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Notes and Queries, Number 219, January 7, 1854
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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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VOL. IX.—No. 219.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 7. 1854. [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

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CONTENTS.

Page Our Ninth Volume 3

NOTES:— A Strawberry-Hill Gem, by Bolton Corney 3 The "Ancren Riwle," by Sir F. Madden 5 Order for the Suppression of Vagrancy, A.D. 1650-51, by John Bruce 6 Letters of Eminent Literary Men, by Sir Henry Ellis 7 Burial-place of Archbishop Leighton, by Albert Way 8

MINOR NOTES:—Grammars, &c. for Public Schools—"To captivate"—Bohn's Edition of Matthew of Westminster—French Season Rhymes and Weather Rhymes—Curious Epitaph in Tillingham Church, Essex 8

QUERIES:— Domestic Letters of Edmund Burke 9

MINOR QUERIES:—Farrant's Anthem—Ascension Day Custom—Sawbridge and Knight's Numismatic Collections—"The spire whose silent finger points to heaven."—Lord Fairfax—Tailless Cats— Saltcellar—Arms and Motto granted to Col. William Carlos—Naval Atrocities—Turlehydes—Foreign Orders: Queen of Bohemia—Pickard Family—Irish Chieftains— General Braddock 9

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:—Lawless Court, Rochford, Essex—Motto on old Damask—Explanation of the Word "Miser"—"Acis and Galatea"—Birm-bank— General Thomas Gage 11

REPLIES:— Rapping no Novelty, by Rev. Dr. Maitland 12 Occasional Forms of Prayer, by John Macray 13 Celtic and Latin Languages 14 Geometrical Curiosity, by Professor De Morgan 14 The Black-guard, by P. Cunningham 15 The Calves' Head Club, by Edward Peacock 15

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:— The Calotype Process—Hockin's Short Sketch— Photographic Society's Exhibition 16

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:—"Firm was their faith," &c.—Vellum-cleaning—Wooden Tombs—Solar Eclipse in the Year 1263—Lines on Woman—Satin— "Quid facies," &c.—Sotades—The Third Part of "Christabel"—Attainment of Majority—Lord Halifax and Mrs. C. Barton—The fifth Lord Byron—Burton Family—Provost Hodgson's Translation of the Atys of Catullus, &c. 17

MISCELLANEOUS:— Notes on books, &c. 21 Books and Odd Volumes wanted 21 Notices to Correspondents 22

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THE SACRED GARLAND, or THE CHRISTIAN'S DAILY DELIGHT.

"Pluck a Flower."

A New Edition of the above excellent and popular work will shortly be published in large type, crown 8vo., and may be obtained of any respectable bookseller in town or country.

MILNER & SOWERBY, Halifax.

* * * * *

QUEENWOOD COLLEGE, NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, HANTS.

Principal—GEORGE EDMONDSON.

Mathematics and Natural Philosophy.—Dr. Thos. A. Hirst, of the Universities of Marburg and Berlin.

Chemistry—Dr. H. Debus, late Assistant in the Laboratory of Professor Bunsen, and Chemical Lecturer in the University of Marburg.

Classics and History.—Mr. John S. Mummery, L.C.P.

Modern Languages and Foreign Literature.—Mr. John Haas, from M. de Fellenberg's Institution, Hofwyl, Switzerland.

Geodesy.—Mr. Richard P. Wright.

Painting and Drawing.—Mr. Richard P. Wright.

English, and Junior Mathematics.—Frederick Iliff, M.A., late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, and M.C.P.

Ditto.—Mr. William Singleton.

Music.—Mr. William Cornwall.

TERMS.

For Boys under 12 years of age 40l. per ann. " from 12 to 16 50 " " above 16 60 "

For further information see Prospectus, to be had of the Principal.

The First Session of 1854 commences on the 26th of January.

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PRINCE OF WALES'S SKETCH-BOX.—Containing Colours, Pencils, &c., with printed directions, as now used by the Royal Family. Price 5s.

MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 56 Long Acre, London: and at her Majesty's Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico.

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CHRISTMAS PRESENTS—EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY.

AMUSEMENT FOR LONG EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S Chemical Cabinets and Portable Laboratories, 5s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 21s., 31s. 6d., 42s., 63s., and upwards. Book of Experiments, 6d. "Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue" forwarded Free for Stamp.

WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Chemist, 29c. Rotherfield Street, Islington, London, and of Chemists and Opticians everywhere.

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DO YOU BRUISE YOUR OATS YET? New Oat Crushers, 2l. 15s. 6d., ditto 4l. 5s. 6d.; Chaff Cutters, 1l. 7s. 6d., ditto 2l. 19s. 6d. Mangles, 2l. 10s. 6d.; Flour Mills, 4l. 10s. 6d.

MARY WEDLAKE & CO., 118. Fenchurch Street.

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SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

PRESIDENT.—His Grace the Duke of Norfolk.

Gentlemen desiring to join the Society, are informed that Copies of the Rules, List of Members (upwards of 250), and Forms of Application for Admission, may be obtained from the Honorary Secretary.

L. s. Annual Subscription 0 10 Composition for Life 5 0

On and after January 1, 1854, an entrance fee of 10s. will be required, from which those Members who join the Society during the present month will be exempt.

GEORGE BISH WEBB, Honorary Secretary.

46. Addison Road North, Notting Hill.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.—An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.—The Exhibition of Photographs, Daguerreotypes, &c., by the best British and Foreign Photographers, is now open daily at the Rooms of the Society of British Artists, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall. Members are admitted without payment. Admission, One Shilling. Catalogues Sixpence.

ROGER FENTON, Hon. Sec.

4th Jan. 1854.

* * * * *

PHYSIOGNOMY OF INSANITY.—A Series of Photographic Portraits from the Life,

By DR. HUGH W. DIAMOND, F.S.A.,

with brief Medical Notes. To be published in occasional Parts, small quarto.

S. HIGHLEY, 32. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Will be published on the 10th instant, price 4d. No. I. of the

LIVERPOOL PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL. Conducted by the Members of the Liverpool Photographic Society.

Published by HENRY GREENWOOD, 16. Canning Place, Liverpool (by whom Advertisements will be received) and may be had through all Booksellers.

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HEAL & SON'S EIDER DOWN QUILT is the warmest, the lightest and the most elegant Covering for the Bed, the Couch, or the Carriage; and for Invalids, its comfort cannot be too highly appreciated. It is made in Three Varieties, of which a large Assortment can be seen at their Establishment. List of Prices of the above, together with the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent Free by Post.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

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NEW WORKS.

THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, No. CCI., JANUARY, 1854. 8vo., price 6s.

CONTENTS: 1. Lord John Russell's Memorials of Mr. Fox, and the Rockingham Papers. 2. The Blind: their Works and Ways. 3. Public Works in the Presidency of Madras. 4. Ecclesiastical Economy. 5. Education for the Rich and Poor. 6. Thackeray's Works. 7. The Machinery of Parliamentary Legislation. 8. The Ottoman Empire.

LORD HOLLAND'S MEMOIRS OF THE WHIG PARTY. Edited by his Son, HENRY EDWARD LORD HOLLAND. Vol. II. Post 8vo. Price 9s. 6d.

MEMOIRS, JOURNAL, and CORRESPONDENCE of THOMAS MOORE. Edited by the RIGHT HON. LORD JOHN RUSSELL, M.P. With Portraits and Vignettes. Vols. V. and VI., post 8vo., price 21s.

LETTERS OF RACHEL LADY RUSSELL. A New Edition, including several unpublished Letters; together with those edited by Miss Berry. With Portraits, Vignettes, and Fac-simile. 2 vols. post 8vo., price 15s.

A DEFENCE of the "Eclipse of Faith." by its Author; being a Rejoinder to Professor Newman's "Reply." Post 8vo., price 5s. 6d.

ZOHRAB: or, a Midsummer Day's Dream: and other Poems. By WILLIAM THOMAS THORNTON, Author of "An Essay on Over-Population," "A Plea for Peasant Proprietors," &c. Fcp. 8vo., price 4s. 6d.

REMAINS, LEGENDARY and POETICAL, of JOHN ROBY, Author of "Traditions of Lancashire." With a Sketch of his Literary Life and Character, by his Widow. Post 8vo. (In January.)

BOWDLER'S FAMILY SHAKSPEARE. A New Edition, in Volumes for the Pocket. 6 Vols. fcap. 8vo., price 5s. each.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY of B. R. HAYDON, Historical Painter. Edited, and continued to his Death, from his own Journals, by TOM TAYLOR, M.A., of the Inner Temple, Esq. Second Edition, with Additions. 3 vols. post 8vo., price 31s. 6d.

MAUNDER'S BIOGRAPHICAL TREASURY. A New Edition, thoroughly revised, and brought down to the year 1854, by the insertion of numerous additional Memoirs. Fcap. 8vo. (In January.)

Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH'S HISTORY of ENGLAND, from the Earliest Times to the final Establishment of the Reformation. A New Library Edition, revised by the Author's Son. 2 vols. 8vo., price 21s.

MR. MACAULAY'S CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL ESSAYS, contributed to the "Edinburgh Review." New Editions, as follows:

1. Library Edition, 3 vols. 8vo., price 36s. 2. Complete in One Volume, with Portrait and Vignette, square crown 8vo., price 21s.; calf, 30s. 3. Another Edition, in 3 vols., fcap. 8vo., price 21s.

A GUIDE TO GEOLOGY. By JOHN PHILLIPS, F.R.S., F.G.S. Deputy Reader in Geology in the University of Oxford, &c. New Edition (1854), corrected to the Present Time; with 4 Plates. Fcp. 8vo., price 5s.

PROFESSOR BRANDE'S DICTIONARY of SCIENCE, LITERATURE, and ART. A New Edition, corrected; with a Supplement and Woodcuts, 8vo. price 3l.

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORKS BY JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON.

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth, illustrated by numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of five hundred objects.

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL, 1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea.

*** The Plates which illustrate this Volume are upon a novel plan, and will, at a glance, convey more information regarding the types of Greek, Roman, and English Coins, than can be obtained by many hours' careful reading. Instead of a fac-simile Engraving being given of that which is already an enigma to the tyro, the most striking and characteristic features of the Coin are dissected and placed by themselves, so that the eye soon becomes familiar with them.

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, from the Earliest Period to the taking of Rome under Constantine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo., numerous Plates, 30s.

COINS OF THE ROMANS relating to Britain. 1 vol. 8vo. Second Edition, with an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 6d.

