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Notes and Queries, Number 194, July 16, 1853
Author: Various
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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

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{49}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 194.] SATURDAY, JULY 16. 1853.. [With Index, price 10d.. Stamped Edition 11d.

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CONTENTS.

NOTES:— Page Derivation of the Word "Island" 49 Weather Rules, by Edward Peacock 50 On the modern Practice of assuming Arms 50 Morlee and Lovel, by L. B. Larking 51 Shakspeare Correspondence, by Robert Rawlinson and John Macray 51 Unpublished Letter 53

MINOR NOTES:—Lines on the Institution of the Order of the Garter—Old Ship—The Letter "h" in "humble"— "The Angels' Whisper"—Pronunciation of Coke—The Advice supposed to have been given to Julius III. 53

QUERIES:— Bishop Gardiner "De Vera Obedientia" 54

MINOR QUERIES:—Lord Byron—Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead—Unpublished Essay by Lamb—Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church— Cromwell's Portrait—Governor Brooks—Old Books—The Privileges of the See of Canterbury—Heraldic Colour pertaining to Ireland—Descendants of Judas Iscariot—Parish Clerks and Politics—"Virgin Wife and widowed Maid"—"Cutting off the little Heads of Light"—Medal of Sir Robert Walpole—La Fete des Chaudrons—Who first thought of Table-turning?— College Guide 55

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:—Done Pedigree—Scotch Newspapers, &c.—Dictum de Kenilworth—Dr. Harwood 57

REPLIES:— Names of Places, by J. J. A. Worsaae 58 Cleaning old Oak, by Henry Herbert Hele, &c. 58 Burial in an Erect Posture, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A. 59 Lawyers' Bags 59

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:—New Photographic Process 60

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:—The Ring Finger—The Order of St. John of Jerusalem—Calvin's Correspondence— Old Booty's Case—Chatterton—House-marks, &c.— Bibliography—Parochial Libraries—Faithful Teate— Lack-a-daisy—Bacon—Angel-beast: Cleek: Longtriloo— Hans Krauwinckel—Revolving Toy—Rub-a-dub—Muffs worn by Gentlemen—Detached Church Towers—Christian Names—Hogarth's Pictures—Old Fogie—Clem—Kissing Hands—Uniform of the Foot Guards—Book Inscriptions— Humbug—Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway Travelling—Engine-a-verge—"Populus vult decipi," &c.— Sir John Vanbrugh—Erroneous Forms of Speech— Devonianisms 61

MISCELLANEOUS:— Books and Odd Volumes wanted 65 Notices to Correspondents 66 Advertisements 66

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Notes.

DERIVATION OF THE WORD "ISLAND."

Lexicographers from time to time have handed down to us, and proposed for our choice, two derivations of our English word Island; and, that one of these two is correct, has, I believe, never yet been called in question. The first which they offer, and that most usually accepted as the true one, is the A.-S. Ealand, Ealond, Igland; Belg. Eylandt: the first syllable of which, they inform us, is ea, Low Germ. aue, water, i.e. water-land, or land surrounded by water. If this etymon be deemed unsatisfactory, they offer the following: from the Fr. isle, It. isola, Lat. insula, the word island, they say, is easily deflected.

At the risk of being thought presumptuous, I do not hesitate to say, that both these alternatives are manifestly erroneous; and, for the following reason, I propose a third source, which seems to carry conviction with it: first, from analogy; and secondly, from the usage of the language from which our English word is undoubtedly derived, the Anglo-Saxon.

First, from analogy. Let us only consider how frequently names are given to parts of our hills, shores, rivers, &c., from their supposed resemblance to parts of the human body. Thus, for instance, we have a head land, a neck of land, a tongue of land, a nose of land (as in Ness, in Orfordness, Dungeness, and, on the opposite coast, Grinez); also a mouth of a river or harbour, a brow of a hill, back or chine of a hill, foot of a hill; an arm of the sea, sinus or bosom of the sea. With these examples, and many more like them, before us, why should we ignore an eye of land as unlikely to be the original of our word island? The correspondence between the two is exact. How frequently is the term eye applied to any small spot standing by itself, and peering out as it were, in fact an insulated spot: thus we have the eye of an apple, the eye or centre of a target, the eye of a stream (i.e. where the stream collects into a point—a point well known to salmon fishers), and very many other instances. What more natural term, then, to apply to a spot of land standing alone in the midst of an expanse of water than an eye of land? {50}

In confirmation of this view, let us look to the original language; there we find the compounds of eag, ea, aegh, the eye, of very frequent occurrence: all of them showing that this compound ea-land is not only legitimate, but extremely probable. Thus we find, eag-aeple, the pupil of the eye; eag-dura, a window-light, eye-door; eag ece, pain in the eye; eah-hringas, the orbits of the eyes. In the last instance, the g is dropped; and it is certain that eag was pronounced nearly as eye now is. From all this, is it too much to conclude that ea-land is the same as eye-land? But farther, Ig (A.-S.) sometimes stands by itself for an island, as also do Igland and Igoth, and Ii was the old name of Iona. Now I cannot find that there ever was the slightest connexion between the A.-S. Ig and water; nor do I believe that such an idea would ever have been started, but to support the old derivation of the word; I have never seen a genuine instance of such connexion brought forward. Then the word Ig, if it be supposed to mean an eye, as I contend, may very well stand by itself for island; but, if water be expressed by it, I cannot understand how it can serve to import land.

If any farther confirmation be wanted, we have it in the diminutive eyot, of which ait, aight, eight are corruptions.

H. C. K.

—— Rectory, Hereford.

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WEATHER RULES.

Thomas Passenger, who dwelt at the Three Bibles and Star, on London Bridge, was very celebrated during the latter part of the seventeenth century for publishing popular histories and chap-books. His shop seems to have been the principal place of resort for the hawkers who then supplied the provinces with literature. Many of the works which issued from his press are now very rare: one of the most curious, and, at the same time, the rarest, is The Shepherd's Kalendar: or, the Citizen's and Country Man's Daily Companion, &c. The contents of this book are of a very singular nature, it being a kind of epitome of the facts it was then thought necessary for a countryman to be acquainted with. A considerable portion of the work is occupied by remarks on the weather, and on lucky and unlucky days: if I were to extract all on those subjects, this communication would extend to an unreasonable length.

We are informed, under the head "Observations on Remarkable Days, to know how the whole Year will succeed in Weather, Plenty," &c., that—

"If the sun shine clear and bright on Christmas-day, it promiseth a peaceable year from clamours and strife, and foretells much plenty to ensue; but if the wind blow stormy towards sunset, it betokeneth sickness in the spring and autumn quarters."

"If January 25 (being St. Paul's day) be fair, it promises a happy year; but if cloudy, windy, or rainy, otherwise: hear in this case what an ancient judicious astrologer writes:

'If St. Paul be fair and clear, It promises then a happy year; But if it chance to snow or rain, Then will be dear all sorts of grain: Or if the wind do blow aloft, Great stirs will vex the world full oft; And if dark clouds do muff the sky, Then foul and cattle oft will die.'"

"Mists or hoar frosts on the tenth of March betokens (sic) a plentiful year, but not without some diseases."

"If, in the fall of the leaf in October, many of them wither on the bows, and hang there, it betokens a frosty winter and much snow."

Under "The Signs of Rain in Creatures" we have the following:

"When the hern or bitron flies low, the air is gross, and thickening into showers."

"The froggs much croaking in ditches and pools, &c., in the evening, foretells rain in little time to follow: also, the sweating of stone pillars or tombs denotes rain."

"The often doping or diving of water fowl foreshows rain is at hand."

"The peacock's much crying denotes rain."

There is a list given of Lucky Days, which contains all the red letter saints' days of the Reformed English kalendar. We are also informed that there are other days in each month which "are successful enough." Thus—

"In January there are three, viz. 16. 18. 26. In February there are four, viz. 10. 19. 27. 28. In March there are two, viz. 14. 18. In April there are three, viz. 13. 22. 27. In May there are five, viz. 3. 5. 7. 11. 19. In June there are four, viz. 10. 17. 20. 27. In July there are six, viz. 1. 13. 19. 21. 27. 30. In August there are three, viz. 3. 7. 9. In September there are five, viz. 4. 8. 11. 15. 19. In October there are three, viz. 1. 8. 13. In November there are four, viz. 3. 9. 11. 15. In December there are three, viz. 9. 13. 17."

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford, Messingham, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

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ON THE MODERN PRACTICE OF ASSUMING ARMS.

"If any person be advanced into an office or dignity of publique administration, be it eyther ecclesiasticall, martiall, or ciuill: so that the same office comprehendeth in it dignitatem vel dignitatis titulum, either dignitie or (at the least) a title of dignitye: the Heralde must not refuse to devise to such a publique person, upon his instant request and willingnes to beare the same without reproche, a coate of armes: and thenceforth to matriculate him, with his {51} intermarriages, and issues descending, in the register of the Gentle and Noble."

