Northern Nut Growers
The American Horticultural Society
Thirty-fourth Annual Report
Officers and committees 3
State Vice-Presidents 4
List of members 5
Foreword—W. C. Deming 20
Report of the Secretary for 1942-43 20
Report of the Treasurer for 1942-43 21
The Status of Nut Growing in 1943. Survey Report 22 John Davidson, Chairman of Committee.
Side-lights on the 1943-44 Survey 47
Seasonal Zone Map of United States 51
Juglone: The active Agent in Walnut Toxicity—George A. Gries 52
Possible Black Walnut Toxicity on Tomato and Cabbage—Otto Reinking 56
Preliminary Studies on Catkin Forcing and Pollen Storage of Corylus and Juglans—L. G. Cox 58
Storage and Germination of Nuts of Several Species of Juglans—W. C. Muenscher and Babette I. Brown 61
A Key to Some Seedlings of Walnuts (Juglans)—W. C. Muenscher and Babette I. Brown 62
Further Tests with Black Walnut Varieties—L. H. MacDaniels and J. E. Wilde 64
Shelling Black Walnuts—G. J. Korn 83
Better Butternuts, Please—S. H. Graham 85
The Use of Fertilizer in a Walnut Orchard—L. K. Hostetter 88
Lime and Fertilizers for our Black Walnut Trees—Seward Berhow 89
The Propagation of Black Walnuts through Budding—Sterling Smith 89
Northern Nut Growing—Joseph Gerardi 91
Nut Puttering in an Off Year—W. C. Deming 94
Nut Nursery Notes—H. F. Stoke 96
Report from the Tennessee Valley—Thomas G. Zarger 98
Report from Minnesota—Carl Weschcke 99
Be Thrifty with Nut Trees—Carl Weschcke 104
Report of Season 1943—George Hebden Corsan 105
American Walnut Manufacturers Association Carries out Industrial Forestry Program—W. C. Finley 106
The Crath Carpathian Walnut in Illinois—A. S. Colby 107
Ohio Nut Growers' Meeting—G. J. Korn 110
Walnut and Heartnut Varieties; Notes and Remarks—J. U. Gellatly 112
Experiment Station Investigates Tree Believed to be the Oldest Chestnut in Connecticut 120
Report of Committee of Ohio Nut Growers—A. A. Bungart 122
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg—Obituary 126
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION
President—CARL WESCHCKE, 96 SOUTH WABASHA ST., ST. PAUL, MINN.
Vice-President—DR. L. H. MACDANIELS, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N.Y.
Secretary—GEORGE L. SLATE, EXPERIMENT STATION, GENEVA, N.Y.
Treasurer—D. C. SNYDER, CENTER POINT, IOWA.
THE OFFICERS—and J. F. WILKINSON, ROCKPORT, INDIANA, and DR. A. S. COLBY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILLINOIS.
Auditing—DR. WILLIAM ROHRBACHER, CHAIRMAN.
Finance—CARL F. WALKER, CHAIRMAN, ZENAS H. ELLIS, HARRY R. WEBER.
Press and Publication—DR. W. C. DEMING, CHAIRMAN, MRS. ALAN BUCKWALTER, CLARENCE A. REED, GEORGE L. SLATE, DR. L. E. THEISS.
Varieties and Contest—ALAN R. BUCKWALTER, CHAIRMAN, JOHN W. HERSHEY, C. A. REED, D. C. SNYDER, H. F. STOKE.
Survey—JOHN DAVIDSON, CHAIRMAN.
Exhibits—G. H. CORSAN, CHAIRMAN, GILBERT BECKER, PAUL C. CRATH, S. H. GRAHAM, HOMER L. JACOBS, G. J. KORN, O. C. LOUNSBERRY, SARGENT H. WELLMAN.
Program—GILBERT BECKER, CHAIRMAN, JOHN BREGGER, SPENCER B. CHASE, DR. H. L. CRANE, G. J. KORN, J. W. MCKAY, CLARENCE REED, G. H. CORSAN, PROF. R. B. THOMSON, W. J. STRONG, DR. CONELLY, PROF. WHITE, PROF. DWIGHT.
Membership—DR. J. RUSSELL SMITH, CHAIRMAN, L. V. KLINE, SPENCER B. CHASE, MISS MILDRED JONES, J. F. WILKINSON, MISS AMELIA RIEHL, H. F. STOKE, S. H. GRAHAM, D. C. SNYDER, CARL WESCHCKE, JOHN W. HERSHEY, GILBERT BECKER, HARRY R. WEBER.
DEAN OF THE ASSOCIATION
DR. ROBERT T. MORRIS, STAMFORD, CONNECTICUT.
ZENAS H. ELLIS, FAIRHAVEN, VERMONT.
EDITOR OF PUBLICATIONS
DR. W. C. DEMING, LITCHFIELD, CONN.
AMERICAN FRUIT GROWER, 1770 ONTARIO STREET, CLEVELAND, OHIO.
State Vice Presidents
Arkansas Prof. N. F. Drake Alberta, Canada A. L. Young British Columbia, Canada J. U. Gellatly California Will J. Thorpe Canal Zone L. C. Leighton Connecticut George D. Pratt, Jr. District of Columbia L. H. Mitchell Georgia Walter P. Pike Illinois Dr. A. S. Colby Indiana Hon. Hugh D. Wickens Iowa D. C. Snyder Kansas Frank E. Borst Kentucky E. C. Rice Maine Herman G. Perkins Maryland Dr. H. L. Crane Massachusetts Sargent H. Wellman Mexico Julio Grandjean Michigan Harry Burgart Minnesota Carl Weschcke Missouri Victor H. Schmidt Nebraska William Caha New Hampshire Prof. L. P. Latimer New Jersey A. R. Buckwalter New York Dr. L. H. MacDaniels North Carolina D. R. Dunstan Ohio Harry R. Weber Ontario, Canada Rev. Paul C. Crath Oregon C. E. Schuster Pennsylvania John Rick Quebec, Canada Dr. R. H. McKibben Rhode Island Phillip Allen South America Celedonio V. Pereda South Carolina John T. Bregger Tennessee L. V. Kline Texas Y. D. Carroll Vermont Zenas H. Ellis Virginia Dr. J. Russell Smith Washington Major H. B. Ferris West Virginia Dr. John E. Cannaday Wisconsin Marvin Dopkins
Northern Nut Growers Association
Members as of May 19, 1944
McDaniel, John, McDaniel Nursery Specialties Co., Hartselle Orr, Lovie, Penn-Orr-McDaniel Orchards, R. No. 1, Danville Richards, Paul N., R. No. 1, Box 308, Birmingham
*Drake, Prof. N. F., Fayetteville. Johnson, Searles, Japton Williams, Jerry F., R. No. 1, Viola
Armstrong Nurseries, 408 No. Euclid Ave., Ontario Gray, G. A., 1507 11th St., Santa Monica Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3344 H. St., Sacramento Kemple, W. H., 222 West Ralston St., Ontario Meyer, James R., Guayale Research Project, Box 1708, Salinas Parsons, Chas. E., Felix Gillet Nursery, Nevada City Thorpe, William J., 3203 Anna St., San Francisco Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan St., Taft
Cook, C., 6226 Vine St., Vancouver, B. C. Corsan, George H., Echo Valley, Islington, Ontario Crath, Rev. Paul C., R. No. 2, Connington, Ontario Creed, Fred H., 276 Sandwich St. W., Windsor, Ontario Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario Gellatly, J. U., Westbank, B. C. Giegerich, H. C., Con-Mine, Yellow Knife, N W T Housser, Levi, Beamsville, Ontario * Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, Box 852, Guelph, Ontario Papple, Elton E., R. No. 3, Gainesville, Ontario Porter, Gordon, Y.M.C.A., Windsor, Ontario Somers, Gordon L., 37 London St., Sherbrooke, Quebec Stephenson, Mrs. J. H., North Bend, B. C. Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. Troup, Alex, R. No. 1, Jordon Station, Ontario Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ontario Wood, C. F., c/o Hobbs Glass Limited, 689 Notre Dame St., West Montreal, P. Q. Yates, J., 2150 E. 65th Ave., Vancouver, B. C. Young, A. L., Brooks, Alta.
