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Notes and Queries, Number 210, November 5, 1853
Author: Various
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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 210.] SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 5. 1853. [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

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CONTENTS.

Page NOTES:— Lord Halifax and Mrs. Catherine Barton, by Professor De Morgan 429 Dr. Parr on Milton 433 Parts of MSS., by John Macray 434 William Blake 435

FOLK LORE:—Legends of the County Clare—The Seven Whisperers 436 Italian-English, German-English, and the Refugee Style, by Philarete Chasles 436 Shakspeare Correspondence, by Thos. Keightley, &c. 437

MINOR NOTES:—Decomposed Cloth—First and Last —Cucumber Time—MS. Sermons of the Eighteenth Century—Boswell's "Johnson"—Stage Coaches— Antecedents—The Letter X—A Crow-bar 438

QUERIES:— MINOR QUERIES:—Bishop Grehan—Doxology— Arrow-mark—Gabriel Poyntz—Queen Elizabeth's and Queen Anne's Motto, "Semper eadem"—Bees —Nelly O'Brien and Kitty Fisher—"Homo unius libri"—"Now the fierce bear," &c.—Prejudice against Holy Confirmation—Epigram on MacAdam —Jane Scrimshaw—The Word "Quadrille"—The Hungarians in Paules—Ferns Wanted—Craton the Philosopher—The Solar Annual Eclipse in the Year 1263—D'Israeli: how spelt?—Richard Oswald— Cromwell's Descendants—Letter of Archbishop Curwen to Archbishop Parker 440

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:—Margaret Patten— Etymology of "Coin"—Inscription at Aylesbury— "Guardian Angels, now protect me," &c.—K. C. B.'s —Danish and Swedish Ballads—Etymology of "Conger"—"Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum tibi" 442

REPLIES:— Medal and Relic of Mary Queen of Scots, by John Evans, &c. 444 Early Use of Tin.—Derivation of the Name of Britain 445 Pictorial Editions of the Book of Common Prayer 446 Yew-Trees in Churchyards, by Fras. Crossley, &c. 447 Osborn Family 448 Inscriptions on Bells, by W. Sparrow Simpson and J. L. Sisson 448 Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge 448 The Myrtle Bee, by C. Brown 450 Captain John Davis, by Bolton Corney 450

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:—Clouds in Photographs —"The Stereoscope considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision"—Muller's Processes—Positives on Glass 451

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:—Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church—Nursery Rhymes—Milton's Widow—Watch-paper Inscriptions—Poetical Tavern Signs—Parish Clerks' Company—"Elijah's Mantle" —Histories of Literature—Birthplace of General Monk—Books chained to Desks in Churches, &c. 452

MISCELLANEOUS:— Notes on Books, &c. 455 Books and Odd Volumes wanted 456 Notices to Correspondents 456 Advertisements 456

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Notes.

LORD HALIFAX AND MRS. CATHERINE BARTON.

Those who have written on the life of Newton have touched with the utmost reserve upon the connexion which existed between his half-niece Catherine Barton, and his friend Charles Montague, who died Earl of Halifax. They seem as if they were afraid that, by going fairly into the matter, they should find something they would rather not tell. The consequence is, that when a writer at home or abroad, Voltaire or another, hints with a sneer that a pretty niece had more to do with Newton's appointment to the Mint than the theory of gravitation, those who would like to know as much as can be known of the whole truth find nothing in any attainable biography except either total silence or a very awkward and hesitating account of half something.

On looking again into the matter, the juxtaposition of all the circumstances induced in my mind a strong suspicion that Mrs. C. Barton was privately married to Lord Halifax, probably before his elevation to the peerage, and that the marriage was no very great secret among their friends. As yet I can but say that the hypothesis of a private marriage is, to me, the most probable of those among which a choice must be made: farther information may be obtained by publication of the case in "N. & Q.," the most appropriate place of deposit for the provisional result of unfinished inquiries.

Charles Montague (born April, 1661, died May 19, 1715) made acquaintance with Newton when both were at Trinity College in 1680 and 1681. Newton was nineteen years older than Montague, and had been twelve years Lucasian professor. At the beginning of their friendship, the Lucasian professor must be called the patron of the young undergraduate, who was looking for a fellowship with the intention of taking orders, a design which he did not find sufficient encouragement to abandon until after he had sat in the Convention. By 1690, the rising politician had become the patron of the author of the Principia, who in that {430} year or the next became an aspirant for public employment. The friendship of Newton and Montague lasted until the death of the latter, interrupted only by a coolness (on Newton's side at least) in 1691, arising out of a suspicion in Newton's mind that Montague was not sincere in his intentions towards his friend.

Catherine Barton (born 1680, died 1739) was the daughter of Robert Barton and Newton's half-sister, Hannah Smith (Baily's Flamsteed, Supplement, p. 750.). Lieut.-Col. Barton, usually called her husband, was her brother. The pedigrees published by Turnor recognise this fact: Swift distinctly states it, and Rigaud proves it in various ways in letters to Baily, which lately passed through my hands on their way to the Observatory at Greenwich. The mistake ought never to have been made, for Mrs. C. Barton (as she was usually denominated) must, according to usage, have been reputed single so long as her Christian name was introduced.

Mrs. C. Barton married Mr. Conduitt, then or afterwards Newton's assistant, and his successor: this marriage probably took place in 1718, the year in which Newton introduced Conduitt into the Royal Society. Among the Turnor memorials of Newton, now in possession of the Royal Society, is a watch leaving the inscription "Mrs. C. Conduitt to Sir Isaac Newton, January, 1708." This date cannot be correct, for Swift in 1710, Halifax in 1712, Flamsteed in 1715, and Monmort in 1716, call her Barton: all but Flamsteed were intimate acquaintances. Any one who looks at the inscription will see that it is not as old as the watch: it is neither ornamented nor placed in a shield or other envelope, while the case is beautifully chased, and has an elaborate design, representing Fame and Britannia examining the portrait of Newton. Moreover, "Mrs. Conduitt" would never have described herself as "Mrs. C. Conduitt."

Montague was not, so far as usual accounts state, what even in our day would be called a libertine. He married the Countess of Manchester (the widow of a relative) before his entry into public life, and was deeply occupied in party politics and fiscal administration. I am told that Davenant impugns his morals: this may be the exception which proves the rule; some of the lampoons directed against the Whig minister are preserved, and these do not attack his private character in the matter under allusion, so far as I can learn.

All the cotemporary evidence yet adduced as to the relation between Lord Halifax and Catherine Barton, is contained in one sentence in the Life of the former, two codicils of his will, and one allusion of Flamsteed's. The Life, with the will attached, was appended to two different publications of the works of Halifax, in 1715 and 1716. The passage from the Life is as follows (p. 195.):

"I am likewise to account for another Omission in the Course of this History, which is that of the Death of the Lord Halifax's Lady; upon whose Decease his Lordship took a Resolution of living single thence forward, and cast his Eye upon the Widow of one Colonel Barton, and Neice to the famous Sir Isaac Newton, to be Super-intendent of his domestick Affairs. But as this Lady was young, beautiful, and gay, so those that were given to censure, pass'd a Judgment upon her which she no Ways merited, since she was a Woman of strict Honour and Virtue; and tho' she might be agreeable to his Lordship in every Particular, that noble Peer's Complaisance to her, proceeded wholly from the great Esteem he had for her Wit and most exquisite Understanding, as will appear from what relates to her in his Will at the Close of these Memoirs."

This sentence is an insertion (the first omission is as far back as p. 64.). It speaks of Mrs. C. Barton as if she were dead: and it is worthy of note that this lady, who lived to communicate to Fontenelle materials for his eloge of Newton, had excellent opportunity, had it pleased her, to have contradicted or varied any part of the account given by Halifax's biographer; and this without appearing. The actual communication made to Fontenelle by her husband, Mr. Conduitt, is in existence, and was printed by Mr. Turnor; it contains no allusion to the subject. Farther, it appears by the biographer's account that she had passed as a widow, which is not to be wondered at: the Colonel Barton who was the son of circumstances, must have been created before her brother (who died in 1711) attained such rank, perhaps before he entered the army at all.

The will gives very different evidence from that for which it is subpoenaed: it is dated April 10, 1706. In the first codicil (dated April 12, 1706) Lord Halifax leaves Mrs. Barton all his jewels and 3000l. "as a small token," he says, "of the great love and affection I have long had for her." In a second codicil (dated February 1, 1712) the first codicil is revoked, and the bequest is augmented to 5000l., the rangership, lodge, and household furniture of Bushey Park, and the manor of Apscourt, for her life. These are given, says Lord Halifax, "as a token of the sincere love, affection, and esteem, I have long had for her person, and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation." In this same codicil "Mrs. Catherine Barton" is described as Newton's niece, and 100l. is left to Newton "as a mark of the great honour and esteem I have for so great a man." The concluding sentence of the codicil is as follows:

"And I strictly charge and command my executor to give all aid, help, and assistance to her in possessing and enjoying what I have hereby given her; and also {431} in doing any act or acts necessary to transfer her an annuity of two hundred pounds per annum, purchased in Sir Isaac Newton's name, which I hold for her in trust, as appears by a declaration of trust in that behalf."