Thus wrote Sir John Ferne in The Blazon of Gentrie, printed in the year 1586. So also Coates, in his additions to Gwillim, writing in 1724, says:

"For though arms, in their first acceptation, were (as is shewed) taken up at any gentleman's pleasure, yet hath that liberty for many ages been deny'd, and they, by regal authority, made the rewards and ensigns of merit, &c., the gracious favours of princes; no one being, by the law of gentility in England, allowed the bearing thereof, but those that either have them by descent, or grant, or purchase from the body or badge of any prisoner they in open and lawful war had taken."

He proceeds to adduce various authorities on this subject, for which I would refer to the Introduction to the last edition of Gwillim's Heraldry, p. 16. &c.

Porny defines assumptive arms to be—

"Such as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of upstarts, who, being advanced to a degree of fortune, assume them without having deserved them by any glorious action. This, indeed (he adds), is great abuse of heraldry; but yet so common, and so much tolerated, almost everywhere, that little or no notice is taken of it."

This was written in 1765. Archdeacon Nares, in his very amusing Heraldic Anomalies, printed in 1823, says:

"At present, similarity of name is quite enough to lead any man to conclude himself to be a branch of some very ancient or noble stock, and, if occasion arise, to assume the arms appropriate to such families, without any appeal to the Heralds' office; nor would any Alderman Gathergrease, living in affluence, be without such marks and symbols on his plate, seals, carriages, &c., with no higher authority, perhaps, than his own fancy and conceit."

It must be confessed that the middle of the nineteenth century offers the most ample facilities for the would-be aristocrats of the age, and that without troubling Sir Charles Young or the College of Arms; witness the following advertisement cut from a newspaper of the day:—

"THE FAMILY LIVERY.—Arms and Crests correctly ascertained, and in any case a steel die expressly cut for the buttons, free of cost," &c.

There can, indeed, be no doubt that this foolish practice of assuming arms without right has of late years grown to an absurd height; and I fear the assumption is by no means confined to persons who have risen by trade, or by some lucky speculation in railways &c.; even those who have been "advanced into an office or dignity of publique administration" have but seldom made their "instant request" to the heralds "to devise a coate of armes to be borne by them without reproch."

The episcopal bench, in particular, are very generally faulty in this respect, and, for the greater part, content themselves (if not by birth entitled to bear arms) by assuming the coat of some old-established family of the same, or nearly the same, name. In the case of temporal peerages, which are not seldom, thanks to the ancient constitution of England, renovated from the middle and lower classes, the practice is more in accordance with the precepts of The Blazon of Gentrie; but I believe there is at least one instance, that of a lawyer of the greatest eminence, who was last year advanced to a peerage, and to the highest rank in his profession, who has assumed both arms and supporters without the fiat of the College of Arms. The "novi homines" of a former age set a better example to those of the present day, and were not ashamed to go honestly to the proper office and take out their patent of arms, thus "founding a family" who have a right to the ensigns of honour which they assume.

SPES.

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MORLEE AND LOVEL.

The following document, in connexion with the trial between Morlee and Lovell, in the Court of Chivalry, will probably interest your heraldic readers.

L. B. LARKING.

Ceste indentur tesmoyne q' mos^r John de Cobehm s^r de Cobehm ad baille p assent de les sires de Morlee et Louel dys lib' de bone moneye amest' John Barnet, cest assau' cent south p^r le un ptye et cent south p^r lautre ptye acause q' mesme le dit mestre John et mest' Willm Dawode et mest' Willm Sondeye serrount assessours sur la matire pendaunt pentre les deux syngn' susdite p^r leur armes en le Court de Chiualerie. En tesmoynaunce de quel payment a ycestes endentur lez ptyes susditez entrechaungeablement ount mys lours sceals.

Don a Loundres le xx iu^r de Feu'er lan du rengne le Roy Richard secounde quinzisme.

[In dorso.]

Lendentur de x li paye a mest' John Barnet p^r Morlee et Louel.

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SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

Shakspeare Emendations.—As this is the age of Shakspeare emendations, I beg to propose the following for the consideration of the numerous readers of "N. & Q." I am the more emboldened to do so, as I find several marginal corrections made from time to time are verified by the manuscript corrections in MR. COLLIER'S folio of 1632. These proposed are not, however, there, or I would not have troubled you, though it is many months since I first altered the reading of my copy. {52}

Taming of the Shrew, Act V. Sc. 2.—On the exit of Katharina to "fetch" in the disobedient wives, Lucentio remarks:

"Luc. Here is a wonder, if you talk of a wonder.

Hort. And so it is. I wonder what it bodes.

Pet. Marry, peace it bodes, and love, and quiet life, An awful rule, and right supremacy; And, to be short, what not that's sweet and happy."

For "an awful rule" I propose to substitute and lawful rule, as agreeing better with the text and context; indeed, the whole passage indicates it. Petruchio means that the change in Katharina's temper and conduct bodes love, peace, law, and order, in contradistinction to awe or fear. The repetition of the conjunction and also makes the harmony of the language more equal; "and love, and quiet life, and lawful rule, and right supremacy," rings evenly to the ear. Considering the number and character of the emendations in MR. COLLIER'S volume, I have the less hesitation in proposing this one. The language of Shakspeare is, as we know it, for the most part so clear, harmonious, distinct, and forcible, that I think we are justified in considering any obscure, inconsistent, or harsh passage, as having met with some mishap either in hearing, transcribing, or in printing. Some months ago, and certainly before MR. COLLIER'S volume of corrections appeared, I forwarded to "N. & Q." (it never appeared) a correction from Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 2., where Cleopatra, contemplating suicide, says it is—

"To do that thing that ends all other deeds, Which shackles accidents, and bolts up change; Which sleeps, and never palates more the dung. The beggar's nurse and Caesar's."

The word "dung" ending the third line, was so evidently dug, or nipple, that I thought no man to whom it was pointed out could have a doubt about it. MR. COLLIER remarks in his recent volume, "This emendation may, or may not, have been conjectural, but we may be pretty sure it is right." I doubt if MR. COLLIER would have accepted any authority other than that of his own folio, although Shakspeare has frequently used the word dug as a synonym for nipple, as see Romeo and Juliet, Act I. Sc. 3.:

"Nurse. And she was wean'd,—I never shall forget it,— Of all the days of the year, upon that day: For I had then laid wormwood to my dug. . . . . . . —but, as I said, When it did taste the wormwood on the nipple Of my dug, and felt it bitter, pretty fool, To see it tetchy, and fall out with the dug!"

This quotation proves clearly, I consider, that dug was meant by Cleopatra, and not dung; and so I considered before the old manuscript correction of MR. COLLIER'S appeared. The words "an awful" are as clearly to my mind and lawful. I doubt, however, if they will be so acknowledged, as the use of the words "an awful," it may be contended, are countenanced by other passages in Shakspeare; I quote the following.

Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act IV. Sc. I.—

"3rd Outlaw. Know then, that some of us are gentlemen, Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth Thrust from the company of awful men."

The word "awful" is surely, in this place, lawful; an outlaw would be little inclined to consider men as "awful," but the contrary. Read the last line as under—

"Thrust from the company of lawful men,"

and the meaning is simple and clear. The outlaws were thrust from the company of lawful men, that is, men who obeyed the laws they had broken in "the fury of ungovern'd youth."

In King Richard II., Act III. Sc. 3., the following use of the words lawful and awful occurs:

"K. Rich. We are amazed; and thus long have we stood To watch the fearful bending of thy knee, [To Northumberland. Because we thought ourself thy lawful king; And if we be, how dare thy joints forget To pay their awful duty to our presence?"

The meaning in this case is no doubt clear enough, and the words "awful duty" may be the right ones; but had they stood lawful duty in any old copy, he should have been a bold man who would have proposed to substitute awful for lawful.

Second Part of King Henry IV., Act IV. Sc. 1.—

"Arch. To us, and to our purposes, confin'd: We come within our awful banks again, And knit our powers to the arm of peace."

The use of the word "awful" in this passage may be right, but, as in the preceding case, I think, had lawful banks stood in any old printed copy, or had it even been found in MR. COLLIER'S volume, the fitness would have been acknowledged.

Shakspeare used the word "lawful" in many instances where, no doubt, it may with reason, strong as any given here, be changed to awful. In the historical plays, lawful king, lawful progeny, lawful heir, lawful magistrate, lawful earth, lawful sword, &c., may be found. These suggestions, like the pinch of sand thrown on the old woman's cow, if they do no good, will, I trust, do no harm.

ROBERT RAWLINSON.