Leighton, L. C., Box 1452, Cristobal
Colt, W. A., Lyons Wilder, W. E., 915 West 4th, La Junta Williams, Erasmus W., P. O. Box 966, Durango
Biology Department, Avon Old Farms, Avon Coote, Albert W., 1104 Farmington Ave., West Hartford. David, Alexander M., 480 So. Main St., West Hartford Dawley, Arthur E., R. No. 1, Norwich Deming, Dr. W. C., Litchfield Frueh, Alfred J., West Cornwall or (34 Perry St., N.Y., N.Y.) * Huntington, A. M., Stanerigg Farms, Bethel Jennings, Clyde, 30 West Main St., Waterbury Lehr, Frederick L., 45 Elihu St., Hamden Lobdell, Mrs. Frank C., 225 Verna Hill Rd., Fairfield Milde, Karl F., Town Farm Rd., Litchfield * Morris, Dr. Robert T., RFD., Stamford * Newmaker, Adolph, R. No. 1, Rockville Page, Donald T., Box 228, R. No. 1, Danielson Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater Rourke, Robert U., R. 1, Pomfret Center, Conn. Senior, Sam P., R. No. 1, Bridgeport Walsh, James A., c/o Armstrong Rubber Co., West Haven White, Heath E., Box 630, Westport White, George E., R. No. 2, Andover
Lake, Edward C., Sharpless Rd., Hockessin
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
American Potash Inst., Inc., Librarian, 1155 16th St., N. W., Washington Bush, Dr. Vannevar, 4901 Hillbrook Lane, Washington Littlepage, Thomas P., Union Trust Bldg., Washington Mitchell, Col. Lennard H., 2657 Woodley Rd. N. W., Washington
Cook, Dr. Ernest A., c/o County Health Dept., Quincy McDaniel, J. C., Box 1111, Haines City
Eidson, G. Clyde, 1700 Westwood Ave. S. W., Atlanta Hunter, H. Reid, 561 Lakeshore Dr. N. E., Atlanta Skyland Farms, S. C. Noland & C. H. Crawford, Prop., 161 Spring St. N. W., Atlanta
Dryden, Lynn, Peck Swayne, Samuel F., Orofino
Achenbach, W. N., 410 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago Adams, James S., R. 1, Hinsdale Allen, Theodore R., Delavan Anthony, A. B., R. No. 3, Sterling Baber, Adin, Kansas Best, R. B., Eldred Bolle, Dr. A. C., 324 E. State St., Jacksonville Bontz, Mrs. Lillian, 161 W. Mass. Ave., Peoria Bronson, Earl A., 800 Simpson St., Evanston Churchill, Woodford M., 4250 Drexel Blvd., Chicago Colby, Dr. Arthur S., University of Illinois, Urbana Colehour, Francis H., 411 Brown Bldg., Rockford Dintelman, L. F., Belleville Duis, J. G., Shattuc Edmunds, Mrs. Palmer D., La Hogue Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frey, Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago Frierdich, Fred, 3907 W. Main St., Belleville Gerardi, Joseph, O'Fallon Gott, Lawrence E., P. O. Box No. 104, Enfield Gusler, Carl, 213 N. Taylor Ave., Oak Park Haeseler, L. M., 1959 W. Madison St., Chicago Helmle, Herman C., 123 N. Walnut St., Springfield Jungk, Adolph, 817 Washington Ave., Alton Kilner, F. R., c/o American Nurseryman, 508 So. Dearborn St., Chicago Kinsel, Dr. O. A., Box 53, Morrison Knobloch, Miss Margaret, Arthur Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Hammond Livermore, Ogden, 801 Forest Ave., Evanston Logan, George F., Dallas City Love, W. Wray, 601 E. Boone St., Salem Maxwell, Leroy O., 312 W. Avondale St., Champaign Oakes, Royal, Bluffs Peterson, Dr. Joel A., 602 University Ave., Urbana Powell, Charles A., Hickory St., Jerseyville Remaly, Howard A., 1120 E. Maple St., Kankakee Riehl, Miss Amelia, Evergreen Heights, Godfrey Trobaugh, Frank E., West Frankfort Valley Landscape Co., Box 688, Elgin Van Cleave, Bruce, 1049 Chatfield Rd., Winnetka Walantas, John, 3464 Lituanica Ave., Chicago Werner, Edward H., 282 Ridgeland Ave., Elmhurst Whitford, A. M., Farina
Behr, J. E., Laconia Boyer, Clyde C., Nabb Gentry, Herbert M., R. No. 2, Noblesville Minton, Charles F., R. No. 5, Huntington Morey, B. F., 453 S. 5th St., Clinton Olson, Albert L., 1230 Nuttman Ave., Fort Wayne Prell, Carl F., 803 West Colfax Ave., South Bend Skinner, Dr. Chas. H., Indiana University, Bloomington Sly, Donald R., R. No. 3, Rockport Tormohlen, Willard, 321 Cleveland St., Gary Wallick, Ford, R. No. 4, Peru Warren, E. L., New Richmond Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport
Andrew, Dr. Earl V., Maquoketa Beeghly, Dale, Pierson Berhow, S., Berhow Nurseries, Huxley Boice, R. H., R. 1, Nashua Cerveny, Frank L., R. No. 4, Cedar Rapids Christensen, Everett G., Gilmore City Crumley, Joe F., 221 Park Rd., Iowa City Ferris, Wayne, Hampton Gardner, Clark, c/o Gardner Nurseries, Osage Harrison, L. E., Nashua Hill, Clarence S., Hilburn Stock Farm, Minburn Huen, E. F., Eldora Iowa State Horticultural Society, State House, Des Moines Kivell, Ivan E., R. No. 3, Greene Lehmann, F. W., Jr., 3220 John Lynde Rd., Des Moines Lounsberry, C. C., 209 Howard Ave., Ames Mahon, Milton, Blakesburg McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant Rohrbacher, Dr. Wm., 811 East College St., Iowa City Schlagenbusch Bros., R. No. 3, Ft. Madison Schlanbusch, Dr. O. E., 350 Magowan Ave., Iowa City Snyder, D. C., Center Point Steffen, R. F., Box 62, Sioux City Van Meter, W. L., Adel Wade, Miss Ida May, 1410 Avalon Ave., Waterloo Wingert, John O., Dallas Center Wood, Roy A., Castana
Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee St., Leavenworth Boyd, Elmer, R. No. 1, Box 95, Oskaloosa Funk, M. D., 1501 N. Tyler St., Topeka Hofman, Rayburn, R. No. 5, Manhattan Leavenworth Nurseries, R. No. 3, Leavenworth Schroeder, Emmett H., 800 W. 17th, Hutchinson Wise, H. S., 579 W. Douglas Ave., Wichita
Alves, Robert H., c/o Nehi Bottling Co., Henderson Baughn, Cullie, R. No. 6, Box 1, Franklin Bureau of School Service, University of Kentucky, Lexington Cornett, Lester, Box 566, Lynch Gooch, Perry, R. No. 1, Oakville Moss, Dr. C. A., Williamsburg Rice, E. C., Absher Tatum, W. G., No. R. 4, Lebanon Watt, R. M., R. No. 1, Lexington Whittinghill, Lonnie M., Box 10, Love
Fullilove, J. Hill., Box 157, Shreveport Louisiana State University and A. & M. College, General Library, University
Pike, Radcliffe B., Lubec
Crane, Dr. H. L., Bureau of Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Forest Pathology, Plant Industry, USDA, Beltsville Hodgson, Wm. C., R. No. 1, White Hall Hoopes, Wilmer, Forest Hill Kemp, Homer S., Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne Kingsville Nurseries, Kingsville Lewis, Dean, Bel Air McCollum, Blaine, White Hall McKay, J. W., Bureau of Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Nogus, Mrs. Herbert, 4514 32nd St., Mt. Rainier Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown Purnell, J. Edgar, Spring Hill Rd., Salisbury Reed, C. A., Bureau of Plant Industry Station, Beltsville Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Ave., Baltimore
Allen, Edward E., Hotel Ambassador, Cambridge Beauchamp, A. A., 603 Boylston St., Boston Booson, Campbell, 30 State St., Boston Brown, Daniel L., 60 State St., Boston Chatterton, R. M., 44 Cedar St., Malden Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro Fritze, E., Osterville Garlock, Mott A., 17 Arlington Rd., Longmeadow Gauthier, Louis R., Wood Hill Rd., Monson Groff, George H., 46 Chestnut St., Brookline Kaan, Dr. Helen W., Wellesley College, Wellesley Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon Kibrick, I. S., 106 Main St., Brockton LaBeau, Henry A., 1556 Massachusetts Ave., North Adams McTavish, W. C., 50 Congress St., Boston Perells, Walter J., North-Falmouth Rice, Horace J., 5 Elm St., Springfield *Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley Swartz, H. P., 206 Checopee St., Checopee Short, I. W., 299 Washington St., Taunton Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton Ave., Hyde Park Trudeau, Dr. A. E., 14 Railroad St., Holyoke Van Meter, Dr. R. A., French Hall, M. S. C., Amherst Wellman, Sargent H., Windridge, Topsfield Westcott, Samuel K., 79 Richview Ave., North Adams Weston Nurseries, Inc., Brown & Winter Sts., Weston Weymouth, Paul W., 183 Plymouth St., Holbrook
Grandjean, Julio, P. O. Box 748, Mexico, D. F.
Andersen, Charles, Andersen Evergreen Nurseries, Scottville Aylesworth, C. F., 920 Pinecrest Dr., Ferndale Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit, 5 Becker, Gilbert, Climax Binder, Charles, 34 E. Michigan Ave., Battle Creek Boylan, P. B., Cloverdale Bradley, L. J., R. No. 1, Springport Buell, Dr. M. F., Dept. of Health & Recreation, Dearborn Bumler, Malcolm R., 1089 Lakeview, Detroit Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, R. No. 2, Union City Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Co., Galesburg Cardinell, H. A., Michigan State College, E. Lansing Corsan, H. H., R. No. 1, Hillsdale Daubenmeyer, H., 7647 Sylvester, Detroit Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Ave., Highland Park, 3 Farrington, Robert A., Chittenden Nursery, U. S. F. A., Wellston Gage, Nina M., 6440 Kensington Rd., Wixom Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence Healey, Scott, R. No. 2, Otsego Hewetson, Prof. F. N., Michigan State College, East Lansing **Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek Korn, G. J., R. No. 1, Richland Lee, Michael, Lapeer Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit, 14 Lewis, Clayton A., 1219 Pine St., Port Huron Mann, Charles W., 221 Cutler St., Allegan Mason, Harold E., 1580 Montie, Lincoln Park McShane, Gerald, 1320 Franklin St. S. E., Grand Rapids McMillan, Vincent U., 17926 Woodward Ave., Detroit, 3 Miller, Louis, 1300 O'Keefe, Cassopolis Ricker, John E., 14642 Marlowe Ave., Detroit Scofield, Mr. and Mrs., Box 215, Woodland Stocking, Frederick N., Harrisville Stotz, Raleigh R., 1546 Franklin S. E., Grand Rapids, 6 Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester Way, Birmingham Wise, C. E., R. No. 3, Milford
Andrews, Miss Frances E., 48 Park View Terrace, Minneapolis Cothran, John C., 512 N. 19th Ave. E., Duluth Grosch, Robert H., 2732 Drew Ave. S., Minneapolis Hodgson, R. E., Dept. of Agriculture, S. E. Exp. Station, Waseca Skrukrud, Baldwin, Sacred Heart Vaux, Harold C., R. No. 4, Faribault Weschcke, Carl, 96 So. Wabasha St., St. Paul
Barnes, Dr. F. M., Jr., 4952 Maryland Ave., St. Louis Bucksath, Charles E., Dalton Fisher, J. B., R. R. H. 1, Pacific Hay, Leander, Gilliam Johns, Jeannette F., R. No. 1, Festus Ochs, C. T., Box 291, Salem Owen, Dr. Lyle, Branson Richterkessing, Ralph, R. No. 1, St. Charles Schmidt, Victor H., 5821 Virginia, Kansas City Stevenson, Hugh, Elsberry Thompson, J. D., 600 West 3rd St., Kansas City
Brand, George, R. No. 5, Box 60, Lincoln Caha, William, Wahoo Clark, Ivan E., Concord DeLong, F. S., 1510 2nd Corso, Nebraska City Ferguson, Albert B., Dunbar Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Garden, Box 209, Hebron Hoyer, L. B., 7554 Maple St., Omaha Lydick, J. J., Craig Wever, Francis E., Box 312, Sutherland White, Bertha G., 7615 Leighton Ave., Lincoln
Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro Latimer, Prof. L. P., Department of Horticulture, Durham Ryan, Miss Agnes, Mill Rd., Durham Vannevar, Dr. Bush, E. Jaffrey or (4901 Hillbrook Lane, Washington, D. C.)