This codicil immediately became the subject of remark, and the terms of it seem to have been understood as they would be now. Flamsteed, writing in July, 1715 (Halifax died in May), says:

"If common fame be true, he died worth 150,000l.; out of which he gave Mrs. Barton, Sir I. Newton's niece, for her excellent conversation [the Italics are Baily's, the original, I suppose, underlined], a curious house, 5000l. with lands, jewels, plate, money, and household furniture, to the value of 20,000l. or more."

I pay no attention to the statement that (Biogr. Brit., Montague, note BB.) Lord Halifax was disappointed in a second marriage. It amounts only to this, that Lord Shaftsbury, having a certain lady in his heart and in his eye, was afraid he had a rival, and described the person talked of in terms which make it pretty certain that Halifax was intended. But it by no means follows that because a certain person is "talked of" for a lady, and a lover put in fear by the rumour, the person is really a rival: and not even a biographer would have shown himself so unfit for a novelist as to have drawn such a conclusion, unless he had been biassed by the wish to show that Halifax was attached to another than Mrs. Barton.

It must of course be supposed that the introduction of Montague to Newton's niece was a consequence of his acquaintance with Newton, and took place in or near 1696, when Newton came to London, where his niece soon began to reside with him. And since, in 1706, the connexion, whatever it was, had been of long standing, we may infer that it had probably commenced in 1700. The case is then as follows. Montague received into his house, as "superintendent of his domestic affairs" after the death of his wife, the niece of his old and revered friend Newton, a conspicuous officer of the crown, a member of Parliament, and otherwise one of the most famous men living. This niece had been partly educated by Newton; she had lived in his house; we know of no other protector that she could have had, in London; and the supposition that she left any roof except Newton's to take shelter under that of Montague, would be purely gratuitous. She was unmarried, beautiful, and gay; and probably not so much as, certainly not much more then, twenty years old. A handsome annuity was bought for her in Newton's name, and held in trust by Halifax: if it had been bought by Newton, Conduitt would have mentioned it in his list of the benefactions which Newton's relatives received from him, especially after the publicity which it had obtained from Halifax's will. That she did not tenant the housekeeper's room while the friends of Halifax were round his table, may be inferred from the epigrams, poor as they are, which were made in her honour as a celebrated beauty and wit, in a collection of verses (reprinted in Dryden's Miscellanies) on the best known toasts of the day. Halifax bequeathed her a provision which might have suited his widow, in terms which must have been intended to show that she had been either his wife or his mistress; while in the same document he brought prominently forward his respect for Newton, the fact of her being Newton's niece, and the annuity which he had bought for her in Newton's name. An uncontradicted paragraph in the life of Halifax, published immediately after the will, and evidently not intended to bring forward any fact not perfectly well known, records her residence in the house of that nobleman and the consequent rumours concerning her character, affirms that she was a virtuous woman, and refers to the will to prove it: though the will denies it in the plainest English, on any supposition except that of a private marriage. Finally, the lady married a respectable man after the death of Lord Halifax, and lived with him in the house of her illustrious uncle.

That she was either the wife or the mistress of Halifax, I take to be established; it is the natural conclusion from the facts above stated, all made public during her life, all left uncontradicted by herself, by her husband, by her daughter, by Lord Lymington her son-in-law, and by the uncle who had stood to her in the place of a father. It is impossible that Newton could have been ignorant that his niece was living in Montague's house, enjoyed an annuity bought in his own name, and was regarded by the world as the mistress of his friend and political patron. The language of the codicil shows that, be the nature of the connexion what it might, Halifax meant to tell the world that it might be proclaimed in all its relation to the name of Newton. To those who cannot, under all the circumstances, believe the connexion to have been what is called platonic, the probability that there was a private marriage is precisely the probability that Newton would not have sanctioned the dishonour of his own niece: and even if the connexion were only that of friendship, Newton must have sanctioned the appearance and the forms of a dishonourable intimacy: the co-habitation, the settlement, and the defiance of opinion. Now there is no reason to suppose of Newton that he would be a party to either proceeding, which would not apply as well to any man then alive: to Locke, for instance. Looking at the morals of the day, we are by no means justified in throwing off at once, with disgust, the bare idea of the possibility of a distinguished philosopher consenting to an illicit intercourse between his friend and his niece: we are bound, {432} in discussing probabilities, to distinguish 1850 from 1700. But, even putting out of view the purity of Newton's private life, and of the lives of his most intimate friends, there is that in the weaker part of his character which is of itself almost conclusive. Right or wrong, Newton never faced opinion. As soon as he found that publication involved opposition, from that time forward he published only with the utmost reluctance, and under the strongest persuasions; except when, as in the case of some of his theological writings, he confided the manuscript to a friend, to be anonymously published abroad. The Principia was extorted from him by the Royal Society; the first publication on fluxions was under the name of Wallis; the Optics were delayed until the death of Hooke; the first appearance against Leibnitz was anonymous; the second originated in a hint from the King. This morbid fear, which is often represented as modesty, would have made him, had he acted a part with regard to his niece which he could not avow, conduct it with the utmost reserve. The philosopher who would have let the theory of gravitation die in silence rather than encounter the opposition which a discovery almost always creates, would not have allowed his name to be connected with the annuity which was the price of his niece's honour, or which carried all the appearance of it, even supposing him base enough to have connived at the purchase. And in such a case, Halifax would have taken care to respect the secrecy which he would have known to have been essential to Newton's comfort: he would not have published to the world that his mistress was Newton's niece, and that Newton was a party to a settlement upon her. There seems to me, about the codicil as it stands, a declaration that the connexion with Newton's niece was such as, if people knew all, Newton might have sanctioned. And the supposition of a private marriage, generally understood among the friends of the parties, seems to me to make all the circumstances take an air of likelihood which no other hypothesis will give them: and this is all my conclusion.

If there were a marriage, the most probable reason for the concealment was, that it was contracted at a time when the birth and station of Mrs. Barton would have rendered her production at court as the wife of Montague an impediment to his career. He was raised to the peerage in 1700, and as the connexion was of long standing in 1706, it may well be supposed that it commenced at the time when (in his own opinion at least) his prospects of such elevation might have been compromised by a decided misalliance. The lower the tone of morals, the greater the ridicule which attaches to unequal marriages. Montague, though of noble family, was the younger son of a younger son, and not rich: it was common among the Tories to sneer at him as a parvenu. He had made his first appearance in the great world as the husband of a countess-dowager, and it may be that the parvenu was weak enough to shrink from producing, as his second wife, a woman of very much lower rank, the granddaughter of a country clergyman, and the daughter of a man of no pretension to station. That Mr. Macaulay has not underrated the position of the country clergy, is known to all who have dipped into the writings of the seventeenth century. It is not, however, necessary to explain why the supposed marriage should have been private. As the world is constituted, no rules of inference can be laid down in reference to the irregular relations of the sexes.

With reference to the insinuation that Newton owed his official position rather to his niece than to his ability, it can be completely shown that, on the worst possible supposition, the office in the Mint could have had nothing to do with Mrs. C. Barton. Newton was appointed to the lower office (the Wardenship) in March, 1695-96, when the young lady was not sixteen years old, and before she could have been a resident under her uncle's roof. The state of the coinage had caused much uneasiness; it was one of the difficulties, and its restoration was one of the successes, of the day. The best scientific advice was taken: Locke, Newton, and Halley were consulted, and all were placed in office nearly at the same time; Newton in the London Mint, Halley in the Chester Mint, Locke in the Council of Trade. Neither Locke nor Halley had any nieces. Before Newton's appointment there was some negociation of a public character: the Wardenship was not vacant, and the government seems to have tried to induce Newton to take something subordinate. March 14, Newton wrote to Halley, in reference to a current rumour,—"I neither put in for any place in the Mint, nor would meddle with Mr. Hoar's [the comptroller's] place, were it offered me." On the 19th, Montague informs Newton that he is to have the Wardenship, vacant by the removal of Mr. Overton to the Customs. Four years afterwards, when the great operation on the coinage, by many declared impracticable, had completely succeeded, Newton, a principal adviser and the principal administrator, obtained the Mastership in the course of promotion. Montague was raised to the peerage in the following year, and mainly, as the patent states, for the same service. So that, though Montague was the patron as to the Wardenship, yet scientific assistance was then so sorely needed, that no hypothesis relative to any niece would be necessary to explain the phenomenon of Newton's appointment: while, as to the Mastership it may almost be said that Montague was more indebted to Newton for his peerage, than Newton to Montague for that promotion which any minister must, under the circumstances, have granted. {433}

In no account of Newton that I ever read is it stated that Mrs. Barton was an intimate friend of Swift, probably through Halifax. Having been told that there is frequent mention of her in Swift's Journal to Stella, I examined that series and the rest of the correspondence, in which her name occurs about twenty times. One letter from herself, under the name of Conduitt (November 29, 1733), is indorsed by the Dean, "My old friend Mrs. Barton, now Mrs. Conduitt," and establishes the identity of Swift's friend with Newton's niece: otherwise, it proves nothing here. The other points to be noticed are as follows.