Shakspeare.—A German writer, Professor Hilgers, of Aix-la-Chapelle, published in 1852 a pamphlet, in which he endeavoured to prove that many passages in Shakspeare, which were originally written in verse, have been "degraded" into prose, and quotes several passages from the plays {53} in support of his thesis. Professor Hilgers says that emendation of the text, by means of such a mode of correction as would restore the corrupted verses to their original form, has hitherto been almost entirely neglected by commentators, or else employed by them with very little ability and success. I have not seen the Professor's Treatise, and only write from a short notice which I have just perused of it in a German review; but, if what Professor H. states be correct, the subject appears to deserve more particular attention from the writers in the "N. & Q.," who have devoted their ingenuity and research to the illustration of Shakspeare. In the hope of attracting them to "fresh fields and pastures new," in which to recreate themselves, and to instruct and delight the world-wide readers of the great dramatist, I venture to solicit attention to Professor Hilger's pamphlet and its subject. In this I only echo the German reviewer's language, who most highly praises the Professor's acuteness, and the value of his strictures, and promises to return to them at greater length in a future number of the periodical in which he writes.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

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UNPUBLISHED LETTER.

I have thought that the following old letter, from a retired lawyer of the seventeenth century to his future son-in-law, might not be altogether uninteresting to your readers, as referring to the value of land and money at the period when it was written.

C. W. B.

July y^e 16^{th}, (16)95.

S^r,

Since you are pleased to demand my opinion concerning your intended purchase, I shall give you it as well as I can upon so short a warning. You say, if lett, you suppose it was worth a 130l. per annū. I cannot tell by your letter whether the mills, lett at 20l. per annū, are a part of y^e 130l.: if it be, I think 2600l. a great price, being much above twenty years' purchase, considering the lord's rent. But if they are not included in that sum, 'tis a good twenty years' purchase. Now you must consider what returne this will make for your money. I am sure, as times goe, not three per cent; and money makes full five, and very seldom, if ever, pays taxes. I believe it may be very convenient for you, and it is very advantageous to be entire; but if you should contract a debt to buy this estate you will be very uneasy, and, if you marry, the first setting out will be expensive, and it will be ill taking up money to defray necessary charges. I conceive the land is in hand, and not lett; so that, if you have not a tenant, you must be at the expence of stocking, w^{ch} will sett very hard upon you. And you know, w^n your sister marrys, there is a 1000 pounds more to be provided. Pray putt all these things together, and propose some way of solving all these difficultys; and, if you can, I should be glad to have it annexed to your estate, and settled upon the heirs male of your body. Upon w^{ch} consideration I shall be more inclined to farther your desires in a reasonable manner.

Pray, w^n you hear any more of that coūselor's amours send me word, but lett me advise you never to say anything of him or his estate that may come to the lady's ears. I hope my Lady Morton will not tell M^{rs} Tregonell any more than what all the world should know. I heard the K^t had bid adieu to the Woodland Lady. I am very glad of it, for I wish him better ffortune. I writt lately to S^r John, who honoured me with a letter. As for public news, you have heard, I suppose, of our burning St. Malos and Grandvile; and that wee have left a great many of our men before Namur, but they continue the siege vigorously. They say the ffrench are about to sett downe before Dixmude, to bring us of by revultion. Pray p^rsent mine and my daughter's service to your sister, and believe me to be, S^r, your affectionate kinsman and servant

J. POTENGER.

Remember, at this time there is a great deal of land to be sold, but few purchasers. I have spooke to S^r Miles Cooke, who promises to lett me have your settlement to peruse, and to end matters fairly. Since I writt my letter 'tis reported ... is surrendered or taken.

These ffor Richard Binghā, Esq., at Bingham's Malcombe, to be left at the post-house in St. Andrew's, Milborne, Dorsett.

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Minor Notes.

Lines on the Institution of the Order of the Garter.—I send you the following, which may be worth a corner in "N. & Q." The only account I can give of them is that I found them in MS. among other poetical extracts, without date or author's name:—

"When Salisbury's famed Countess was dancing with glee, Her stocking's security fell from her knee. Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round; The trifle was scouted, and left on the ground. When Edward the Brave, with true soldier-like spirit, Cried, 'The garter is mine; 'tis the order of merit; The first knight in my court shall be happy to wear, Proud distinction! the garter that fell from the fair: While in letters of gold—'tis your monarch's high will— Shall there be inscribed, "Ill to him that thinks ill."'"

TEE BEE.

{54}

Old Ship.—It may be of interest to some of your readers to learn that the ship which conveyed General Wolfe on his expedition to Quebec is still afloat under the name of the "William and Ann."

She was built in 1759 for a bomb-ketch, and was in dock in the Thames a few days since, sound and likely to endure for many years yet: she is mostly now engaged in the Honduras and African timber trades, which is in itself a proof of her great strength.

A. O. H.

Blackheath.

The Letter "h" in "humble."—I was always taught in my childhood to sink the h in this word, and was confirmed in this habit by the usage of all the well-educated people that I met in those days, as also by the authority of every pronouncing dictionary in the English language: and to this day hear many people quite as well educated, and of as high station in all but literary society, as Mr. Dickens, use the same pronunciation; but this eminent writer has thought fit of late to proscribe this practice as far as in him lies, by making it the Shibboleth of two of the meanest and vilest characters in his works. I should like to know whether the aspiration of this letter is due to Mr. D.'s London birth and residence, or whether it has become of late the general usage of good society. If the latter, it is clear that a new edition of Walker is required for the benefit of such as have no wish to be confounded with the "Heeps."

Your late Numbers have given some curious instances of Cockney and other rhymes. I am sorry to see that the offensive r not only appears to be gaining ground in poetry, but also in the mouths of many whose station and education might have been supposed to preserve them from this vulgarism. If the masters of our great schools took as much pains with their pupils' pronunciation of English, as with that of Latin and Greek, we should hear less of this.

J. S. WARDEN.

"The Angels' Whisper."—The admirers of that popular song will be surprised to find that there prevails in India a tradition very similar to the one on which that song is founded.

The other day our Hindoo nurse was watching our baby asleep, and noticing that it frequently smiled, said, "God is talking to it!" The tradition, as elicited from this woman, seems to be here, that when a child smiles in its sleep, God is saying something pleasing to it; but when it cries, He is talking to it of sorrow.

J. C. B.

Punjab.

Pronunciation of Coke (Vol. vii., p. 586.).—Probably the under-mentioned particulars may tend to elucidate the Query discussed in your paper touching the pronunciation of Chief Justice Coke's surname in his Lordship's time.

In numerous original family "Coke documents" in my possession, amongst which are a most spirited and highly interesting letter written by the celebrated Lady Elizabeth Hatton[1], Sir Edward Coke's widow, quite in character with her ladyship, shortly after her husband's death; and likewise several letters written by his children and grandchildren; Sir Edward's surname is invariably spelt Coke, whilst in other his family documents[2] and public precepts I possess, the latter of which came under the eye of Lords Keepers Coventry and Littleton, Sir Edward's name is, in nine cases out of ten in five hundred instances, spelt Cooke and Cook; thus, I submit, raising an almost irresistible presumption that, however the Chief Justice's surname was written, it was pronounced Cook and not Coke.

T. W. JONES.

Nantwich.

[Footnote 1: Her surname is so written.]

[Footnote 2: Some of them of so early a date as the year 1600, when Sir Edward was Attorney-General to Queen Elizabeth.]

The Advice supposed to have been given to Julius III.—The Consilium, sometimes and inadvertently called a Council, addressed to Julius III., Pope of Rome, by certain prelates, has just been once more quoted, for the fiftieth time, perhaps, within the present generation, as a genuine document, and as proceeding from adherents of the Church of Rome. This re-quotation appears in an otherwise useful little volume of the Religious Tract Society, entitled The Bible in many Tongues, p. 96.; and it may tend to check the use made of the supposed Advice or Council to state, what a perusal either of the original in Brown's Fasciculus Rerum Expetend. et Fugiend., or of a translation in Gibson's Preservative (vol. i. pp. 183. 191., ed. 1848), will soon make evident, that the document in question is a piece of banter, and must be attributed to the pen of P. P. Vergerio, in whose Works it is in fact included, in the single volume published Tubing. 1563, fol. 94—104.

So frequently has this supposed Advice been cited as a serious affair, that the pages of "N. & Q." may be well employed in endeavouring to stop the somewhat perverse use of a friendly weapon.

NOVUS.

* * * * *

Queries.

BISHOP GARDINER "DE VERA OBEDIENTIA."

It is probable that others of your readers besides myself have had good reason to complain that Dr. Maitland has cruelly raised the price of this little book to a bibliomaniacal height, by his inimitable description of its curious contents and history. (Essays on Subjects connected with the Reformation, xvii. xviii. xix.)

