HotFreeBooks.com
Notes and Queries, Number 236, May 6, 1854
Author: Various
1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

* * * * *

{413} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 236.] SATURDAY, MAY 6. 1854. [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

* * * * *

CONTENTS.

NOTES:— Page An Encyclopaedia of Ventilation, by Bolton Corney 415 The House of Russell, or Du Rozel, by John Macray 416 Ferdinand Charles III., Duke of Parma 417 Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta, by William Winthrop 417

MINOR NOTES:—Whipping a Lady—Mother of Thirty Children—"Ought" and "Aught"—Walton—Salutations— Good Times for Equity Suitors—The Emperor of Russia and the Order of the Garter 419

QUERIES:— Sir Henry Wotton's Verses, "The Character of a Happy Life," by John Macray 420

MINOR QUERIES:—Plants and Flowers—Quotations wanted—Griffith, William, Bishop of Ossory— "Cowperiana"—John Keats's Poems—Holland—Armorial— Stoke and Upton—Slavery in England—"Go to Bath"— Mummy Chests—The Blechenden Family—Francklyn Household Book—Lord Rosehill's Marriage—Colonel Butler—Willesdon, co. Middlesex 421

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:—Ashes of "Lignites"— Bishop Bathurst—"Selah"—The Long Parliament—"The Three Pigeons"—Captain Cook—Varnish for old Books—Cabbages 422

REPLIES:— Addison's Hymns, by J. H. Markland 424 Longfellow, by John P. Stillwell, &c. 424 Books burnt by the Hangman, by E. F. Woodman, &c. 425 Sack 427 Irish Law in the Eighteenth Century, by Alexander Andrews, &c. 427 Job xix. 26., by the Rev. Moses Margoliouth 428

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:—Photographic Experiences—The Ceroleine Process—On preserving the Sensitiveness of Collodion Plates 429

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:—Tippet—Heraldic Anomaly— George Wood of Chester—Moon Superstitions—"Myself"— Roman Roads in England—Anecdote of George IV.— General Fraser—The Fusion—"Corporations have no souls"—Apparition of the White Lady—Female Parish Clerk—Bothy—King's Prerogative and Hunting Bishops— Green Eyes—Brydone the Tourist—Descendants of John of Gaunt, Noses of—"Put"—"Caricature; a Canterbury Tale" 430

MISCELLANEOUS:— Notes on Books, &c. 433 Books and Odd Volumes Wanted 433 Notices to Correspondents 434

* * * * *

THE NEW NOVEL.

COUNTERPARTS:

or,

THE CROSS OF LOVE;

By the Author of "CHARLES ANCHESTER,"

Is just out.

In Three Volumes.

London: SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 63. Cornhill.

* * * * *

THE WATERLOO BANQUET AT APSLEY HOUSE, and numerous others of the Finest Works of Art, are now for the first time reduced below the prices at which they were originally published; see AN HISTORIC AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Fine and Important Engravings, including all the Publications of Mr. Alderman Moon, who has retired from Business, now published by THOMAS BOYS (of the late firm of Moon, Boys, and Graves), Printseller to the Royal Family, 467. Oxford Street, London. This Catalogue occupies Sixty Pages in royal octavo; of the importance of the Works enumerated and noticed, it may suffice to say, that MR. BOYS paid the Alderman on his retirement more than Twenty Thousand Pounds for the Property purchased of him. To be had Gratis on application. Merchants supplied.

London: THOMAS BOYS, Printseller to the Royal Family, 467. Oxford Street.

* * * * *

JOHNSTON'S MAPS of the war, engraved from entirely New Drawings, and containing the latest and most accurate information.

I. THE BLACK SEA, CAUCASUS, CRIMEA, &c., with Large Plans of Sevastopol, and the Positions of the Ships and Batteries, seen from H.M.S.F. "Retribution." The Bosphorus and Beicos Bay.

II. THE DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES, and adjoining Countries from Vienna to Constantinople, and Map of CENTRAL EUROPE, from St. Petersburg to Cairo.

III. THE BALTIC SEA and GERMAN OCEAN, with enlarged Plans of Cronstadt, Sveaborg, Revel, Port Baltic, and Gulf of Riga.

Price, coloured, 1s. each; by post, 1s. 4d.; or the Three by Post, 3s. 6d.

