are having is to see people come from so far away; a group that is on fire with interest in a fruit which has no great economic importance, in a place like the central west, in comparison with other fruits. Another thing that is interesting, as contrasted with other fruit groups, would be this; that the extent to which nuts become of great economic importance in these places lies very largely with you. It seems to me that without the insistent desire of a very small minority of people an industry like this would not get very far.
Ohio has not done as much as she should. You may have come to Ohio to give us a shot in the arm. On behalf of the Director, I want to extend to you a cordial welcome to the Experiment Station and to Wooster. This Station has 3600 acres of land and one-third is at Wooster—1200 acres. We have 15 district and county farms, 63,000 acres in state forests and parks.
This station has introduced a number of varieties of wheat. Sixty to seventy-five per cent of all wheat in Ohio is grown from varieties that originated at this station.
This station was organized in 1882 at Columbus. The Federal Hatch Act permitting this type of organization was passed in 1887; thus Ohio was five years ahead of the Federal Act. In 1892, the station was moved from Columbus to Wooster. The state act provided that an experiment station should be located within fifty miles of Columbus, but later it was permitted to extend the distance to 100 miles. They settled on Wooster, which is 90 miles.
The tendency is to work more and more closely with the State University. The trend seems to be so they will function as one agricultural institution.
I would like to extend the keys of the Station to you, but the keys may not unlock the fruit storage.
I trust you will have a most profitable time while you are with us.
By John E. Cannaday, M. D., Charleston, West Virginia
It is a pleasure to meet here under such favorable auspices and to be received with these hospitable words by Dr. Gourley. In recent years, Ohio has gone far in nut growing under his leadership and that of his staff. Pennsylvania also has done a great deal to put nut growing on its feet. My own state, West Virginia, is also making good headway.
In the early 1900's I got the 'bee', but I lost two or three of my first few trees. In 1917 I imported some chestnuts from Japan for planting and tried out various schemes in nut growing. In my opinion, chestnuts are the most important nuts for human food that grow in the temperate zone. It is interesting to observe how chestnuts follow true to seed in many respects. I have been advised that all of the chestnuts grown in China are from selected seed.
Every foot of steep mountain land in some sections of Italy is said to be completely covered with chestnut trees. In my state, the weevil is the scourge of chestnuts; I had hoped that after the chestnut blight destroyed our native chestnuts, the Chinese and Japanese chestnuts would be free from that pest. Where it came from I do not know, unless it came from the chinkapin. West Virginia has chinkapins and these, being blight resistant, apparently have kept up the supply of weevils. Occasionally, shortly before the chestnuts begin to ripen, a few decay from some type of rot.
I took a census of my chestnut trees recently and found 80 trees of bearing age. Some of the largest are 22 to 24 feet in height, with a trunk diameter of 5 inches or more. None have been pruned but have maintained their normal branch formation and grow low. The timber tree must be yet to come. I have read interesting statements to the effect that in parts of China and Burma, there are chestnut trees of timber shape and size. Chestnut trees are likely to become of extreme importance in our future economy. The nuts fill a very significant place in our dietary needs. We should continue to plant chestnut trees and take care of them. I have also from 350 to 400 younger trees that are coming on, and I want to plant additional chestnut trees every year. The black walnut and hickory nut are very important, but the chestnut crop is the corn crop of the nuts.
Address of Retiring President
Carl Weschcke, St. Paul, Minnesota
Our last convention at Hershey, Pa., in September 1941, was a very outstanding one. Not only was it successful because of good attendance, excellent addresses and the places of interest we visited, particularly the home of Mildred Jones, our Secretary, at Lancaster and of the late Dr. G. A. Zimmerman at Linglestown, but it was important because it marked the beginning of a long period during which we had to forego our conventions. The death of Dr. Zimmerman shortly before that meeting dampened our usually jovial spirits when we were entertained at his home, but his wife did much to alleviate this.
To me, the last convention we held was by far the most important since the very first one at New York in November, 1910, because at it I received the honour of being chosen president for the ensuing year. This was during the era when presidents were usually re-elected for a second term, but I assure you that I have not served as president for this long period because I have been seeking to emulate other presidents, but only because the war years prevented our holding the annual meetings at which our officers are elected.
In mentioning any part of the history of our group, we should always remember that we owe its existence to Dr. Deming, who is now Dean of the Association.
Now it is not my province to make a long speech about the N. N. G. A., because a number of other people will talk to you about it. I believe that the growth of our society in recent years has fulfilled the fondest dreams of Dr. Deming, since we have almost doubled our membership since 1941. We now have approximately over 600 members. People all over the United States are becoming aware of the value of nuts as food important to men. It is too bad that nuts have not been available on a competitive price basis with other foods, and that luxury prices have limited interest in nuts among the women buyers. A better understanding of the uses and comparative value of nuts is gradually coming about which will result in a tremendous demand on the nut-growing industry, which of course, includes the nurserymen who develop and grow all varieties of nut trees.
It is unfortunate for our newer members that they will never have the opportunity of knowing those men who were among our earliest and most valued associates whom death has recently taken from us and that they are thus deprived of the pleasure and knowledge they might have gained through personal contact with the wisdom and friendliness these men displayed. Let us all take advantage of every opportunity we have to meet with and learn from the senior members of our group who are with us today. They are the salt of the earth, I assure you.
To those of you who have come long distances from your homes to attend this annual meeting of the N.N.G.A., to our hosts and to all of my good friends here, may I express my great pleasure at meeting again with you after so long a time.
Mildred M. Jones, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
In addition to the regular routine duties of answering inquiries about the Association, sales of reports, giving information about nut trees, where they may be obtained, and sources of additional reading material and reference material about nut tree work, a large part of the time I could devote to Association affairs this year was in preparation for this meeting.