{55}

Some of the things which seem to be indubitable respecting the original work are these:—1. That it was first printed in 1535. 2. That, consequently, Bishop Burnet (Hist. of Ref., Part I. b. iii. p. 166.: Dublin, 1730) was mistaken in representing it as having been written in reply to Cardinal Pole. 3. That there was an octavo edition published at Strasburg in 1536, and that Goldastus followed it. 4. That there was an additional reprint of the tract at London in 1603. (Schelhornii, Amoen. Hist. Eccles., tom. i. pp. 15. 849.) But I am anxious to make three inquiries relative to this really important document and its fictitious preface.

1. The Roane volume, certainly the earliest in English, professes to have been printed by "Michal Wood" in 1553. Can we not determine the place of its origin by the recollection of the fact, that Bishop Bale's Mysterye of Iniquyte, or Confutation of Ponce Pantolabus, was printed at Geneva by "Mychael Woode" in 1545?

2. With regard to the typographical achievements of the Brocards, is it not rather an apropos circumstance, that "Biliosus Balaeus," as Fuller calls him, was the author of a Historia Divi Brocardi? (Ware's Works, ii. 325.)

3. May not Bale (or Baal, according to Pits) be suspected to have been the composer of the Bonnerian Preface? He might have reckoned it among the many Facetias et Jocos which he declares that he had put forth. It is observable that, while the writer of this Preface designates Bishop Gardiner as the "common cutthrot of Englande," the same title is bestowed upon Bonner in the Foxian Letter addressed to him by "an unknown person" (Strype's Memor. iii., Catal. p. 161.: London, 1721), and which, from internal evidence taken from the part relating to Philpot, must be referred to the year 1555. The style of these performances is similar; and let "gaie Gardiner, blow-bole Boner, trusti Tonstal, and slow-bellie Samson" of the Preface be compared with "glorious Gardiner, blow-bolle Bonner, tottering Tunstal, wagtaile Weston, and carted Chicken." (Bale's Declaration of Bonner's Articles, fol. 90. b., London, 1561.)

R. G.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

Lord Byron.—What relation to the poet was the Lord Byron mentioned in the Apology for the Life of George Ann Bellamy?

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead.—In Marshfield, Massachusets, it has been customary for a very long period to ring the bell of the parish church most violently for eight or ten minutes, whenever a death occurs in the village; then to strike it slowly three times three, which makes known to the inhabitants that a man or boy has expired, and finally to toll it the number of times that the deceased had numbered years of existence.

The first settlers of Marshfield having been Englishmen, may I ask if this custom ever did, or does now, exist in the mother country?

W. W.

Malta.

Unpublished Essay by Lamb.—Coleridge is represented in his Table Talk (p. 253. ed. 1836), to have said that "Charles Lamb wrote an essay on a man, who had lived in past time." The editor in a note tells us he knows "not when or where." I do not find it in the edition of his works published in 1846, nor have I been able to discover it in any of the journals, to which he contributed, that have fallen in my way. Have any of your correspondents met with it?

R. W. ELLIOTT.

Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church.—On lately visiting Crosthwaite Church, Cumberland, I was exceedingly struck with the great peculiarity of a carving, pointed out to me by the sexton, on the left jambs of all the windows in the north and south aisles, both inside and out. It is in the form of a circle with eight radiations, and always occurs about half-way between the shoulder of the arch and the sill. During the late restoration of the church, it has been covered with plaster in every case in the interior, save one in the north aisle, which is left very distinct. It does not appear on any of the windows at the east end or in the tower. I noticed a similar figure over the stone door-way of the old inn at Threlkeld, with the letters C G inscribed on one side, and the date 1688 on the other. The sexton said, he had never been able to obtain any intelligence as to its symbolical meaning or history, although he had inquired of nearly every one who had been to see the church. Can any of your correspondents throw a light upon the subject?

R. W. ELLIOTT.

Cromwell's Portrait.—In the Annual Register, 1773, "Characters," p. 77.; in Hughes's Letters, ii. 308.; in Gent. Mag., xxxv. 357.; and in Noble's House of Cromwell, i. 307., is a statement, originally made by Mr. Say, of Lowestoft, in his account of Mrs. Bridget Bendish, importing that the best picture of Oliver which the writer had ever seen, was at Rosehall (Beccles), in the possession of Sir Robert Rich. Where is this portrait? Has it ever been engraved?

S. W. RIX.

Beccles.

Governor Brooks, about a century since, was governor of one of the West India Islands. I have heard Cuba named as his government; and it might have been that, the short time Cuba was in {56} the possession of the English, he was governor of it; but I am uncertain. If any correspondent, versed in West Indian affairs, can give me any particulars of the family and antecedents of the above, or any reference to his services (for I suppose him to have been a military man), it will great oblige

TEE BEE.

Old Books.—I notice some of your correspondents, having fancied that they have picked up at some old book-stall an invaluable treasure, are coolly told by others more learned, "It would be a bad exchange for a shilling;" and, again, "If it cost three shillings and sixpence, the purchaser was most unfortunate."

May I ask the value of the following? They came into possession of my family about thirty years ago:

"Epitome Thesauri antiquitatum hoc est Impp. Rom. orientalium et occidentalium Iconum ex antiquis numismatibus quam fidelissime delineatum.

"Ex Musaeo Jacobi de Strada Mantuani Antiquatum.

"Lugduni, apud Jacobum de Strada et Thomam Guercinum, MDLIII. (1553). Cum Privilegio Regio."

Handsomely got up; gilt edges, pp. 339. Also,

"Sommario delle vite de gl'Imperiatore Romani da C. Giolio Cesare sino a Ferdinando II., con le loro effigie Causte dalle Medaglie: In Roma apresso, Lodovico Grignani, MDCXXXVII, pp. 80."

BRISTOLIENSIS.

The Privileges of the See of Canterbury.—I find preserved by William of Malmsbury, in his Chronicle, book iii., the following letter from Pope Boniface to Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury, respecting the privileges of his see:

"Far be it from every Christian, that anything concerning the city of Canterbury be diminished or changed, in present or future times, which was appointed by our predecessor Pope Gregory, however human circumstances may be changed: but more especially by the authority of St. Peter, the chief of the Apostles, we command and ordain, that the city of Canterbury shall ever hereafter be esteemed the Metropolitan See of all Britain; and we decree and appoint immutably, that all the provinces of the kingdom of England shall be subject to the Metropolitan Church of the aforesaid See. And if any one attempt to injure this church, which is more especially under the power and protection of the Holy Roman Church, or to lessen the jurisdiction conceded to it, may GOD expunge him from the book of life; and let him know that he is bound by the sentence of a curse."

How can the expressions I have Italicised be reconciled with the creation of the Archiepiscopal See of Westminster?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

Heraldic Colour pertaining to Ireland.—There occurs in the Dublin University Magazine for October, 1852, an article entitled "A Night in the Fine Arts' Court of our National Exhibition," and at the conclusion a "Note," in which I find the following remarks:—

"This last (the figure of Erin), as described, is purely ideal, but legitimately brought in, as Hogan's figure of 'Hibernia' occupied a position in the Fine Arts' Court, and suggested it. It may be as well to add that Erin is described as wearing a blue mantle, as blue, not green, is the heraldic colour pertaining to Ireland now."

May I inquire at what time, and under what circumstances, blue was substituted for the old favourite green?

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

Descendants of Judas Iscariot.—In Southey's Omniana is the following:

"It was believed in Pier della Valle's time that the descendants of Judas still existed at Corfu, though the persons who suffered this imputation stoutly denied the truth of the genealogy."

Is anything farther to be met with on this curious subject?

G. CREED.

Parish Clerks and Politics.—In Twenty-six Psalms of Thanksgiving and Praise, Love and Glory, for the use of a Parish Church (Exon., And. Brice, 1725), the rector (who compiled it), among other reasons for omitting all the imprecatory Psalms, says,—

"Lest a parish clerk, or any other, should be whetting his spleen, or obliging his spite, when he should be entertaining his devotion."

That such practices were indulged in, we have the farther evidence of Bramston the satirist:

"Not long since parish clerks, with saucy airs, Apply'd King David's Psalms to state-affairs."[3]

Can any readers of "N. & Q." point out examples of such misapplication?

J. O.

[Footnote 3: The Art of Politicks, in imitation of Horace, 1729, with a hybrid portrait of Heidegger, the arbit. elegant. of his day.]

"Virgin Wife and widowed Maid."—Whence come the words "Virgin wife and widow'd maid," quoted, apparently, by Liddell and Scott in their Greek Lexicon, s.v. [Greek: aparthenos], as a rendering or illustration of Hec. 610.?

"[Greek: Numphen t' anumphon, parthenon t' aparthenon]."

ANON.

"Cutting off the little heads of light."—Perhaps you or one of your correspondents would help me to the whereabouts of some thoughtful lines which I recently came across, in a volume which I accidentally took up, but the name of which has completely skipped my memory.