Blake, Harold, Box 93, Saddle River Brewer, J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn Bottom, R. J., 41 Robertson Rd., West Orange Buch, Philip O., 106 Rockaway Ave., Rockaway Buckwalter, Alan R., Flemington Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Flemington Case, Lynn B., Mountain Ave. & Piedmont Dr., Bound Brook Collins, Joseph N., 769 First St., Westfield Cumberland Nursery, R. No. 1, Millville Donnelly, John H., Mountain Ice Co., 51 Newark St., Hoboken Dougherty, Wm. H., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton Fuhlbruegge, Edward, R. No. 1, Box 21, Pittstown Gardenier, Dr. Harold C., Westwood Gottein, Louis, 1081 So. Clinton Ave., Trenton *Jacques, Lee W., 74 Waverly Place, Jersey City Jewett, Edmund Gale, R. No. 1, Port Murray McCulloch, J. D., 73 George St., Freehold Mueller, R., R. 1, Box 81, Westwood Ritchie, Walter M., 402 St. George St., Rahway Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Andover Szalay, Dr. S., 931 Garrison Ave., Teaneck Terhune, Gilbert V. P., Apple Acres, Newfoundland Todd, E. Murray, R. No. 2, Matawan Tolley, Fred C., 223 Berkeley Ave., Bloomfield Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Rd., South Orange White, Co. J. H., Jr., Picatinny Arsenal, Dover Williams, Harold G., Box 344, Ramsey Youngberg, Harry W., 304 Hillside Ave., Nutley
Bryan, Lawrence, P. O. Box 1053, Artesia Williams, Erasmus D., Box No. 6, Wagon Mound
Benton, William A., Wassaic Bernath's Nursery, R. No. 1, Poughkeepsie Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I. Bixby, Mrs. Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin Black, Mrs. William A., 450 W. 24th St., New York Brinckeroff, John H., 150-09 Hillside Ave., Jamaica Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham St., Rochester Brooks, William G., Monroe Collins, James F., Cold Spring Rd., Stanfordville Cowan, Harold, 643 Southern Bldg., The Bronx, New York Davis, Clair, 140 Broadway, Lynbrook De Schauensee, Mrs. A. M., Easterhill Farm, Chester Dutton, Walter, 264 Terrace Park, Rochester Ellwanger, Mrs. William D., 510 East Ave., Rochester Fagley, Richard M., 29 Perry St., New York, 14 Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Rd., Hilton Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport Garcia, M., 62 Rugby Rd., Brooklyn Graham, S. H., R. No. 5, Ithaca Graves, Dr. Arthur H., Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Gressel, Henry, R. No. 2, Mohawk Guillaume, Ronald P., 5210 Maine St., Wmsville Gwinn, Ralph W., 522 5th Ave., New York Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., New Paltz Heckelman, Edward, 245 S. Franklin St., Hempstead Hubbell, James F., Mayro Bldg., Utica Iddings, William, 165 Ludlow St., New York Kelly, Mortimer B., 17 Battery Place, New York Kirstein, Edward K., 89 Westminster Rd., Rochester *Lewis, Clarence, 1000 Park Ave., New York Little, George, Ripley *MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca Maloney Bros. Nursery Co., Inc., Danville Mevius, William E., East Church St., Eden Miller, J. E., R. No. 1, Naples *Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E. 44th St., New York Newell, P. F., 53 Elm St., Nassau Oeder, Dr. Lambert R., 551 Fifth Ave., New York Ohligor, Louis H., R. No. 2, New City Phillips, Clyde F., 11 Olive Ave., Batavia Pickhardt, Dr. Otto C., 117 East 80th St., New York Pomeroy, Robert Watson, Wassaic Potter, Wilson, Jr., Pomona Country Club, Suffern Price, J., 385 Arbuckle Ave., Cedarhurst, L. I. Rebillard, Frederick, 164 Lark St., Albany Salzer, George, 169 Garford Rd., Rochester Schlegel, Charles P., 990 South Ave., Rochester Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Ave., Buffalo Schwartz, Mortimer L., 1243 Boynton Ave., Bronx, New York Slate, Prof. George L., State Agricultural Experiment Sta., Geneva Smith, Gilbert L., State School, Wassaic Smith, Jay L., Chester Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook Stern-Montegny, Hubert, Erbonia Farm, Gardiner Sucsy, Emil J., West Nyack Warren, Herbert E., P. O. Box 109, Norwich Wilson, Mrs. Ida J., Candor, New York Windisch, Richard P., W. E. Burnet & Co., 11 Wall St., New York *Wissman, Mrs. F. de R., 9 W. 54th St., New York
Dunstan, R. T., Greenboro College, Greenboro Malcolm, Van R., Celo P. O., Yancey County Parks, C. H., R. No. 2, Asheville
Billups, Richard A., Hales Bldg., Oklahoma City Clifton, Edward C., 1325 East 66th St., R. No. 2, Tulsa Hirschi's Nursery, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City Hughes, C. V., 5600 N. W. 16, R. No. 5, Oklahoma City Jarrett, C. F., 2208 W. 40th St., Tulsa Meek, E. B., R. No. 2, Wynnewood Swan, Oscar E., Jr., 1431 E. 35th St., Tulsa
Bungart, A. A., Avon Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland, 20 Cole, Mrs. J. R., 163 Woodland Ave., Columbus Cook, H. C., R. No. 1, Box 125, Leetonia Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira Crooks, John L., 4600 Chester, Cleveland Davidson, John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia Diller, Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Experiment Sta., Wooster Dubois, Wilber, & Son, Madisonville, Cincinnati, 27 Emeh, Frank, Genoa Fickes, W. R., R. No. 1, Wooster Franks, M. L., R. No. 1, Montpelier Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 1190 East Blvd., Cleveland Gauly, Dr. Edward, 1110 Euclid Ave., Cleveland Gerber, E. P., Kidron Gerhardt, Gustave A., 13125 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati Gerstenmafer, John A., 18 Pond S. W., Massillon Hoch, Gordon F., 6292 Glade Ave., Cincinnati Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Rd., Cleveland Irish, Charles F., 418 105th St., Cleveland Jacobs, Homer L., c/o Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent Jacobs, Mason, 3003 Jacobs Rd., Youngstown Kappel, Owen, Bolivar Kintzel, Frank M., 2506 Briarcliffe Ave., Cincinnati, 13 Kirby, R. L., Box 131, R. No. 1, Sharonville Kratzer, George, Kidron Lacknett, G. S., 510 E. Main St., Newark Lehmann, Carl, Union Trust Bldg., Cincinnati Madison, Arthur E., 13608 5th Ave. E., Cleveland McBride, William B., 2398 Brandon Rd., Columbus, 8 Meikle, William J., 730 Thornhill Dr., Cleveland Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Ave., Toledo Ochs, C. T., Box 291, Salem Ochs, Norman M., R. No. 2, Brunswick Osborn, Frank C., 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland Ransbottom, Earl A., 1057 W. Market St., Lima Scarff's Sons, W. N., New Carlisle Shelton, E. M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood, 7 Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindberg Ave. N. E., Massillon Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South St., Vermillion Spring Hill Nurseries Co., Tipp City Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Ave., Apt. B-1, Newark Walker, Carl F., 2351 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland *Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6th St., Cincinnati Weber, Martha R., R. No. 1, Morgan Rd., Cloves Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Dr. N. E., Cleveland
Carlton Nursery Co., Carlton Doharian, S. H., P. O. Box 346, Eugene Flanagan, George C., 909 Terminal Sales Bldg., Portland Miller, John E., R. No. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego Russ, E., R. No. 1, Halsey Schuster, C. E., Horticulturist, Corvallis
Allaman, R. P., R. No. 1, Harrisburg Allen, Lt. Col. Thomas H., St. Thomas Banks, H. C., R. No. 1, Hollortown Barnhart, Emmert M., R. No. 4, Waynesboro Baum, Dr. F. L., Boyertown Beard, H. K., R. No. 1, Sheridan Blair, Dr. G. D., 702 N. Homewood Ave., Pittsburgh Bowen, John C., R. No. 1, Macungie Brenneman, John E., R. No. 6, Lancaster Brown, Morrison, Carson Long Military Academy, New Bloomfleld Creasy, Luther P., Catawissa Dewey, Richard, Box 41, Peckville Driver, Warren M., R. No. 4, Bethlehem Diefenderfer, C. E., 918 3rd St., Fullerton Duckham, William C., R. No. 2, Allison Park Ebling, Aaron L., R. No. 2, Reading Ellenberger, Herman A., 333 S. Burrows St., State College Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters Gebhardt, F. C., 140 East 29th St., Erie Heckler, George Snyder, Hatfield Heilman, R. H., 2303 Beechwood Blvd., Pittsburgh Hershey, John W., Nut Tree Nurseries, Downingtown High Tor Nursery, R. No. 6, Pittsburgh Hostetter, C. F., Bird-In-Hand Hostetter, L. K., R. No. 3, Lancaster Jackson, Schuyler, New Hope Johnson, Robert F., R. No. 5, Box 56, Crafton Jones, Dr. Truman W., Coatesville Jones, Miss Mildred, P. O. Box 356, Lancaster Kaufman, M. M., Clarion Kirk, DeNard B., Forest Grove Kline, Dr. Florence M., 909 Arlington Apts., Corner Acken and Center Aves., Pittsburgh Leach, Will, Court House, Scranton Long, Carleton C., 141 Walnut St., Beaver Losch, Walter, 133 E. High St., Topston Lutz, Stanley W., Egypt Mattoon, H. Gleason, 1008 Commercial Trust Bldg., Philadelphia McCartney, T. Lupton, Room 1, Horticultural Bldg., State College Miller, Robert O., 3rd and Ridge St., Emmaus Moyer, Philip S., Union Trust Bldg., Harrisburg Owens, G. F., 700 E. Line Ave., Ellwood City Reidler, Paul G., Ashland Rial, John, 528 Harrison Ave., Greensburg *Rick, John, 439 Pennsylvania Sq., Reading Ruch, George, Huntingdon Valley Rupp, Edward E., Jr., 57 W. Pomfret St., Carlisle Sameth, Sigmund, Grandeval Farm, R. No. 3, Kutztown Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy Schmidt, Albert J., 534 Smithfield St., Pittsburgh Siebley, J. W., Star Route, Landisburg Shelly, David B., R. No. 2, Elizabethtown Silin, I. J., Echo Mountain, Fairview Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore Southampton Nurseries, Southampton Stoebener, Harry W., 6227 Penn. Ave., Pittsburgh Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., Bucknell University, Lewisburg Waggoner, Charles W., 432 Harmony Ave., Rochester *Wister, John C., Clarkson Ave. and Wister St., Germantown Wood, Wayne, R. No. 1, Newville Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 6th St., Eric
**Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance St., Providence R. I. State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston
Pereda, Celedonia V., Arroyo 1142, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Bregger, John T., Clemson
Bradley, Homer L., Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, Martin
Chase, Capt. Spencer B., Hqs. Det. Sta. Camp, Camp Tyson Kirk, Charles H., Oak Ridge Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater McDaniel, J. C., P. O. Box 331, Brownsville Rhodes, G. B., R. 2, Covington Zarger, Thomas G., Norris
Carroll, Y. D., 2093 McFadden St., Beaumont Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan Price, W. S., Jr., Gustine
Oleson, Granville, 1210 Laird Ave., Salt Lake City, 5 Petterson, Harlan D., 2164 Jefferson Ave., Ogden
Aldrich, A. W., R. No. 3, Springfield *Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven Foster, Forest K., West Topsham
Acker, E. D., Co., Broadway Brewster, Stanley II., "Cerro Cordo," Gainesville Burton, Geo. L., 728 College St., Bedford Carey, Graham, Fair Haven Dickerson, T. C., 316 56th St., Newport News Gibbs, H. R., McLean Johnson, Dr. Walt R., 2602 B. Monument Ave., Richmond Landess, S. S., 2103 N. Quantico St., Arlington Lewis, Pvt. Hewlett W., H. & H. Co., 938 Engr. Avn. Cam. Bn., A. A. B., Richmond Morse, Chandler, Valross, R. No. 5, Alexandria Nix, Robert W., Jr., Lucketts Peters, John Rogers, P. O. Box 37, McLean Pertzoff, Dr. V. A., Carter's Bridge Stoke, H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., Roanoke Stoke, Dr. John H., 408-10 Boxley Bldg., Roanoke Varcity Products Co., 5 Middlebrook Ave., Staunton Webb, John, Hillsville Zimmerman, Ruth, Bridgewater
Altman, Mrs. H. E., Cedarbrook Nut Farm, Nooksack Barth, J. H., Box 1827, R. No. 3, Spokane Carey, Joseph E., 4219 Letona Ave., Seattle Clark, R. W., 4221 Phinney Ave., Seattle Denman, George L., 1319 East Nina Ave., Spokane Ferris, Major Hiram B., P. O. Box 74, Spokane Kling, William L., R. No. 2, Box 230, Clarkston Linkletter, F. D., 8034 35th Ave. N. E., Seattle Lynn Tuttle Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston Martin, Fred A., Star Route, Chelan Naderman, G. W., R. No. 1, Box 370, Olympia Shane Bros., Vashon Wilson, John A., East 1517 16th Ave., Spokane
Cannaday, Dr. John E., Charleston General Hospital, Charleston Hoover, Wendell W., Webster Springs Slotkin, Meyer S., 1671 6th Ave., Huntington, 1
Aoppler, C W., Box 239, Oconomowoc Bassett, W. S., 1522 Main St., La Crosse Dopkins, Marvin, R. No. 1, River Falls Downs, M. L., 1024 N. Leminwah St., Appleton Koelsch, Norman, Jackson Zinn, Walter G., P. O. Box 747, Milwaukee
*Life Member **Contributing Member
Name—This Society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED.