Because of travel restrictions, and the fact that the Canadian National Exhibition would not be held this fall, and assurance from the Toronto Convention and Tourist Association, Inc. that the Exhibition would be resumed in the fall of 1947, and that it would be a newer and greater show, it seemed advisable to place these facts before the members, and allow them to vote on their preference for a meeting place this fall. In addition to responses from the officers, I received 63 votes from members, 37 of which were for Wooster, Ohio, 24 for Beltsville, Maryland, and 3 for Canada. Since the letter asking for votes carried the understanding that we were putting the Canadian meeting off for a year by voting for a place in the U. S. this year, and were not canceling the Canadian invitation, this would explain the small vote for Canada.
Our program committee this year was comprised of three members and myself—Mr. C. A. Reed, whose many years of Association work and wide acquaintance made him an invaluable source of suggestions; Dr. Oliver Diller, who took charge of the tremendous task of handling local arrangements; and Mr. A. A. Bungart, who helped greatly in procuring speakers. These men helped so splendidly that I should like here to voice my thanks and appreciation.
Much new data for the revision of the 4-page pamphlet giving information about the Association, sources of seeds, nut tree nurserymen, and reference material for reading has been gathered for printing. Since I accepted the secretaryship in time for the first convention after the war, it seemed advisable to me to hold this material until it could be turned over to my successor who will be elected at this meeting, rather than put the Association to the expense of printing only a small number of circulars.
A good many inquiries were received during the year for sources of certain varieties of nuts. It would help the secretary, and also the members, to have a list of those who have nuts for sale.
For Period from October 1, 1945 to September 30, 1946
Annual Membership $871.00 Contributing Membership— Philip Allen 10.00 Sale of Reports 154.80 Zenas H. Ellis Legacy 950.00 Miscellaneous 4.00 ———- $1,989.80
DISBURSEMENTS: Subscriptions to Fruit Grower $ 79.40 Supplies 12.52 Secretary's Expense 60.52 Treasurer's Expenses 41.94 Miscellaneous 10.00 ———- 204.38 ————— Excess of Receipts over Disbursments $1,785.42 Balance on Hand—October 1, 1945 1,474.46 ————— Total Balance—September 1, 1946 $3,259.88 Deposited in Walker State Bank $3,236.07 Cash on Hand 23.81
Notes on the Annual Meeting
A telegram was sent to Dr. Deming in reply to one of greeting from him, and various committees were appointed.
Mr. Corsan suggested that an exhibit of nuts be placed on display in the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Canada.
Mr. Hirschi said that for killing trees by poison he uses two pounds white arsenic, one pound caustic soda and one gallon of water.
A member stated that a few drops of mercury would answer the same purpose.
Mr. Hirschi stated that he found the Niblack pecan an almost perfect cracker, bringing a premium price.
Mr. Wilkinson stated that while the Niblack pecan had never been a prolific bearer, the nut has few equals. Perhaps intensive cultivation would improve the bearing.
It was voted to leave the date of the next meeting to the executive committee.
Mr. Spencer Chase, of the TVA, invited the members to meet in Tennessee at an early date.
The President: "We should consider this a fine invitation for 1948. For 1947 we should honor our commitments and go to Canada."
A free discussion occurred on the suggestion to establish a nut journal and on the proposal to raise the dues.
The President suggested that the way to get the work of association done promptly would be to pay for it.
Dr. McKay expressed doubt about the inadvisability of raising the dues.
Mr. Walker thought that if the dues were raised it should be to the extent of a dollar on account of the inconvenience of sending fractional currency. The treasurer suggested the advisability of getting out a mimeographed letter to record progress. Mr. Slate emphasized the importance of producing a good report to hold the members.
Mr. Hershey also approved the idea of getting out a news letter or progress report. The President suggested that one thousand members would settle the whole question. Mr. Jay Smith stated he thought the Association should advertise in some way, especially in sportsmen's magazines.
A motion on the part of Mr. Stoke to raise the dues by fifty cents per year was lost.
The nominating committee made the following nominations for officers for the ensuing year, 1946-47:
Clarence A. Reed, President Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Vice-President Miss Mildred M. Jones, Secretary D. C. Snyder, Treasurer
The nominating committee also, through its chairman, Mr. Weber, recommended that appropriate steps be taken at the next annual meeting to amend the Constitution to consolidate the offices of treasurer and secretary so that they can be filled by one person, and that the remuneration of the secretary-treasurer be fixed at fifty cents per member.
Mr. Stoke moved that the report of the nominating committee be approved, and that the nominees be declared elected. Motion was seconded and carried.
Mr. D. C. Snyder offered the following resolution:
"Because of the great and enduring service that Dr. William C. Deming has rendered the Association, I move that he be named Dean of the Association and be given an honorary life membership, without payment of dues."
The motion was seconded, and carried with applause.
On being called to the chair, the newly-elected President, Clarence A. Reed, spoke as follows:
"I take this as a very great honor; it is an equally great responsibility. All I can say is that I appreciate it deeply, and that I will give you the best service I have in me."
The Ohio Section of the Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc., submitted a copy of its Constitution containing a provision that it affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers' Association by having its accredited members become also members of both Associations.
After an open discussion by officers and members of both Associations, a resolution was adopted by the Northern Nut Growers' Association expressing appreciation to the Ohio organization for their offer of affiliation, and accepting such affiliation on the terms stated.
It was also brought out as the sense of the meeting that the Executive Committee work out any necessary details in connection with this and any subsequent affiliation on the part of any district or state Association, the same to be submitted to the next annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers' Association for ratification.
It was also recommended that the President appoint a member of each affiliating Association to the Executive Committee of the Northern Nut Growers' Association.