1710, September 28, November 30, March 7; 1711, April 3, July 18, October 14 and 25, Swift visited or dined with Mrs. Barton at her lodgings. He was also at this time on good terms with Halifax, and dined with him November 28, 1710, and with Mrs. Barton on November 30. According to the idiom of the day, lodgings was a name for every kind of residence, and even for the apartments of a guest in the house of his host. For anything to the contrary in the mere word, the lodgings might have been in the house of Lord Halifax, or of Newton himself. But, on the other hand, the future Dean, much as he writes to Stella of every kind of small talk, never mentions Halifax and Mrs. Barton together, never makes the slightest allusion to either in connexion with the other, though in one and the same letter he minutes his having dined with Halifax on the 28th, and with Mrs. Barton on the 30th. There must have been intentional suppression in this. All the world knew that there was some liaison between the two; yet when Swift (1711, Nov. 20) records his having been "teased with whiggish discourse" by Mrs. Barton, he does not even drop a sarcasm about her politics having been learnt from Halifax. This is the more remarkable as the two seem to have been almost the only persons who are mentioned as talking whiggery to him. To this list, however, may be added Lady Betty Germain, well known to the readers of Swift's poetry, who joined Mrs. Barton in inflicting the vexation, and at whose house the conversation took place. It thus appears that Mrs. Barton was received in a manner which shows that she was regarded as a respectable woman. The suppression on the part of Swift may indicate respect for his two friends (that he highly respected Mrs. Barton appears clear), and observance of a convention established in their circle. But perhaps it is rather to be attributed to his own position with respect to Stella, which was certainly peculiar, though no one can say what their understanding was at the date of the journal. This journal came again into Swift's hands before it was published; so that we can only treat it as containing what he finally chose to preserve. Allusions may have been struck out.

There is another point which our modern manners will not allow to be very closely handled in print, but on which I am disposed to lay some stress. On September 28, 1710, and April 3, 1711, Swift visited Mrs. Barton at her lodgings. On each of these occasions she regaled him with a good story, which there is no need to repeat: there is no harm in either, and they are far from being the most singular communications which he made to Stella; but they go beyond what, even in that day, will be considered as the probable conversation of a maiden lady of thirty-one, with a bachelor man of the world of forty-three. But they by no means exceed what we know to be the license then taken by married women; and Swift's tone with respect to the stories, combined with his obvious respect for Mrs. Barton, may make any one lean to the supposition that he believed himself to be talking to a married woman.

The reserve of Swift puts us quite at fault as to the locality of Mrs. Barton's lodgings. They may have been in Lord Halifax's house; but if not, it requires some supposition to explain why they were not in that of Newton, with whom she had lived, and with whom she certainly lived after the death of Halifax. Perhaps, when farther research is made in such directions as may be indicated by the only unreserved statement of the existing case which has ever been printed, the conclusion I arrive at, as to me the most probable, may either be reinforced, or another substituted for it. Be this as it may, such points as I have discussed, relating to such men as Newton, will not remain in abeyance for ever, let biographers be as timid as they will.

A. DE MORGAN.

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DR. PARR ON MILTON.

Amongst my autographs I find the inclosed letter frown Dr. Parr. It is written upon a half-sheet of paper, and in a very cramp and illegible hand. To whom it is addressed, or when written, I am unable to say. As it relates to the opinions held by Milton, perhaps you may think it worth insertion in your work, particularly as Milton has been the subject of some papers in "N. & Q." lately.

W. M. F.

Copy of Letter from Dr. Parr, without date or address.

Dear Sir,

I send you Johnson's Life of Milton. My former feelings again return upon me, that Johnson did not mean to affirm that Milton prayed not upon any occasion or in any manner; but that he was engaged in no visible worship; that he prayed at no stated time; that he had not what we may call any regular return of family or private devotion. Pray read the sequel. That he lived without prayer can hardly be affirmed, this {434} surely is decided in my favour: it may wear the appearance of contradiction to the former passage, that omitting public prayer he omitted all; in truth, the expression just quoted is too peremptory and too general. But the sense of Johnson cannot be mistaken, if you attend to the different views he had in each sentence; and I repeat my former assertion, that Johnson did not think Milton destitute of a devout spirit, or totally negligent of prayer in some form or other.

Yours, very truly and respectfully, J. PARR.

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PARTS OF MSS.

As an instance of the unfortunate dispersion of the parts of valuable MSS. through different countries, occasioned probably, in the case now to be mentioned, by public convulsions and the wild fury of revolutionary mobs in France, will you afford me space to quote an interesting description of a MS. from the catalogue of a library to be sold at Paris in December next? The MSS. and printed books in this library belonged to the eminent bookseller J. J. De Bure, whose ancestor was the distinguished and well-known bibliographer Guillaume de Bure. The publicity given to descriptions like the present through the medium of "N. & Q." may ultimately lead, on some occasions, to the scattered volumes being brought together again, either by way of purchase, or in exchange for other works.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

"Catalogue des Livres rares et precieux, manuscrits et imprimes, de la Bibliotheque de feu M. J. J. De Bure, ancien libraire du Roi et de la Bibliotheque Royale, etc.

"No. 1395. Le Second Livre des Commentaires de la Guerre Galleque, par Caius Julius Caesar, traduict en francois. In-8, mar. noir, avec des fermoirs en argent.

"Manuscrit sur velin.

"L'ouvrage ne porte pas de titre; on lit seulement sur le plat du volume, Tomus Secundus, et au verso du 21 feuillet; c'y commence le Second livre des Commentaires de la Guerre Galleque.

"Ce manuscrit a ete fait pour Francois I^{er}; le chiffre de ce Prince se trouve au premier feuillet. Le Vol. se compose de 94 feuillets de texte, et de 4 feuillets de table. L'Ecriture est tres-belle, et parait etre de l'un des meilleurs calligraphes de l'epoque de Francois I^{er}; beaucoup de mots sont en or et en azur.

"On remarque 22 miniatures, 15 medaillons d'Empereurs et d'autres personnages Romains, 12 figures d'engins ou machines de guerre, et 2 fleurons; en tout 58 peintures.

"Ce n'est point, a proprement parler, une traduction des Commentaires. L'auteur suppose, dans le preambule de cette partie de l'ouvrage, que Francis I^{er} au Commencement du Moys d'Auguste, l'an 1519, allant courir le cerf en la fourest de Byevre, y fait la rencontre de Cesar.

"De la, il etablit un dialogue entre les deux personnages. Francois I^{er} s'enquiert des circonstances de la guerre des Gaules, et Cesar lui en donne les details tels qu'ils out ete ecrits par lui-meme.

"On ne presente malheureusement ici qu'un Tome ii. Le Tome i. est au Musee Britannique: on le trouve indique sous le No. 6205. dans le Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, London, 1808, Tome iii. in folio. Ce Tome i. est decrit dans l'ouvrage de M. Waagen, Kunstwerke and Kuenstler in England und Paris, Berlin, 1837, Tome i. p. 148.

"Le Tome iii. etait a vendre dans ces dernieres annees, au prix de 3000 francs, chez M. Techener (Bulletin du Bibliophile, annee 1850, No. 1222. et p. 910.); nous ne savons ou il est actuellement.

"Notre volume est le plus precieux des trois. Il l'emporte sur les deux autres par le nombre des peintures (le Tome i. n'en a que 14, et le Tome iii. seulement 12) et par l'interet qu'offrent ces peintures elles-memes.

"La premiere, charmante miniature en camaieu gris et or, represente Francois I^{er} a cheval, courant le cerf; la derniere montre la prise du cerf.

"Parmi les autres sujets, egalement traites en grisaille, on remarque plusieurs batailles entre les Romains et les Gaulois, rendues dans leurs divers details avec une finesse admirable d'execution. Mais ce qui, par-dessus tout, donne un prix infini a ce manuscrit, ce sont sept portraits, en medaillons, qui reproduisent les traits de quelques hommes de guerre du temps de Francois I^{er}. Ils sont peints avec une verite et une delicatesse vraiment merveilleuses; des noms Romains, qui figurent dans les Commentaries de Cesar, sont ecrits a cote des portraits; les noms veritables ont ete tracees au-dessous, mais un peu plus tard, et par une main differente. Voici ces noms:—

"1^o. Quintus Pedius, le grand-maistre de Boisy, age de 41 ans; 2^o. le Fiable Divitiacus d'Autun, l'Amiral de Boisy, Seigneur de Bonivet, age de 34 ans; 3^o. Quintus Titurius Sabinus, Odet de Fones (Foix), Sieur de Lautrec, age de 41 ans; 4^o. Iccius, le Mareschal de Chabanes, Seigneur de la Palice, age de 57 ans; 5^o. Lucius Arunculeius Cotta, Anne de Montmorency, age de 22 ans, et depuis Connestable de France; 6^o. Publ. Sextius Baculus, le Mareschal de Fleuranges, Seigneur de la Marche (Mark), premier Seigneur de Sedan, age de 24 ans; 7^o. Publius Crassus, le Sieur de Tournon, qui fust tue a la bataille de Pavie, age de 36 ans.

"La plupart des miniatures du volume sont signees G., 1519. La perfection qui les distingue les avait d'abord fait attribuer au celebre miniaturiste Guilo Clovio; maintenant on croit pouvoir affirmer qu'elles appartiennent a un peintre nomme Godefroy. Il se trouve a la bibliotheque de l'Arsenal une traduction francaise des Triomphes de Petrarque, avec des miniatures qui sont incontestablement de la meme main et de la meme epoque. Or, l'une de ces miniatures est signee Godefroy.