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES and Princes, Geographically arranged and described, containing the Coins of Hispania, Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of several hundred examples. 1 vol. 8vo., price 18s.

NEW TESTAMENT, Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of the.—Fine paper, numerous Woodcuts from the original Coins in various Public and Private Collections. 1 vol. 8vo., price 5s. 6d.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY of ANCIENT and MODERN COINS. In 1 vol. fcp. 8vo., with numerous Wood Engravings from the original Coins, price 6s. 6d. cloth.

CONTENTS:—Section 1. Origin of Coinage—Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek Civic Coins. 3. Greek Imperial Coins. 4. Origin of Roman Coinage—Consular Coins. 5. Roman Imperial Coins. 6. Roman British Coins. 7. Ancient British Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 9. English Coinage from the Conquest. 10. Scotch Coinage. 11. Coinage of Ireland. 12. Anglo-Gallic Coins. 13. Continental Money in the Middle Ages. 14. Various Representatives of Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and Modern Times. 16. Table of Prices of English Coins realised at Public Sales.

TRADESMEN'S TOKENS, struck in London and its Vicinity, from the year 1648 to 1672 inclusive. Described from the Originals in the Collection of the British Museum, &c. 15s.

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A GLOSSARY OF PROVINCIAL WORDS and PHRASES in Use in Wiltshire. 12mo., 3s.

THE NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE is published Quarterly. Price 3s. 6d. each Number.

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ALBEMARLE STREET. January, 1854.

MR. MURRAY'S FORTHCOMING WORKS.

* * * * *

I.

MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS. Being a Series of newly edited and beautifully printed Demy Octavo Library Editions of Standard English Authors, from the most correct Text. Vol. I. 8vo. 7s. 6d. (To be continued in Monthly Volumes.) (This Day.)

II.

WORKS OF GOLDSMITH, printed from the last Editions revised by the Author. New Edition. Edited by PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. Vignettes. (To be completed in 4 vols.) Vol. I. 8vo. 7s. 6d. (Forming the 1st Volume of MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS.) (Ready.)

III.

GIBBON'S ROMAN EMPIRE: With Notes by DEAN MILMAN and M. GUIZOT. New Edition. Most carefully compared, verified, and Edited, BY DR. WILLIAM SMITH. Maps. (To be completed in 8 vols.) Vol. I. 8vo. 7s. 6d. (Forming the 2nd Volume of MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS.) (On Feb. 2nd.)

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THE TREASURES OF ART IN GREAT BRITAIN. Being an Account of the chief Collections of Paintings, Sculptures, Miniatures, &c., in England. By DR. WAAGEN, Director of the Royal Gallery of Pictures at Berlin. 3 vols. 8vo.

V.

HIMALAYAN JOURNALS; or, THE NOTES OF AN ORIENTAL NATURALIST IN BENGAL, THE SIKHIM AND NEPAL HIMALAYAS, THE KHASIA MOUNTAINS, ETC. By DR. JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER. With Map, Coloured Plates, and Woodcuts. 2 vols. 8vo.

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HISTORY OF LATIN CHRISTIANITY, and that of the POPES. By REV. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. 3 vols. 8vo.

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HISTORY OF YUCATAN, from its Discovery to the Close of the 17th Century. By C. ST. JOHN FANCOURT, recently H.M. Superintendent of the British Settlements in the Bay of Honduras. With Map. 8vo. (Uniform with Prescott's Mexico.)

XII.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES COMPARED WITH OUR OWN. By H. S. TREMENHEERE. Post 8vo.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1854.

* * * * *

OUR NINTH VOLUME.

The commencement of a New Year, and of our Ninth Volume, imposes upon Us the pleasant duty of wishing many happy returns of the season to all our Friends, Correspondents, and Readers.

Those of the latter class, who have so earnestly impressed upon Us the propriety and advisableness of placing our Advertisements on the outside leaves of each Number, will see that their wishes have at length been complied with. We trust they will be pleased with this change, and receive it as a proof of our readiness to attend to every reasonable suggestion for the improve of "NOTES AND QUERIES." We can assure them that it is no less our desire to do so than our interest.

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Notes.

A STRAWBERRY-HILL GEM.

"Pour qui se donne la peine de chercher, il y a toujours quelque trouvaille a faire, meme dans ce qui a ete le plus visite.—Henry PATIN.

I take up a work of European celebrity, and reflect awhile on its bibliographic peculiarities—which may almost pass for romance.

It is a Scottish work with regard to the family connexion of its author: it is an Irish work with regard to the place of his nativity. It is an English work as to the scenes which it represents; a French work as to the language in which it was written; a Dutch work as to the country in which it came to light. It was formerly printed anonymously: it has since borne the name of its author. It was formerly printed for public sale: it has been twice printed for private circulation. It was formerly classed as fiction: it is now believed to be history.

But we have too many enigmas in the annals of literature, and I must not add to the number. The work to which I allude is the Memoires du comte de Grammont par le comte Antoine Hamilton.

The various indications of a projected re-impression of the work remind me of my portefeuille Hamiltonien, and impose on me the task of a partial transcription of its contents.

Of the numerous editions of the Memoires de Grammont as recorded by Brunet, Renouard, or Querard, or left unrecorded by those celebrated bibliographers, I shall describe only four; which I commend to the critical examination of future editors:

1. "Memoires de la vie du comte de Grammont; contenant particulierement l'histoire amoureuse de la cour d'Angleterre, sous le regne de Charles II. A Cologne, chez Pierre Marteau, 1713. 12^o, pp. 4 + 428.

"AVIS DU LIBRAIRE.—Il seroit inutile de recommander ici la lecture des memoires qui composent ce volume: le titre seul de Memoires du comte de Grammont reveillera sans doute la curiosite du public pour un homme qui lui est deja si connu d'ailleurs, tant par la reputation qu'il a scu se faire, que par les differens portraits qu'en ont donnez Mrs. de Bussi et de St. Evremont, dans leurs ouvrages; et l'on ne doute nullement qu'il ne recoive, avec beaucoup de plaisir, un livre, dans lequel on lui raconte ses avantures, sur ce qu'il en a bien voulu raconter lui-meme a celui qui a pris la peine de dresser ces memoires.

"Outre les avantures du comte de Grammont, ils contiennent particulie[re]ment l'histoire amoureuse de la cour d'Angleterre, sous le regne de Charles II; et, comme on y decouvre quantite de choses, qui ont ete tenues cachees jusqu'a present, et qui font voir jusqu'a quel exces on a porte le dereglement dans cette cour, ce n'est pas le morceau le moins interessant de ces memoires.

"On les donne ici sur une copie manuscrite, qu'on en a recue de Paris: et on les a fait imprimer avec le plus d'exactitude qu'il a ete possible."

The above is the first edition. The imprint is fictitious. It was much used by the Elzevirs, and by other Dutch printers. The second edition, with the same imprint, is dated in 1714 (Cat. de Guyon de Sardiere, No. 939.). The third edition was printed at Rotterdam in 1716. The avis is omitted in that edition, and in all the later impressions which I have seen. Its importance as a history of the publication induces one to revive it. There is also an edition printed at Amsterdam in 1717 (Cat. de Lamy, No. 3918.); and another at La Haye in 1731 (Cat. de Rothelin, No. 2534*). Brunet omits the edition of 1713. Renouard and Querard notice it too briefly.

2. "Memoires du comte de Grammont, par monsieur le comte Antoine Hamilton. Nouvelle edition, augmentee d'un discours preliminaire mele de prose et de vers, par le meme auteur, et d'un avertissement contenant quelques anecdotes de la vie du comte Hamilton. A Paris, chez la veuve Pissot, Quay de Conti, a la croix d'or. 1746." 12^o. pp. 24 + 408.

"AVERTISSEMENT. Le public a fait un accueil si favorable a ces Memoires, que nous avons cru devoir en procurer une nouvelle edition. Outre les avantures du comte de Grammont, tres-piquantes par elles-memes, ils contiennent l'histoire amoureuse d'Angleterre sous le regne de Charles II. Ils sont d'ailleurs ecrits d'une maniere si vive et si ingenieuse, qu'ils ne laisseroient pas de plaire infiniment, quand la matiere en seroit moins interessante.

"Le heros de ces Memoires a trouve dans le comte Hamilton un historien digne de lui. Car on n'ignore plus qu'ils sont partis de la meme main a qui l'on doit encore d'autres ouvrages frappes au meme coin.

"Nous avons enrichi cette edition d'un discours mele de prose et de vers, ou l'on exagere la difficulte qu'il y a de bien representer le comte de Grammont. On reconnoitra facilement que ce discours est du meme auteur que les Memoires, et qu'il devoit naturellement en {4} orner le frontispice. Au reste il ne nous appartient point d'en apprecier le merite. Nous dirons seulement que des personnes d'un gout sur et delicat le comparent au Voyage de Chapelle, et qu'ils y trouvent les memes graces, le meme naturel et la meme legerete.

"Il ne nous reste plus qu'a dire un mot de M. Hamilton lui-meme, auteur de ces memoires, et du discours qui les precede.

"Antoine Hamilton dont nous parlons, etoit de l'ancienne et illustre maison de ce nom en Ecosse. Il naquit en Irlande. Il eut pour pere le chevalier Georges Hamilton, petit-fils du duc d'Hamilton, qui fut aussi duc de Chatelleraud en France.

"Sa mere etoit madame Marie Butler, soeur du duc d'Ormond, viceroi d'Irlande, et grand maitre de la maison du roi Charles.

"Dans les revolutions qui arriverent du tems de Cromwel, ils suivirent le roi et le duc d'Yorck son frere qui passerent en France. Ils y amenerent leur famille. Antoine ne faisoit a peine que de naitre.

"Lorsque le roi fut retabli sur son trone, il ramena en Angleterre les jeux et la magnificence. On voit dans les memoires de Grammont combien cette cour etoit brillante; la curiosite y attira le comte de Grammont. Il y vit mademoiselle d'Hamilton, il ne tarda pas a sentir le pouvoir de ses charmes, il l'epousa enfin; et c'est la tendresse qu'Antoine avoit pour sa soeur, qui l'engagea a faire plusieurs voyages en France, ou il etoit eleve, et ou il a passe une partie de sa vie.

"M. Antoine Hamilton etant catholique, il ne put obtenir d'emploi en Angleterre; et rien ne fut capable d'ebranler ni sa religion, ni la fidelite qu'il devoit a son roi.