This statement is made in lieu of an accurate transcript of the proceedings, or a verbatim report of the resolution as adopted, neither of which is available.
Aims and Aspirations of the Ohio Nut Growers
A. A. Bungart, Avon, Ohio
In one of the previous bulletins of the NNGA, there appeared an eighteen-point program formulated by the Ohio Nut Growers. No doubt you are wondering what has been done and is being done to make this program function. We have eliminated one point, the one on the pollen bank. At the time our program was being prepared we assumed that nut pollen could be stored for several weeks or months: Since nut pollen does not remain viable in storage, we shall substitute a point on the use of lime, fertilizers of various formulas and the use of trace elements in nut culture.
The Ohio Forestry Association on January 18, 1944, passed a resolution approving our eighteen-point program.
As you are well aware, the war put a damper on many activities, nut and otherwise. Here in Ohio, the nut crops of 1944 and 1945 were virtually failures; even the crop of 1946 is decidedly spotty. Yet in spite of the war and adverse weather conditions, the Ohio growers are looking forward, and planning for the future. As a group we are directing our efforts to the attainment of two specific objectives.
In the first place, we have almost $300 collected as prize money for State nut contests. I take this opportunity to announce a donation of $105 from Mr. John Davidson, of Xenia, Ohio. With the aid of such a generous contributor, we are able to offer a first prize of $50; second prize of $25; third prize of $15; fourth prize of $10; fifth prize of $5; and five one-dollar prizes for black walnuts.
In three or five years we intend to have another contest; either a sweepstakes of $110, or a repetition of the amounts offered this year. We may keep the contest open next year and the year after for those wishing to enter nuts for the final awards. In this way, too, we include black walnuts which are not bearing this year.
Our follow-up will work something like this: We intend to keep a record over the years of the performance of each of the ten prize winners and the ten honorable mentions of the 1946 contest. To that end we have made a score card. The first section of this card will contain information useful to the Department of Forestry and to nut culture in general, but it will not be a factor in selecting the prize winner unless a virtual tie might result in the sweepstakes contest. This section will include:
1. Location—owner, County, rural route, village, town, state route, etc.
2. Location of Tree—isolated, moderately crowded, in dense woods, farm, pasture, city lot, fence row, general ecology; types of other trees in neighborhood, air drainage, exposure.
3. Size of Tree—circumference 4-1/2 ft. from the ground, probable age, height, limb spread; shape, tall, short; symmetry or lack of it.
4. Type of Soil—bottom land, slope and direction, upland; clay, loam, alluvial; presence or absence of humus; acidity; sod or cultivated, mulch or not; depth and kind of subsoil.
5. Moisture Conditions—presence of stream or tile drain, proximity to to stream, lake, pond, etc.
6. Fertility Conditions—wild natural state, near barnyard, fertilized or not with manure or commercial fertilizers, application of lime, etc.
The second section will contain information that will aid in awarding the final prizes. Superior rating under this head might, in the final judging, make an "honorable mention" of the 1946 contest the best all around performer three or five years hence. This section will include:
1. Resistance to disease and insect pests 2 points
2. Bearing habits over the given period; annual, biennial, occasional 7 points
3. Length of growing season; rate of growth; time of blossoming (staminate and pistillate flowers), time of leafing out, time of nut ripening, time of leaf fall 4 points
4. Size of nut clusters, range in number of nuts, per cluster, number of pounds of immature nuts 2 points
5. Size of crop in proportion to tree 5 points
Total 20 points
Some formula will have to be worked out for the last, i.e., size of crop in proportion to the size of tree. Perhaps we might say the crop equals (pounds of nuts) / (r squared x h) in which "r" would represent the radius or half the limb spread and "h" the height, measured from the top to lowest branches.
For example, if a tree that yielded 100 pounds of nuts had a limb spread of 20 feet and was twenty feet high, it would have a value of 100 / (10 squared x 20) or 1/20. The fraction, of course, could be eliminated if the number of nuts were substituted for pounds. It is hardly likely that such a formula would be used for all the trees, probably only in instances where scores in other respects were close.
The third section of the score card will record the rating of the judges on the cracking qualities and other characteristics of the nuts themselves. Any form accepted and approved by the NNGA will be satisfactory.
We plan to use this system for hickory, butternut and other nut contests. Without a Mr. Davidson, however, we shall be compelled to reduce our prizes for the other contests.
I should like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. C. A. Reed for originating this plan. He told us we ought to know more about the trees from which the prize nuts were taken. Our score card aims at a complete record.
Our second aim is to secure a full time research worker in nut culture under the Horticultural Department of Ohio. We have the promise of Director Secrest that he will include in his biennial budget an appropriation for such a specialist. We have the encouragement of Dr. Gourley, the head of the department. But both men will expect us to do our part. Both expect us to speak for our group and our project when the time comes. We accept that responsibility.
Our group has already contacted the members of the finance committee that passes on the budget, and we expect to have our representatives present when the budget is discussed in committee. At present, to be sure, we cannot furnish or even promise an endowment in money. Sixty Nut Grower members can scarcely compete with such powerful groups as the Apple Growers, the Hybrid Corn Breeders, the Poultrymen and others. We can, however, furnish an endowment of men. Among our members we have such men as Mr. Davidson, Mr. Shessler, Mr. Cranz, Mr. Smith and Mr. Weber, along with many others who have done a great deal with nut trees.
A research worker could draw upon their advice, their experience, their technique. He would have as his assistants men who were actuated by no mercenary or selfish motives, and would give of their time and trees to make this dream a reality. Certainly much of the experimental work such as the crossing of varieties could well be performed on the trees of individual members.