"On peut voir le rapprochement que fait entre les deux manuscrits M. Waagen, dans l'ouvrage cite ci-dessus, Tome iii. p. 395. Il ne saurait, du reste, y avoir aucun doute sur le nom de l'artiste, lorsqu'on lit dans le Bulletin du Bibliophile (pages deja citees) que {435} plusieurs des miniatures du Tome iii. sont signees Godofredi pictoris, 1520.

"Ce precieux manuscrit ne sera pas vendu; il a ete legue par M. de Bure au departement des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Imperiale."

* * * * *

WILLIAM BLAKE.

(Continued from p. 71.)

I venture to send you another Note regarding William Blake, claiming for that humble individual the honour of being the pioneer in the establishment of charity-schools in Britain, from which department of our social system who can calculate the benefits accrued, and constantly accruing, to this country!

We look in vain through the Silver Drops of William Blake for any record of an existing institution, such as he would have his "noble ladies" rear at Highgate. Among the many incentives he uses to prompt the charitable, we do not find him holding up for their example any model (unless it be "Old Sutton's brave hospital"); in all his amusing "Charity-school Sticks," his tone is that of a man trying to persuade people that the thing he proposes is feasible. "Some of them," says the sanguine Blake, "have scarce faith enough to believe in the success of this great and good design. Nay, your brother Cornish himself," continues he, in addressing one of his ladies, although full of good works, "would have persuaded me to lay it down" upon the ground of its impracticability. The language of Blake is everywhere advocating this "new way of charity." "If it be new," says he to an objector, "the more's the pity;" and, with reference to the possibility of failure, he would thus shame them into liberality. Speaking of his "fine, handsome, and well cloathed boys; not too fine, because they are the ladies'!" our enthusiast adds to this soft sawdur:

"But now, if a year or two hence they should be grown, which God forbid! poor ragged, half-starved, and no cloaths, country folks would say, who ride or go that way, Were there not good ladies enough in and about London to maintain one little school?"

Here then is prima facie evidence, I think, that my subject, poor crazy William Blake, was the originator of one of the greatest social improvements of modern times.

The charity-school movement had obtained a strong hold upon the public mind early in the past century; but although I have sought for the name of Blake through many books professing to give an account of the early history of such institutions, I have not yet met with the slightest allusion to him, his school, or his Silver Drops.

The superficial inquirer into the history of English charity-schools will be told that the honour of the first erecting such, and caring for destitute children, is popularly considered due to the parishes of St. Botulph, Aldgate, and St. Margaret's, Westminster: and if he would farther satisfy himself upon that point, he will see it claimed by the first named; a slab in front of their schools, adjoining the Royal Mint, bearing an inscription to the purport that it was the first Protestant charity-school, erected by voluntary contributions in 1693.

If it comes to the earliest London school for poor children, perhaps the Catholics take the lead; for we find that it was part of the tactics of the Jesuits, in the reign of James II., to promote their design of subverting the Protestant religion by infusing their Romish tenets into the minds of the children of the poor by providing schools for them in the Savoy and Westminster.

Blake says, with reference to this movement:

"That the scheme he was engaged upon was a good work, because it will in some measure stop the mouths of Papists, who are prone to say, Where are your works, and how few are your hospitals, and how small is your charity, notwithstanding your great preaching?"

A remarkable little book, and a very fit companion for the Silver Drops of William Blake, to which it bears a striking similarity, is the Pietas Hallensis of Dr. Franck. In this, the German divine relates, in a style which bears more than an accidental resemblance to the work of the Covent Garden Philanthropist, how, little by little, by importunity and perseverance, he nursed his own charitable plans, of a like kind, into full life and vigour; and both Drs. Woodward and Kennett endorse and command the "miraculous footsteps of Divine Providence" in the labours of Dr. Franck. "Could we," says Dr. Kennett, "trace the obscurer footsteps of our own charity-schools, the finger of God would be as evidently in them." Why the Bishop of Peterborough should be ignorant of these earlier efforts to the same end in his own country, is somewhat marvellous. Franck began his charitable work at Glaucha in 1698; while Blake was labouring to establish his Highgate School in 1685. That Franck should know nothing about our pioneer in charitable education, is probable enough; but that the English divines I have mentioned, with Wodrow, Gillies, and a host of others, should be unaware that the proceedings at Halle were only the counterpart of those done fourteen years before by Blake in their own land, is certainly surprising, and affords another proof of the proneness of Britons to extol everything foreign to the neglect of what is native and at their own doors.

Perhaps some of your readers will think I over-estimate the importance of the question, whether the charity-school movement is of British or foreign growth; or whether the honour of its application to the poor (for all charity-schools are not for such) belongs to my subject William Blake, or {436} some other philanthropic individual; if such there be, let them repair to our Metropolitan Cathedral on the day of the annual assemblage of the London charity children: and if, on contemplating the spectacle which will there meet their eye, they do not think it an object of interest to discover who, as Dr. Kennett says, "first cast in the salt at the fountain-head to heal the waters, and broke the ground that was before barren," I pity them.

In concocting this Note, I have had before me the following:

1. Lysons's Environs of London, 1795, where will be found a short notice of Blake. The author, following Gough, makes my subject a madman, and says his scheme "failed after laying out 5000l. upon it."

2. Sermon preached for Charity-schools, by Dr. Kennett, 1706.

3. Sermons of Dr. Smalridge and T. Yulden, 1710 and 1728. These divines give the precedence to Westminster School, "erected 1688."

4. Wodrow's Letters, edited by Dr. McCrie, 3 vols., Edin. 1843.

5. Pietas Hallensis: or an Abstract of the Marvellous Footsteps of Divine Providence, in the building of a very large Hospital, or rather a Spacious College, for Charitable and Excellent Uses; and in the maintaining of many Orphans, and other Poor People therein at Glaucha, near Halle in Prussia, related by the Rev. A. H. Franck, 3 parts, 12mo., London, 1707-16. Let the curious reader compare this with Blake's book.

J. O.

* * * * *

FOLK LORE.

Legends of the County Clare.—About nine miles westward from the town of Ennis, in the midst of some of the wildest scenery in Ireland, lies the small but very beautiful Lake of Inchiquin, famous throughout the neighbouring country for its red trout, and for being in winter the haunt of almost all the various kinds of waterfowl, including the wild swan, that are to be found in Ireland, while the woods that border one of its sides are amply stocked with woodcocks. At one extremity of the lake are the ruins of the Castle of Inchiquin, part of which is built on a rock projecting into the lake, there about one hundred feet deep, and this legend is related of the old castle:—Once upon a time, the chieftain of the Quins, whose stronghold it was, found in one of the caves (many of which are in the limestone hills that surround the lake) a lady of great beauty, fast asleep. While gazing on her in rapt admiration she awoke, and, according to the customs of the Heroic Age, soon consented to become his bride, merely stipulating that no one bearing the name of O'Brien should be allowed to enter the castle gate: this being agreed to, the wedding was celebrated with all due pomp, and in process of time one lovely boy blessed their union. Among the other rejoicings at the birth of an heir to the chief of the clan, a grand hunting-match took place, and the chase having terminated near the castle, the chieftain, as in duty bound, requested the assembled nobles to partake of his hospitality. To this a ready assent was given, and the chiefs were ushered into the great hall with all becoming state; and then for the first time did their host discover that one bearing the forbidden name was among them The banquet was served, and now the absence of the lady of the castle alone delayed the onslaught on the good things spread before them. Surprised and half afraid at her absence, her husband sought her chamber: on entering, he saw her sitting pensively with her child at the window which overlooked the lake; raising her head as he approached, he saw she was weeping, and as he advanced towards her with words of apology for having broken his promise, she sprang through the window with her child into the lake. The wretched man rushed forward with a cry of horror: for one moment he saw her gliding over the waters, now fearfully disturbed, chanting a wild dirge, and then, with a mingled look of grief and reproach, she disappeared for ever! And the castle and the lordship, with many a broad acre besides, passed from the Quins, and are now the property of the O'Briens to this day; and while the rest of the castle is little better than a heap of ruins, the fatal window still remains nearly as perfect as when the lady sprang through it, an irrefragable proof of the truth of the legend in the eyes of the peasantry.

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

The Seven Whisperers.—I have been informed by an old and trustworthy servant that about twenty years ago, as he was walking one clear starlight night with two other persons, they heard, for the space of several minutes, high up in the air, beautiful sounds like music, which gradually died away towards the north. He spoke of it as an occurrence not very uncommon, and said it was always called "The Seven Whisperers." On inquiry I found the name well known amongst the poorer classes.

Is it not an electrical phenomenon?

METAOUO.

Essex.

* * * * *

ITALIAN-ENGLISH, GERMAN-ENGLISH, AND THE REFUGEE STYLE.

(Vol. vii., p. 149.)