"Le roi Jaques etant monte sur le trone, il lui donna un regiment d'infanterie en Irlande et le gouvernement de Limeric. Mais ce prince, ayant ete oblige de quitter ses etats le comte Hamilton repassa avec la famille royale en France. C'est-la et pendant le long sejour qu'il y a fait, qu'il a compose les divers ouvrages qui lui ont acquis tant de reputation. Il mourut a S. Germain le 21 Avril 1720. dans de grands sentimens de piete, et apres avoir recu les derniers sacremens. Il etoit age alors d'environ 74 ans. Il a merite les regrets de tous ceux qui avoient le bonheur de le connoitre. Ne serieux, il avoit dans l'esprit tous les agremens imaginables; mais ce qui est plus digne de louanges, a ces agremens, qui vent frivoles sans la vertu, il joignoit toutes les qualitez du coeur."

If the above avertissement first appeared in 1746, which I have much reason to conclude, this is certainly a very important edition. The biographical portion of the advertisement is the foundation of the later memoirs of Hamilton. In the Moreri of 1759, we have it almost verbatim, but taken from the Oeuvres du comte Antoine Hamilton, 1749. Neither Brunet, nor Renouard, nor Querard notice the edition of 1746. The copy which I have examined has the book-plate G. III. R.

3. "Memoires du comte de Grammont, par le C. Antoine Hamilton. 1760." [De l'imprimerie de Didot, rue Pavee, 1760.] 12^o. I. partie, pp. 36 + 316. II. partie, pp. 4 + 340.

This edition has the same avertissement as that of 1746. The imprint is M.DCC.LX. The type resembles our small pica, and the paper has the water-mark Auvergne 1749. At the end of the second part appears, De l'imprimerie de Didot, rue Pavee, 1760. This must be M. Francois Didot of Paris. I find the same colophon in the Bibliographie instructive, 1763-8. v. 631. This very neat edition has also escaped the aforesaid bibliographic trio!

4. "Memoires du comte de Grammont, par monsieur le comte Antoine Hamilton. Nouvelle edition, augmentee de notes et d'eclaircissemens necessaires, par M. Horace Walpole. Imprimee a Strawberry-Hill. 1772." 4^o, pp. 24 + 294. 3 portraits.

[Dedication.] "A madame....

"L'editeur vous consacre cette edition, comme un monument de son amitie, de son admiration, et de son respect; a vous, dont les graces, l'esprit, et le gout retracent au siecle present le siecle de Louis quatorze et les agremens de l'auteur de ces memoires."

Such are the inscriptions on the Strawberry-Hill gem. Much has been said of its brilliancy—and so, for the sake of novelty, I shall rather dwell on its flaws.

The volume was printed at the private press of M. Horace Walpole at Strawberry-Hill, and the impression was limited to one hundred copies, of which thirty were sent to Paris. So much for its attractions—now for its flaws. In reprinting the dedication to madame du Deffand, I had to insert eight accents to make decent French of it! The avis is a mere medley of fragments: I could not ask a compositor to set it up! The avertissement is copied, without a word of intimation to that effect, from the edition of 1746. The notes to the epitre are also copied from that edition, except L'abbe de Chaulieu; and two of the notes to the memoirs are from the same source. The other notes, in the opinion of sir William Musgrave, are in part taken from an erroneous printed Key. Where are the eclaircissements? I find none except a list of proper names—of which about one-third part is omitted!

In quoting Brunet, I have used the fourth edition of the Manuel du libraire, 1842-4; in quoting Renouard, I refer to the avis prefixed to the Oeuvres du comte Antoine Hamilton, 1812; in quoting Querard, to La France litteraire, 1827-39. The other references are to sale catalogues. The titles of the books described, and the extracts, are given literatim, and, except as above noted, with the same accentuation and punctuation.

To revert to the question of a new edition: I should prefer the French text, for various reasons, to any English translation that could be made. That of Abel Boyer is wretched burlesque!

The chief requirements of a French edition would be, a collation of the editions of 1713 and 1746—the rectification of the names of persons {5} and places—a revision of the punctuation—and a strict conformity, as to general orthography and accentuation, with the Dictionnaire de l'Academie francaise, as edited in 1835. The substance of the avis of 1713 might be stated in a preface; and the avertissement of 1746, a clever composition, would serve as an introduction and memoir of the author. Those who doubt its value may consult the Grand dictionnaire historique, and the Biographie universelle. As one hundred and sixty persons are noticed in the work, brevity of annotation is very desirable. It would require much research. The manuscript notes of sir William Musgrave would, however, be very serviceable—more so, I conceive, than the printed notes of M. Horace Walpole.

As the indications of a projected re-impression may be fallacious, I shall conclude with a word of advice to inexperienced collectors. Avoid the jolie edition printed at Paris by F. A. Didot, par ordre de monseigneur le comte d'Artois, in 1781. It is the very worst specimen of editorship. Avoid also the London edition of 1792. The preface is a piratical pasticcio; the verbose notes are from the most accessible books; the portraits, very unequal in point of execution, I believe to be chiefly copies of prints—not d'apres des tableaux originaux. The most desirable editions are, 1. The edition of 1760; 2. That of 1772, as a curiosity; 3. That edited by M. Renouard, Paris, 1812, 18^o. 2 vols.; 4. That edited by M. Renouard in 1812, 8^o. with eight portraits. The latter edition forms part of the Oeuvres du comte Antoine Hamilton in 3 vols. It seldom occurs for sale.

BOLTON CORNEY.

* * * * *

THE "ANCREN RIWLE."

The publication of this valuable semi-Saxon or Early English treatise on the duties of monastic life, recently put forth by the Camden Society, under the editorship of the Rev. James Morton, is extremely acceptable, and both the Society and the editor deserve the cordial thanks of all who are interested in the history of our language. As one much interested in the subject, and who many years since entertained the design now so ably executed by Mr. Morton, I may perhaps be allowed to offer a few remarks on the work itself, and on the manuscripts which contain it. Mr. Morton is unquestionably right in his statement that the Latin MS. in Magdalen College, Oxford, No. 67., is only an abridged translation of the original vernacular text. Twenty-three years ago I had access to the same MS. by permission of the Rev. Dr. Routh, the President of Magdalen College, and after reading and making extracts from it[1], I came to the same conclusion as Mr. Morton. It hardly admits, I think, of a doubt; for even without the internal evidence furnished by the Latin copy, the age of the manuscripts containing the Early English text at once set aside the supposition that Simon of Ghent (Bishop of Salisbury from 1297 to 1315) was the original author of the work. The copy in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, I have not seen, but of the three copies in the British Museum I feel confident that the one marked Cleopatra C. vi. was actually written before Bishop Simon of Ghent had emerged from the nursery. This copy is not only the oldest, but the most curious, from the corrections and alterations made in it by a somewhat later hand, the chief of which are noticed in the printed edition. The collation, however, of this MS. might have been, with advantage, made more minutely, for at present many readings are passed over. Thus, at p. 8., for unweote the second hand has congoun; at p. 62., for herigen it has preisen; at p. 90., for on cheafle, it reads o muthe, &c. The original hand has also some remarkable variations, which would cause a suspicion that this was the first draft of the author's work. Thus, at p. 12., for scandle, the first hand has schonde; at p. 62., for baldeliche it reads bradliche; at p. 88., for nout for, it has anonden, and the second hand aneust; at p. 90., for sunderliche it reads sunderlepes, &c. All these, and many other curious variations, are not noticed in the printed edition. On the fly-leaf of this MS. is written, in a hand of the time of Edward I., as follows: "Datum abbatie et conventui de Leghe per Dame M. de Clare." The lady here referred to was doubtless Maud de Clare, second wife of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hereford and Gloucester, who, at the beginning of the reign of Edward I., is known to have changed the Augustinian Canons of Leghe, in Devonshire, into an abbess and nuns of the same order; and it was probably at the same period she bestowed this volume on them. The conjecture of Mr. Morton, that Bishop Poore, who died in 1237, might have been the original author of the Ancren Riwle, is by no means improbable, and deserves farther inquiry. The error as to Simon of Ghent is due, in the first place, not to Dr. Smith, but to Richard James (Sir Robert Cotton's librarian), who wrote on the fly-leaves of all the MSS. in the Cottonian Library a note of their respective contents, and who is implicitly followed by Smith. Wanley is more blamable, and does not here evince his usual critical accuracy, but (as remarked by Mr. Morton) he could only have looked at a few pages of the work. The real fact seems to be that Simon of Ghent made the abridged Latin version of the seven books of the Riwle now preserved in Magdalen College, and this supposition may well enough be reconciled with the words of Leland, who says of him,—

"Edidit inter caetera, libros septem de Vita Solitaria, {6} ad Virgines Tarentinas, Duriae cultrices."—Comment., p. 316.

A second copy of the Latin version was formerly in the Cottonian collection (Vitellius E. vii.), but no fragment of it has hitherto been recovered from the mass of burnt crusts and leaves left after the fire of 1731. I am happy, however, to add, that within the last few months, the manuscript marked Vitellius F. vii., containing a French translation of the Riwle, made in the fourteenth century (very closely agreeing with the vernacular text), has been entirely restored, except that the top margins of the leaves have been burnt at each end of the volume. This damage has, unfortunately, carried away the original heading of the treatise, and the title given us by Smith is copied partly from James's note. This copy of the French version appears to be unique, and is the more interesting from its having a note at the end (now half obliterated by the fire), stating that it belonged to Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, whose motto is also added, "Plesance. M [mil]. en vn." The personage in question was Eleanor, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and wife of Thomas of Woodstock, who ended her days as a nun in the convent at Barking in 1399. Is any other instance known of the use of this motto? Before I conclude these brief remarks, I may mention a fifth copy of the Ancren Riwle, which has escaped the notice of Mr. Morton. It is buried in the enormous folio manuscript of old English poetry and prose called the Vernon MS., in the Bodleian Library, written in the reign of Richard II., and occurs at pp. 371^b.—392. In the table of contents prefixed to this volume it is entitled "The Roule of Reclous;" and although the phraseology is somewhat modernised, it agrees better with the MS. Cleopatra C. vi, than with Nero A. xiv., from which Mr. Morton's edition is printed. This copy is not complete, some leaves having been cut out in the sixth book, and the scribe leaves off at p. 420. of the printed edition.

It is very much to be wished that Mr. Morton would undertake the task of editing another volume of legends, homilies, and poems, of the same age as the Ancren Riwle, still existing in various manuscripts. One of the homilies, entitled "Sawles Warde," in the Bodley MS. 34., Cott. MS. Titus D. xviii., and Old Royal MS. 17A. xxvii., is very curious, and well deserves to be printed.