The need of such an expert is obvious. The job of getting ahead in nut culture is too big for any one of us. We all know, frequently to our regret, that nut growing is a slow and at times a discouraging business. If we are honest with ourselves we have to admit failures again and again; yet the work is creative and fascinating. We always plan to eliminate some blunder, to perfect some method, next year.
Sometimes a man has a green thumb, or a magic touch, or whatever it takes to make grafts grow, or buds take, or hunches to succeed. Such a man was Mr. Otto Witte, of North Amherst. As a nonagenarian, he was ever looking ahead to another year with his beloved trees, but he died in his nineties. Some of his prize trees have been cut down and probably others will be. What has happened to the experiments of 60 years? Another such man was Mr. Ross Fickes, of Wooster, whose skill in grafting nut trees was at once our envy and our admiration. When his farm is sold, will the new owner sense the hand of the master and watch carefully over the walnuts and hickories, or will he cut them down?
I suppose that death brings an end to many a business, but the nut business is a new one, and a slow one, too. It is regretted that a life time of patient care and painstaking research is lost to us and to nut culture.
True, a nut specialist will not keep death from the door of nut growers, nor will he save their groves from destruction, but he can keep a record of each grower's trees. He can plant his trees and lay out his plantings on state land where there would be more assurance of permanency. Once a nut department is established there is good reason to suppose that the work would go on until certain objectives were attained.
Well, what should our specialist specialize in? May I suggest a few activities? Such a specialist would be the proper person to keep the score cards of the prize-winning black walnuts, hickories, butternuts and English (Persian) walnuts of nut contests held in the state. He would have the time and space for grafting scions from such trees for further observation and study.
In the second place, he could plant and study other varieties under identical conditions and observe their performance. By correlating these data with the records of individual growers he ought to be able to recommend certain varieties of nut trees for various sections of the state.
In Ohio, we have chapters of the Izaak Walton League; we have Friends of the Land; we have sportsmens clubs; we have extensive tracts of municipal and state land. We have the problem of doing something constructive with strip mining areas; we have, and will have under contour farming, little crazy-quilt blocks of land unsuitable for cultivation. All these agencies and all these needs tie in with the intelligent use of trees, particularly nut trees, because they serve a fourfold purpose; lumber, food, erosion control, and a balanced wild life. Here is where the nut specialist would enter the scene. By collecting data, by pooling the results of the individual growers, and especially by selection and breeding, he should be able to recommend the proper varieties of nut trees for specific needs.
It seems to me, however, that the main job of such a worker should be to produce a streamlined black walnut, a thin-shelled, good-cracking, fast-growing walnut.
The black walnut is, indeed, a regal tree. It grows all over the State. Here is a tree of almost infinite variation. What an opportunity for the genetic scientist! What an opportunity for the nut specialist!
In connection with the improvement of the black walnut as a nut and timber tree, the specialist might well investigate the English or Persian walnut. What about the possibilities of Circassian walnut lumber? What is to prevent the growers and the specialist from planting the English walnut for timber? Here in Northern Ohio, English walnut trees have been cut for timber. There are probably several hundred English walnut trees scattered through the northern counties of Ohio. Some of them are from 10 to 18 inches in diameter. A few are second generation. As these trees seem to be fairly rapid growers it would seem reasonable that nuts from these hardy trees would grow into valuable timber, apart from the value of the nuts.
Perhaps all these aspirations and aims seem Utopian. Probably such a program would keep a dozen workers occupied. In cooperation with the Forestry Department, however, students might be assigned to study certain phases of nut culture. A Ph.D. dissertation might well be written on the variation of the Thomas walnut in Ohio.
In conclusion, the Ohio growers will try to produce better nut trees. Through prize contests they hope to find what nature has produced. Through the services of a scientist they hope to find what man can produce. The two aims dovetail. We are reasonably certain of the prize contests; we are not yet certain of securing the nut scientist.
Ohio is host to the NNGA this year. May the Ohio growers ask you for your moral support in this venture? The NNGA is the mother organization. Through the efforts of the officers, past and present, the association is in a flourishing condition with prospects of a very bright future. Whatever we do in Ohio, whatever will be done in other states and countries will be a monument to the NNGA. The groping years, the hard years, are behind. The spade work has been done. We want you to feel that the aims and aspirations of the Ohio growers sprang from your advice, your experiments and enthusiasm.
I would like to add a final word about the unique advantage we enjoy here in Ohio. We have the cooperation of a powerful and excellent farm paper, "The Ohio Farmer." Through its pages our contests get a wide publicity. Mr. Ray Kelsey has furnished us with 5000 folders announcing the contest and the purpose behind it. We have the cooperation of the Experiment Station here at Wooster and its affiliated agencies. Drs. Secrist and Gourley have been kind, encouraging, helpful. Dr. Oliver Diller, of the Forestry Department, and Mr. Walter Sherman, of the Mahoning Farm, have helped and worked with us in a hundred ways. We feel the NNGA ought to know about this harmonious and whole-hearted team work.
Nut Growing Under Semi-Arid Conditions
A. G. Hirschi, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
The pecan is the major nut crop in Oklahoma. The timber growth along the rivers and creeks contains enough pecan trees, if they were properly distributed, to make one continuous pecan grove entirely across the state.
Pecan improvement work is only in its beginning. The Oklahoma Pecan Grower's Association was organized in 1926. It is devoted to the general improvement of the pecan, and to the dissemination of information gained by the members from their experience and observation. Dr. Frank Cross, head of the Department of Horticulture of our A & M College at Stillwater, is very active in nut improvement and is giving us much valuable assistance. Early in the history of our association we began to graft the large improved varieties on our seedling trees. True, many mistakes were made. I recall when all our trees producing small and inferior nuts, were cut down level with the ground, and the sprouts growing from the roots, were budded or grafted to paper-shells. This meant a long wait for production. We soon realized it was better to stub back the limbs and graft these, or permit the sprouts to develop and bud them, plus saving most of the framework of the trees, which gives us heavy production of grafted pecans in a short time.