Every one has admired the odd bits of Italian-English which "N. & Q." lately published, a true {437} philological curiosity. Such queer medleys have been the result whenever two opposite idioms have been thrown together and unskilfully stirred up. Very few foreigners indeed, Sclavonic nations being excepted, and particularly the Russians, write French tolerably well. The present Lord Mahon and Lady Montaigne, in an excellent Essay on Marriage, are exceptions to the rule. Voltaire used to say,—

"Faites tous vos vers a Paris; Et n'allez pas en Allemagne!"

And very right he was. His kingly disciple committed more than once such Irish rhymes as these:

"Je vais cueillir dans leurs sentiers (des Muses) De fraiches et charmantes roses; Et je dedaigne les lauriers, En exceptant les lauriers sauces."

Forgetting the difference of pronunciation between the soft s of rose (roze) and the lisping sound of the c in sauce (soss). As I have not by me the ponderous and voluminous works of the poetical monarch, I may have altered some of the words of the quotation; but the rhymes sauce and rose I aver to be true to the primitive copy. Even Protestant refugees, born of French parents, brought up amongst their co-religionists and countrymen, wrote a strange gibberish, often ungrammatical, always unidiomatic, of which traces may be found even in Basnage and Ancillon. A recent French theologian, the clever author of a Life of Spinosa, written in Germany and published in Paris with some success, has such expressions as these:

"Les villes protestantes preferent la liberte avec Calvin QUE la tyrannique concorde avec Luther."—Hist. Crit. du Rationalisme, p. 49.

"Et ailleuz: Stuttgard Dontil etait conservateur DE LA Bibliotheque."-Ib.

And M. Amand Saintes is a Frenchman, and a most erudite man. The Celebrated Frau Bettina von Arnim, who dared to translate into English and to print in Berlin (apud Trowitzsch and Son, 1838), under the new title of Diary of a Child, her own untranslateable letters to Goethe, had at least the very good excuse of her nationality for her peculiar English, the choicest, funniest, maddest, and saddest English ever penned on this planet or in any other, and of which I hope "N. & Q." will accept some small specimens, taken at random among thousands such. To begin with the opening address:

"To the English Bards.

"Gentlemen!—The noble cup of your mellifluous tongue so often brimmed with immortality, here filled with odd but pure and fiery draught, do not refuse to taste if you relish its spirit to be homefelt, though not home-born."

"BETTINA ARNIM."

We will next pass to the "Preamble":

"The translating of Goethe's Correspondence with a Child into English was generally disapproved of. Previous to its publication in Germany, the well-renowned Mrs. Austin, by regard for the great German poet, proposed to translate it; but after having perused it with attention, the literate and the most famed bookseller of London thought unadvisable the publication of a book that in every way widely differed from the spirit and feelings of the English, and therefore it could not be depended upon for exciting their interest. Mrs. Austin, by her gracious mind to comply with my wishes, proposed to publish some fragments of it, but as no musician ever likes to have only those passages of his composition executed that blandish the ear, I likewise refused my assent to the maiming of a work, that not by my own merit, but by chance and nature became a work of art, that only in the untouched development of its genius might judiciously be enjoyed and appraised."

Our next and last is taken from p. 133.:

"From those venturesome and spirit-night-wanderings I came home with garments wet with melted snow; they believed I had been in the garden. When night I forgot all; on the next evening at the same time it came back to my mind, and the fear too I had suffered; I could not conceive, how I had ventured to walk alone on that desolate road in the night, and to stay on such a waste dreadful spot; I stood leaning at the court gate; to-day it was not so mild and still as yesterday; the gales rose high and roared along; they sighed up at my feet and hastened on yonder side, the fluttering poplars in the garden bowed and flung off their snow-burden, the clouds drove away in a great hurry, what rooted fast wavered yonder, and what could ever be loosened, was swept away by the hastening breezes." (!!!).

P. S.—Excuse my French-English.

PHILARETE CHASLES, Mazarianaeus

Paris, Palais de l'Institut.

* * * * *

SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

Meaning of "Delighted" in some Places of Shakspeare.—I am sorry to be obliged to differ so often in opinion with H. C. K., but as we are both, I trust, solely actuated by the love of truth, he no doubt will excuse me. My difference now with him is about "delighted spirit," by which he understands the "tender delicate spirit," while I take it to be the "delectable" or "delightful spirit." As I think this is founded on the Latin, I beg permission to quote the following portion of my note on Jug. ii. 3. in my edition of Sallust:

"Incorruptus, [Greek: aphthartos] , i. e. incapable of dissolution, the incorruptibilis of the Fathers of the Church. In imitation probably of the Greek verbal adjective in [Greek: tos], as [Greek: hairetos], [Greek: streptos], etc., the Latins, especially Sallust, sometimes used the past part. as equivalent to an adj. in bilis: comp. xliii, 5.; lxxvi. 1.; xci. 7.; Cat. I. 4.,

{438}

'Non exorato stant adamante viae;' Propert. IV. 11. 4., 'Mare scopulis inaccessum;' Plin. Nat. Hist., XII. 14.

It is in this sense that flexus is to be understood in Virg. AEn., v. 500."

The same employment of the past part. is frequent in our old English writers, and I rather think that they adopted it from the Latin. The earliest instance which I find in my notes is from Golding, who renders the tonitrus et inevitabile fulmen of Ovid (Met. III. 301.):

"With dry and dreadful thunderclaps and lightning to the same, Of deadly and unavoided dint."

In Milton I have noticed the following participles used in this sense: unmoved, abhorred, unnumbered, unapproached, dismayed, unreproved, unremoved, unsucceeded, preferred. But as Milton was addicted to Latinising, I will give some examples from Shakspeare himself:

"Now thou art come unto a feast of death A terrible and unavoided danger."—1 Hen. VI., Act IV. Sc. 5.

"We see the very wreck that we must suffer, And unavoided the danger now, For suffering so the causes of our wreck."—Rich. II., Act II. Sc. 1.

"All unavoided is the doom of destiny."—Rich. III., Act IV. Sc. 4.

"Inestimable stones, unvalued jewels."—Ib., Act I. Sc. 4.

"Tell them that when my mother went with child Of that insatiate Edward."—Ib., Act III. Sc. 5.

"I am not glad that such a sore of time Should seek a plaster by contemned revolt."—King John, Act V. Sc 2.

"The murmuring surge That on the unnumber'd idle pebbles chafes."—Lear, Act IV. Sc. 6.

"O, undistinguished space of woman's will."—Ib.

I could give instances from Spenser and even from Pope, but shall only observe that when we say "an undoubted fact" we mean an indubitable one.

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

P.S.—I am not disposed to quarrel with H. C. K.'s derivation of awkward (Vol. viii., p. 310.), but I must observe that the more exact correlative of toward seems to be wayward. The Anglo-Saxons appear to have pronounced their [gh] as g; but after the Conquest it was pronounced hard in some cases, and so wayward and awkward may have the same origin.

Shakspeare Portrait.—Can any of your correspondents state whether the sign of Shakspeare, said to have been painted at a cost of 150l., and which in 1764 graced a tavern then in Drury Lane, called "The Shakspeare," and in that year was taken down and removed into the country, and used for a similar purpose, still exists, add where? and is the artist who painted such known?

CHARLECOTT.

"Taming of the Shrew."—I cannot help thinking that Christopher Sly merely means that he is fourteenpence on the score for sheer ale,—nothing but ale; neither bread nor meat, horse housing, or bed.

He has drunk the entire amount, and glories in his iniquity, like a true tippler.

G. H. K.

Lord Bacon and Shakspeare.—Can any of those correspondents of "N. & Q." who have devoted attention to the lives of two of England's greatest worthies, Francis Bacon and William Shakspeare, account for the extraordinary fact that, although these two highly gifted men were cotemporaries, no mention of or allusion to the other is to be found in the writings of either? Bacon was born in 1561, and died in 1626; Shakspeare, who was born in 1563, and died ten years before the great chancellor, not only loved

"To suck the sweets of sweet philosophy,"

but breathes throughout every page of his wondrous writings a spirit of philosophy as profound as his imagination is unlimited; yet nowhere, it is believed, can he be traced as making the slight allusion to the great father of modern philosophy. Bacon, on the other hand, whom one can scarcely suppose to have been ignorant of the writings of the dramatist, but who indeed may rather be believed to have known him personally, seems altogether to ignore his existence, or the existence of any of his matchless works. As the solution of this problem could not but throw much light on that most interesting subject,—the history of the minds of Shakespeare and Bacon,—I venture to throw it out as a fit subject for the research of some of your contributors versed in the writings of these great spirits of their own age, no less than of all time.

THETA.

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

Decomposed Cloth.—In Mr. Wright's valuable work on The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon, p. 308., is mentioned the discovery at York of a Roman coffin, in which were distinctly visible "the colour, a rich purple," as well as texture of the cloth with which the body it had contained had been covered.

I should think that the colour observed was not that of the ancient dye, but rather was caused by phosphate of iron, formed by the combination of iron contained in the soil or water, with phosphoric acid, arising from the decomposition of animal matter. It may often be observed in similar cases, as about animal remains found in bogs, and about ancient leather articles found in {439} excavations, especially when any iron is in contact with them, or in the soles of shoes or sandals studded with nails.

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington.