Object—Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.
Membership—Membership in this society shall be open to all persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on membership.
Officers—There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and a board of directors consisting of six persons, of which the president, the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.
Election of Officers—A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.
Meetings—The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the board of directors shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the president and board of directors.
Quorum—Ten members of the Association shall constitute a quorum but must include two of the four elected officers.
Amendments—This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.
Committees—The Association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on exhibits, on varieties and contests, on survey, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the Association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.
Fees—Annual members shall pay two dollars annually. Contributing members shall pay ten dollars annually. Life members shall make one payment of fifty dollars and shall be exempt from further dues and shall be entitled to the same benefits as annual members. Honorary members shall be exempt from dues. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as "Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided that in the event the Association becomes defunct or dissolves then, in that event, the Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at the time he makes the bequest or the donation.
Membership—All annual memberships shall begin October 1st. Annual dues received from new members after April first shall entitle the new member to full membership until October first of that year and a credit of one-half annual dues for the following year.
Amendments—By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any meeting.
Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are due and, if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of non-payment of dues and are not entitled to receive the annual report.
At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third notice shall be sent notifying such members that, unless dues are paid within ten days from the receipt of this notice, their names will be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION INCORPORATED
For the third time in the forty-four years of our existence our annual convention has been omitted. Each time this has been due to war conditions. The first was in 1918, the others in 1942 and 1943. No report was issued for 1918 but one was compiled for last year, and this present little volume will show that your members and officers are still functioning. We have great hope for the future.
An important part of this report is the result of the work of the Chairman of the Survey Committee, Mr. John Davidson, a good job well done. Considering the still elementary state of nut growing it is remarkable—a really immense undertaking. The responses to this survey show enthusiasm that is encouraging. The war and its emphasis on food seems to have increased interest in nut culture.
W. C. DEMING.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY FOR 1942-43
The Association has had a successful year in spite of the war and the cessation of our annual meetings because of the restrictions on wartime travel. Interest in the Association and nut culture appears to be well-maintained. The program committee assembled a report for 1942 and is already working on one for 1943.
During the past year the membership increased from 400 as of August 10, 1942 to 466 as of July 1, 1943. If this rate of increase continues, we shall pass the 500 mark before the end of 1944. In the 1932 report 134 members were listed and each year since then has shown a substantial increase.
Accompanying this letter is a questionnaire from the survey committee which is designed to extract as much information as possible from the members. The secretary is especially interested in the section on personal information as it should give some idea as to the interests of the members and indicate how they may best be served by the officers and committees. The program committee can also use this information in preparing programs.
President Weschcke announces that the committees and state vice-presidents for 1942 will continue for another year.
The membership circulars which contain the list of nut nurseries and a list of publications on nut culture may be had from the secretary by all who wish to distribute it.
The sets of reports as now sold lack the report for 1935. The few remaining copies are being reserved for agricultural libraries. If members have copies of this report for which they no longer have any use their return to the secretary's office will be appreciated as it may make possible the supplying of complete sets to libraries.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER—AUG. 15, 1942 to SEPT. 1, 1943
Memberships $774.15 (Philip Allen $10.00)
(Exchange .15) Sale of Reports 102.85 Sale of Index .75 Sale of Advertising (1941 Report) 5.00 Carl Weschcke Contribution 50.00 ———- $932.75 $932.75
Fruit Grower Subscriptions 71.20 Printing and Mailing 1942 Report 328.37 Reporting 1941 Convention 32.50 Expense of President None Expense of Secretary 74.02 Expense of Treasurer 26.38 Supplies and Miscellaneous 26.71 ———- $559.18 $559.18 ———- ———-
Excess of Receipts over Expenditures 373.57 Balance on Hand Aug. 15, 1942 216.05 ———- Balance on Hand Sept. 1, 1943 in North Linn Savings Bank $589.62
D. C. SNYDER, Treasurer
The Status of Nut Growing in 1943
JOHN DAVIDSON, Chairman of Committee
This survey of nut tree growing in the United States and Canada is a cross section of the industry and has been conducted through the membership of our Association. Questionnaires were submitted to all members, of whom a very satisfactory percentage responded with reports which usually were as complete as the age of the planted trees made possible. Our thanks are due to all who had the patience to reply to so searching a questionnaire. Their reward, we hope, will be increased by nuggets of information from others. The survey committee is indebted to the officers of the Association, to Mr. Slate particularly, who took care of the multigraphing and mailing drudgery, and to the experienced men who lent invaluable aid in formulating and revising the exhaustive and detailed questions.
The results are here set forth in three sections: Northern United States, Southern United States and Canadian. It is evident that trees which do well in the south may act very differently in the north; yet, to a certain and very important extent, the experience of the south has a bearing upon conditions in the north. For example, the pawpaw, though not a nut tree, has seemed to edge itself into the affections and interest of many nut tree men. It is in reality a tropical fruit which has adapted itself to northern latitudes. The pecan seems to be trying to do the same thing. Both illustrate a way of working that nature practices more or less with all species. By cross pollination and selection, human hands are having a part in speeding up this process of adaptation in pecans, Persian walnuts and other tender species. In fact, this is one of the jobs to which the Association is dedicated.
We wish here to pay tribute to the nurserymen of this Association. Most nurserymen are intelligent and honest but sometimes they have a tough time of it. Their worst competitor is a nurseryman who sells seedlings for named varieties, who advertises widely and prospers upon the work of others. When we think of the painstaking care of the honest nurseryman, of his days of drudgery, of the thousands of failed experimental trees and plants that he destroys, of the service he renders his fellows, we know that we should make slow progress without his help.
The conscientious worker in the experiment stations is in the same category. He does his best work largely for love of it.
In addition to many letters and other valuable sources of information this survey covers reports from more than 150 planters of named varieties of nut trees. Many are also planters of seedlings from selected and named varieties with which they are experimenting and from which they are making selections for future tests. Some are experimenting with cross pollination. As one example of careful work, we have now on file blue prints from the New Jersey Department of Conservation and Development, from Gerald A. Miller, of Trenton, showing exact locations by name and number of one of the largest variety collections of hybrid walnut trees in the world. From the Brooklyn Botanic Gardens, Arthur H. Graves, Curator, we have valuable records of the breeding of chestnut trees, with selections made primarily for tree growth and timber production. There is also hope for some good nuts from the trees. The timber, in money value, is of course more important than the nuts. If successful, we shall again have both.
It is difficult to interest "hurry-up" Americans in planting trees for future generations. They want results now. But the sooner we develop reliable and adaptable fruiting trees for general planting, the sooner will thousands of people begin to plant trees. The late rapid growth of membership in this Association shows an awakened interest that could be swollen into a mighty flood of tree planters if good trees were available. If there were more agencies like the Tennessee Valley Authority, more trees of the better sort would be developed. Its tree crop activities have now been transferred to a "Forest Resources Division" under the supervision of Mr. W. H. Cummings, and its testing and selection work is going ahead steadily. Thomas G. Zarger, Jr., Botanist, is handling the black walnut work in connection with other investigations of "Minor Forest Products." The headquarters is at Norris, Tennessee. Charles V. Kline, now Assistant Chief of the Watershed Protection Division, still keeps his old interest in the black walnut and tree crop program. Definite and important results are bound to follow from so sustained and well organized a project. Most state agencies complain of lack of appropriations and help. The real trouble lies in lack of vision and knowledge upon the part of legislators. The President has proposed an immense program of communications and highway development as a post-war project. We suggest that fruitful land is still more important, and that highways through desert countries are almost unknown except as means for getting from one fruitful land to another. Perhaps this Association could do more than it has done toward spreading the gospel among legislatures.
The largest source of contribution to the survey is, of course, from the Northern United States. For purposes of tabulation, we have included everything north of Central Tennessee in this class. Nearly one hundred planters of nut trees contribute their experiences in this section. Of the lot, only fourteen of them plant trees for sale as nurserymen. Today we could keep more of them with stocks sold out. Seventy-six are interested in planting primarily for the production of nuts; fifty-seven, in grafting and budding trees from named varieties; forty-five in planting seed from the better varieties, either for production of stocks upon which to graft or, in large quantities, for observation and selection. As many as twenty-six are doing important work in hybridizing. Fifty-one are top-working young trees to better varieties. Only twenty-one count upon the growth of timber for a part of their profit. But certainly the growth of timber, especially black walnut, is not an item to be left out of consideration. Much, here, depends upon the manner of planting, whether in orchard or forest formation. However, even in orchard plantings, the stumps alone are valuable for beautifully patterned veneers.
Fifty-seven correspondents tell us that they are testing standard varieties, while forty-two are interested in discovering and developing new varieties, certainly an index to the pioneering and creative urge which dominates many of our members. As is to be expected, most of our newer members are thus far feeling their way by growing a few of the better varieties for home use. Only nine of the whole number say that they are working with nut trees at an experiment station.
As to the species of trees being planted, black walnut heads the list with eighty-nine planters. Persian walnuts are next with seventy-three, including five who specify Carpathians or Circassians. Sixty-eight are planting Chinese chestnuts, and sixty-four hickories. Filberts and pecans are tied with fifty planters each; forty-eight say they are planting hazels; forty-three heartnuts; and forty-two persimmons—if we may include these trees for the time being among the nuts. Thirty-eight are planting butternuts; thirty-two, Japanese Walnuts; twenty-eight, pawpaws; twenty-seven, mulberries; twenty-four, Japanese chestnuts. After these, in order, come almonds along the southern borders, beech toward the north, hicans, tree hazels, oaks, Japanese persimmons, honey-locust, jujube, black locust (the correspondent explains, "for bees and chickens"), Manchurian walnuts, and finally, coral and service berries.
As an indication of the adaptation of species and varieties to the climates in which these men, and several women, are working, they listed at out request the following native trees found most plentifully in their sections. Black walnuts and hickories stand at the head of the list, as reported by seventy-five correspondents each. Then follow in order, butternuts, hazel, beech, oaks (probably overlooked by many), pecans and chestnuts.