Competing growth, that is underbrush and all kinds of trees other than pecans, rob the grove of moisture, sunlight, and plant food. This growth was formerly removed by hand grubbing, but now with a large bulldozer it is pushed right out of the ground into piles where it is burned. Now the ground is clean, no stumps to grub out, and ready for a cover-crop or clean cultivation. Nothing remains but pecan trees, some elm, hackberry and oak, too large for the bulldozer. These are poisoned and burned right where they stand the following winter. For poisoning a mixture of two pounds of white arsenic and a pound of caustic soda to a gallon of water, if applied from an oilcan with a spout in an open circle chopped in the bark so as to girdle the tree, will usually deaden it in a short while. Within the year nothing is left but pecan trees. These are watched carefully for production and shelling quality and, if not desirable, or standing too thick, are removed for greater spacing for permanent trees.
Today, only the smaller pecan trees are top worked, either to named varieties or to selected seedlings. Due to changed conditions of market and labor, the native pecan has come into its own. The pecan sheller buys 90% of the native pecans. He will pay only a few cents more for the big paper-shell. The native pecan is as staple as butter and eggs. Every produce man buys them for the shelling plants. This leaves the big paper-shell to seek a special market at an advertising cost. Due to the small differential in the wholesale price of the native and the paper-shell, the larger native trees are no longer top-grafted but are encouraged in every way for heavy production.
Thus, when creek and river bottom thickets are opened up to sunshine and air, nothing left but pecan trees properly spaced, and this on land usually considered worthless, these trees will quadruple in production and pay a handsome return on a $200 per acre valuation. This is a real and altogether possible two-story agriculture to those who are fortunate enough to own undeveloped pecan timber land. Many of our members have beautiful groves redeemed from the wild with bounteous crops of nuts overhead and cattle grazing on enriching cover crops underneath. The pecan means a lot to the farmers of Oklahoma. The average yearly tonnage is about 16,000,000 pounds, with a peak production of 30,000,000 pounds. This amounts to an average of $2,000,000 annually, with a peak of $5,091,000.
I want to show you what it means to some of our members to develop their native pecans, either as natives or grafted to improved varieties. The proceeds from one lone pecan tree in Mr. Skorkosky's cotton patch paid the taxes on his farm several different years. Thus encouraged, he redeemed a small thicket, added a few nursery trees of paper-shells, about ten acres in all, which now often makes a return equal to the rest of the farm. Mr. Kramer paid $1,000 for 10 acres, with part in seedling pecans. He sold $1,000 worth of pecans several different times, and the rest of the farm makes a good return in pasture and hay. He also has 51 acres that often makes a return of $50 per acre in pecans, besides pasturing 20 Herfords. Mr. Kramer destroys trees by girdling. Mr. Pfile makes it a business to buy farms on which there are pecan thickets. One farm has 70 acres, all top-grafted to improved varieties. Trees were small and no production for five years, supporting production for the next four years. Tenth year grossed $8,500; eleventh year, $5,400; twelfth year, $1,800, and this year his conservative estimate is $10,000. Mr. Camp has 600 acres in pecans, 90% improved varieties. He planted 50 acres on upland sandy land on terraces, with pecan trees 40 feet apart and an apple tree between each two pecan trees. The tenth year he produced 8,000 pounds of paper-shells and 4,000 bushels of apples. More recently he planted 125 acres on upland, but planted the pecans 60 feet apart on terraces with an apple tree between. In this orchard he produces 3/4 of a bale of cotton per acre and plants vetch in the fall between cotton rows. In October he had four crops on this land, cotton, vetch, apples and pecans. He says apple trees alternated with pecans on terraces are OK. Cotton, potatoes and sweet potatoes between the terraces for the first ten years are OK, but vetch as a winter cover crop to improve the soil must not be neglected. Grover Hayden has the largest native pecan grove in the world—1,800 acres fenced hog tight. He started 31 years ago as a farm hand. He had rather have 500 acres of pecans than 1,000 acres of alfalfa. Now after 30 years he owns the place at a purchase price of $90,000, not counting improvements and equipment. His average production is about 300,000 pounds per year. In 1935, he produced 400,000. He held back his 1941 crop and together with his 1942 crop, he sold both for $61,000. Think of the faith a man must have in pecans in Oklahoma to go in debt for $71,000 as Mr. Hayden did! He rode a pony that was mortgaged for all it was worth from Arkansas to this ranch.
Those of us who do not have native or seedling pecan trees to work with, must develop orchards from nursery trees. I was raised on a poor farm in Missouri. I always had a desire to take a poor piece of land and see what I could do to improve it. Consequently, I planted 225 improved pecan trees of 25 different varieties and all other kinds of nut trees, fruit trees and a variety of berries on a piece of worn-out upland, pronounced by our county agent to be the poorest piece of ground in our county, and predicted it would be a complete failure.
I planted the pecan trees 60 feet apart, and interplanted with other nut and fruit trees. The trees were planted on the contour with youngberries and many others planted in rows between the tree rows, making a perfect soil conservation arrangement. Barnyard fertilizer was used to start the trees. Every September, vetch and rye were sown as a cover-crop and soil-builder and disked into the soil the following spring. Clean cultivation is practiced during the summer to conserve moisture. This procedure has been adhered to most rigidly without a single crop failure. At 12 years most of the trees are producing $25 worth of paper-shells. The youngberries and plants sold have paid the expense of the orchard and a handsome profit besides, until the trees needed all the room. This project has proved to my satisfaction that profitable nuts and fruit crops can be grown on upland, if soil conservation and improvement are practised. The limiting factors of nut and fruit production are plant food and moisture, and if these are supplied, good production is assured.