First and Last.—There cannot be two words more different in meaning than these, and yet they are both used to express the same sense! Of two authors equally eminent, one shall write that a thing is of the first and the other of the last importance, though each means the greatest or utmost. How is this? To me first appears preferable, though last may be justifiable. Being on the subject of words, I am reminded of obnoxious, which is applied in the strangest ways by different authors. It is true that the Roman writers used obnoxius in various senses; but it does not seem so pliable or smooth in English. Generally it is held to indicate disagreeable or inimical, though our dictionaries do not admit it to have either of those meanings!

A. B. C.

Cucumber Time.—This term, which the working-tailors of England use to denote that which their masters call "the flat season," has been imported from a country which periodically sends many hundreds of its tailors to seek employment in our metropolis. The German phrase is "Die saure Gurken Zeit," or pickled gherkin time. A misunderstanding of the meaning of the phrase may have given rise to the vulgar witticism, that tailors are vegetarians, who "live on cucumber" while at play, and on "cabbage" while at work.

N. W. S.

MS. Sermons of the Eighteenth Century.—Having lately become possessed, at the sale of an an old library, of some MS. Sermons by the Rev. J. Harris, Rector of Abbotsbury, Dorset, from the year 1741 to 1763, I shall be happy to place them in the hands of any descendant of that gentleman.

W. EWART.

Pimperne, Dorset.

Boswell's "Johnson."—In vol. v. p. 272. of my favourite edition, and p. 784. of the edition in one volume, Johnson, writing to Brocklesby, under date Sept. 2, 1784, calls Windham "inter stellas Luna minores." Boswell, in a note, says, "It is remarkable that so good a Latin scholar as Johnson should have been so inattentive to the metre, as by mistake to have written stellas instead of ignes." Now, with all due deference, a Captain of Native Infantry ventures to suggest that both stellas and ignes are wrong, and that Johnson was thinking of the noble opening of Horace's 15th Epode:

"Nox erat, et coelo fulgebat Luna sereno, Inter minora sidera."

F. C.

Bangalore.

Stage Coaches.—It occurs to me as highly desirable that, before the recollection of the old stage coach has faded from the memory of all but the oldest inhabitant, an authentic statement should be placed on record of the length of the stages, and the speed that was obtained, by this mode of conveyance, in which England was for so many years without a rival.

The speed of mail coaches is, I believe chronicled in the British Almanac of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; but their speed, if I mistake not, was surpassed by that of the "Rival," which travelled (from Monmouth, I think) to London after the opening of the Great Western Railway.

Could any of your correspondents favour us with the time-bill of that coach, detailing the length of the several stages, and the time of performance? It would also be interesting to chronicle the period during which this rivalry with the railway was maintained.

GEO. E. FRERE.

Antecedents.—The word "antecedents," as a plural, and in the sense attached to it by the French, is not to be found in any English dictionary that I have the means of consulting. And yet it seems now to be commonly used as an English expression, even by some of our best writers.

When was this word first imported, and by whom? I have just met with an instance of it in Jerdan's Autobiography, vol. i. p. 131.:

"I got him (Hammon), with a full knowledge of his antecedents, into the employment of a humane and worthy wine merchant of Bordeaux."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

The Letter X.—The letter X on brewers' casks is probably thus derived:

Simplex = single x, or X. Duplex = double x, or XX. Triplex = treble x, or XXX.

This was suggested by Owen's Epigram, lib. xii. 34.:

"Laudatur vinum simplex, cervisia duplex, Est bona duplicitas, optima simplicitas."

B. H. C.

A Crow-bar.—In Johnson's Dictionary the explanation given of this word is "piece of iron used as a lever to force open doors, as the Latins called a hook corvus." In Walters' English and Welsh Dictionary, the first part of which was published about the year 1770, this word is printed "Croe-bar." Is it probable that the word crow has been derived front the Camb.-Brit. word cro, a curve? and that the name has been given from the circumstance of one end of a crow-bar being curved for the purpose of making it more efficient as lever?

N. W. S.

* * * * *

{440}

Minor Queries.

Bishop Grehan.—I want any information obtainable with reference to a Roman Catholic bishop in Ireland named Grehan; his Christian name, family, date of his bishopric, and name of it. Where can I find such particulars?

O. L. R. G.

Doxology.—In his "Christmas Caroll" to the tune of "King Solomon," old Tusser has the following:

"To God the Son and Holy Ghost, Let man give thanks, rejoice, and sing, From world to world, from coast to coast, For all good gifts so many ways, That God doth send. Let us in Christ give God the praise, Till life shall end!"

Query, Is this the origin of our own doxologies?

L. A. M.

Great Yarmouth.

Arrow-mark.—On an ancient pump of wood, extracted from the Poltimore mine in North Devon, I perceive a deeply cut arrow-mark. What is the inference as to the age of this relic from the mark referred to? The fragment is that of a large oak tree hollowed out, and now decomposing from exposure after its long burial.

J. R. P.

Gabriel Poyntz.—There is a portrait here inscribed "Gabriel Poyntz, an. Domini 1568, aetatis suae 36:" and having a coat of arms painted on it, Barry of eight, or and gules, with a crest very indistinct; but apparently a lion's head, and the motto "Clainte refrainte."

Can any of your correspondents inform me of the meaning of this motto, and the language in which it is expressed; and also what the crest is?

G. Poyntz was of South Okendon in Essex, and there is an account of his family in Morant's Essex; from which it appears that he was descended from the family of Poyntz of Tockington in Gloucestershire, of which there is an account in Atkins' Gloucestershire. He was afterwards knighted.—Any information as to him, in addition to that which is contained in Morant, would be very acceptable.

S. G. C.

Bradley, Ashbourne.

Queen Elizabeth's and Queen Anne's Motto, "Semper eadem."—Upon what occasion, and by what authority was the motto "Semper eadem" used as the royal motto in the reign of Elizabeth?

The authority for Queen Anne's motto has been afforded by your correspondent G. (Vol. viii., p. 255.); though he has not fully answered the original Query (Vol. viii., p. 174.), as the motto in question was signified to the public in the London Gazette, Dec. 21-24, 1702; was ordered to be continued in 1707, and to be discontinued (by an order in council) on the accession of the House of Hanover in 1714, when the old motto "Dieu et mon droit" was resumed.

Z. Z. Z.

Bees.—In these parts the increase of the apiary is known by the three following names:—The first migration from the parent hive is (as all your country readers are aware) a swarm; the next is called a cast; while the third increase, in the same season, goes under the name of a cote. Perhaps some one will kindly inform me if these names are common in other parts of England; and if there are any other local designations for the different departures of these insect colonists.

JOHN P. STILWELL.

Dorking.

Nelly O'Brien and Kitty Fisher.—Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q." can tell me where information is to be found respecting these two celebrated women, who have been immortalised by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and whose portraits are sometimes to be met with.

"Cleopatra dissolving the Pearl" is a portrait of Kitty, and he probably introduced them both into some of his fancy pictures.

As I happen to possess a good portrait of one of them, I should like to know something of their history.

CANTAB.

University Club.

"Homo unius libri."—To whom does this saying ing originally belong? The British Critic gives it to St. Thomas Aquinas:

"When asked on one occasion who is in the way to become learned, he answered, 'Whoever will content himself with the reading of a single book."—The British Critic, No. LIX. p. 202.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

"Now the fierce bear," &c.—Can any of your readers inform me who is the author of the following lines?

"Now the fierce bear and leopard keen, All perished as they ne'er had been; Oblivion's their best home. . . . . There is an oath on high, That ne'er on brow of mortal birth, Shall blend again the crowns of earth."

[theta].

Prejudice against Holy Confirmation.—I have found among my rural parishioners an idea very prevalent, that it is wrong, or at least highly improper, for a married woman to become a candidate for, or to receive holy confirmation; and this quite apart from any sectarian views on the matter. I should like to know if any of my {441} clerical brethren have noticed the same superstition as I must call it. Labourers' wives in some cases have at once stated their being married as a valid objection; and in others their husbands, although Churchmen, have at once entered their veto on their being confirmed. Can it arise from any vague reminiscence of the practical rule of the Church of England on the subject, which has been so long ignored?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

Epigram on MacAdam.—Who was the author of the following epigram?

"My Essay on Roads, quoth MacAdam, lies there, The result of a life's lucubration; But does not the title page look rather bare? I long for a Latin quotation.

"A Delphin edition of Virgil stood nigh, To second his classic desire; When the road-maker hit on the shepherd's reply, 'Miror Magis,' I rather add-mire."

[Old English W. N.]

Jane Scrimshaw.—Can any of your numerous correspondents inform me if there is any other biographical notice of Jane Scrimshaw, who attained the advanced age of 127, and resided for upwards of eighty years in the Merchant Taylors' Almshouse, near Little Tower Hill, than that recorded in Caulfield's Memoirs of Remarkable Characters?

J. T. M.

The Word "Quadrille."—May I trouble some kind reader to give me the origin, derivation, full and literal meaning, and the several senses, in their regular succession, of the above word Quadrille? There seems to be much uncertainty attached to the word.

VERITATIS AMICUS.

Oxon.