Of nut trees found sparingly in these sections, butternut trees, surprisingly, take first place, indicating broad adaptation but a certain weakness, perhaps a slow susceptibility to blight or fungi, which prevents this tree from being found plentifully. It is significant that it is found most plentifully in the more rigorous areas of New England where fungous ravages are discouraged by cold. Add chinquapins to the number of scarce trees, and the list is complete.
As a further gauge of climatic conditions, fifty reported that peaches are reliably hardy in their sections, while fifty said they are not. This, according to the late Thomas P. Littlepage, is a fairly reliable index to the climatic adaptability of present varieties of northern grown pecans. Ninety-two planters reported that their seasons are long enough to mature Concord grapes. Only four said "no." For Catawba grapes? "Yes," said forty-two; "No," fourteen. For field corn? "Yes," ninety-three; "No," four. This question was improperly asked. Field corn varies too widely in length of maturity for accuracy in this respect.
Lowest temperatures expected range from 8 deg.F above to 30 deg.F below zero, with the usual lower range in the greater portion of the northern states, from zero to 12 deg. below. Lowest known temperatures range all the way from 10 deg. to 52 deg. below, but in most portions from 15 deg. to 35 deg. below.
Returns indicate that winter injury is not always, nor even usually, the result of low temperatures but, rather, to the condition in which the trees enter the winter. If late excessive growth leaves them with wood not wholly dormant, they suffer. If not, they will stand extraordinary low temperatures with little or no damage. One way to guard against this damage is by preventing late growth. A means of doing this will be found in an important contribution by Mr. H. P. Burgart, of Union City, Michigan. Mr. Burgart says:
"After 21 years of experience with growing, selling and planting nut trees, I have had to have a neighbor show me the best way to care successfully for them. I have studied and practiced Mr. Baad's methods, and in comparing them with my former practice, and with the practice of others who have failed with their trees, I will suggest the following cultural procedure to be given all plantings when possible, and to be continued for at least three years, or even longer for best nut production.
"Nut trees should be given clean cultivation right after being planted (in the spring) and until August 1st. This encourages root growth and conserves moisture. Then sow a cover crop of rye, cow peas or soy beans to take up moisture, slow up growth and prevent the late sappy condition that is often responsible for winter injury. Leave the cover crop over winter and turn it under in the spring for humus. Before turning under, a light application of some kind of manure, along with some superphosphate and potash, should be sprinkled around each tree. Then thorough cultivation again until August, and repeat.
"Soil for nut trees should be tested for acidity, nitrogen, phosphate and potash. It has been determined that most nut trees prefer a pH range of 6.0 to 8.0; but I have frequently found people planting trees on soils of 4.0 and 5.0, where nothing but sickly growth could be expected.
"Where it is not possible to work all of the ground between nut trees, cultivation should begin with a three or four foot circle around each tree, annually increasing this space with the growth of the branches. Cultivation, with attention to humus and fertility, are necessary to proper tree growth and nut production. Sod culture will never do."
Mr. Burgart's method has the advantage not only of guarding the trees from excessive winter injury but at the same time adds an almost immediately available source of humus and nutrients to the soil for spring growth. If followed, it should greatly reduce the number of reports of winter injury, failure to start, and of weak growth afterward.
Excessive summer heat is not so great a problem in most portions of the northern states. The highest expected temperatures range, in our reports, from 86 deg. to 110 deg.; mostly from 90 deg. to 100 deg.. The highest known are reported to be all the way from 95 deg. to 120 deg., but mostly from 100 deg. to 110 deg.. A method of guarding against heat damage will be found in a communication from Mr. H. F. Stoke, of Roanoke, Va., which appears later in this report.
Drouth and hot, dry winds are more dangerous enemies than either cold or heat. It is somewhat ominous that, out of eighty-three reports, forty-two, originating all the way from Maine to Oregon and from Canada to Tennessee, report the occurrence today of frequent drouths, while forty report hot, dry winds. Surely the need for tree planting is immediate and urgent. Mulching, and the protection of recently planted trees by wrapping their trunks, are preventives of some damage, but can not stand up forever against the longer and longer periods of drouth now being reported, during which the water table is gradually being lowered beyond the reach of tree roots.
The length of the frost-free season has an important bearing upon the production of nuts after the trees are matured. This is true in the south as well as in the north. One of the most frequently reported causes of loss of nut production in southern sections is an early spring, inducing growth of buds and blossoms, followed by a frost. No protection seems to have been found against this damage except by use of heavy smudges. Large orchardists protect themselves, but planters of small groves rarely do so. This explains the autumn scramble, reported by many members, in search of early fallen nuts. We should continue our search for trees which produce nuts of early maturity. Thus far the search has not been too successful among most species, but some progress has been made and the future is more encouraging in this respect than it was a decade or two ago. Some early maturing nuts have been found and pollen from the trees is being used for cross-pollination with better known nut producers. In the northern states, dates of the latest spring frosts range from April 1 to June 1, with the average around May 15. The earliest fall frosts come from Sept. 5 to Oct. 15, with the average about Sept. 15 to 20. Where the frosts fall much outside these limits—too late in the spring or too early in the fall—protective measures will help but will not always prevent damage.
Soil Conditions. There is a slight preponderance of clay soils over loam among the returns from planters. Loams and sandy loams are tied for second place. A smaller number report that these top soils lie shallow over hard-pan or rock. Fewer still report a soil underlaid with sand or gravel.
By far the best growth for most kinds of nut trees, as well as the best production of nuts, is to be found where trees are planted in deep loam. Next come the trees in clay loam; then come trees in sandy loam and in clay over sand or gravel. Numerous complaints of poor growth come from members who have trees set in a soil which is shallow over rock or hard-pan. Some of the hazels and butternuts are reported as able, for a time at least, to establish themselves in such soils, but their fight for survival seems precarious and is apparently short-lived. Black walnuts, particularly, require deep, rich soils into which their long taproots can easily penetrate. This is one of the few nut tree facts so definitely established that there can no longer be any doubt about it. The reports show that the planting of black walnuts in any but good deep soil should be discouraged. It leads only to disappointment and often to loss of interest.
A somewhat sandy soil, particularly if loamy, seems adapted to the planting of chestnuts and to such trees as do well on ground that will successfully grow peach trees. If such soil is found upon a hillside or hill top, so much the better. All such soils, of course, require more attention to fertility maintenance, for they leach out more quickly than soils with more of a clay constituent.
Do any of the nut tree species prefer an acid to an alkaline soil? This is a question our questionnaire does not answer. Thirty correspondents say their trees are set in a lime soil, fourteen in an alkaline soil (which may or may not, in the commonly accepted usage of that term, have lime as a source of alkalinity). Sixty-one report an acid soil. Only eight of this group report the use of lime, two the use of bone meal, and one of wood ash as acid correctives. Unfortunately, we did not ask definitely about the reaction of trees to the use or non-use of lime. Puzzled by this comparative neglect of lime as a corrective on acid soils, we asked Mr. H. F. Stoke, of Roanoke, Va., a very accurate and acute observer, who had reported plantings in both kinds of soils, what his experience had been. Also we asked Miss Mildred Jones, whose experience with nut trees is second to none, the same question. Their replies follow:
Mr. Stoke says: "In response to your inquiry, 'What nut trees, if any, do best in acid soils?' I should reply that the chestnut leads the list, followed closely by the mockernut hickory.
"Throughout its native habitat the heaviest stands of the native chestnuts are to be found on acid soils over granitic and sandstone formations, rather than on limestone ridges. The best stands are on granite ridges, partly due, no doubt, to the poverty of sandstone soils.
"The mockernut hickory occurs about anywhere on the poor, acid, clay soils of the south, its vigor depending on fertility. Shagbark does not occur on the acid (granitic) Blue Ridge mountains, but is found on the limestone Alleghanies running parallel only a few miles away. I have never seen a shagbark hickory between Roanoke and the coast, more than 200 miles away, but it occurs freely to within two or three miles on the west. The difference is not in elevation or rainfall, but in the soil.
"On the other hand, black walnut occurs on both acid and limestone soils, but seems to prefer the latter. Part of its preference may be due to the generally greater fertility and better drainage to be found in limestone soil. Persian walnut, I believe, when on its own roots, is more or less allergic to acid soil. Wild hazels grow here on both limestone and granite soils.
"Frankly, I believe the matter of soil acidity, as such, is rather over-emphasized. There are other factors entering into the problem that are of as great or greater importance. I doubt if there was actually any really alkaline soil, in its native state, in the humid region lying east of the Mississippi River. In the glaciated region lying to the north, the soil seems to have been more nearly neutral (pH 7). Such was the case in Iowa and in Minnesota where I homesteaded many years ago.
"Throughout the south the soil averages much more acid, even much limestone soil being greatly benefitted by liming. North or south, soil acidity is greatly affected by drainage and by the resulting native vegetation.
"Peat or muck soils are notably acid; also they are notably deficient in potash. The addition of wood ashes greatly benefits such soils in two ways. On the other hand, the addition of wood ashes to a soil already alkaline might be harmful even though in need of potash.
"In the last several years I have been making some soil experiments that I may write up when I am sure I know what I am talking about. In general, I may say I should prefer a soil slightly on the acid side for any and all tree and farm crops if I had an eye to future fertility. Lime breaks down vegetable matter and makes its constituent plant foods quickly available, but prevents a build-up of humus in the soil. The effect is very pronounced in times of drought, the alkaline soil crops drying up much more quickly than do those on acid soil. On the other hand, such soil elements as phosphorus seem to require the lime as a flux to prevent the phosphates from becoming fixed and unavailable to crops.
"In regard to peat moss, it is undoubtedly acid, but it is beneficial in its water-holding properties and in the comparatively slow release of its nutritive elements. Lime added to the peat will break it down rapidly and make it more available as a fertilizer, but until the decomposition reaches a certain point; its effect is to impoverish rather than to enrich the mixture. This seeming paradox can perhaps best be explained by some experiments I have been making with sawdust. A number of plots were prepared and given various treatments, including mixing one surface-inch of sawdust with the soil, and wheat was sown on the area.
"Wheat sown on the test plot without any treatment or fertilizer was normal for the poor clay soil on which the experiments were made. Where sawdust, only, was added, the wheat came up but sickened and produced no filled heads. The same was true where lime was added to the sawdust. Where heavy applications of nitrate of soda were added to the sawdust treated plots, both with and without lime, the 'sickness' disappeared and wheat was matured.
"My analysis of this, coupled with experiments in composting, leads to the following conclusion: During the period of decomposition of the sawdust (hastened, no doubt, by the lime), the bacteria of decomposition fed so heavily on the nitrates in the soil that the plants were starved. When the material had reached the condition of humus, the bacterial activity decreased to the point where fertility was restored.
"The above analysis accounts for the fact that coarse vegetable material, injures crops, when plowed under, for the current season. Fresh succulent material decays so quickly that it becomes almost immediately available, releasing its constituent plant food.
"With proper conditions of moisture and aeration, sawdust, when mixed with quickly decaying material like kitchen garbage, can be reduced to an excellent, usable humus in three summer months. In fact, it is then better material than if permitted to lie out in the weather for fifteen years.
"There is another factor I think important in tree growth, especially where summers are hot, and that is soil temperature.