The native black walnut of Oklahoma is small and of little value. Most pecan growers have a few native black walnut trees they graft to the improved varieties. I have Thomas, Stabler, Ohio, Mintle, Myers, and others. Thomas has been used most extensively, but does not fill well on upland. However, in deep sand and low bottoms it fills perfectly. It is an alternate bearer and is subject to sunscald in our hot dry summers. Ohio and Stabler have not proven satisfactory. Mintle is a fine nut, splendid cracker, fills well, but is an alternate bearer. I like Myers very much, a consistent bearer, has thinnest shell of all, vegetates after frost in spring, has abundant foliage and twigs, holds leaves until late autumn. Myers is my choice of all varieties at present. However, as with pecans, what varieties to use is each grower's individual problem. We will be looking for better varieties 50 years from now. For five years I am offering $25 annually for the best seedling black walnut. Write to our A & M College, Horticulture Department, Stillwater, Oklahoma, for rules and regulations of the contest.
How to Make Money with Black Walnuts
I believe I have discovered the best way to market black walnuts. I have not had much success selling them either husked or unhusked, "too hard to crack." Then someone remarked, "If you would crack them and put in some horseshoe nails to pick out the meats, they might sell." There it is: the secret is discovered. The lowly and almost extinct horseshoe nail will sell cracked black walnuts. I have the reputation among local hardware dealers of having more horses than any man in Oklahoma. Black walnuts and horseshoe nails are reminiscent of the good old days down on the farm. The big fat meats of improved cracked walnuts peering through the sides of one or two pound cellophane bags pinned shut with a couple of horseshoe nails is a temptation few people can resist. Leave a few packages with your grocer or druggist and try it. I get 25c per pound for the whole walnuts, and 35c for those cracked. I sell several thousand pounds every season, and since the black walnut does not become rancid we sell them all the year. I have a down-town shop window to display nuts and fruits. We husk our walnuts by running them thru an ordinary corn-sheller, or by jacking up the rear wheel of an automobile, put on a mud chain, with a trough underneath, place car in gear and scoop walnuts into trough in front of the wheel. This will husk them rapidly and well. We should promote the growing of more improved black walnuts. Most catalog nurseries still list seedling walnuts. We sold 3000 Thomas and Myers black walnut trees to one mail order nursery, and they could have used more.
I tried all the California varieties, but these lacked hardiness. The Wiltz Mayette grew into a big fine tree but the 1940 Armistice Day freeze proved fatal. Breslau, Broadview, Schafer, and several others with some 25 Carpathian seedlings are just coming into bearing. Some give promise of adaptation here. I am determined to find a prolific and adapted variety. In the meantime we must content ourselves to grow this most attractive tree with its large waxy leaves and beautiful light-colored bark as a useful novelty.
Here is a surprise nut and tree to Oklahoma people. Both are unlike anything ever seen here. When they see this most unusual tree, with its tropical leaves and taste the delicious nuts they want a tree for their yard. Visitors stare in amazement at the immense catkins, and the grape-like clusters of nuts that develop later. This is a heartnut year. In most all varieties, ten to fifteen nuts to the cluster hang from the terminal of each twig. The leaves sun-burn easily. In spite of this we had a heavy crop of well-filled nuts. Of the several varieties I have, Stranger is the most prolific. Fodemaier, and Walters bloom late enough to escape our late spring freezes, are larger nuts, and should prove to be the best eventually.
Butternuts grow native in Missouri and Arkansas. Our section is most too hot and dry for them. However, I have a few grafts of Buckley and Weschecke bearing nicely, grafted on native black walnuts.
The wooded hills and river bottoms contain several kind of hickories. I have several pecan trees grafted to the Pleas and McCallister hybrids, but they are light producers in Oklahoma. I have 80 acres of river bottom hickory nuts in southwest Missouri that bear abundantly.
Persimmons grow native here. The Early Golden, an American variety, is very productive and ripens in September long before frost. Of the Orientals I have Tamopan, Eureka, Fuyu, Data Maru, Tanenashi. Most all bear heavily, in fact usually overbear. They stand our dry weather better than does the native persimmon. The very large fruit usually in colors of yellow and red attract much attention from visitors who think they are oranges. The persimmon belongs to the ebony family. The fruit contains as high as 40% sugar and in the Orient is a national dish. We propagate them by grafting our native stock.
The Pawpaw is native in Missouri and Arkansas and in the eastern part of Oklahoma. It is a beautiful tree and very productive. We shade the small trees here until they get started, after which they do quite well. The fruit is a favorite with many.
I think the greatest tragedy that ever befell American horticulture was the chestnut blight. Not so long ago every hill and mountain-side east of the Mississippi River, from near the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border was covered with native chestnut trees producing millions of pounds of food for man and beast. Today all has been devastated by this terrible blight and nothing remains save leafless trunks, like tombstones, in memory of a grand food tree.
In 1889, Tom and Mary Jones left their Kentucky mountain home to establish a new one in Oklahoma. As with all pioneers they brought seeds of many species with them, including chestnuts. I now own the farm they homesteaded. On it today there is an American chestnut tree 4 feet in diameter with a limb-spread of 50 feet. This grand tree has been an inspiration to me, surviving our hot dry summers and outliving two generations of fruit trees by its side. This beautiful tree, now nearly 60 years of age, was proof-sufficient that chestnuts would grow in Oklahoma. I began to plant chestnuts. I planted all the Riehl varieties—Progress, Dan Patch, Van Fleet and others. I also had Boone, an American and Japanese hybrid, brought about by Endicott, also of Illinois. These have borne well. Being isolated and outside of the native chestnut range, they have not blighted.