The Hungarians in Paules.—Perhaps some of the ingenious contributors to "N. & Q." may be able to assist P. C. S. S. to explain the following passage in the dedication of a rare little book Dekker's Dreame (Lond. 4to. 1620). It is inscribed:—

"To the truly accomplished gentleman, and worthy deserver of all men's loves, Master Endymion Porter. Sir, if you aske why, from the heapes of men, I picke you out only to be that Murus ahaeneus which must defend me, lett me tell you (what you knowe allready) that bookes are like the Hungarians in Paules, who have a priviledge to holde out their Turkish history for anie one to reade. They beg nothing: the texted past-bord talkes all—and if nothing be given, nothing is spoken, but God knowes what they thinke!"

An explanation of the above passage is very earnestly desired by

P. C. S. S.

Ferns Wanted.—Specimens of the following rare ferns are much wanted to complete a collection:—Woodsia ilvensis, Woodsia alpina, Cystopteris montana, Lastrea cristata, Lastrea recurva, Lastrea multiflora, Asplenium alterniflorum, Trichomanes speciosum.

The undersigned will feel very much obliged to any charitable person, residing near the habitat of any of the above-mentioned ferns, who would take the trouble to forward to him, if not a root, at least a specimen for drying, he need scarcely say that any expenses will be most cheerfully defrayed.

HENRY COOPER KEY.

Stretton Rectory, near Hereford.

Craton the Philosopher.—Two of the figures on the brass font in the church of St. Bartholomew at Liege are superscribed Johannes Evangelista et Craton Philosophus.—Can any reader of "N. & Q." say if anything is known about the latter, who is represented as being baptized by the Evangelist?

R. H. C.

The Solar Annual Eclipse in the Year 1263.—In the Norwegian account of Haco's expedition against Scotland, A.D. 1263, published in the original Islandic from the Flateyan and Frisian MSS., with a literal English version by the Rev. James Johnstone, I read as follows:

"While King Haco lay in Ronaldsvo, a great darkness drew over the sun; so that only a little ring was bright round the sun, and it continued so for some hours."—P. 45.

King Haco, according to the account, left Bergen on his expedition "three nights before the 'Selian' vigils ... with all his fleet," and, "having got a gentle breeze, was two nights at sea when he reached that harbour of Shetland called Breydeyiar Sound (Bressay Sound, I presume) with a great part of his navy." Here he remained "near half a month, and from thence sailed to the Orkneys; and continued some time at Elidarwick, which is near Kirkwall.... After St. Olave's wake (July 18, O. S.) King Haco, leaving Elidarwick, sailed south before the Mull of Ronaldsha, with all the navy;" and being joined by Ronald from the Orkneys, with the ships that had followed him, he "led the whole armament into Ronaldsha, which he left upon the vigil of St. Lawrence (July 30, O. S.)."

Now I wish to know, 1. On what day in August this eclipse took place, the day of the week, commencement of the eclipse, &c.

2. Whether any cotemporary, or other writer besides the Icelandic historian, has recorded this eclipse?

S.

Fitzroy Street.

D'Israeli—how spelt?—CAUCASUS is so fortunate as to possess all the acknowledged works of D'Israeli the elder, as published by himself. In the title-page of every one of them, the name {442} of the elegant and accomplished author is spelt (as above) with an apostrophe. In the late edition of his collected works, by his no less accomplished son, the name is printed without the apostrophe. Indeed the name so appears in all the works of Mr. D'Israeli the younger; a practice which he seems to have taken up even in the lifetime of his father, who spelt it differently. Can any of your readers inform CAUCASUS of the reason of this difference, and of the authority for it, and which is the correct mode? He has vainly sought for information in the Heralds' Visitation books for Buckinghamshire, preserved in the British Museum.

CAUCASUS.

Richard Oswald.—Could any of your correspondents give me any information respecting Mr. Richard Oswald, the commissioner who negociated the Treaty of 1782 at Paris, with Franklin, and his other colleagues, representing the United States? Is there any obituary or biographical notice of him in existence?

L.

Cromwell's Descendants.—Oliver Cromwell's daughter Bridget was baptized August 4, 1624; married to Ireton January 15, 1646-7; a widow Nov. 26, 1651; married to General Fleetwood, Lord President in Ireland, before 1652; died at Stoke, near London, 1681.—Can any of your correspondents furnish the date of this lady's marriage with Fleetwood; also, a list of her children and grandchildren by Fleetwood? It is supposed that Captain Fleetwood's daughter, i. e. the General's granddaughter, married a Berry.

ERIN.

Letter of Archbishop Curwen to Archbishop Parker.—In The Hunting of the Romish Fox, collected by Sir James Ware, and edited by Robert Ware (8vo., Dublin, 1683), there is a long account of an image of the Saviour which, to the astonishment of the good people of Dublin, and by the contrivance of one Father Leigh, sweated blood in the year 1559. It is added, at p. 90.:

"The Archbishop of Dublin wrote this relation and to this effect, to his brother, Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker, who was very joyful at the receipt thereof, by reason," &c.

The whole chapter in which this occurs is stated to be "taken out of the Lord Cecil's Memorials." Can any of your readers give me assistance in finding these Memorials, or this letter to Archbishop Parker, or a copy of it? I intended to have made it an object of inquiry and search in Dublin, but I have been prevented accomplishing my design of visiting that country. Perhaps some of your Irish readers may be able to help me.

JOHN BRUCE.

* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

Margaret Patten.—I have just seen a curious old picture, executed at least a century ago, and which was lately found amongst some family papers. It is a half-length of an old woman in homely looking garments; a dark blue stuff gown, the sleeves partially rolled up, and white sleeving protruding from under, not unlike the fashion of to-day; a white and blue checked apron; around her neck a white tippet and a handkerchief, on her head a "mutch," or close linen cap, and a lace or embroidered band across her forehead to hide the absence of hair. She holds something undistinguishable in one hand.

The picture is about 10 x 8 inches, and is done on glass, evidently transferred from an engraving on steel. The colours have been laid on with hand, and then, to preserve and make an opaque back, it has received a coating of plaster of Paris; altogether in its treatment resembling a coloured photograph.

By-the-bye, I am sorry I could not get a copy (photographic) of it, or that would have rendered intelligible what I fear my lame descriptions cannot. Beneath the figure is the following inscription:

"MARGARET PATTEN,

Born in the Parish of Lochnugh, near Pairsley in Scotland, now Liveing in the Work House of St. Marg^{ts}, Westminsster, aged 138."

There is no date appended.

The word "Lochnugh" in the inscription is evidently spelt from the Scotch pronunciation of Lochwinnoch, near Paisley.

I should be very glad if any of your readers or correspondents in London could ascertain if the name, &c. is to be found in the records of St. Margaret's, Westminster, and also give me some facts as to the history of this poor old Scotch woman, left destitute so far from home and kindred.

If it can be authenticated, it will make another item for your list of longevals.

JAMES B. MURDOCH.

Glasgow.

[In the Board-room of the workhouse of St. Margaret's, Westminster, is a portrait of Margaret Patten, which corresponds with the picture just described, and bears the following inscription:

"MARGARET PATTEN, aged 136: the Gift of John Dowsell, William Goff, Matthew Burnett, Thomas Parker, Robert Wright, John Parquot, Overseers, anno 1737."

Margaret Patten was buried in the burial-ground of what was then called the Broadway Church, now Christ Church, and there is a stone on the eastern boundary wall inscribed, "Near this place lieth MARGARET PATTEN, who died June 26, 1739, in the Parish Workhouse, aged 136." In Walcott's Memorials of {443} Westminster, p. 288., we are told "she was a native of Lochborough, near Paisley. She was brought to England to prepare Scotch broth for King James II., but, owing to the abdication of that monarch, fell into poverty and died in St. Margaret's workhouse, where her portrait is still preserved. Her body was followed to the grave by the parochial authorities and many of the principal inhabitants, while the children sang a hymn before it reached its last resting-place."]

Etymology of "Coin."—What is the etymology of our noun and verb coin and to coin? I do not know if I have been anticipated, but beg to suggest the following:—Coin, a piece of cornered metal; To coin, the act of cornering such block of metal.

In Cornwall, the blocks of tin, when first run into moulds from the smelting furnace, are square; and when the metal is to be fined or assayed, the miner's phrase is, that it is to be coined; for the corners of the moulded block are cut off, and subjected to the assay; and the decree of fineness proved is stamped on the now cornerless block—thereafter called a coin of tin. It is, I conceive, by no means a violent supposition that such coins of tin were current as money very many ages before either silver, gold, copper, bronze, lead, tin, or any other metal moulded, stamped, engraved, or fashioned into such coins as we now know had come into use. We know to what far-back ages the finding of tin carries us, its find being entirely confined to Cornwall; its presence near the surface in an ore readily reduced and easily melted making its reduction into the metallic state possible in the very rudest state of society and of the arts.

C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.

[See Dr. Richardson for the following derivation:—"Fr. coigner, It. cuniare, Sp. cunar, acunar, to wedge, and also to coin. Menage and Spelman agree from the Latin cuneus. 'Cuneus; sigillum ferreum, quo nummus cuditur; a forma dictum: atque inde coin quasi cune pro moneta.' An iron seal with which metal is stamped; so called from the shape. And hence money is called coin (q. cune, wedge).—Spelman." The Rev. T. R. Brown, in an unpublished Dictionary of Difficult Etymology[1], suggests the following:—"Fr. coign, a coin, stamp, &c.; Gaelic, cuin, a coin. Probably from the Sanscrit kan, to shine, desire, covet; kanaka, gold, &c. The Hebrew ceseph, money, coin, is derived in like manner from the verb casaph, to desire, covet. The other meaning attached to the French word coign, viz. a wedge, appears to be derived from quite a different root."]