"For any of our nut trees I should say that an acidity test of pH 6 to 7 would be entirely satisfactory. If the soil is infertile, some form of humus should be worked in at the time of planting. If much such material is used, some lime may be added. Better yet, wood ashes and bone meal will furnish potash, phosphorus, and the lime necessary to correct acidity and maintain the phosphorus in an available condition. Add to this, proper drainage and cool soil achieved by, first, cultivation, and later by heavy mulching, artificial shading, or shrubby undergrowth extended outside the root area, and your tree should 'go to town.' When the tree is large enough to shade its own root area it will take care of its own soil refrigeration. Nature knew what she was about when she planted trees in forests. Trees require warm heads (sunshine) and cool feet (shade), just the opposite from us humans."
Mr. Stoke's letter recalls a very ancient Arabian proverb connected with the date palm. "The date palm tree must have his head in hell and his feet in water." We are indebted both to Mr. Stoke and to the Arab scientists for many things.
Miss Mildred Jones' reply, fortunately, goes into other and equally important phases of the same subject. She says: "Anyone who is going to lime and fertilize nut trees should take at least a five year period for his work, using lime and fertilizer each year, and not dump it all in one year, then wait for results. He should study the return on a five year basis. One year is too short a term. Weather conditions can upset a program to the extent that both lime and fertilizer may not have their effect until the following year. Let those who really want to know, make graphs of growth in young trees and of nut production from older trees, in pounds, for five years, as against five of the same years during which trees similarly situated received no fertilizer or lime.
"I shouldn't be at all surprised if those who state in reports to you that they have an acid soil, merely have a top acid soil. They may be growing their trees in basic limestone soils. Walnut trees grow in this environment very well, because they are found growing wild in woods where laurel and other types of plants loving an acid condition grow. This is true here in our county, but these soils are not seriously acid. They grow good garden crops.
"Ground, or pulverized, limestone is the safest type of lime to apply to trees or crops, in my estimation. Some of it is ground so fine that it looks like hydrated lime and is used for medicinal purposes. I am inclined to think that any reports you received that noted injury from the use of lime may have been due to the use of burned lime (calcium oxide) which is caustic when wet. This type of lime may be used in winter, but during the growing season, or too close to the growing season, may injure trees. I believe such injury depends entirely upon weather conditions, but it is a good thing to be on the safe side and use a lime which will not have the hot reaction that burned lime has.
"Your reports will serve an excellent purpose if they lead to getting a yearly record by planters on bearing and tree growth of their varieties. Few people know enough to go into the matter of soils and treatments intelligently. One can hardly blame them. It is a baffling subject. An unbalance in one element will lock up another element until one has quite a time unlocking them again. It seems that a conservative middle course is about the best to advise."
Upon reflection, it seems likely that if our questionnaire had asked specifically about the use of lime, many more reports would have been received of its use.
In response to an inquiry as to how weed competition near young trees is controlled, the replies are encouraging. Forty-seven practiced mulching; forty-five, mowing; thirty-four, occasional cultivation; twenty, regular cultivation, and a few others, slag or cinders around the trees. As is evident, some used several of the above methods. A few used none and suffered losses. Their honesty is admired, and their experience, disappointing as it is, is useful information.
As to fertilizing, forty-three reported the use of manure in some form as the principal material; twenty-eight used nitrogenous fertilizer; twenty-one, a complete fertilizer. Other materials were, in order, lime, compost, bone meal, ammonium sulphate, wood ash, tankage. One used a mixture of muck and manure and got results in excellent growth where the use of muck alone produced unsatisfactory growth. Several reported injury from too much fertilizer or from too late an application. Tree growth was thus pushed on into late fall; the trees were too sappy to stand the winter freezes and suffered from winter killing. The same result was reported from "over-cultivation." In this connection, we refer back to the letter from Mr. H. P. Burgart, of Michigan, whose suggestions on cultivation and fertilizing are well worth careful study and practice by all who have had this trouble. It is possible that some planters, especially those whose trees are set on hillsides, where erosion is a robber of fertility, would modify Mr. Burgart's practice of turning under the green crop in the spring. They might prefer, as indeed might others who would like to see their green manure nearer the top of the soil, to disk in the green crop rather than bury it deeply with mouldboard plows. They would of course follow it up with repeated diskings until the time came for sowing another cover crop. This is, however, entirely in line with Mr. Burgart's recommendations.
Pursuing this subject to its conclusion, we next asked: "When young trees failed to grow with you, what percentage of these failures was due to ..." (various causes enumerated below)? The question was misunderstood. Many evidently gave percentages of all trees planted. Others, correctly, gave percentages merely of the trees which failed to grow. As nearly as could be arrived at, about 30 percent of losses were among trees that failed even to start; 40 percent failed from weak growth the first year or two; 10 percent from failure to maintain later growth; 16 percent were winter killed, and 3 or 4 percent died from rodent or similar (mole, gopher, deer, bear) injury. It is evident that by far the greatest losses were suffered within the first two years—not less than seventy percent. Probably more. It would seem that two years of intensive care should not be too burdensome a stint for a reward which lasts a lifetime.
Rodent and similar injuries were no doubt kept low because of extra protective care. Hardware cloth (galvanized wire 1/4" mesh, 24" high, preferred) around each tree proved the most common and effective preventive. Following this, in order of use, were: wrapping the trunks (including wrappings of tar paper); mounding with earth or ashes; poison bait, dogs and cats, clean cultivation; resinous paint; spray (with Purdue formula mentioned); and, finally, hogs, against mice.
Anti-rodent treatments which proved injurious to trees were reported to be; tar paper wrappings; coal tar washes; close-set creosoted posts; oil sprays; "any paint"; any chemical to smear on trunks; rooting cement. For those who are located in regions where deer are a source of injury, Mr. J. U. Gellatly, of West Bank, B. C., reports the successful use of an old and heroic Russian formula. Spray or paint all branches with manure water, using hog or human offal. Deer will stay away. Naturally.
Next come answers to some personal questions as to experiences from which the reader may glean a wide variety of suggestions. The first of these questions is:
"What is your ONE greatest source of success?" The answers seem to show many royal roads, each of which was the one road for someone. The answers: Mulching young trees; watering care; planting seeds; planting one-year seedlings; wrapping-with paper; 50% moist peat mixed with earth in transplanting; manure; sod in bottom of planting hole and use of nitrogen later; setting trees at bottom of slopes; clean cultivation until August then sowing rye, soy beans or cow peas as cover crops to turn under in spring; topworking hickories; grafting in cool, moist spring weather; pigs in orchard; chickens in orchard; planting 12-14-foot trees severely cut back, burlap wrapped, heavily mulched.
It seems a pity that limitations of space do not permit the telling of the various stories connected with the above glimpses of successful solutions. Each represents a little or a big success story connected with an individual problem. It is sufficient, perhaps, to know that someone somewhere found that each was the answer to his own difficulties.
The next question brings out the reverse side of the planters' work: "What is your chief source of failure?" The answer most often given was the honest one, lack of attention. We can all convict ourselves here, either involuntarily or otherwise. Especially during this period of warfare, when so many have been taken away from their plantings and have been unable to get help, there is no question but that our trees have suffered. The next in frequency is "unsuitable soil." Following this come: lack of water; poor planting; planting too big a tree; spring planting of nut trees; buying 5 to 7 year-old trees; climate; transplanting failures; grafting; grafting in dry, hot, springs; top-working old trees; stink bugs on filberts (nuts); lack of drainage; forcing with nitrogenous fertilizer; fertilizing young trees too much; birds breaking off top growth. It had been the intention to confine this question to young trees, but it was not so phrased, so we shall let the answers stand as they are. It is a bit ironical that some found their chief source of failure exactly where others had made their best success. The explanation must lie in differences in technique, in soil or in some other local condition. Skill, knowledge, and persistence must always play a great part in any success.
We next asked, "What have been your chief difficulties with established, bearing trees?" The difficulties here shift from matters of soil, rodent protection and the like to other types; caterpillars, neglect, winter injury, limited crops, failure of nuts to fill, disappointing quality of nuts, bag and tent worms, blight, "blight" due to drought, too early leaf fall, insects in early spring, trees drowned out in flooded bottom lands. It is probable that this last disaster happened to younger trees.
As to the species of trees chiefly damaged by these causes, black walnut comes first (possibly because more of these trees have been planted), then hickories, Persian walnuts, chestnuts (blight), heartnuts, pecans, filberts, butternuts, and finally butternuts in the south areas from fungus troubles.
Trees reported to have been least damaged were, first, butternuts, then hazels and filberts, black walnuts, hickories, Manchurian walnuts, Jap. walnuts, heartnuts, chestnuts, pecans, Persian walnuts.
In response to the specific question, "What insects damaged the trees?", we found that walnut caterpillars were more common than any others, followed closely by web or "tent" worms. The Japanese beetle is a close second and is broadening its entrenched positions steadily. Others are flat-headed apple borers, lace-wing fly, aphis, leaf hoppers. To this list two reporters added sapsuckers among the insects. These birds would almost girdle some of the branches with punctures.
Insect damage was reported as serious by eight reporters, as slight or occasional by six, and of yearly occurrence by nearly all. Others reported damage as serious if not controlled.
"What do you do to control the insects?" was then asked. Most of the answers referred to clustering types of insects and involved removal of the clusters by burning, by cutting off the infested twigs, or by scraping off the clusters from the trunks in the early morning or late evening. Others sprayed with lead arsenate, "sprayed in late summer with lead arsenate", sprayed with nicotine sulphate for aphis and lice. Other methods mentioned were early cultivation, shaking the tree with a pole early and often, and chickens in the grove. Some of these means are adapted manifestly, to small plantings and others to larger groves. None mentioned the attracting of birds by plantings of trees or shrubs that bear berries or small seeds. When trees are tall enough to be beyond reach of poles or sprays, the birds become more essential as insect destroyers.
"What insects damage the nuts?" Weevil, by long odds. Next come husk maggots or "shock worms", codling moth larvae, borers, stink bugs on filberts, butternut curculio. No cure is given for this trouble except the very valuable one of keeping chickens, or, better still, turkeys running freely in the plantation. Clean cultivation will, of course, destroy many larvae that hibernate under trash.
"What species are most injured by disease?" None are immune, apparently, though three reporters in favored regions answer "none" are injured. Black walnuts suffer from leaf-spot, blight, or canker, especially in seasons when the trees have been weakened by drought. Hazels and filberts are next, then Persian walnuts, butternuts, native chestnuts, Chinese chestnuts, pecans.
Blight in chestnuts, nectria canker and blight in black walnuts, blight in filberts (Cryptosporella), scab in pecans, and die-back Melanconium oblongum in butternuts. These are the kinds of diseases most to be feared among nut trees. Sprays, chiefly with Bordeaux mixture and copper base solutions, are recommended. If nut orchards were generally as well sprayed as apple and peach orchards, we should hear less of disease among nut trees. As it is, nut trees are in general far more resistant by nature to disease than fruit trees, but it will not do to take unlimited resistance for granted. As progress is gradually made in the selection of varieties for better nut production, it is very likely that there will be a weakening of this resistance to disease. Better cultural methods, resulting in more robust growth, will build up resistance. Better sprays and more spraying will act as a barrier not only to disease but to most insect enemies as well.