F. MADDEN.

British Museum.

[Footnote 1: At p. viii. of Mr. Morton's preface, for "yerze" (eye), my extracts read "yze."]

* * * * *

ORDER FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF VAGRANCY, A.D. 1650-51.

At a time when the question of "What is to be done with our vagrant children?" is occupying the attention of all men of philanthropic minds, it may be worth while to give place in your pages to the following order addressed by the Lord Mayor of London to his aldermen in 1650-51, which applies, amongst other things, to that very subject. It will be seen that some of the artifices of beggary in that day were very similar to those with which we are now but too familiar. The difference of treatment between vagrant children over and under nine years of age, is worthy of observation.

"BY THE MAYOR.

"Forasmuch as of late the constables of this city have neglected to put in execution the severall wholsome laws for punishing of vagrants, and passing them to the places of their last abode, whereby great scandall and dishonour is brought upon the government of this city; These are therefore to will and require you, or your deputy, forthwith to call before you the several constables within your ward, and strictly to charge them to put in execution the said laws, or to expect the penalty of forty shillings to be levyed upon their estates, for every vagrant that shal be found begging in their several precincts. And to the end the said constables may not pretend ignorance, what to do with the several persons which they shal find offending the said laws, these are further to require them, that al aged or impotent persons who are not fit to work, be passed from constable to constable to the parish where they dwel; and that the constable in whose ward they are found begging, shal give a passe under his hand, expressing the place where he or she were taken, and the place whither they are to be passed. And for children under five years of age, who have no dwelling, or cannot give an account of their parents, the parish where they are found are to provide for them; and for those which shall bee found lying under stalls, having no habitation or parents (from five to nine years old), are to be sent to the Wardrobe House[2], to be provided for by the corporation for the poore; and all above nine years of age are to be sent to Bridewel. And for men or women who are able to work and goe begging with young children, such persons for the first time to be passed to the place of their abode as aforesaid; and being taken againe, they are to be carryed to Bridewel, to be corrected according to the discretion of the governours. And for those persons that shal be found to hire children, or go begging with children not sucking, those children are to be sent to the several parishes wher they dwel, and the persons so hiring them to Bridewel, to be corrected and passed away, or kept at work there, according to the governour's discretion. And for al other vagrants and beggars under any pretence whatsoever, to be forthwith sent down to Bridewel to be imployed and corrected, according to the statute laws of this commonwealth, except before excepted; and the president and governours of Bridewel are hereby desired to meet twice every week to see to the execution of this Precept. And the steward of the workehouse called the Wardrobe, is {7} authorised to receive into that house such children as are of the age between five and nine, as is before specified and limited; and the said steward is from time to time to acquaint the corporation for the poor, what persons are brought in, to the end they may bee provided for. Dated this four and twentyeth day of January, 1650.

SADLER."

JOHN BRUCE.

[Footnote 2: I suppose this to have been the ancient building known by the name of The Royal, or The Tower Royal, used for a time as the Queen's Wardrobe. It will be seen that it was occupied in 1650 as a workhouse.]

* * * * *

LETTERS OF EMINENT LITERARY MEN.

Sir,

I send you, as a New Year's Gift for your "N. & Q.," transcripts of half-a-dozen Letters of Eminent Literary Men, specimens of whose correspondence it will do your work no discredit to preserve,

Yours faithfully, HENRY ELLIS.

British Museum, Dec. 26, 1853.

I.

Dean Swift to * * * * * * *.

[MS. Addit., Brit. Mus., 12,113. Orig.]

Belcamp, Mar. 14th.

Sir,

Riding out this morning to dine here with Mr. Grattan, I saw at his house the poor lame boy that gives you this: he was a servant to a plow-man near Lusk, and while he was following the plow, a dog bit him in the leg, about eleven weeks ago. One Mrs. Price endeavored six weeks to cure him, but could not, and his Master would maintain him no longer. Mr. Grattan and I are of opinion that he may be a proper object to be received into Dr. Stephen's Hospital. The boy tells his story naturally, and Mr. Grattan and I took pity of him. If you find him curable, and it be not against the rules of the Hospitall, I hope you will receive him.

I am, Sir, Your most humble Servt. JONATH. SWIFT.

II.

The Rev. Thomas Baker to Mr. Humphry Wanley.

[Harl. MS. 3778, Art. 43. Orig.]

Cambridge, Oct. 16th [1718].

Worthy Sir

I am glad to hear Mrs. Elstob is in a condition to pay her debts, for me she may be very easy: tho' I could wish for the sake of the University (tho' I am no way engaged, having taken up my obligation) that you could recover the Book, or at least could find where it is lodged, that Mr. Brook may know where to demand it. This, I presume, may be done.

If you have met with Books printed by Guttenberg, you have made a great discovery. I thought there had been none such in the world, and began to look upon Fust as the first Printer. I have seen the Bishop of Ely's Catholicon (now with us), which, for aught I know, may have been printed by Guttenberg; for tho' it be printed at Ments, yet there is no name of the Printer, and the character is more rude than Fust's Tullie's Offices, whereof there are two Copies in 1465 and 1466, the first on vellum, the other on paper.

May I make a small enquiry, after the mention of so great a name as Guttenberg? I remember, you told me, my Lord Harley had two Copies of Edw. the Sixth's first Common Prayer Book. Do you remember whether either of them be printed by Grafton, the King's Printer? I have seen four or five Editions by Whitchurch, but never could meet with any by Grafton, except one in my custody, which I shall look upon to be a great Rarity, if it be likewise wanting to my Lord's Collection. It varies from all the other Copies, and is printed in 1548. All the rest, I think, in 1549. One reason of my enquiry is, because I want the Title, for the date is at the end of the Book, and indeed twice; both on the end of the Communion Office, and of the Litany. But I beg your pardon for so small an enquiry, whilst you are in quest of Guttenberg and Nic. Jenson. My business consists much in trifles.

I am, Sir, Your most ob. humble Servant, THO. BAKER.

To the worthy Mr. Wanley, at the Riding Hood Shop, the corner of Chandois and Bedford Streets, Covent Garden, London.

A note in Wanley's hand says, "Mrs. Elstob has only paid a few small scores."

III.

Extract of a Letter from Wm. Bickford, Esq., to the Rev. Mr. Amory of Taunton, dated Dunsland, March 7, 1731.

[MS. Addit., Brit. Mus., 4309, fol. 358.]

I cannot forbear acquainting you of a very curious passage in relation to Charles the Second's Restoration. Sir Wm. Morrice, who was one of the Secretaries of State soon after, was the person who chiefly transacted that affair with Monk, so that all the papers in order to it were sent him, both from King Charles and Lord Clarendon. Just after the thing was finished, Lord Clarendon got more than 200 of these Letters and other papers from Morrice under pretence of finishing his History, and which were never returned. Lord Somers, when he was chancellor, told Morrice's Grandson that if he would file a Bill in Chancery, he would endeavour to get them; but young Morrice having deserted the Whig Interest, was {8} prevailed upon to let it drop. This I know to be fact, for I had it not only from the last-mentioned Gentleman, but others of that family, especially a son of the Secretaries. As soon as I knew this, I took the first opportunity of searching the study, and found some very curious Letters, which one time or other I design to publish together with the account of that affair. My mother being Niece to the Secretary, hath often heard him say that Charles the Second was not only very base in not keeping the least of the many things that he had promised; but by debauching the Nation, had rendered it fitt for that terrible fellow (meaning the Duke of York) to ruin us all, and then Monk and him would be remembred to their Infamy.

(To be continued.)

* * * * *

BURIAL-PLACE OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON.

On a visit this autumn with some friends to the picturesque village and church of Horsted-Keynes, Sussex, our attention was forcibly arrested by the appearance of two large pavement slabs, inserted in an erect position on the external face of the south wall of the chancel. They proved to be those which once had covered and protected the grave of the good Archbishop Leighton, who passed the latter years of his life in that parish, and that of Sir Ellis Leighton, his brother. On inquiry, it appeared that their remains had been deposited within a small chapel on the south side of the chancel, the burial-place of the Lightmaker family, of Broadhurst, in the parish of Horsted. The archbishop retired thither in 1674, and resided with his only sister, Saphira, widow of Mr. Edward Lightmaker. Broadhurst, it may be observed, is sometimes incorrectly mentioned by the biographers of Archbishop Leighton as a parish; it is an ancient mansion, the residence formerly of the Lightmakers, and situated about a mile north of the village of Horsted. There it was that Leighton made his will, in February, 1683; but his death occurred, it will be remembered, in singular accordance with his desire often expressed, at an inn, the Bell, in Warwick Lane, London.

The small chapel adjacent to the chancel, and opening into it by an arch now walled up, had for some time, as I believe, been used as a school-room; more recently, however, either through its becoming out of repair, or from some other cause, the little structure was demolished. The large slabs which covered the tombs of the good prelate and his brother were taken up and fixed against the adjoining wall. The turf now covers the space thus thrown into the open churchyard; nothing remains to mark the position of the graves, which in all probability, ere many years elapse, will be disturbed through ignorance or heedlessness, and the ashes of Leighton scattered to the winds.

In times when special respect has been shown to the tombs of worthies of bygone times, with the recent recollection also of what has been so well carried out by MR. MARKLAND in regard to the grave of Bishop Ken, shall we not make an effort to preserve from desecration and oblivion the resting-place of one so eminent as Leighton for his learning and piety, so worthy to be held in honoured remembrance for his high principles and his consistent conduct in an evil age?

ALBERT WAY.

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

Grammars, &c. for Public Schools.—Would it not be desirable for some correspondents of "N. & Q." to furnish information respecting grammars, classics, and other works which have been written for the various public schools? Such information might be useful to book collectors; and would also serve to reflect credit on the schools whose learned masters have prepared such books. My contribution to the list is small: but I remember a valuable Greek grammar prepared by the Rev. —— Hook, formerly head master of the College School at Gloucester, for the use of that establishment; as also a peculiar English grammar prepared by the Rev. R. S. Skillern, master of St. Mary de Crypt School, in the same place, for the use of that school. I also possess a copy (1640) of the Romanae Historiae Anthologia, for the use of Abingdon School, and Moses and Aaron, or the Rites and Customs of the Hebrews (1641), both by Thos. Godwin, though the latter was written after he ceased to be master of the schools.