{57}

The lines referred to typified Tyranny under the form of the man who puts out the gas-lights at dawn: "Cutting off the little heads of light which lit the world." I am not sure of the rhythm, and so have put the lines like prose; but they wind up with a fine analogy of the sun in all its glory bursting on the earth, and putting the proceedings of the light extinguisher utterly to nought.

A. B. R.

Medal of Sir Robert Walpole.—On a brass medal, without date, rather larger than half a crown, are these effigies.

On one side the devil, horned and tailed proper, with a fork in his right hand, and marching with a very triumphant step, is conducting a courtier in full dress (no doubt meant for Walpole), by a rope round his neck, into the open jaws of a monster, which represent the entrance to the place of punishment. Out of the devil's mouth issues a label with the words, "Make room for Sir Robert." Underneath, "No Excise."

On the reverse are the figures of two naval officers, with the legend, "The British Glory revived by Admiral Vernon and Commodore Brown." This refers of course to the taking of Porto Bello in November, 1739.

Is this piece one of rarity and value?

J.

La Fete des Chaudrons.—In the exhibition of pictures in the British Institution is one (No. 17.) by Teniers, entitled "La Fete des Chaudrons." In what publication can the description of this fete, or fair, be found?

C. I. R.

Who first thought of Table-turning?—Whilst the people are amusing themselves, and the learned are puzzling themselves, on the subject of table-turning, would you have any objection to answer the following Query?

Who first thought of table-turning? and whence has it suddenly risen to celebrity?

J. G. T.

Hagley.

College Guide.—Will some of your correspondents kindly inform a father, who is looking forward to his boys going to college, in what work he will find the fullest particulars respecting scholarships and exhibitions at the different colleges in both universities? Querist is in possession of Gilbert's Liber Scholasticus (1843), the Family Almanack for 1852, and, of course, the University Calendars.

S. S. S.

* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

Done Pedigree.—A very old MS. pedigree of the family of Done of Utkington, in the county before me, connects with that family no less than twenty-three Cheshire families of distinction, viz. Cholmondeley, Egerton, Wilbraham, Booth, Arden, Leicester, and seventeen others. Now, as it appears by your note on the communication of a correspondent (Vol. vi., p. 273.), that there exists a pedigree of the family of Done, of Utkington, in the British Museum, Additional MS. No. 5836. pp. 180. and 186., perhaps you will be good enough to say whether that pedigree discloses the extensive Cheshire family connexion with the Done family above noticed.

T. W. JONES.

Nantwich.

[The following families connected with Done of Utkington occur in the pedigree (Add. MS. 5836. p. 186.) "Richard de Kingsley, A.D. 1233; Venables, Swinerton, Peter de Thornton, Lord Audley, Dutton, Aston, Gerrard, Wilbraham, Manwaring, Eliz. Trafford, widow of Geo. Booth of Dunham, Ralph Legh of High Legh, Davenport Thomas Stanley de Alderley, Thomas Wagstaff of Tachbroke, and Devereux Knightley of Fawsley." This pedigree was copied by Cole from an old MS. book of pedigrees formerly belonging to Sir John Crew. See also Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. ii. p. 133., for a pedigree of Done of Utkington, Flax-Yards, and Duddon, compiled from inquisitions post mortem, the parochial registers, and the Visitations of 1580 and 1664.]

Scotch Newspapers, &c.—What are the earliest publications of Scotland giving an account of the current events of that kingdom?

T. F.

[The Edinburgh Gazette, or Scotch Postman, printed by Robert Brown on Tuesdays and Thursdays, appears to have been the earliest gazette. The first Number was published in March, 1715. This was followed by The Edinburgh Evening Courant, published on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays. No. 1. appeared on the 15th December, 1718, and has existed to the present time. There was another paper issued on May 8, 1692, called The Scotch Mercury, giving a true account of the daily proceedings and most remarkable public occurrences in Scotland; but this seems to have been printed in London for R. Baldwin. The earliest Almanack published in Scotland was in 1677, by Mr. Forbes of Aberdeen, under the title of A New Prognostication, calculated for North Britain, and which was continued until the year 1700.]

Dictum de Kenilworth.—Said to have passed anno 1266. What was the nature of it?

ABREDONENSIS.

[It is a declaration of the parliament of Henry III., containing the terms on which the king was to grant a general pardon to the malcontents of Ely, namely, that all who took arms against the king should pay him the value of their lands, some for five years, others for three and for one. A copy of it is in the Cottonian Library, Claudius, D. ii., 119. b., and in Tyrrel's Hist. of England, p. 1064.]

Dr. Harwood.—Can you tell me in what year the Rev. Dr. Harwood of Lichfield, author of a History of that city, and other works, died? I {58} believe it was about 1849; but I have not been able to ascertain the exact date.

A. Z.

[Dr. Harwood died 23rd December, 1842, aged 75. For a biographical notice of him, see Gent. Mag. for February, 1843, p. 202.]

* * * * *

Replies.

NAMES OF PLACES.

(Vol. vii., p. 536.)

I have been travelling so much about in the country since I left England, that I have not always the opportunity of seeing your "N. & Q." until long after the publication of the different Numbers. I have in this way seen some Queries put to me about matters connected with the history of the Danish settlements in England. But as I have had no particular information to give, I have not thought it worth while to write to say that I know nothing of any great consequence.

Just when I left Copenhagen, some days ago, a friend of mine showed me that MR. TAYLOR, of Ormesby in Norfolk, asked some questions regarding the Danish names of places in Norfolk.

In answer to them I beg to state, that all the names terminating in -by unquestionably are of Danish origin. MR. TAYLOR is perfectly right in supposing that several of these names of places contain the names of the old Danish conquerors. But I do not think that Ormesby originally has been Gormsby. Gorm certainly is the same as Guthrum; but both of these names are distinctly different from the name "Orme" or "Orm," which, in our old language, signifies a serpent, and also a worm. (The famous ship, on board of which King Olaf Tryggveson was killed in the year 1000, was called "Ormen hin lange," i.e. the long serpent.) I have observed that several English families (undoubtedly of old Scandinavian descent) at this day have the family-name "Orm" or "Orme."

Among the other names of places quoted by MR. TAYLOR, Rollesby most probably must be derived from the name "Rollo" or "Rolf;" but I regard the origin of the other names as being much more doubtful. If we had the original forms of these names, it might have been easier to decide upon it. As the names are now, I do not see anything purely Scandinavian in them, except the termination -by. It is not at all unlikely that the name Ashby or Askeby might have been called so from "Ash-trees" (Danish "Ask eller Esk"), but I dare not venture into conjectures of this kind.

I should be very happy if I in any other way could be of any service to MR. TAYLOR in his researches about the Danish settlements in East Anglia. His remarks upon the situation of the villages with Danish names are most interesting and instructive. I always sincerely wish that inhabitants of the different old Danish districts in the North and East of England would, in the same way, take up the question about the Danish influence, as I feel fully convinced that very remarkable and important elucidations might be gained to the history of England during a long and hitherto very little known period.

J. J. A. WORSAAE.

* * * * *

CLEANING OLD OAK.

(Vol. vii., p. 620.; Vol. viii., p. 45.)

Having been so frequently benefited by the instruction, especially photographic, issuing from your most useful periodical, I feel myself almost bound to contribute my mite of information whenever I may chance to have the power of doing so; consequently, should you not get a better method of assisting MR. F. M. MIDDLETON out of his difficulty of softening old paint, as describe in the "N. & Q.," No. 191., I beg to offer him the following, and from experience I can vouch for its certainty of leading him to the desired result.

Some years since, having had occasion to enter a lumber-room of an old building, I was struck with the antiquated appearance of an arm-chair, which had, in days long gone by, been daubed over with a dirty bluish paint. Finding, on inquiry, that its owner set no particular value on it, I met with but little difficulty in inducing him to make an exchange with me for a good mahogany one. Soon after its being brought into my house, one of my domestics discovered that it positively swarmed with a species of lice, issuing from innumerable minute worm-holes and crevices, which of course rendered it in its present state worse than useless. Determined not to be deprived of my prize, I resolved on attempting to rid it of this troublesome pest by washing it over with a strong solution of caustic soda, made by mixing some quick-lime with a very strong solution of the common washing soda (impure carbonate of soda), and pouring off the clear supernatant liquid for use. This proceeding, much to my satisfaction, not only succeeded in entirely getting rid of the vermin, but on my servant's scrubbing the chair with a hard brush and hot soap and water, I found that the caustic soda had formed a kind of soap, by chemically uniting with the oil contained in the old paint, thereby reducing it to such a state of softness, that by a few vigorous applications and soakings of the above-named solution, and subsequent scrubbings, my new favourite was also freed from its ugly time-worn jacket of dirty paint, discovering underneath a beautifully carved and darkly coloured oaken surface.