"What disease, if any, affects the nuts?" Fortunately, very few diseases are reported. "None," say most of our reporters. A scab is reported for the first time this year in some sections on pecans. "Galls" are reported on some hickories. A husk blight appears to affect Persian walnuts in some places, and nut production is very seriously affected among black walnuts by defoliation prematurely, either because of drought or leaf-spot. The cure is undoubtedly the same as for disease affecting the trees, namely spraying.
"What proportion of nuts are taken by the squirrels?" The answers to this question range all the way from "all if allowed" to "none if prevented." If the nut trees are located near a forest, the proportion will be large; if not, much smaller. Most correspondents say that the proportion is very small, but nearly a third of those who make any report on this at all, say such losses are rather heavy. In the extreme north, there seem to be no squirrels to bother. Several report thefts, particularly of filberts, by chipmunks, while one complains about both mice and jaybirds as filbert lovers.
The most effective squirrel control is the rifle or shotgun. Rat traps, using black walnuts as bait, are second choice and said to be effective. The banding of isolated trees with tin (one says cotton batting) will prevent squirrels from climbing. A good cat or several of them will be useful, say several reporters. One judicious correspondent says that, in general, there are two popular ways of handling the situation; one by shooting, the other by cussing—most practiced, least effective. One grower, not to be outdone by the patient Chinaman or Japanese, in September ties up each chestnut burr in a cloth sack. Take your choice; but it will be well, if you wish to remain in good standing with the law, either to do your shooting during the open hunting season or, if at other times, catch your thief in the act and, wastefully, let him lie where he falls when shot. So says the law, at least in some states. On the other hand, there are many who will say, with one reporter: "I do nothing about it. I like squirrels." [This note by chairman—not W. C. D.!]
The Marketing of Nuts! The purpose of this section was not to inquire into methods of marketing but merely to determine, if possible, what marketing of nuts is now being done. It is little enough. Chestnut lovers have all but forgotten the taste of good chestnuts. Black walnut buyers, confectioners, bakers, report that it is next to impossible, at least for the duration of the war, to get deliveries of nuts, especially shelled nuts. The market for a good product is best only when the product is easily and plentifully obtainable.
Forty-one growers reported that they sell nuts commercially. The others do not because they have no surplus to sell. Only six sell kernels. The others sell whole nuts.
Owing to a misreading of the question, few reported on profitable varieties. Those who did, reported Thomas as first, then Stabler and Ohio. Of pecans, Major first, then Greenriver, Busseron, Indiana, Niblack. Of chestnuts, Hobson is the only one mentioned, and of filberts only the Jones hybrid. Most growers reported on species instead of varieties. Of these, black walnuts stand first, then pecans, chestnuts and filberts. In the far northwest, filberts stand first. Most growers have the feeling that the hybrid chestnut, mollissima x dentata, is coming fast and offers one of the best chances for profitable commercial planting. At present only three reporters who specifically commit themselves on the subject say they count upon the sale of nuts as an important item in their income. Fifty-one do not. Fifteen definitely expect, and sixteen others have hopes, that nuts may some day become, at least to an extent, good income producers for them. Practically all express themselves as willing to sell or exchange either nuts or cions for propagation purposes.
Discovery of Promising Nut Trees. Some thirty-odd "wild" trees which bear nuts of unusual promise have been reported by discoverers in their answers to this survey. It is more than likely that some of them have been previously reported. The committee has no means of knowing. However, it is hoped that, out of the lot, one or two may be good enough for propagating or for contributions of pollen for cross-pollination. The names and locations of the owners of these trees have been turned over to Mr. C. A. Reed, Associate Pomologist, U. S. D. A., Beltsville, Md., for further investigation. It has been found that such information should not be prematurely published, since it leads to trouble for the owners and to possible undue valuations being placed upon the trees in question.
RATING OF VARIETIES. First, it will be best to state how the committee arrived at a rating. Certain well-known varieties were printed by name, and blanks were left to be filled, if desired, with names of special favorites of the reporter. Those listed by name were not all good, but were widely planted. We wished to know exactly what the planters' experience had been not only with the better varieties but with other old stand-bys which were suspected of being below standard.
We asked reporters to mark their sheets with the following scale symbols: XXXX for best; XXX, very good; XX, good; X, average. O, poor; OO, failure. In tabulating final summaries, the committee valued the XXXX symbol at 100%; XXX, 75%; XX, 50%; X, 25%; O, O%; OO, minus 20%. Twenty percent was arbitrarily deducted from any 100% rating, and 10% from any lesser rating, in case no other reports on the same tree were received from other reporters.
Qualities upon which ratings were made were hardiness, average yield (rating), yield in pounds per tree or acre, age of oldest trees, age at first crop, percentage filled nuts, husking quality, cracking quality, size of nuts, weight of kernels, quality of kernel.
Naturally, not all reporters were able to evaluate all of these qualities, so many spaces were left blank. For instance, hardiness could be rated for a very young tree, but not yield. In any future survey, we should advocate including a rating on early maturity of nuts, since this is a quality essential in trees planted farthest north.
Black Walnuts. Six names of well-known varieties were printed upon our sheets and, of course, most of the reports are centered around these trees. Twenty-four varieties were voluntarily written in and reported on by correspondents. No doubt some of these varieties will in time replace some of the older ones. Reports on them are now too scattered and too much uncorroborated to enable us to do them justice here. For the present we shall have to content ourselves with those which have sufficient evidence.
Of the printed list, Thomas takes first place with rating of 80.1%, which is a cumulative percentage of all percentages earned on the most desirable black walnut qualities. The method of obtaining this Thomas overall percentage is as follows: Add all the Thomas percentages in the paragraph below. Their average will be found to be 78%. Reports from Canada and the southern area bring this average up to 80.1%, as stated. Stambaugh is second with a rating of 72%. Rohwer rates 76%; Ohio, 57%; Stabler, 49%, and Ten Eycke, 45%. The last three seem to stand in jeopardy of replacement by other varieties.
Breaking these percentages down according to their qualities, the trees in the northern U. S. area were rated as follows, using the valuations noted in the second paragraph at this section entitled Rating of Varieties: In hardiness Thomas rates 80; Stambaugh, 70; Rohwer, 75; Ohio, 70; Stabler, 60; Ten Eycke, 65. In yield, Thomas rates 61%; Stambaugh, 39; Ten Eycke, 38; Rohwer, 37; Ohio, 36; Stabler, 13. Yield per tree or per acre was not well enough reported to warrant reliable ratings. In percentage of filled nuts, Thomas rated 82%; Stambaugh, 88; Rohwer, 91; Ohio, 87; Stabler, 67; Ten Eycke, 68. In husking quality, Thomas, 71%; Stambaugh, 67; Rohwer, 66; Ohio, 7; Stabler, 21; Ten Eycke, 13. In cracking quality, Thomas rated 81%; Stambaugh, 79; Rohwer, 57; Ohio, 57; Stabler, 61; Ten Eycke, 50. In size of nuts, Thomas rated 92%; Stambaugh rated 57%; Rohwer, 58; Ohio, 55; Stabler, 39; Ten Eycke, 42%. In weight of kernels, Thomas rated 79%; Stambaugh, 87; Rohwer, 62; Ohio, 55; Stabler, 50; Ten Eycke, 31. In quality of kernels, Thomas rated 77%; Stambaugh, 58; Rohwer, 60; Ohio, 68; Stabler, 44; Ten Eyck, 47.
It would have been more accurate, of course, to have again divided these returns according to the warmer and cooler regions from which they came, but the report has certain limits which can not be over-stepped. All these varieties are represented by some trees twenty years old or older. Thomas was reported to be the youngest to bear. Its average age at first crop was exactly five years; Stambaugh, 6 years; Rohwer, 5.57 years; Ohio, 5.17; Stabler, 5.7; and Ten Eyck, 5.17 years.
Other varieties, the names of which were written in, are each sponsored by one or more correspondents who were attracted by their outstanding excellence with respect to the following qualities:
Hardiness: Creitz, Homeland, Mintle, Elmer Myers, Tasteright, Pinecrest, Patterson, Horton, Vandersloot, Lamb, Deming Purple, Brown, Tritton, Cole, Sifford and Korn.
Yield: Creitz, Homeland, Mintle, Cozad, Vandersloot, Brown.
Filled Nuts: Homeland, Mintle, Cornell, Niederhauser, Cozad, Vandersloot, Brown, Tritton, Cole, Sifford.
Husking Quality: Creitz, Homeland, Mintle, Patterson, Todd, Snyder, Cozad, Horton, Vandersloot, Lamb, Deming Purple, Brown, Tritton, Cole, Sifford.
Cracking Quality: Eureka, Snyder, Mintle, Patterson, Brown, Tritton.
Size of Nuts: Homeland, Todd.
Weight of Kernels: Mintle, Todd, Snyder, Cornell, Niederhauser.
Kernel Quality: Creitz, Homeland, Mintle, Korn, Snyder, Cornell.
This, of course, cannot be a complete list, but we give it as reported to us. It will be well to keep an eye on several of them.
Mr. L. K. Hostetter, Lancaster, Pa., sends us the only report which gives a year-by-year record of nut production from black walnut trees. He says:
"I am especially interested in persimmons, service-berries, wild cherry, mulberry and elderberry. Of about 15 varieties of persimmon here I consider Early Golden and Josephine the best. Of 20 or more varieties of mulberries I consider Downing and Paradise the best. Paradise is a large purple mulberry I found near here. It has an exceptionally good flavor.
"Following is a record of my crops of black walnuts, grafted varieties: 1931, 2 bu.; 1932, 3 bu.; 1933, 4 bu.; 1934, 8 bu.; 1935, 12 bu.; 1936, 18 bu.; 1937, 37 bu.; 1938, 54 bu.; 1939, 52 bu.; 1940, 300 bu.; 1941, 20 bu.; 1942, 125 bu.; 1943, 70 bu."
Mr. Hostetter sells his nuts both as kernels and in the shell. He says that he can now count upon this crop for a substantial contribution to his annual income.
Seedling Chestnuts. None but Chinese and Japanese varieties were reported on. More of the Chinese seedlings have been planted than of the Japs. The latter excel in hardiness, yield, size of nuts, but the Chinese have a better percentage of filled nuts, have better husking quality and much better quality of kernel, according to growers. Of course, being seedlings, neither is entirely dependable in any of these qualities. The best that can be said is that the planter of a Chinese seedling has a better chance than the planter of a Jap seedling if he is after nut quality.
Named Chestnuts. Outside of the report on hardiness, the returns on these varieties are too meagre to enable one to arrive at a corroborated conclusion. In hardiness, the Hobson stands first with a rating of 95%. Zimmerman and Carr are tied at 60%; Yankee rates 50%. Reliable seems to be little planted but also seems to rate well in hardiness. Hobson again stands first in yield, with Carr and Zimmerman second. The ratings are 80% and 60% respectively. Reliable comes next, then Yankee. In early bearing, Hobson stands first, Carr next. All seem to fill well, also have good husking quality. Carr is said to bear the largest nut, with Hobson and Zimmerman next. In quality of kernel, Hobson and Reliable stand out from the others. Hobson, on the returns, has much the best of it in general excellence. However, the last word has by no means been said in connection with hybrid chestnuts. In no field of nut culture is so much hybridizing being done. We expect to see many contenders for preeminence in this most promising branch of the industry.