P. H. FISHER.

Stroud.

"To captivate."—Moore, in his Journal, speaking of the Americans (January 9th, 1819), says:

"They sometimes, I see, use the word captivate thus: 'Five or six ships captivated,' 'Five or six ships captivated.'"

Originally, the words to captivate were synonymous with to capture, and the expression was used with reference to warlike operations. To captivate the affections was a secondary use of the phrase. The word is used in the original sense in many old English books. It is not used so now in the United States.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

Bohn's Edition of Matthew of Westminster.—Under the year A.D. 782, the translator informs us that "Hirenes and his son Constantine became emperors." Such an emperor is not to be found {9} in the annals of Constantinople. If Mr. Yonge, who shows elsewhere that he has read Gibbon, had referred to him on this occasion, he would probably have found that the Empress Irene, a name dear to the reverencers of images, was the person meant. The original Latin probably gives no clue to the sex; but still this empress, who is considered as a saint by her church, notwithstanding the deposition and blinding of her own son, was not a personage to be so easily forgotten.

J. S. WARDEN.

French Season Rhymes and Weather Rhymes.—

"A la Saint-Antoine (17th January) Les jours croissent le repas d'un moine."

"A la Saint-Barnabe (11th June) La faux au pre."

"A la Sainte-Catherine (25th November) Tout bois prend racine."

"Passe la Saint-Clement (23rd November) Ne seme plus froment."

"Si l'hiver va droit son chemin, Vous l'aurez a la Saint-Martin." (12th Nov.)

"S'il n'arreste tant ne quant, Vous l'aurez a la Saint-Clement." (23rd Nov.)

"Et s'il trouve quelqu' encombree, Vous l'aurez a la Saint-Andre." (30th Nov.)

CEYREP.

Curious Epitaph in Tillingham Church, Essex.—

"Hic jacet Humfridus Carbo, carbone notandus Non nigro, Creta sed meliora tua. Claruit in clero, nulli pietate secundus. Caelum vi rapuit, vi cape si poteris. Ob^t. 27 Mar. 1624. Aet. 77."

Which has been thus ingeniously paraphrased by a friend of mine:

"Here lies the body of good Humphry Cole, Tho' Black his name, yet spotless is his soul; But yet not black tho' Carbo is the name, Thy chalk is scarcely whiter than his fame. A priest of priests, inferior was to none, Took Heaven by storm when here his race was run. Thus ends the record of this pious man; Go and do likewise, reader, if you can."

C. K. P.

Newport, Essex.

* * * * *

Queries.

DOMESTIC LETTERS OF EDMUND BURKE.

In the curious and able article entitled "The Domestic Life of Edmund Burke," which appeared in the Athenaeum of Dec. 10th and Dec. 17th (and to which I would direct the attention of such readers of "N. & Q." as have not yet seen it), the writer observes:

"There is not in existence, as far as we know, or have a right to infer from the silence of the biographers, one single letter, paper, or document of any kind—except a mysterious fragment of one letter—relating to the domestic life of the Burkes, until long after Edmund Burke became an illustrious and public man; no letters from parents to children, from children to parents, from brother to brother, or brother to sister."

And as Edmund Burke was the last survivor of the family, the inference drawn by the writer, that they were destroyed by him, seems, on the grounds which he advances, a most reasonable one. But my object in writings is to call attention to a source from which, if any such letters exist, they may yet possibly be recovered; I mean the collections of professed collectors of autographs. On the one hand, it is scarcely to be conceived that the destroyer of these materials for the history of the Burkes, be he who he may, can have got all the family correspondence into his possession. On the other, it is far from improbable that in some of the collections to which I have alluded, some letters, notes, or documents may exist, treasured by the possessors as mere autographs; but which might, if given to the world, serve to solve many of those mysteries which envelope the early history of Edmund Burke. The discovery of documents of such a character seems to be the special province of "N. & Q.," and I hope, therefore, although this letter has extended far beyond the limits I originally contemplated, you will insert it, and so permit me to put this Query to autograph collectors, "Have you any documents illustrative of the Burkes?" and to add as a Note, "If so, print them!"

N. O.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

Farrant's Anthem.—From what source did Farrant take the words of his well-known anthem, "Lord, for thy tender mercies' sake?"

C. F. S.

Ascension Day Custom.—What is the origin of the custom which still obtains in St. Magnus and other city churches, of presenting the clergy with ribbons, cakes, and silk staylaces on Ascension Day?

C. F. S.

Sawbridge and Knight's Numismatic Collections.—In Snelling's tract on Pattern Pieces for English Gold and Silver Coins (1769), p. 45., it is stated, in the description of a gold Coin of Elizabeth, that it is "unique, formerly in the collection of Thomas Sawbridge, Esq., but at present in the collection of Thomas Knight, Esq., who purchased the whole cabinet."—Can any of your readers inform me who this Mr. Knight was, and whether his collection is still in existence; or if it was dispersed, when, and in what manner? I am not aware of any sale catalogue under his name.

J. B. B.

"The spire whose silent finger points to heaven."—I have met with, and sometimes quoted, this line. {10} Who is its author, and in what poem does it occur?

J. W. T.

Dewsbury.

Lord Fairfax.—In the Peerage of Scotland I find this entry:

"Fairfax, Baron, Charles Snowdon Fairfax, 1627, Baron Fairfax, of Cameron; suc. his grandfather, Thomas, ninth baron, 1846. His lordship resides at Woodburne, in Maryland, United States."

Fairfax is not a Scotch name. And I can find no trace of any person of that family taking a part in Scotch affairs. Cameron is, I suppose, the parish of that name in the east of Fife.

I wish to ask, 1st. For what services, or under what circumstances, the barony was created?

2ndly. When did the family cease to possess land or other property in Scotland, if they ever held any?

3rdly. Is the present peer a citizen or subject of the United States? If so, is he known and addressed as Lord Fairfax, or how?

4thly. Has he, or has any of his ancestors, since the recognition of the United States as a nation, ever used or applied for permission to exercise the functions of a peer of Scotland, e.g. in the election of representative peers?

5thly. If he be a subject of the United States, and have taken, expressly or by implication, the oath of citizenship (which pointedly renounces allegiance to our sovereign), how is it that his name is retained on the roll of a body whose first duty it is to guard the throne, and whose existence is a denial of the first proposition in the constitution of his country?

Perhaps UNEDA, W. W., or some other of your Philadelphia correspondents, will be good enough to notice the third of these Queries.

W. H. M.

Tailless Cats.—A writer in the New York Literary World of Feb. 7, 1852, makes mention of a breed of cats destitute of tails, which are found in the Isle of Man. Perhaps some generous Manx correspondent will say whether this is a fact or a Jonathan.

SHIRLEY HIBBERD.

Saltcellar.—Can any of your readers gainsay that in saltcellar the cellar is a mere corruption of saliere? A list of compound words of Saxon and French origin might be curious.

H. F. B.

Arms and Motto granted to Col. William Carlos.—Can any reader of "N. & Q." give the date of the grant of arms to Col. William Carlos (who assisted Charles II. to conceal himself in the "Royal Oak," after the battle of Worcester), and specify the exact terms of the grant?

[mu].

Naval Atrocities.—In the article on "Wounds," in the Encyc. Brit., 4th edition, published 1810, the author, after mentioning the necessity of a surgeon's being cautious in pronouncing on the character of any wound, adds that "this is particularly necessary on board ship, where, as soon as any man is pronounced by the surgeon to be mortally wounded, he is forthwith, while still living and conscious, thrown overboard," or words to this effect, as I quote from memory. That such horrid barbarity was not practised in 1810, it is needless to say; and if it had been usual at any previous period, Smollett and other writers who have exposed with unsparing hand all the defects in the naval system of their day, would have scarcely left this unnoticed when they attack much slighter abuses. If such a thing ever occurred, even in the worst of times, it must have been an isolated case. I have not met elsewhere with any allusion to this passage, or the atrocity recorded in it, and would be glad of more information on the subject.

J. S. WARDEN.

Turlehydes.—During the great famine in Ireland land in 1331, it is said that—

"The people in their distress met with an unexpected and providential relief. For about the 24th June, a prodigious number of large sea fish, called turlehydes, were brought into the bay of Dublin, and cast on shore at the mouth of the river Dodder. They were from thirty to forty feet long, and so bulky that two tall men placed one on each side of the fish could not see one another."—The History and Antiquities of the City of Dublin from the Earliest Accounts, by Walter Harris, 1766, p. 265.

This account is compiled from several records of the time, some of which still exist. As the term turlehydes is not known to Irish scholars, can any of the readers of "N. & Q." say what precise animal is meant by it, or give any derivation or reference for the term?

U. U.

Dublin.

Foreign Orders—Queen of Bohemia.—It is well known that in some foreign Orders the decorations thereof are conferred upon ladies. Can any of your correspondents inform me whether the Order of the Annunciation of Sardinia, formerly the Order of the Ducal House of Savoy, at any time conferred its decorations upon ladies; and whether the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of Bohemia, ever had the decoration of any foreign order conferred upon her? In a portrait of her she is represented with a star or badge upon the upper part of the left arm.

S. E. G.

Pickard Family.—Is the Pickard, or Picard, family, a branch of which is located in Yorkshire, of Norman origin? If so, who were the first settlers in England; and also in what county are they most numerous?

ONE OF THE FAMILY.

Bradford.

{11}

Irish Chieftains.—Some account of the following, Historical Reminiscences of O'Byrnes, O'Tooles, O'Kavanaghs, and other Irish Chieftains, privately printed, 1843, is requested by

JOHN MARTIN.

Woburn Abbey.

General Braddock.—Can any of your readers furnish me with information relative to this officer? His disastrous expedition against Fort Du Quesne, and its details, are well known; but I should like to know something more of his previous history. Walpole gives an anecdote or two of him, and mentions that he had been Governor of Gibraltar. I think too he was of Irish extraction. Is there no portrait or engraving of Braddock in existence?

SERVIENS.

* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

Lawless Court, Rochford, Essex.—A most extraordinary custom exists, in a manor at Rochford, in the tenants holding under what is called the "Lawless Court." This court is held at midnight, by torch-light, in the centre of a field, on the first Friday after the 29th Sept., and is presided over by the steward of the manor, who, however, appoints a deputy to fulfil this part of his duty. The tenants of the manor are obliged to attend to answer to their names, when called upon, under pain of a heavy fine, or at all events have some one there to respond for them. All the proceedings are carried on in a whisper, no one speaking above that tone of voice; and the informations as to deaths, names, &c. are entered in a book by the president with a piece of charcoal. I may add, the business is not commenced until a cock has crowed three times, and as it is sometimes a difficult matter to get Chanticleer to do his duty, a man is employed to crow, whose fee therefor is 5s.