After being perfectly dried and saturated with linseed oil, it was frequently well rubbed, and the {59} chair stands to this day, like some of the valuable discoveries made by the alchemists when in search of the Elixir Vitae, or the Philosopher's Stone, an example of a fortunate and unexpected disclosure made when not directly in search of it. I have since learnt that a fluid possessing the above-named detergent qualities, is to be purchased at some of the oil and colour shops, the formula for its preparation being kept a secret.

HENRY HERBERT HELE.

Ashburton, Devonshire.

P. S.—In making the solution on a caustic alkali, perhaps I should have said that the common carbonate of potass of commerce will do as well as the common carbonate of soda, if not better, from the probability of its making a stronger solution.

The following recipe for taking paint off old oak is from No. 151. of The Builder:

"Make a strong solution of American potash (which can be bought at any colour-shop, and resembles burnt brick in appearance); mix this with sawdust into a kind of paste, and spread it all over the paint, which will become softened in a few hours, and is then easily removed by washing with cold water. If, after the wood has dried, it becomes cracked, apply a solution of hot size with a brush, which will bind it well together and make it better for varnishing, as well as destroy the beetle which is often met with in old oak, and is erroneously called the worm."

The following is also from the same Number:

"To make dark oak pale in colour, which is sometimes a desideratum, apply with a brush a little dilute nitric acid judiciously; and to stain light oak dark, use the dregs of black ink and burnt amber mixed. It is better to try these plans on oak of little value at first, as, to make a good job, requires care, practice, and attention."

H. C. K.

F. M. MIDDLETON will find that American potash, soft soap, and warm water, will remove paint from oak. The mixture should be applied with a paint-brush, and allowed to remain on until the paint and it can be removed by washing with warm water and a hard brush.

GETSRN.

* * * * *

BURIAL IN AN ERECT POSTURE.

(Vol. viii., p. 5.)

Your correspondent CHEVERELLS refers to the "tradition" of one of the Harcourt family being buried in an erect posture, and asks, "Is the probability of this being the case supported by any, and what instances?" As this Query has been raised, it may be worth while to mention the following circumstance, as a singular illustration of a remarkable subject; though (as will be seen) the actual burial in an erect posture is here also probably "traditional."

Towards the close of the last century, there lived in Kidderminster an eccentric person of the name of Orton (not that Orton, the friend of Doddridge, who passed some time in the town), but "Job Orton," the landlord of the Bell Inn. During his lifetime he erected his tomb in the parish churchyard, with this memento-mori inscription graven in large characters on the upper slab:

"Job Orton, a man from Leicestershire; And when he's dead, he must lie under here."

This inscription remains unaltered to this day, and may be seen on the right-hand of the broad walk on the north side of the spacious churchyard. His coffin was constructed at the same time; and, until it should be required for other and personal purposes, was used as a wine-bin. But, to carry his eccentricity even to the grave, he left strict orders that he should be buried in an erect posture: and "tradition" (of course) says that his request was complied with. Your correspondent says that tradition "assigns no reason for the peculiarity" of the Harcourt knight's burial; but tradition has been more explicit in Job Orton's case, whose reason (?) for his erect posture in the tomb was, that at the last day he might be able to rise from his grave before his wife, who was buried in the usual horizontal manner! Job Orton appears to have had a peculiar talent for the composition of epitaphs; as, in his more playful moments, he was accustomed to tell his better-half that if he outlived her he should put the following lines on her tombstone:

"Esther Orton—a bitter, sour weed; God never lov'd her, nor increas'd her seed."

He seems, however, to have spared her this gratuitous insult. As a farther illustration of the characters of this singular couple, the following anecdote is told. Esther Orton having frequently declared, that she should "never die happy until she had rolled in riches," Job, like a good husband, determined to secure his wife's happiness. Having sold some land for a thousand pounds, he insisted that the money should be paid wholly in guineas. Taking these home in a bag, he locked his wife up in a room; knocked her down, opened his bag of guineas, and raining the golden wealth upon her, rolled his Danae over and over in the coin. "And now, Esther," said Job Orton, "thee mayst die as soon as thee pleases: for thee'st had thy wish, and roll'd in riches."

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

* * * * *

LAWYERS' BAGS.

(Vol. vii., p. 557.)

Additional evidence of the fact that lawyers used to carry green bags towards the end of the {60} seventeenth century, is to be found in the Plain Dealer, a comedy by Wycherley.

One of the principal characters in the play is the Widow Blackacre, a petulant, litigious woman, always in law, and mother of Jerry Blackacre, "a true raw squire under age and his mother's government, bred to the law."

In Act I. Sc. 1., I find the following stage directions:

"Enter Widow Blackacre with a mantle and a green bag, and several papers in the other hand. Jerry Blackacre, her son, in a gown, laden with green bags, following her."

In Act III. Sc. 1. the widow is called impertinent and ignorant by a lawyer of whom she demands back her fee, on his returning her brief and declining to plead for her. This draws from her the following reply:

"Impertinent again and ignorant to me! Gadsbodikins, you puny upstart in the law to use me so, you green bag carrier, you murderer of unfortunate causes," &c.

Farther on, in the same scene, Freeman, a gentleman well educated, but of a broken fortune, a complier with the age, thus admonishes Jerry:

"Come, Squire, let your mother and your trees fall as she pleases, rather than wear this gown and carry green bags all thy life, and be pointed at for a tony. But you shall be able to deal with her yet the common way. Thou shalt make false love to some lawyer's daughter, whose father, upon the hopes of thy marrying her, shall lend thee money and law to preserve thy estate and trees."

A. W. S.

Temple.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

[By the courtesy of our valued cotemporary The Athenaeum, we are permitted to reprint the following interesting communication, which appeared in that journal on Saturday last.]

"NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS.

"Henley Street, July 6.

"Your insertion of the annexed letter from my brother-in-law, Mr. John Stewart, of Pau, will much oblige me. The utility of this mode of reproduction seems indisputable. In reference to its concluding paragraph, I will only add, that the publication of concentrated microscopic editions of works of reference—maps, atlases, logarithmic tables, or the concentration for pocket use of private notes and MSS., &c., &c., and innumerable other similar applications—is brought within the reach of any one who possesses a small achromatic object-glass of an inch or an inch and a half in diameter, and a brass tube, with slides before and behind the lens of a fitting diameter to receive the plate or plates to be operated upon,—central or nearly central rays only being required. The details are too obvious to need mention.—I am, &c.

"J. F. W. HERSCHEL.

* * * * *

"Pau, June 11.

"Dear Herschel.—I sent you some time ago a few small-sized studies of animals from the life, singly and in flocks, upon collodionised glass. The great rapidity of exposition required for such subjects, being but the fraction of a second, together with the very considerable depth and harmony obtained, gave me reason to hope that ere this I should have been able to produce microscopic pictures of animated objects. For the present, I have been interrupted. Meantime, one of my friends here, Mr. Heilmann, following the same pursuit, has lighted on an ingenious method of taking from glass negatives positive impressions of different dimensions, and with all the delicate minuteness which the negative may possess. This discovery is likely, I think, to extend the resources and the application of photography,—and with some modifications, which I will explain, to increase the power of reproduction to an almost unlimited amount. The plan is as follows:—The negative to be reproduced is placed in a slider at one end (a) of a camera or other box, constructed to exclude the light throughout. The surface prepared for the reception of the positive—whether albumen, collodion, or paper—is placed in another slider, as usual, at the opposite extremity (c) of the box, and intermediately between the two extremities (at b) is placed a lens. The negative at a is presented to the light of the sky, care being taken that no rays enter the box but those traversing the partly transparent negative. These rays are received and directed by the lens at b upon the sensitive surface at c, and the impression of the negative is there produced with a rapidity proportioned to the light admitted, and the sensibility of the surface presented. By varying the distances between a and c, and c and b, any dimension required may be given to the positive impression. Thus, from a medium-sized negative, I have obtained negatives four times larger than the original, and other impressions reduced thirty times, capable of figuring on a watch-glass, brooch, or ring.

"Undoubtedly one of the most interesting and important advantages gained by this simple arrangement is, the power of varying the dimensions of a picture or portrait. Collodion giving results of almost microscopic minuteness, such negatives bear enlarging considerably without any very perceptible deterioration in that respect. Indeed, as regards portraits, there is a gain instead of a loss; the power of obtaining good and pleasing likenesses appears to me decidedly increased, the facility of subsequent enlargement permitting them to be taken sufficiently small, at a sufficient distance (and therefore with greater rapidity and certainty) {61} to avoid all the focal distortion so much complained of,—while the due enlargement of a portrait taken on glass has the effect, moreover, of depriving it of that hardness of outline so objectionable in a collodion portrait, giving it more artistic effect, and this without quitting the perfect focal point as has been suggested.

"But there are many other advantages obtained by this process. For copying by engraving, &c. the exact dimension required of any picture may at once be given to be copied from.