Pecans. The returns on pecans are also very incomplete after we go beyond the young tree age. Perhaps one reason for this is that young orchards of pecans require a longer time for growth than many other species before they begin to bear. The reports confirm this view. Records of crops from present plantings are none too numerous.
In the reports on hardiness among the pecans, Major stands first with a percentage score of 85; Greenriver 83; Busseron, Indiana and Giles are tied at 80; Posey 75; Butterick 40.
Records of yields are not numerous enough to be conclusive, but Major, Busseron and Butterick lead. This is in the absence of reports on Greenriver, Posey, Niblack, and other important varieties.
Hybrid Pecans. The records for hardiness here, as with other pecans, are marred by lack of good reporting. So far as the record shows, Pleas—Hican var. (hickory x pecan) is the outstanding variety for hardiness in regions north of its origin. It scores 85%; Norton and Rockville, 80% each; Gerardi, 75; Burlington, 60; Bixby, Des Moines and McCallister, 50% each.
Records of yields are not forthcoming. Such records as we have of filled nuts show them to be in general, unsatisfactory. In fact, however, no reliable conclusion can be reached from a study of the pecan reports unless it should be—a sad one—that the questionnaire or the questionees fell down here.
Filberts. The story brightens. Many are working with filberts. In the northwest, the growing of filberts is developing into a commercial enterprise of good proportions. Our records are correspondingly more complete though they show that there is plenty of room for improvement in the development of varieties of desirable quality.
In hardiness, Winkler leads in the reports with a score of 71.46%, with Jones hybrid a very close second at 71.15%. Bixby is next, then Buchanan. Of the "written-in" varieties, excellent hardiness is reported for Cosford, Hazelbert, Kentish Cob, Early Globe, Burkhardt's Zeller, Comet, Gellatly No. 1, Chinese Corylus, Brixnut and Longfellow.
Yields rule best with Rush and Jones hybrid. Winkler, Bixby and Buchanan follow closely. Failures in this respect are noted for Barcelona, DuChilly, Italian Red and White Aveline. Cosford has a good report.
Rush and Jones hybrid fill well, as do Cosford, Hazelbert, Buchanan and, usually, Winkler. Husking qualities are quite good for all varieties named except Winkler and, in some places, Rush. Cracking qualities are fairly uniform in all varieties reported.
In size of nuts, Jones hybrid and Winkler have a more uniformly good record, with Hazelbert, DuChilly, White Aveline, Barcelona, Brixnut and Longfellow following closely. In kernel quality, Rush, Winkler, Cosford, DuChilly, Bixby, Buchanan and Longfellow are named as among the best.
Butternuts. The record is very scant. Weschcke, Sherwood and Buckley, according to these reports, are hardy. Weschcke and Craxezy yield well. Sherwood is the most precocious in early bearing with Weschcke close up. Sherwood, Craxezy and Weschcke fill well and the latter two crack well. Buckley leads in size of nuts, with Sherwood close, and all have good kernel quality. We have no reports on Aiken, Deming or Devon.
Persian Walnuts. In most portions of the north, the reports show that Franquette, Mayette, Pomeroy and Rush are not adapted to our climate—too tender. Broadview has the best record for hardiness, followed by one or two of the Crath Carpathian numbers, and with Breslau, Lancaster and Bedford showing up well.
In yields, Broadview and Payne have the best reports, followed by Breslau, Lancaster and Bedford. In size of nuts, Breslau, Lancaster and Franquette are first; Broadview and Payne next. In quality of kernel, Bedford, Franquette, Lancaster and Payne, in that order, are claimed as best, with Mayette, Breslau, Crath, Pomeroy and Broadview following. Since kernel quality is a matter of taste, it seems unlikely that any rating on it will prove satisfactory to everybody.
Hickories. Returns are numerous and well distributed. In hardiness, Stratford leads with a rating of 84%; Glover rates 83; Fairbanks, 79; Romig, 75; Weiker, 71; Kentucky, 65. Others, written in, with best ratings by their growers, are, in the following order; Beaver, Hales, Barnes, Clark, Caldwell, Taylor, Weschcke, Beemen, Bridgewater. Schinnerling, Hagen and Abscota are close up.
Best yields are reporting for Stratford and Fairbanks. Close up are Barnes, Glover and Schinnerling.
Weschcke, Glover, Weiker, Beeman and Bridgewater are most precocious in early bearing. Best filled nuts are reported, in order of precedence, for Stratford, Fairbanks, Walters, Beaver, Hagen, Weschcke, Beeman and Bridgewater.
Husking quality: Reports were inadequate. Cracking quality, in order or rank, Glover, Stratford, Hagen, Beeman, Weschcke, Schinnerling, Kirtland, Weiker, Bridgewater.
Size of nuts: In order of rating, Weiker, Bridgewatar, Fairbanks, Weschcke, Stratford, Beeman, Schinnerling, Hagen. In weight of kernel: first, Abscota, then Barnes, Glover, Fairbanks, Kentucky, Kirtland.
Quality of kernel: In order of preference, Kirtland, Glover, Weschcke, Hagen, Stratford, Bridgewater, Weiker, Abscota, Schinnerling, Kentucky, Beeman, Stratford, Beaver.
Too much dependence should not be placed upon the order of precedence in the above lists after the first two or three, since, in many instances, there is not sufficient corroboration from separate sources to warrant more than a tentative position, especially for some of the varieties listed at the ends of the classes.
Heartnuts. The hardiest, in the order reported, are Walters, Fodermaier, Gellatly, Faust, Bates. Lancaster, does not bear well and is not hardy in the northern areas. Best yields reported are from Walters and Bates. Other reports are inadequate or absent. Most precocious, Bates and Gellatly.
Best filled heartnuts, with best husking and cracking qualities as well as best quality of kernels; returns are about equally divided between Gellatly, Walters and Bates, with Walters and Gellatly somewhat larger in size.
It is to be regretted that reports are incomplete or absent in connection with many varieties of nuts. We feel, however, that, in the main, the above ratings, especially when arrived at from cumulative evidence, reflect with fair accuracy, the present status of nut tree conditions in northern United States.
CANADA. In all its chief characteristics, the Canadian nut growing experience follows the pattern of northern United States. The reports received from Canada numbered about one-tenth those received from the northern states—upon the whole, a satisfactory cross section.
In summarizing these reports it will be necessary only to call attention to such practices and experiences in Canada as are at variance with those already reported from the northern states. For example, in response to the question, "What species are you planting experimentally or commercially?" we find, surprisingly, that Persian walnuts displace black walnuts from first place, at least in these reports, and that filberts and heartnuts come next. Then come black walnuts, butternuts, hickories, hazels, Chinese chestnuts, persimmons, Jap walnuts, almonds and a scattering of other species. Leading native wild trees are, first hazels, then black walnuts, hickories and butternuts.
Winter climate is widely varied, being temperate along Puget Sound and close to the southern tier of the Great Lakes, but subject to great extremes in the prairie provinces. Lower winter temperatures in these provinces average from zero to 45 deg. below, while the lowest recorded is reported to have been 62 deg. below. It is evident that Canadians have widely variable problems, in spite of which three Canadians, exactly the number reported from the northern states, tell us that the sale of nuts is an important item in their annual incomes. It looks as though, in comparison, northern U. S. growers could do better. With an average frost-free season of less than five months (from May 7 to Oct. 2), Canadians do this. The normal dates of latest spring frosts average from April 20 to May 24, and of earliest fall frosts, from Sept. 10 to Oct. 12. Extremes at either end often shorten the season somewhat.
Soil conditions are generally good, with plenty of loam and sandy-loam, half lime, half acid; but drought is serious in places, necessitating irrigation. One wonders whether, if more of us were pushed to it, we might not find irrigation so profitable that we would never again be without it. Cultural and soil corrective practices are, in general, similar to those previously reported. Less trouble is experienced from rodents—mice, rabbits, squirrels—but more from deer. Wrapping the trunks of young trees is more generally practiced than with us of more southern latitudes, and disk cultivation is more generally favored.
In reply to the question, "What was your one greatest source of success?", the answers include, pollination by hand, the use of good trees, disking, planting hardy seed, and budding Persians on black walnut stocks. Failures were due mostly to the inevitable causes, cold, drought, weak growth. Alkaline soil is mentioned in one report as a chief difficulty. Bud worms, June beetle, leaf hoppers and walnut caterpillars are also enemies, but Canada seems free from some of the other pests that have invaded the United States.
The most profitable species reported by Canadians are filberts, black walnuts, with "soft-shelled" walnuts mentioned by Mr. Gellatly, of West Bank, B. C. From Ontario, Mr. A. S. Wagner, of Delhi, writes, "We are collecting (nuts) now to make tests of various types of black walnuts this winter. There are one or two plantations of 1000 trees which will soon be bearing, and the future looks interesting."
Black Walnuts. Four varieties appear in Canadian reports which have not been mentioned previously: Impit, Troup, Gifford and Neilson. Gifford and Neilson are said by Mr. Corsan, of Ontario, to be heavy croppers in Canada, Neilson "Very heavy." Impit is a splendid, upright-growing tree which should do well for timber production as well as for nuts. All trees printed in the questionnaire, Ohio, Rohwer, Stabler, Stambaugh, Ten Eyck and Thomas, are given "good" ratings for hardiness except Thomas which is fair. Gibson bears large nuts of good cracking quality.
Neither Japanese chestnuts nor pecans are reported on from Canada. Chinese chestnuts and hybrid chestnuts are reported as planted and hardy, thus far, but have yet to bear.
Filberts. Holden, Craig, Firstola, Comet and Brag show up as hardy and bear good crops of nuts of good quality. Other promising varieties are Petoka (new variety, small, thin shell,) Daviana, Churchvelt—significant name! Barcelona, DuChilly, Italian Red, Rush, White Aveline and Bixby are reported to be not hardy. Winkler is hardy. Mr. J. U. Gellatly, of West Bank, is working with a number of tree hazels, Chinese, Indian, Turkish and a cork-barked variety. All are rated by him as hardy in his area. They are young trees, not yet reported in bearing.
Butternuts. In addition to previously named varieties, Edge is added and is given a foremost rating in all departments, The rating on others is not conclusive.
Persian Walnuts. No new light is thrown on the performance of varieties already listed. Broadview is one of the hardiest, a good producer of fair nuts. Watt produces a large nut of finest flavor. Geloka is a good nut, and Corsan is hardy but bears a smaller nut of lesser kernel quality.
Hickories do not seem to interest Canadians. Stratford, first, and Weiker, second, are leaders. Stratford bears heavily but its quality in Canada is not up to par.
Heartnuts are a Canadian specialty. Gellatly, of all varieties in the printed list, is reported as best in all departments. Of the twelve varieties written in by reporters as worthy of special mention, it is difficult to make a just appraisal. Okanda, O. K., and Crofter are reported perfectly hardy through minus 20 deg. of cold. Others, hardy and good in all departments, are, Mackenzie, Canoka, Walters, Rover, Calendar and Smyth. Stranger seems not quite so hardy, but Mr. Corsan calls it "the best heartnut grown", splendid in flavor, thin shelled, a little small but with a better than usual percentage of kernel.