Now Morant, in his History of Essex, merely cursorily mentions this most singular custom, and has nothing as to its antiquity or origin; I should therefore feel much obliged for any information concerning it.

RUSSELL GOLE.

[The singular custom at Rochford is of uncertain origin: in old authors it is spoken of as belonging to the manor of Rayleigh. The following account of "The Lawless Court," at that place, is printed by Hearne from the Dodsworth MSS. in the Bodleian, vol. cxxv.:—"The manor of Raylie, in Essex, hath a custome court kept yearly, the Wednesday nexte after Michael's day. The court is kept in the night, and without light, but as the skye gives, att a little hill without the towne, called the King's Hill, where the steward writes only with coals, and not with inke. And many men and mannors of greate worth hold of the same, and do suite unto this strange court, where the steward calls them with as low a voice as possibly he may; giving no notice when he goes to the hill to keepe the same court, and he that attends not is deepely amerced, if the steward will. The title and entry of the same court is as followeth, viz.:

'Curia de domino rege, Dicta sine lege, Tenta est ibidem, Per ejusdem consuetudinem, Ante ortum solis, Luceat nisi polus, Seneschallus solus, Scribit nisi colis. Clamat clam pro rege In curia sine lege: Et qui non cito venerit Citius poenitebit: Si venerit cum lumine Errat in regimine. Et dum sine lumine Capti sunt in crimine, Curia sine cura Jurata de injuria Tenta est die Mercuriae prox. post festum S. Michaelis.'"

Weever, who mentions this custom, says, that he was informed that "this servile attendance was imposed, at the first, upon certaine tenants of divers mannors hereabouts, for conspiring in this place, at such an unseasonable time, to raise a commotion."]

Motto on old Damask.—Can your correspondents furnish an explanation of the motto herewith sent? It is taken from some damask table napkins which were bought many years back at Brussels; not at a shop in the ordinary way, but privately, from the family to whom they belonged. I presume the larger characters, if put together, will indicate the date of the event, whatever that may be, which is referred to in the motto itself.

The motto is woven in the pattern of the damask, and consists of the following words in uncials, the letters of unequal size, as subjoined:

"SIGNUM PACIS DATUR LORICAE."

the larger letters being IUMCIDULIC. If the U's are taken as two V's, and written thus X, it gives the date MDCCLXIII. Perhaps this can be explained.

H.

[The chronogram above, which means "The signal of peace is given to the warrior," relates to the peace proclaimed between England and France in the year 1763. This event is noticed in the Annual Register, and in most of our popular histories. Keightley says, "The overtures of France for peace were readily listened to; and both parties being in earnest, the preliminaries were readily settled at Fontainebleau (Nov. 3rd). In spite of the declamation of Mr. Pitt and his party, they were approved of by large majorities in both Houses of Parliament, and a treaty was finally signed in Paris, Feb. 18, 1763." The napkins were probably a gift, on the occasion, to some public functionary. For the custom of noting the date of a great event by chronograms, see "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 585.]

{12}

Explanation of the Word "Miser."—Can any of your readers explain how and when miser came to get the meaning of an avaricious hoarding man? In Spenser's Faerie Queene, II. l. 8., it is used in its nearly primary sense of "wretch:"

"Vouchsafe to stay your steed for humble miser's sake."

Again, Faerie Queene, II. 3. 8.:

"The miser threw himself, as an offall, Straight at his foot in base humility."

In Milton's Comus, which was written about fifty years after the first three books of the Faerie Queene, the present signification of the word is complete:

"You may as well spread out the unsunn'd heaps Of miser's treasure by an outlaw's den, And tell me it is safe, as bid one hope Danger will sink on opportunity," &c.

J. D. GARDNER.

Bottisham.

[The modern restricted use of the word miser is subsequent to Shakspeare's time for in Part I. King Henry VI., Act V. Sc. 4.,

"Decrepit miser! base ignoble wretch!"

Steevens says has no relation to avarice, but simply means a miserable creature. So in the interlude of Jacob and Esau, 1568:

"But as for these misers within my father's tent."

Again, in Lord Stirling's tragedy of Croesus, 1604:

"Or think'st thou me of judgement too remiss, A miser that in miserie remains."

Otway, however, in his Orphan, published in 1680, uses it for a covetous person:

"Though she be dearer to my soul than rest To weary pilgrims, or to misers gold, Rather than wrong Castalio, I'd forget thee."

So also does Pope:

"No silver saints by dying misers given, Here brib'd the rage of ill-requited heaven."

"Acis and Galatea."—Is there any good evidence in support of the commonly received opinion that the words to Handel's Acis and Galatea were written by Gay? Hawkins merely states that they "are said to have been written by Mr. Gay." I have no copy of Burney at hand to refer to; but I find the same statement repeated by various other musical historians, without, however, any authority being given for it. The words in question are not to be found among the Poems on several Occasions, by Mr. John Gay, published in 1767 by Tonson and others. Have they ever been included in any collective edition of his works?

G. T.

Reading.

[In the musical catalogue of the British Museum, compiled by Thomas Oliphant, Esq., it is stated that the words to Acis and Galatea "are said to be written, but apparently partly compiled, by John Gay." This serenata is included among Gay's Poems in Dr. Johnson's edition of the English Poets, 1790, as well as in Chalmers's edition of 1810, and in the complete edition of British Poets, Edinburgh, 1794.]

Birm-bank.—The bank of a canal opposite to the towing-path is called the birm-bank. What is the derivation of this?

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

[The word birm seems to have the same meaning as berme (Fr. berme), which, in Fortification, denotes a piece of ground of three, four, or five feet in width, left between the rampart and the moat or foss, designed to receive the ruins of the rampart, and prevent the earth from filling the foss. Sometimes it is palisaded, and in Holland is generally planted with quickset hedge.]

General Thomas Gage.—This officer commanded at Boston at the breaking out of the Revolution, and served under General Braddock. Where can I find any details of the remainder of his history?

SERVIENS.

[An interesting biographical account of General Gage is given in the Georgian Aera, vol. ii. p. 67.]

* * * * *

Replies.

RAPPING NO NOVELTY.

(Vol. viii., pp. 512. 632.)

The story referred to is certainly a very curious one, and I should like to know whether it is exactly as it was told by Baxter, especially as there seems to be reason for believing that De Foe (whom on other grounds one would not trust in such a matter) did not take it from the work which he quotes. Perhaps if you can find room for the statement, some correspondent would be so good as to state whether it has the sanction of Baxter:

"Mr. Baxter, in his Historical Discourse of Apparitions, writes thus: 'There is now in London an understanding, sober, pious man, oft one of my hearers, who has an elder brother, a gentleman of considerable rank, who having formerly seemed pious, of late years does often fall into the sin of drunkenness; he often lodges long together here in his brother's house, and whensoever he is drunk and has slept himself sober, something knocks at his bed's head, as if one knocked on a wainscot. When they remove his bed it follows him. Besides other loud noises on other parts where he is, that all the house hears, they have often watched him, and kept his hands lest he should do it himself. His brother has often told it me, and brought his wife, a discreet woman, to attest it, who avers moreover, that as she watched him, she has seen his shoes under the bed taken up, and nothing visible to touch them. They brought the man himself to me, and when we asked {13} him how he dare sin again after such a warning, he had no excuse. But being persons of quality, for some special reason of worldly interest I must not name him.'"—De Foe's Life of Duncan Campbell, 2nd ed. p. 107.

After this story, De Foe says:

"Another relation of this kind was sent to Dr. Beaumont (whom I myself personally knew, and which he has inserted in his account of genii, or familiar spirits) in a letter by an ingenious and learned clergyman of Wiltshire," &c.

But he does not say that the story which he has already quoted as from Baxter stands just as he has given it, and with a reference to Baxter, in Beaumont's Historical, Physiological, and Theological Treatise of Spirits, p. 182. Of course one does not attach any weight to De Foe's saying that he knew Dr. Beaumont "personally," but does anybody know anything of him? Nearly four years ago you inserted somewhat similar inquiry about this Duncan Campbell, but I believe it has not yet been answered.

S. R. MAITLAND.

* * * * *

OCCASIONAL FORMS OF PRAYER.

(Vol. viii., p. 535.)

From a volume of Forms of Prayer in the library of Sir Robert Taylor's Institution, I send you the following list, as supplementary to MR. LATHBURY'S. This volume forms part of a collection of books bequeathed to the University by the late Robert Finch, M.A., formerly of Baliol College:

A Form of Prayer for a General Fast, &c. 4to. London. 1762.

In both the Morning and Evening Services of this Form "A Prayer for the Reformed Churches" is included, which is omitted in all the subsequent Forms. This is a copy of it:

"A Prayer for the Reformed Churches.

"O God, the Father of Mercies, we present our Supplications unto Thee, more especially on behalf of our Reformed Brethren, whom, blessed be Thy Name, Thou hast hitherto wonderfully supported. Make them perfect, strengthen, 'stablish them: that they may stand fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free, and adorn the Doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. Preserve the Tranquillity of those who at present enjoy it: look down with compassion upon such as are persecuted for Righteousness' sake, and plead Thy cause with the oppressors of Thy people. Enlighten those who are in Darkness and Error; and give them Repentance to the Acknowledgment of the Truth: that all the Ends of the World may remember themselves, and be turned unto the Lord; and we all may become one Flock, under the great Shepherd and Bishop of our Souls, Jesus Christ, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen."

Form, &c. Fast. 1776.

Form, &c. Fast. 1778.

Form, &c. Fast. 1780.

Form, &c. Fast. 1781.

Form, &c. Fast. 1782.

A Prayer to be used on Litany Days before the Litany, and on other days immediately before the Prayer for all Conditions of Men, in all Cathedral, Collegiate, and Parochial Churches and Chapels, &c., during his Majesty's present Indisposition. 1788.

The following MS. note is inserted in the handwriting of Mr. Finch, father of the gentleman who bequeathed the collection:

"Mrs. Finch accompanied my Father (Rev. Dr. Finch, Rector of St. Michael's, Cornhill) to the Cathedral, where he had a seat for himself and his lady assigned him under the Dome, as Treasurer to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the original patrons of the Charity Schools. Mrs. F. was so fortunate as to obtain a seat in the choir, and saw the procession from the choir gate. Myself and Robert saw the cavalcade (which was extremely grand, and continued for the space of more than three hours, both Houses of Parliament with their attendants preceding their Majesties) from Mrs Townsend's house in Fleet Street."—April 23, 1789.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the King's Recovery. 1789.