Since 1906, the Government has imported many thousand seed chestnuts from China. Later, it distributed little trees among the nut growers in an effort to re-establish chestnut growing in this country. This Chinese chestnut is blight-resistant. The best Chinese seedlings have been selected for propagation and have been named; of these I have Stoke (a hybrid), Hobson, Carr and several others. They are very prolific and often set burs the same year set out. Mr. Stoke sent me scions of the newer varieties this spring—Colby's hybrid, and Stoke seedling's Nos. 1 and 2. I grafted these on Chinese stocks; they set burs and matured nuts the same year grafted. The named varieties of Chinese Chestnut are the most precocious bearers of all the nut trees, are adapted and worthy of planting over a wide area. It should be the duty of every man who is interested in food trees to lend a hand to help re-establish chestnut growing in this country, now that we have blight-resistant varieties.
Almost within the shadow of our State Capitol, on a main highway leading from our fair city, I have planted 2-1/2 acres of blight-resistant Chinese chestnut trees, as a living memorial to our only child, Harold, who gave his life to our country in a Jap prison camp in the Philippines. We shall devote the rest of our days to this Living Memorial, and leave means for its continuance, so that passers-by in generations to come may be reminded of the world's greatest tree tragedy, and to demonstrate that chestnuts which once grew native over half the nation, and were laid low by a terrible disease, may again be grown.
In conclusion, let me warn you to improve your soil continually. NO TREE CAN BE BETTER THAN THE SOIL IN WHICH IT GROWS. No man is a greater exponent of soil improvement than one of Ohio's most illustrious sons, Louis Bromfield. In his book, "IN PLEASANT VALLEY," he says, "What we need is a new kind of pioneer, not the sort which cut down the forest, and burned off the prairies, and raped the land, but the kind which creates new forests and heals and restores the richness of the country God has given us."
Weather Conditions versus Nut Tree Crops
By J. F. Wilkinson, Indiana
Nut tree crops, like other crops, are dependent on heat, light and moisture in proper amount at the right time to produce a crop of nuts of normal quality; soil conditions also to be taken into consideration.
These conditions are probably more essential to a nut crop than most of us have realized; even the weather of the preceding season of late summer and fall may affect or determine next seasons nut crop.
The size of the nut depends on the weather in Spring and early Summer, for when the shell is once formed and hardened little more growth can be expected under any conditions, while plumpness of kernel depends on favorable conditions in late Summer and Fall.
After the shell is formed it fills with water which gradually changes to kernel, beginning at outer part next to shell, and unless there is plenty of heat, light, and moisture, kernel may not be filled, which will cause kernel to shrink, and not be plump, neither will it have normal germinating vitality, flavor, or weight.
In the past there have been seasons when nuts were not up to normal quality, but I did not realize then just what caused this condition, until a few years ago, I heard a party remark that a dry season was an indication of a good nut crop the following year.
Recalling back several seasons this, as a rule, has been true, especially where there was no unusually early Fall freezes, and Spring weather was favorable.
The season of 1944 here was one of the driest on record. Up until the middle of August, nut trees were showing signs of going dormant. Late in June, sap was getting so low that I did all my budding late in June, a month earlier than usual.
This early dry weather caused the nuts that year to be very small, especially on trees growing under less favorable conditions. Trees that were well cultivated produced nearer normal sized nuts.
About the middle of August rains began, and these nuts were well filled. The rains of August brought new life into the trees causing them to hold their foliage unusually late, and not being thoroughly dormant before cold weather, at which time no doubt many of the fruit buds were killed, with the result that a very light crop of nuts was set in Spring of 1945.
Spring opened very early with a bright warm March starting growth before usual time, even some trees set Pistillate bloom by the first of April; then later in April it began raining, and rains continued most of the Summer with much cool, cloudy weather with the result that most of the nuts failed to properly fill, or mature. This was true of hickory nuts, walnuts and pecans of both the named varieties and native seedlings.
While the 1945 nut crop was very light of both pecans and walnuts, I had a few trees with fair crops, though none of the nuts had well filled plump kernels.
Some of the first nuts to ripen seemed to have fairly well filled kernels after gathering and kernels got dried out, they shriveled and lacked flavor.
Walnuts seemed to suffer even worse than the pecans. I was not able to find a walnut tree in this section that produced good planting nuts; even farm crops suffered, especially corn of which much of the crop was not of normal quality.
The spring of 1946 began very much as in 1945 with a very warm March, again causing trees to start growth unusually early, and this spring, pistillate bloom was visible on some pecan trees in the last days of March. This weather condition remained until about the middle of April when cool rainy weather set in lasting for a month with frosts and light freezes as late as May 10th, which took all the nut crop in this section with the exception of a very few walnuts, and these were of very poor quality.
Another very peculiar thing happened in Spring of 1946. The Posey and Giles varieties, both of which are usually heavy bloomers of Stamen bloom, failed to set a single catkin this spring, while trees of other varieties growing near them set heavy crops of catkin bloom.
The behavior of nut trees in this section in the past two years, both of which have been unusual seasons, is evidence that nut crops are subject to weather conditions, not only of the present, but of previous season as well.
Nut Tree Notes from Southwestern Ohio
Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
Influence of Stock on Scion
At my farm home in the northwestern part of Hamilton County, Ohio, at about 800 feet elevation, on clay soil, the Carpathian walnuts commence growth too early in spring for their own good and my comfort, well knowing what lurking Jack Frost can do to them. These Carpathian walnuts are uninfluenced by their black walnut understocks, the Schafer variety alone excepted. I also have two Schafer trees that came grafted apparently on Carpathian understock; but these start as early as the others.