"A very small photographic apparatus can thus be employed when a large one might be inconvenient or impracticable, the power of reproducing on a larger scale being always in reserve. Independent of this power of varying the size, positives so taken of the same dimension as the negative reproduce, as will be readily understood, much more completely the finer and more delicate details of the negatives than positives taken by any other process that I am acquainted with.

"The negative also may be reversed in its position at a so as to produce upon glass a positive to be seen either upon or under the glass. And while the rapidity and facility of printing are the same as in the case of positives taken on paper prepared with the iodide of silver, the negatives, those on glass particularly, being so easily injured, are much better preserved, all actual contact with the positive being avoided. For the same reason, by this process positive impressions can be obtained not only upon wet paper, &c., but also upon hard inflexible substances, such as porcelain, ivory, glass, &c.,—and upon this last, the positives being transparent are applicable to the stereoscope, magic lantern, &c.

"By adopting the following arrangement, this process may be used largely to increase the power and speed of reproduction with little loss of effect. From a positive thus obtained, say on collodion, several hundred negatives may be produced either on paper or on albumenised glass. If on the latter, and the dimension of the original negative is preserved, the loss in minuteness of detail and harmony is almost imperceptible, and even when considerably enlarged, is so trifling as in the majority of cases to prove no objection in comparison with the advantage gained in size, while in not a few cases, as already stated, the picture actually gains by an augmentation of size. Thus, by the simultaneous action, if necessary, of some hundreds of negatives, many thousand impressions of the same picture may be produced in the course of a day.

"I cannot but think, therefore, that this simple but ingenious discovery will prove a valuable addition to our stock of photographic manipulatory processes. It happily turns to account and utilises one of the chief excellencies of collodion—that extreme minuteness of detail which from its excess becomes almost a defect at times,—toning it down by increase of size till the harshness is much diminished, and landscapes, always more or less unpleasing on collodion from that cause, are rendered somewhat less dry and crude.

"A very little practice will suffice to show the operator the quality of glass negatives—I mean as to vigour and development—best adapted for reproducing positives by this method. He will also find that a great power of correction is obtained, by which overdone parts in the negative can be reduced and others brought up. Indeed, in consequence of this and other advantages, I have little doubt that this process will be very generally adopted in portrait taking.

"Should your old idea of preserving public records in a concentrated form on microscopic negatives ever be adopted, the immediate positive reproduction on an enlarged readable scale, without the possibility of injury to the plate, will be of service.

"I am, &c. "JOHN STEWART."

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

The Ring Finger (Vol. vii., p. 601.).—The Greek Church directs that the ring be put on the right hand (Schmid, Liturgik, iii. 352.: Nassau, 1842); and although the direction of the Sarum Manual is by no means clear (see Palmer's Origines Liturgicae, ii. 213., ed. 2.), such may have formerly been the practice in England, since Rastell, in his counter-challenge to Bishop Jewel, notes it as novelty of the Reformation,—

"That the man should put the wedding-ring on the fourth finger in the left hand of the woman, and not on the right hand, as hath been many hundreds of years continued."—Heylyn, Hist. Ref., ii. 430. 8vo. ed.

But the practice of the Roman communion in general agrees with that of the Anglican. (Schmid, iii. 350-2.) Martene quotes from an ancient pontifical an order that the bridegroom should place the ring successively on three fingers of the right hand, and then shall leave it on the fourth finger of the left, in order to mark the difference between the marriage ring, the symbol of a love which is mixed with carnal affection, and the episcopal ring, the symbol of entire chastity. (Mart. de Antiquis Eccl. Ritibus, ii. 128., ed. Venet. 1783; Schmid, p. 352.)

J. C. R.

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 628.).—As my old neighbour R. L. P. dates from the banks of the Lake of Constance, and may possibly not see W. W.'s communication for some time, I in the meanwhile take the liberty of informing W. W. that the order of St. John was restored in England by Queen Mary, and, with other orders revived by her, was again suppressed by the act 1 Eliz. c. 24.

J. C. R.

{62}

Calvin's Correspondence (Vol. vii., pp. 501. 621.).—It may be well to mention that all the letters of Calvin which MR. WALTER quotes, are to be found in the old collection of his correspondence; perhaps, however, the latter copies may be fuller or more correct in some parts.

The original French of the lone letter to Protector Somerset is printed by Henry in his Life of Calvin; but, like the other documents of that laborious work, it is omitted without notice in the English travestie which bears the name of Dr. Stebbing.

Heylyn's mis-statement as to Calvin and Cranmer is exposed, and the ground of it is pointed out, in the late edition of the Ecclesia Restaurata, vol. i. p. 134.

J. C. R.

Old Booty's Case (Vol. vii., p. 634.).—A friend, on whose accuracy I can rely, has examined the London Gazettes for 1687 and 1688, in the British Museum: they do not contain any report of Booty's case. I thought I had laid Booty's ghost in Vol. iii., p. 170., by showing that the facts of the case were unlikely and the law impossible.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

Chatterton (Vol. vii., p. 267.).—We are all very curious in Bristol to know what evidence or light J. M. G. of Worcester can bring to bear upon the Rowley Poems from the researches (as he states) of an individual here to prove not only that Chatteron was not their author, but that probably the "Venerable Rowley" himself was.

I had thought in 1853 no one doubted their authorship. There is abundance of proof to show Rowley could not have written them, and that only Chatterton could have done so.

BRISTOLIENSIS.

House-marks, &c. (Vol. vii., p. 594.).—It is very well known that the sign of the "Swan with two Necks," in London, is a corruption of the private mark of the owner of the swans, viz., two nicks made by cutting the neck feathers close in two spaces. It is also a common custom in Devon to mark all cattle, horses, &c., with the owner's mark when sent out on Exmoor, Dartmoor, and other large uninclosed tracts for summering: thus, Sir Thos. Dyke Acland's mark is an anchor on the near side of each of his large herd of ponies, on Exmoor.

W. COLLYNS.

Harlow.

Bibliography (Vol. vii., p. 597.).—The following may assist MARICONDA:

Fischer: Beschreibung einiger Typographischer Seltenheiten nebst Beytraegen zur Erfindungsgeschichte der Buchdruckerkunst, 8vo. Mainz, 1800-4.

Origin of Printing, in Two Essays; with Remarks and Appendix, 8vo. 1776.

The Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain, by J. Johnson, Dr. Dibdin, Dr. Wilkins, and others, Longmans, 1824.

He will also find a list of works under the head PRINTING in the Penny Cyclopaedia.

GETSRN.

Parochial Libraries (Vol. vi., p. 432. Vol. vii. passim.).—A parochial library was for many years deposited in the room over the south entrance of Beccles Church. The books consist chiefly of old divinity, &c., and appear to have been gifts from various persons; among whom were Bishop Trimnel (of Norwich), Sir Samuel Barnardiston, Sir Edmund Bacon of Gillingham, Sir John Playters, Mrs. Anna North, and Mr. Ridgly of London. There is a copy of Walton's Polyglot Bible, 1655-7, besides an odd volume of the same work (Job to Malachi), 1656, uncut. It is probable that many of the books have been lost, as the room in which they were kept was used as a repository for discarded ecclesiastical appliances, and, latterly, for charity blankets during summer. In 1840, with the consent of the late bishop of Norwich, and of the rector and churchwardens of the parish, the remaining volumes (about 170) were removed to the public library room, and placed under the care of the committee of that institution. A catalogue of them was then printed. The greater part have been repaired, with the aid of a donation of 10l. from a former inhabitant, who had reason to believe that some of the works had been lost in consequence of their having been in his hands many years ago. Are there not numerous instances elsewhere in which this example might be copied with propriety?

S. W. RIX.

Beccles.

Faithfull Teate (Vol. vii., p. 529.).—"Though this author's name be spelt Teate, there is great reason to believe that he was the father of Nahum Tate, translator of the Psalms."—Bibl. Anglopoetica, p. 361. In the punning copy of verses preceding the "Ter Tria" is this distich:

"We wish that Teats and Herberts may inspire Randals and Davenants with poetick fire.—JO. CHISHUTT."

My copy is on miserable paper, yet priced 31s. 6d., with this remark in MS. by some former possessor: "Very rare: which will not be wondered at by any one who will read five pages carefully."

E. D.

Lack-a-daisy (Vol. vi., p. 353.).—Todd had better have allowed Johnson to speak for himself: lack-a-daisy, lack-a-day, alack the day, as Juliet's nurse exclaims, and alas-the-day, are only various readings of the same expression. And of such inquiries and such solutions as Todd's, I cannot refrain from expressing my sentiments in the {63} words of poor Ophelia, "Alack! and fye for shame!"

Q.

Bloomsbury.

Bacon (Vol. ii., p. 247.; Vol. iii., p. 41.).—I think that you have not noticed one very common use of this word, as evidently meaning beechen. Schoolboys call tops made of boxwood, boxers; while the inferior ones, which are generally made of beechwood, they call bacons.