Form, &c. Fast. 1793.

Form, &c. Fast. 1795.

Form, &c. Fast. 1796.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for many signal and important Victories. 1797.

Form, &c. Fast. 1798.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory of the Nile, &c. 1798.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory over the French Fleet, Aug. 1. 1798.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the safe Delivery of H. R. H. the Princess of Wales, and the birth of a Princess. 1796.

Form, &c. Fast. 1799.

Form, &c. Fast. 1800.

Form, &c. Fast. 1801.

Form and Thanksgiving for the Harvest. 1801.

Form and Thanksgiving for putting an End to the War. 1802.

Form, &c. Fast. 1803.

Form, &c. Fast. 1804.

Form, &c. Fast. 1805.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for Lord Nelson's Victory. 1805.

Form, &c. Fast. 1806.

Form, &c. Fast. 1807.

Form, &c. Fast. 1808.

Form, &c. Fast. 1809.

Form, &c. Fast. 1810.

Form, &c. Fast. 1812.

Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1814.

Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1816.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

* * * * *

{14}

CELTIC AND LATIN LANGUAGES.

(Vol. viii., p. 174.)

There was a Query some time ago upon this subject, but though it is one full of interest to all scholars, I have not observed any Notes worth mentioning in reply. The connexion between these two languages has only of late occupied the attention of philologers; but the more closely they are compared together, the more important and the more striking do the resemblances appear; and the remark of Arnold with regard to Greek literature applies equally to Latin, "that we seem now to have reached that point in our knowledge of the language, at which other languages of the same family must be more largely studied, before we can make a fresh step in advance." But this study, as regards the comparison of Celtic and Latin, is, in England at least, in a very infant state. Professor Newman, in his Regal Rome, has attention to the subject; but his induction does not appear sufficiently extensive to warrant any decisive conclusion respecting the position the Celtic holds as an element of the Latin. Pritchard's work upon the subject is satisfactory as far as it goes, but both these authors have chiefly confined themselves to a tabular view of Celtic and Latin words; but it is not merely this we want. What is required is a critical examination into the comparative structure and formal development of the two languages, and this is a work still to be accomplished. The later numbers of Bopp's Comparative Grammar are, I believe, devoted to this subject, but as they have not been translated, they must be confined to a limited circle of English readers, and I have not yet seen any reproduction of the views therein contained in the philological literature of England.

As the first step to considerations of this kind must be made from a large induction of words, I think, with your correspondent, that the pages of "N. & Q." might be made useful in supplying "links of connexion" to supply a groundwork for future comparison. I shall conclude by suggesting one or two "links" that I do not remember to have seen elsewhere.

1. Is the root of felix to be found in the Irish fail, fate; the contraction of the dipththong ai or e being analogous to that of amaimus into amemus?

2. Is it not probable that Avernus, if not corrupted from [Greek: aornos], is related to iffrin, the Irish inferi? This derivation is at any rate more probable than that of Grotefend, who connects the word with [Greek: Acheron].

3. Were the Galli, priests of Cybele, so called as being connected with fire-worship? and is the name at all connected with the Celtic gal, a flame? The word Gallus, a Gaul, is of course the same as the Irish gal, a stranger.

T. H. T.

* * * * *

GEOMETRICAL CURIOSITY.

(Vol. viii., p. 468.)

MR. INGLEBY'S question might easily be the foundation of a geometrical paper; but as this would not be a desirable contribution, I will endeavour to keep clear of technicalities, in pointing out how the process described may give something near to a circle, or may not.

When a paper figure, bent over a straight line in it, has the two parts perfectly fitting on each other, the figure is symmetrical about that straight line, which may be called an axis of symmetry. Thus every diameter of a circle is an axis of symmetry: every regular oval has two axes of symmetry at right angles to each other: every regular polygon of an odd number of sides has an axis joining each corner to the middle of the opposite sides: every regular polygon of an even number of sides has axes joining opposite corners, and axes joining the middles of opposite sides.

When a piece of paper, of any form whatsoever, rectilinear or curvilinear, is doubled over any line in it, and when all the parts of either side which are not covered by the other are cut away, the unfolded figure will of course have the creased line for an axis of symmetry. If another line be now creased, and a fold made over it, and the process repeated, the second line becomes an axis of symmetry, and the first perhaps ceases to be one. If the process be then repeated on the first line, this last becomes an axis, and the other (probably) ceases to be an axis. If this process can be indefinitely continued, the cuttings must become smaller and smaller, for the following reason. Suppose, at the outset, the boundary point nearest to the intersection of the axes is distant from that intersection by, say four inches; it is clear that we cannot, after any number of cuttings, have a part of the boundary at less than four inches from the intersection. For there never is, after any cutting, any approach to the intersection except what there already was on the other side of the axis employed, before that cutting was made. If then the cuttings should go on for ever, or practically until the pieces to be cut off are too small, and if this take place all round, the figure last obtained will be a good representation of a circle of four inches radius. On the suppositions, we must be always cutting down, at all parts of the boundary; but it has been shown that we can never come nearer than by four inches to the intersection of the axes.

But it does not follow that the process will go on for ever. We may come at last to a state in which both the creases are axes of symmetry at once; and then the process stops. If the paper had at first a curvilinear boundary, properly chosen, and if the axes were placed at the proper angle, it would happen that we should arrive at a {15} regular curved polygon, having the two axes for axes of symmetry. The process would then stop.

I will, however, suppose that the original boundary is everywhere rectilinear. It is clear then that, after every cutting, the boundary is still rectilinear. If the creases be at right angles to one another, the ultimate figure may be an irregular polygon, having its four quarters alike, such as may be inscribed in an oval; or it may have its sides so many and so small, that the ultimate appearance shall be that of an oval. But if the creases be not at right angles, the ultimate figure is a perfectly regular polygon, such as can be inscribed in a circle; or its sides may be so many and so small that the ultimate appearance shall be that of a circle.

Suppose, as in MR. INGLEBY'S question, that the creases are not at right angles to each other; supposing the eye and the scissors perfect, the results will be as follows:

First, suppose the angle made by the creases to be what the mathematicians call incommensurable with the whole revolution; that is, suppose that no repetition of the angle will produce an exact number of revolutions. Then the cutting will go on for ever, and the result will perpetually approach a circle. It is easily shown that no figure whatsoever, except a circle, has two axes of symmetry which make an angle incommensurable with the whole revolution.

Secondly, suppose the angle of the creases commensurable with the revolution. Find out the smallest number of times which the angle must be repeated to give an exact number of revolutions. If that number be even, it is the number of sides of the ultimate polygon: if that number be odd, it is the half of the number of sides of the ultimate polygon.

Thus, the paper on which I write, the whole sheet being taken, and the creases made by joining opposite corners, happens to give the angle of the creases very close to three-fourteenths of a revolution; so that fourteen repetitions of the angle is the lowest number which give an exact number of revolutions; and a very few cuttings lead to a regular polygon of fourteen sides. But if four-seventeenths of a revolution had been taken for the angle of the creases, the ultimate polygon would have had thirty-four sides. In an angle taken at hazard the chances are that the number of ultimate sides will be large enough to present a circular appearance.

Any reader who chooses may amuse himself by trying results from three or more axes, whether all passing through one point or not.

A. DE MORGAN.

* * * * *

THE BLACK-GUARD.

(Vol. viii., p. 414.)

Some of your correspondents, SIR JAMES E. TENNENT especially, have been very learned on this subject, and all have thrown new light on what I consider a very curious inquiry. The following document I discovered some years ago in the Lord Steward's Offices. Your readers will see its value at once; but it may not be amiss to observe, that the name in its present application had its origin in the number of masterless boys hanging about the verge of the Court and other public places, palaces, coal-cellars, and palace stables; ready with links to light coaches and chairs, and conduct, and rob people on foot, through the dark streets of London; nay, to follow the Court in its progresses to Windsor and Newmarket. Pope's "link-boys vile" are the black-guard boys of the following Proclamation.

PETER CUNNINGHAM.

At the Board of Green Cloth, in Windsor Castle, this 7th day of May, 1683.

Whereas of late a sort of vicious, idle, and masterless boyes and rogues, commonly called the Black-guard, with divers other lewd and loose fellowes, vagabonds, vagrants, and wandering men and women, do usually haunt and follow the Court, to the great dishonour of the same, and as Wee are informed have been the occasion of the late dismall fires that happened in the towns of Windsor and Newmarket, and have, and frequently do commit divers other misdemeanours and disorders in such places where they resort, to the prejudice of His Majesty's subjects, for the prevention of which evills and misdemeanours hereafter, Wee do hereby strictly charge and command all those so called the Black-guard as aforesaid, with all other loose, idle, masterless men, boyes, rogues, and wanderers, who have intruded themselves into His Majesty's Court or stables, that within the space of twenty-four houres next after the publishing of this order, they depart, upon pain of imprisonment, and such other punishments as by law are to be inflicted on them.

(Signed) ORMOND. H. BULKELEY. H. BROUNCKER. RICH. MASON. STE. FOX.

* * * * *

THE CALVES' HEAD CLUB.

(Vol. viii., pp. 315. 480.)

The Calves' Head Club existed much earlier than the time when their doings were commemorated in the Weekly Oracle (Vol. viii., p. 315.) of February 1, 1735, or depicted in the print of 1734 (Vol. viii., p. 480.). There is a pamphlet, {16} the second edition of which was published in small 4to., in 1703, entitled:

"The Secret History of the Calves' Head Club, or, the Republican Unmasqu'd, wherein is fully shewn the Religion of the Calves-Head Heroes in their Anniversary Thanksgiving Songs on the Thirtieth of January, by their Anthems," &c. &c.

We are told in the latter part of the long title-page that the work was published "to demonstrate the restless, inplacable spirit of a certain party still among us," and certainly the statements therein, and more than all the anthems at the end, do show the bitterest hatred—so bitter, so intense and malignant, that we feel on reading it that there must be some exaggeration.