[Footnote 1: This useful work makes two volumes 8vo.: but how is it the learned Vicar of Southwick printed only nine copies? Was he thinking of the sacred Nine?]

Inscription at Aylesbury.—In the north transept of St. Mary's Church, Aylesbury, occurs the following curious inscription on a tomb of the date of 1584:

"Yf, passing by this place, thou doe desire To knowe what corpse here shry'd in marble lie, The somme of that whiche now thou dost require This slender verse shall sone to thee descrie.

"Entombed here doth rest a worthie Dame, Extract and born of noble house and bloud, Her sire, Lord Paget, hight of worthie fame Whose virtues cannot sink in Lethe floud. Two brethern had she, barons of this realme, A knight her freere, Sir Henry Lee, he hight, To whom she bare three impes, which had to name, John, Henry, Mary, slayn by fortune spight, First two being yong, which cavs'd their parents mone, The third in flower and prime of all her yeares: All three do rest within this marble stone, By which the fickleness of worldly joyes appears. Good Frend sticke not to strew with crimson flowers This marble stone, wherein her cindres rest, For sure her ghost lives with the heavenly powers, And guerdon hathe of virtuous life possest."

Can any of your readers give me any other instances of children being called imps? and also tell me wherefore the name was given them? and how long it continued in use?

T. W. D. BROOKS.

Cropredy, Banbury.

[The inscription is given in Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire. Horne Tooke says imp is the past participle of the A.-S. impan, to graft, to plant. Mr. Steevens (Note on 2 Henry IV., Act V. Sc. 5.) tells us, "An imp is a shoot in its primitive sense, but means a son in Shakspeare." In Hollinshed, p. 951., the last words of Lord Cromwell are preserved, who says, "And after him that his sonne Prince Edward, that goodlie impe, may long reign over you." The word imp is perpetually used by Ulpian Fulwell, and other ancient writers, for progeny:

"And were it not thy royal impe Did mitigate our pain."

Again, in the Battle of Alcazar, 1594:

"Amurath, mighty emperor of the East, That shall receive the imp of royal race."

See other examples in Todd's Johnson and Dr. Richardson's Dictionaries. Shakspeare uses the word only in jocular and burlesque passages, which, says Nares, is the natural course of a word growing obsolete.]

"Guardian Angels now protect me," &c.—I remember John Wesley, and also his saying the "Devil should not have the best tunes." There was a pretty love-song, a great favourite when I was a boy:

"Guardian angels, now protect me, Send to me the youth I love."

the music of which Wesley introduced to his congregation as a hymn tune. The music I have, and I shall be glad if any of your correspondents {444} can oblige me with the first verse of this love-song; I only recollect the above lines.

WILLIAM GARDINER.

Leicester.

[The following is the song referred to by our correspondent:

The Forsaken Nymph.

"Guardian angels, now protect me, Send to me the swain I love; Cupid, with thy bow direct me; Help me, all ye pow'rs above. Bear him my sighs, ye gentle breezes, Tell him I love and I despair, Tell him for him I grieve, say 'tis for him I live; O may the shepherd be sincere!

"Through the shady grove I'll wander, Silent as the bird of night, Near the brink of yonder fountain, First Leander bless'd my sight. Witness ye groves and falls of water, Echos repeat the vows he swore: Can he forget me? will he neglect me? Shall I never see him more?

"Does he love, and yet forsake me, To admire a nymph more fair? If 'tis so, I'll wear the willow, And esteem the happy pair. Some lonely cave I'll make my dwelling, Ne'er more the cares of life pursue; The lark and Philomel only shall hear me tell, What bids me bid the world adieu."]

K. C. B.'s.—I observe that in the London Gazette of January 2, 1815, which regulates the existing order of the Bath, it is commanded by the sovereign that "there shall be affixed in the church of St. Peter at Westminster escutcheons and banners of the arms of each K. C. B." Has this command been regularly fulfilled on the creation of each K. C. B.? I believe that on each creation fees are demanded by the Heralds' College, for the professed purpose of exemplifying the knight's arms, and affixing his escutcheon; but I never remember to have seen the escutcheons in Westminster Abbey.

TEWARS.

[The order never was fulfilled. If the knights were entitled to armorial bearings, no fees whatever were demanded by or paid to the Heralds' College. The statutes of 1815 were, however, abrogated and annulled by the statutes of 1847, and the banners are not required to be suspended in the Abbey. The erection of the banners and plates, however, rested with the officers of the order, and the Heralds' College had nothing to do with the matter.]

Danish and Swedish Ballads.—What are the best and most recent collections of ancient Danish and Swedish ballad poetry?

J. M. B.

[We believe the best and most recent collection of Danish ballads is the edition of Udvalgte Danske Viser fra Middelalderen, by Abrahamson, Nyerup, Rabbek, &c., in five small 8vo. volumes, Copenhagen, 1812. The best Swedish collection was Svenska Folk-Visor fran Forteden, collected and edited by Geijer and Afzelius, and published at Stockholm, 1814; but the more recent collection published by Arwidson in 1834 is certainly superior. It is in three octavo volumes, and is entitled Svenska Fornsaenger. En Samling of Kaemp-visor, Folk-visor, Lekar och Dansar, samt Barn- och Vall-Saenger.]

Etymology of "Conger."—What is the etymology of the word Conger, as applied to the larger kind of deep sea eels by our fishermen (who, be it remarked, never add eel. Conger-eel is entirely used by shore-folk)?

I imagine that it may be traced from the Danish Kongr, a king, or kings; for being the greatest of eels, the fishermen, whose nets he tore, and whose take he seriously reduced, might well call him in size, in strength, and voracity—Kongr, the king.

C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.

[Todd and Webster derive it from the Latin conger or congrus; Gr. [Greek: gongros], formed of [Greek: grao], to eat, the fish being very voracious; It. gongro; Fr. congre.]

"Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum tibi."—This is, I think, the ordinary form of a saying cited somewhere by Goldsmith, who calls it "so trite a quotation that it almost demands an apology to repeat it." Whence comes it originally? I am unable to give the exact reference to the passage in Goldsmith, but in his Citizen of the World, letter 53rd, he has a cognate idea:

"As in common conversation the best way to make the audience laugh is by first laughing yourself, so in writing," &c.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

[Horace, De Arte Poetica, 102.]

* * * * *

Replies.

MEDAL AND RELIC OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.

(Vol. viii., p. 293.)

I possess a cast of this medal as described by your correspondent W. FRASER, but which is a little indistinct in some of the letters of its inscriptions. The yew-tree represented on it is generally supposed to be that which stood at Cruikston Castle nearly Paisley; and its motto "Vires" may perhaps have been intended to denote its natural strength and durability. The date of the medal being 1566, and Mary's marriage with Lord Darnly having taken place on July 29, 1565, the yew-tree may have been introduced to commemorate some incident of their courtship, and gives likelihood to the common tradition. I once had a small box composed partly of its wood, and of {445} that of the "Torwood Oak" near Stirling, which was presented to me about thirty-five years ago by an aged lady, whose property it had been for a long time previously, and who placed much value on it as a relic. Though visiting Cruikston Castle in early life, I never heard of there being any feeling of "superstition" connected with such little objects as the crosses, &c. which were long made from the wood of the yew-tree. They are all, I think, to be viewed simply as curiosities associated with the historical interest of the place, and similar examples are to be found among our people in the numerous quaichs (drinking-cups) and other articles which have been formed from the "Torwood Oak" that protected the illustrious Sir William Wallace from his enemies; from his oak at Elderslie, said to have been planted by his hand, two miles to the west of Paisley; and lately from such scraps of the old oaken rafters of the Glasgow Cathedral as could be obtained in the course of its modern repairs.

As respects the yew-tree immediately concerned, some notices of its remains may be found in a work entitled The Severn Delineated, by Charles Taylor, Glasgow, 1831, at page 82. The author, who was a very curious local antiquary, died in 1837, aged forty-two. As his book is now scarce, I may be excused from subjoining rather a long extract, but which also throws some light on other particulars of this subject:

"Retreating from Househill (a seat in the vicinity) to Cruikston Castle, the country is rich, and the scenery delightful. The castle itself might be the subject of volumes, as it has been the theme of many a poet, and the subject of many a painter's pencil. Its name is known all over the world, or may be so, from the circumstance of its once having been the residence of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Lord Darnly; and though the famed yew-tree decks not now the 'hallowed mould,' as the poet expresses himself,

'Is there an eye that tearless could behold This lov'd retreat of beauty's fairest flower?'

About three years ago a large fragment fell from the south wing of this ruin, despite of all the attention Sir John Maywell paid to keep it up. The founder of this castle was one De Croc; hence the name Crockston, Crocston, or Cruikston. This family (says Crawfurd), failing in ane heiress, she was married to Sir Alexander Stewart of Torbolton, second son to Walter, the second of that name, Great Stewart of Scotland, and of this marriage are descended the families of Darnly and Lorn."

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