H. T. RILEY.

Angel-beast—Cleek—Longtriloo (Vol. v., p. 559.).—An account of these games, the nature of which is required by your correspondent, is given in the Compleat Gamester, frequently reprinted in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The first, which is there called beast, is said to derive its name from the French la bett, meaning, no doubt, bete. It seems to have resembled the game of loo. Gleek is the proper name of the second game, and not check, as your correspondent suggests. It was played by three persons, and the cards bore the names of Tib, Tom, Tiddy, Towser, and Tumbler. Hence we may conclude that it was an old English game. The third game, or lanterloo, is evidently the original form of the game now known as loo. Its name would seem to indicate a Dutch origin.

H. T. RILEY.

Hans Krauwinckel (Vol. v., p. 450.).—When the ground in Charterhouse Square was opened in 1834, for the purposes of sewerage (I believe), vast numbers of bones and skeletons were found, being the remains, as was supposed, of those who died of the Plague in 1348, and had been interred in that spot, as forming a part of Pardon Churchyard, which had lately been purchased by Sir Walter Manny, for the purposes of burial, and attached to the Carthusian convent there. Among the bones a few galley halfpence, and other coins, were found, as also a considerable number of abbey counters or jettons. I do not recollect if there was any date on the counters but the name "Hans Krauwinckel" occurred on some of them which fell into my possession, and which I gave some years ago to the Museum of the City Library, Guildhall. If these were coeval, as was generally supposed, with the Plague of 1348, it is singular that the same name should be found on abbey counters with the date 1601. I should be obliged if any of your correspondents could inform me when the use of jettons ceased in England; and whether Pardon Churchyard was used as a place of sepulture after 1348, and, if so, how long?

H. T. RILEY.

Revolving Toy (Vol. vi., p. 517.).—The Chinese have lanterns with paper figures in them which revolve by the heat, and are very common about New Year time.

H. B.

Shanghai.

Rub-a-dub (Vol. iii., p. 388.).—Your correspondent seems at a loss for an early instance of this expression. In Percy's Reliques there is a song, the refrain or burden of which is:

"Rub-a-dub, rub-a-dub, so beat your drums, Tantara, tantara, the Englishman comes."

H. T. RILEY.

Muffs worn by Gentlemen.—In one of Goldsmith's Essays I remember well an allusion to the practice. The writer of the letter, or essay, states that he met his female cousin in the Mall, and after some sparring conversation, she ridicules him for carrying "a nasty old-fashioned [A.D. 1760] muff;" and his retort is, that he "heartily wishes it were a tippet, for her sake,"—glancing at her dress, which was, I suppose, somewhat what we moderns call "decolletee".

E. C. G.

Detached Church Towers.—The Norman tower at Bury St. Edmund's should not be included in the lists. Although now used as the bell tower of the neighbouring church of St. James, it was erected several centuries before the church, and was known as the "Great Gate of the Churchyard," or the "Great Gate of the Church of St. Edmund." It would be very desirable to add to the list the date of the tower, and its distance from the church.

BURIENSIS.

Add to the list the modern Roman Catholic chapel at Baltinglass, Ireland. It has a detached tower built in a field above it, and, although devoid of architectural beauty, is so placed that it appears an integral part of the chapel from almost any point of view.

ALEXANDER LEEPER.

Dublin.

Is not the bell-tower at Hackney detached from the church? I do not remember that it has been yet named by your correspondents.

B. H. C.

Christian Names (Vol. vii., pp. 406. 626.).—On the name of Besilius Fetiplace, Sheriff of Berkshire, in 26 Elizabeth, Fuller remarks,—

"Some may colourably mistake it for Basilius or Basil, whereas indeed it is Besil, a surname.... Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be produced of a surname made Christian, in England, save since the Reformation; before which time the priests were scrupulous to admit any at font, except they were baptised with the name of a Scripture or legendary saint. Since, it hath been common; and although the Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of them prove unfortunate, yet the good success in others confutes the general truth of the observation."—Worthies, vol. i. pp. 159, 160., edit. Nuttall.

J. C. R.

Lord C. of Ireland, which MR. WILLIAM BATES guesses to be Lord Castlereagh, was Lord Clare, Chancellor of Ireland, who used also to call men {64} with three names by a term opprobrious among the Romans: "Homines trium literarum."

C.

Hogarth's Pictures (Vol. vii. passim).—One of the correspondents of "N. & Q." inquires where he could see some pictures from this great artist. May I ask if he is aware of the three very fine large paintings in the Church of St. Mary, Redcliffe, Bristol? which I am told will shortly be sold.

BRISTOLIENSIS.

P.S.—They were painted for the church, and the vestry holds his autograph receipt for the payment of them.

Old Fogie (Vol. vii., pp. 354. 559. 632.).—Whether the origin of this term be Irish, Scotch, or Swedish I know not; but I cannot help stating the significant meaning which, as an Edinburgh boy at the beginning of the century, I was taught to attach to it. Every High-School boy agreed in applying it to the veterans of the Castle garrison, to the soldiers of the Town Guard (veterans also, and especial foes of my school-mates), and more generally to any old and objectionable gentleman, civil or military. It implied that, like stones which have ceased to roll, they had obtained the proverbial covering of moss, or, as it is called in Scotland (probably in Ireland also), fog. I have heard in Scotland the "Moss Rose" called the "Fogie Rose;" and there is a well-known species of the humble bee which has its nest in a mossy bank, and is itself clothed with a moss-like covering: its name among the Scottish peasantry is the fogie bee.

G. J. F.

Bolton.

Clem (Vol. vii., p. 615.).—MR. KEIGHTLEY considers this word to mean press or restrain, and quotes three passages from Massinger and Jonson in support of his opinion; admitting, however, that it is usually rendered starve. Now, whatever may have been the root of this word, or whencesoever it may have been derived, I think it must be admitted that starve is the correct meaning of the word in these passages. Let the reader test it by substituting starve for clem in each case. In Cheshire and Lancashire the word is in common use to this day, and invariably means starved for want of food. Of a thin, emaciated child it is said, "His mother clems him." A person exceedingly hungry says, "I'm welly clem'd; I'm almost or well-nigh starved." It is the ordinary appeal of a beggar in the streets, when asking for food.

EDW. HAWKINS.

Kissing Hands (Vol. vii., p. 595.).—CAPE will find in Suetonius that Caligula's hands were kissed.

C.

Uniform of the Foot Guards (Vol. vii., p. 595.).—In answer to D. N., as to where he can see uniforms of the Foot Guards, 1660 to 1670, I have to refer him to the Orderly-room, Horse Guards, where he will see the costume of the three regiments since they were raised. In Mackinnon's History of the Coldstream Guards, he will find that regiment's dress from the year 1650 to 1840.

C. D.

Book Inscriptions (Vol. vii., p. 455.).—At the end of No. 1801. Harl. MSS. is the following:

"Hic liber est scriptus, Qui scripsit sit benedictus. Qui scriptoris manum Culpat, basiat anum."

In the printed catalogue there is this note:

"Neotricus quidam hos scripsit versiculos, ex alio forsan Codice depromptos."

[omega]. [phi].

I have not seen the following amongst your deprecatory rhymes. It may come in with another batch. The nature of the punishment is somewhat different from that usually selected, and savours of Spain:

"Si quisquis furetur This little libellum, Per Phoebum, per Jovem, I'll kill him, I'll fell him! In ventum illius I'll stick my scalpellum, And teach him to steal My little libellum."

RUBI.

In a Gesner's Thesaurus I have the following label of the date 1762:

"Ex Caroli Ferd. Hommelii Bibliotheca.

"Intra quatuordecim dies comodatum ni reddideris, neq' belle custodieris, alio tempore, Non habeo, dicam."

L.

Humbug (Vol. vii., pp. 550. 631.).—I do not remember any earlier use of this word than in Fielding's Amelia, 1751. Its origin is involved in obscurity: but may it not be a corruption of the Latin ambages, or the singular ablative ambage? which signifies quibbling, subterfuge, and that kind of conduct which is generally supposed to constitute humbug. It is very possible that it may have been pedantically introduced in the seventeenth century. May, in his translation of Lucan, uses the word ambages as an English word.

H. T. RILEY.

A severe instance of the use of the term "humbug" occurred in a court of justice. A female in giving her evidence repeatedly used this term. In her severe cross-examination, the counsel (a very plain, if not an ugly person) observed she had frequently used the term humbug, and desired to know what she meant by it, and to {65} have an explanation; to which she replied, "Why, Sir, if I was to say you were a very handsome man, would you not think I was humbugging you?" The counsel sat down perfectly satisfied.

G. H. J.

Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway Travelling (Vol. viii., p. 34.).—The passage in Daniel alluded to is probably the following:—"Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased," chap. xii. v. 4. MR. CRAIG should send to your pages the exact words of Newton and Voltaire, with references to the books in which the passages may be found.

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