The author professes to have at first been of opinion "that the story was purely contrived on purpose to render the republicans more odious than they deserv'd." Whether he was convinced to the contrary by ocular demonstration he does not tell us, but gives us information he received from a gentleman—

"Who, about eight years ago, went out of meer curiosity to see their Club, and has since furnish'd me with the following papers. I was inform'd that it was kept in no fix'd house, but that they remov'd as they saw convenient; that the place they met in when he was with 'em was in a blind ally, about Morefields; that the company wholly consisted of Independents and Anabaptists (I am glad for the honour of the Presbyterians to set down this remark); that the famous Jerry White, formerly Chaplain to Oliver Cromwell, who no doubt on't came to sanctify with his pious exhortations the Ribbaldry of the Day, said Grace; that after the table-cloth was removed, the anniversary anthem, as they impiously called it, was sung, and a calve's skull fill'd with wine, or other liquor, and then a brimmer went about to the pious memory of those worthy patriots that kill'd the tyrant, and deliver'd their country from arbitrary sway; and lastly, a collection made for the mercenary scribler, to which every man contributed according to his zeal for the cause, or the ability of his purse.

"I have taken care to set down what the gentleman told me as faithfully as my memory wou'd give me leave; and I am persuaded that some persons that frequent the Black Boy in Newgate Street, as they knew the author of the following lines so they knew this account of the Calves' Head Club to be true."

The anthems for the years 1693, 1694, 1695, 1696, and 1697, are given; but they are too long and too stupidly blasphemous and indecent to quote here. They seem rather the satires of malignant cavaliers than the serious productions of any Puritan, however politically or theologically heretical.

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

The Calotype Process.—I have made any first essay in the calotype process, following DR. DIAMOND'S directions given in "N. & Q.," and using Turner's paper, as recommended by him. My success has been quite as great as I could expect as a novice, and satisfies me that any defects are due to my own want of skill, and not to any fault in the directions given. I wish, however, to ask a question as to iodizing the paper. DR. DIAMOND says, lay the paper on the solution; then immediately remove it, and lay on the dry side on blotting-paper, &c. Now I find, if I remove immediately, the whole sheet of paper curls up into a roll, and is quite unmanageable. I want to know, therefore, whether there is any objection to allowing the paper to remain on the iodizing solution until it lies flat on it, so that on removal it will not curl, and may be easily and conveniently laid on the dry side to pass the glass rod over it. As soon as the paper is floated on the solution (I speak of Turner's) it has a great tendency to curl, and takes some time before the expansion of both surfaces becoming equal allows it to lie quite flat on the liquid. May this operation be performed by the glass rod, without floating at all?

Photographers, like myself, at a distance from practical instruction, are so much obliged for plain and simple directions such as those given by DR. DIAMOND, which are the result of experience, that I am sure he will not mind being troubled with a few inquiries relative to them.

C. E. F.

Hockin's Short Sketch.—Mr. Hockin is so well known as a thoroughly practical chemist, that it may suffice to call attention to the fact of his having published a little brochure entitled How to obtain Positive and Negative Pictures on Collodionized Glass, and copy the latter upon Paper. A Short Sketch adapted for the Tyro in Photography. As the question of the alkalinity of the nitrate bath is one which has lately been discussed, we will give, as a specimen of Mr. Hockin's book, a quotation, showing his opinion upon that question:

"The sensitizing agent, nitrate of silver in crystals, not the ordinary fused in sticks, is nearly always confessedly adulterated; it is thus employed:

"The silver or nitrate bath.—Nitrate of silver five drachms, distilled water ten ounces; dissolve and add iodized collodion two drachms.

"Shake these well together, allow them to macerate twelve hours, and filter through paper. Before adding the nitric acid, test the liquid with a piece of blue litmus paper; if it remain blue after being immersed one minute, add one drop of dilute nitric acid[3], and test again for a minute; and so on, until a claret red is indicated on the paper. It is necessary to test the bath in a similar manner, frequently adding half a drop to a drop of dilute acid when required. This precaution will prevent the fogging due to alkalinity of the bath, so formidable an obstacle to young hands."

[Footnote 3: "Dilute nitric acid.—Water fifty parts, nitric acid one part."]

Photographic Society's Exhibition.—The Photographic Society opened their first Exhibition of {17} Photographs and Daguerreotypes at the Gallery of the Society of British Artists, in Suffolk Street, with a soiree on Tuesday evening last. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, the rooms were crowded not only by members of the Society, but by many of the most distinguished literary and scientific men of the metropolis. The Queen and Prince Albert had, in the course of the morning, spent three hours in an examination of the collection; and the opinion they expressed, that the exhibition was one of great interest and promise, from the evidence it afforded of the extraordinary advance made by the art during the past year, and the encouragement it held out to the belief that far greater excellence might therefore still be looked for in it, was a very just one, and embodied that given afterwards by the most competent authorities. We have not room this week to enter into any details, but can confidently recommend our readers to pay an early visit to Suffolk Street.

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

"Firm was their faith," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 564.).—These lines are to be found in a poem called "Morwennae Statio, hodie Morwenstow," published by Masters in 1846, with the title of Echoes from Old Cornwall, and written by the Vicar of Morwenstow. I agree with D. M. in the judgment he has announced as to their merits; but hitherto they have been but little appreciated by the public. A time will come however, when these and other compositions of the author will be better known and more duly valued by the English mind.

SAXA.

These lines were written on "the Minster of Morwenna," May, 1840, and appeared in the British Magazine under the anonymous name Procul. Of the eight stanzas of which the poem consists, P. M. has quoted the second. The second line should be read "wise of heart," and the third "firm and trusting hands." With your correspondent, I hope the author's name may be discovered.

F. R. R.

Vellum-cleaning (Vol. viii., p.340.).—In the Polytechnic Institution there are specimens of old deeds, &c., on vellum and paper, beautifully cleaned and restored by Mr. George Clifford, 5. Inner Temple Lane, Temple, London.

J. McK.

Shoreham.

Wooden Tombs (Vol. viii., p. 255.).—In the church at Brading, Isle of Wight—

"There are some old tombs in the communion place, and in Sir William Oglander's chapel, or family burial-place, which is separated from the rest of the church by an oak screen. The most ancient legible date of these monuments is 1567. Two of them have full-length figures in armour of solid elm wood, originally painted in their proper colours, and gilt, but now disfigured by coats of dirty white."—Barber's Picturesque Guide to the Isle of Wight, 1850, pp. 28, 29.

J. McK.

Shoreham.

Solar Eclipse in the Year 1263 (Vol. viii., p. 441.).—In the Transactions of the Antiquarian Society of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 350., there are "Observations on the Norwegian Expedition against Scotland in the year 1263," by John Dillon, Esq.; and at pp. 363-4, when speaking of the annular eclipse, he says:

"The eclipse above mentioned is described to have occurred between these two dates [29th July and 9th August]. This being pointed out to Dr. Brewster, he had the curiosity to calculate the eclipse, when he found that there was an eclipse of the sun on 5th August, 1263, and which was annular at Ronaldsvo, in Orkney, and the middle of it was twenty-four minutes past one."

These "Observations" contain much curious information; but are deformed by the author attempting to wrest the text of the Norwegian writer (at p. 358. and in note I.) to suit an absurd crotchet of his own. Having seen that essay in MS., I pointed out those errors; but instead of attending to my observations, he would not read them, and got into a passion against the friend who showed the MS. to me.

J. McK.

Shoreham.

Lines on Woman (Vol. viii., pp. 292. 350. &c.).—The lines on Woman are, I presume, an altered version of those of Barret (Mrs. Barrett Browning?); they are the finale of a short poem on Woman; the correct version is the following:

"Peruse the sacred volume, Him who died Her kiss betray'd not, nor her tongue denied; While even the Apostle left Him to His doom, She linger'd round His cross and watch'd His tomb."

I would copy the whole poem, but fear you would think it too long for insertion.

MA. L.

[Our correspondent furnishes an addition to our list of parallel passages. The lines quoted by W. V. and those now given by our present correspondent can never be different readings of the same poem. Besides, it has been already shown that the lines asked for are from the poem entitled Woman, by Eaton Stannard Barrett (see ante, pp. 350. 423.).]

Satin (Vol. vii., p. 551.).—In a note just received by me from Canton, an American friend of mine remarks as follows:

"When you write again to 'N. & Q.' you can say that the word satin (Vol. vii., p. 551.), like the article itself, is of Chinese origin, and that other foreign languages, in endeavouring like the English to imitate the Chinese sz-tuen, have {18} approximated closely to it, and to each other. Of this the answers to the Query given in the place referred to are a sufficient proof; Fr. satin, W. sidan, &c. &c."

I suspect that he is right, and that Ogilvie and Webster, whom you quote, have not got to the bottom of the word. I may add that the notion of my Canton friend receives approval from a Chinese scholar to whom I have shown the above extract.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

"Quid facies," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 539.).—

"BIERVE, N. Marechal, Marquis de, a Frenchman well known for his ready wit and great facetiousness. He wrote two plays of considerable merit, Les Reputations and Le Seducteur. He died at Spa, 1789, aged 42. He is author of the distich on courtezans:

'Quid facies, facies Veneris cum veneris ante? Ne sedeas! sed eas, ne pereas per eas.'"

—Lempriere's Universal Biography, abridged from the larger work, London, 1808.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

Sotades (Vol. viii., p. 520.).—Your correspondent CHARLES REED says that Sotades was a Roman poet 250 B.C.; and that to him we owe the line, "Roma tibi subito," &c. Sotades was a native of Maroneia in Thrace, or, according to others, of Crete; and flourished at Alexandria B.C. 280 (Smith's Dictionary of Biography, Clinton, F. H., vol. iii. p. 888.). We have a few fragments of his poems, but none of them are palindromical. The authority for his having written so, is, I suppose, Martial, Epig. II. 86. 2.:

"Nec retro lego Sotaden cinaedum."

ZEUS.

The Third Part of "Christabel" (Vol. viii., pp. 11. 111.).—Has the Irish Quarterly Review any other reason for ascribing this poem to Maginn than the common belief which makes him the sole and original Morgan Odoherty? If not, its evidence is of little value, as, exclusive of some pieces under that name which have been avowed by other writers, many of the Odoherty papers contain palpable internal evidence of having been written by a Scotchman, or at least one very familiar with Scotland, which at that time he was not; even the letter accompanying the third part of Christabel is dated from Glasgow, and though this would in itself prove nothing, the circumstances above mentioned, as well as Dr. Moir's evidence as to the time when Maginn's contributions to Blackwood commenced, seems strongly presumptive against his claim. Some of the earliest and most distinguished writers in Blackwood are still alive, and could, no doubt, clear up this point at once, if so inclined.

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