The Schafer exception, to which I refer, is grafted on a native black walnut stock to which the Broadview variety also had been grafted. (The Schafer variety is patented. I had permission to use the graft as I did.) With these two hardy varieties in the same tree, which itself is a late starter in the spring, I unwittingly laid the foundation for an unanticipated result. This became apparent after a severe early spring frost in 1945 caused me to examine all my hardy (Persian) walnut trees to note the effects of that freeze. The new growth of Broadview on the same tree with the Schafer was frozen, while the Schafer with the rest of the tree was dormant. The new growth of the other two Schafer trees; of Breslau top-worked on two trees; of Broadview on another tree; of an unknown variety on still another tree; all trees being native black walnut, all were frozen. The same was true as to Breslau seedlings and also a Kremenetz on Minnesota black walnut. Of course, all these trees staged come-backs with no bad after effects.
In April, 1945, we had a severe hail storm that clipped clean the second new growth from these trees. The topworked Schafer was still dormant, while its companion Broadview in the same tree suffered like the rest. The spring of 1946 showed the topworked Schafer still dormant, while all the others were active. The Broadview on the same tree with the Schafer was almost in full leaf before the Schafer and the rest of the understock showed signs of growth. A number of persons thought the rest of the tree was dead.
The Keystone Black Walnut
I have a cut leaf black walnut tree, of value as an ornamental, which originated in Pennsylvania. Although it had catkins for several seasons, not until the past season did it produce, and then only one lone nut. The husk of that nut had a smooth exterior similar to that of a Persian walnut; but it lacked the characteristic black walnut odor. In fact, it had none. If this tree has any Persian walnut blood in its makeup, that hybrid strain may have manifested itself in the foliage; in any event, there was an influence of some kind that caused the change in the usual type of foliage. I was more interested in planting the nut to see what kind of foliage the seedling will have rather than in cracking it for examination to determine its value as a nut.
The parent Throp tree stood bordering a road along the Ralph Throp farm in Indiana, 40 miles from my home. About six years ago, with the permission of Mr. Throp, and being a very old tree, it was cut down as its branches interfered with overhanging wires. When I last saw the stump early in 1942, it had staged a come-back by throwing numerous suckers. However, the main point in mentioning this tree is to register the fact that it bears two kinds of nuts, single-lobed, or peanut type, and doubled-lobed, with the peanut type predominating. A Throp tree of mine showed this variation, and on my next visit to the Throp farm, in the presence of Mr. G. A. Gray, one of our members, Mr. Throp definitely confirmed the fact that the parent tree bore the two kinds of nuts aforesaid and that the peanut type predominated.
I am prompted to make this statement for the reason that one of our prominent members, well versed in the performance of our best varieties of northern nut trees, had not been aware of the dual performance of the Throp tree, until I called it to his attention.
Black Walnut Nursery Studies
S. B. Chase, Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, Tennessee
Briefly summarized, here are the results of a series of black walnut nursery studies undertaken in 1940 and 1941 by the Tennessee Valley Authority. The object was to develop nursery practices which would yield the large uniform seedlings most desirable as understocks for grafted or budded trees.
Germination and Stratification
It is known that either fall- or spring-planted walnuts germinate readily if the nuts are viable and if those planted in the spring are properly stratified over winter. To find out just what effect spring and fall planting has on germination and to compare various methods of stratification, three seedlots were given the following treatments on November 28, 1940:
1. Planted in seedbeds 5. Stratified at 65-75 deg. F 2. Stratified outdoors 6. Stored dry at 45-50 deg. F 3. Stratified at 38-40 deg. F 7. Stored dry at 45-50 deg. F 4. Stratified at 45-50 deg. F subsequently soaked in water prior to planting
Nuts from the three seedlots were kept separate and planted in random plots in three seedbeds. Each treatment was therefore represented nine times with a total of 162 nuts in each treatment.
To determine whether time of outdoor stratification has any effect on germination and emergence, three other seedlots were treated as follows:
1. Planted November 28, 1940 5. Stratified January 30, 1941 2. Stratified November 28, 1940 6. Stratified February 20, 1941 3. Stratified December 19, 1940 7. Stratified March 13, 1941 4. Stratified January 9, 1941
These three seedlots were also planted in three seedbeds with a total of 135 in each treatment.
With one exception, all nuts in the two tests were planted April 3, 1941. One of the two lots stored dry was soaked in water for five days, then planted April 7. Seedbeds were equipped with screen wire cloth at a depth of 10 inches.
Results: In both tests, fall nut planting resulted in the best germination. Germination was higher for nuts planted in the fall than for nuts stratified on the same day for spring planting, although the difference was significant only in the second test. Outdoor stratification produced the best results, followed in order by indoor stratification at 38-40 deg. F and 45-50 deg. F. None of the nuts stored dry germinated. Time of stratification proved to be important. Any delay after November 28 resulted in reduced and retarded germination and consequently smaller seedlings.
Depth of Planting and Seed Orientation
The effect of planting depth on germination and on seedling size was investigated by planting black walnuts one, two, three, and four inches deep. Other nuts were planted in three positions: (1) radicle end up, (2) on side, and (3) radicle end down.
Results: Germination was unaffected by any of these treatments. The emergence of the seedlings was retarded by deep planting and hence the final diameter of seedlings was smaller. There was little difference in seedlings from nuts planted one and two inches deep but they were noticeably larger than those planted 3 and 4 inches deep. Planting nuts with the radicle end down invariably produced seedlings with undesirable crooks in the root-stem region which made them unsuitable for grafting. Planting nuts radicle end up produced straighter seedlings than planting them on their side. The latter method was the most economical for nursery practice.