Edinburgh: W. & A. K. JOHNSTON, Geographers and Engravers to the Queen; and all Booksellers.

* * * * *

Just published, in fcp. 8vo. price, in cloth, 6s.

THE STATISTICAL COMPANION for 1854: exhibiting the most interesting Facts in Moral and Intellectual, Vital, Economical, and Political Statistics, at Home and Abroad. Compiled by T. C. BANFIELD, Esq.

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

* * * * *

ANNOTATED EDITION OF THE ENGLISH POETS. By ROBERT BELL.

In Monthly Volumes, 2s. 6d. each, in cloth.

This Day, the Third and Concluding Volume of DRYDEN'S POETICAL WORKS.

Already published.

COWPER. Vol. I.

DRYDEN. Vols. I. and II.

SURREY, MINOR CONTEMPORANEOUS POETS, and SACKVILLE, LORD BUCKHURST.

On the First of June, the Second Volume of COWPER'S POETICAL WORKS.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

* * * * *

8vo., 10s.

LA NORMANDIE SOUTERRAINE, ou Notices sur des Cimetieres romains et francs explores en Normandie, par M. L'ABBE COCHET, Inspecteur des Monumens, etc., a Dieppe. 8vo., 17 planches.

*** The Trade supplied.

Rouen: LEBRUMENT. Oxford: J. H. PARKER, and 377. Strand, London

* * * * *

THE ORIGINAL QUADRILLES, composed for the PIANO FORTE by MRS. AMBROSE MERTON.

London: Published for the Proprietor, and may be had of C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street; and by Order of all Music Sellers.

PRICE THREE SHILLINGS.

* * * * *

THE OCEAN QUADRILLES. By the celebrated JOHN BLEWITT. Founded on the most favourite of Dibdin's Sea Songs. Illustrated, 3s. The spirit-stirring reminiscences evoked by the Ocean Quadrilles (full of life and vigour) belong to that glorious period when the fleets of England were, as they now again are, sweeping the seas. Every patriotic assembly should dance to Blewitt's Ocean Quadrilles.

London: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, Music Publishers to the Queen.

* * * * *

EXCELSIOR. Ballad; Words by LONGFELLOW, Music by MISS LINDSAY. Beautifully Illustrated, 2s. 6d.

"Some beautiful words of Longfellow are here wedded to a beautiful melody by this talented lady. This ballad is quite out of the way of the common-place productions of the day. It is evidently a heart-offering both from the poet and the gifted musician."

London: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, Music Publishers to the Queen.

* * * * * {414}

Now publishing, Price THREEPENCE, Post Free, No. IV. for the present Year (published Monthly) of

WILLIS'S CATALOGUES OF BOOKS, Ancient and Modern, comprising a choice selection of Standard and Curious Works in all branches of Literature and the Fine Arts, in good library condition, for Sale at very moderate prices. Preceded by WILLIS'S CURRENT NOTES, series of Original and Inedited Articles on Literature and Antiquities by eminent Literary Men, illustrated occasionally by Woodcuts.

CONTENTS OF THE PRESENT NUMBER.—Last Hours of Queen Mary II., from MS. Memoranda by one of the Household; Original Letter of the late Professor Wilson; Hewing Blocks with Razors; Certain Cures for Hydrophobia; Disputative Authorities on Christ's Nativity; Supplement to Todd's Johnson's Dictionary; M. Guizot and the Eikon Basilike; Cucking Stool and Scolding Cart, Leicester; Neapolitan Innkeeper's Announcement; The Awakening Mallet; Inscriptions on Bells in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin; Dissection of Laurence Sterne, &c. &c.

* * * * *

VALUABLE WORKS ON SALE AT REDUCED PRICES.

SHAKSPEARE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS, complete, from its Commencement in 1841, to its Termination in 1853; the Contents classified, 47 vols. in 19, new cloth, 4l. 10s.

The Shakspeare Society being now dissolved, and the few complete sets of their publications dispersed, the present is a favourable opportunity for acquiring them at a moderate price. They consist of nearly Fifty different works illustrative of Shakspeare and the Literature of his time, comprising Old Plays, Poems, Curious Tracts, Memoirs, &c., either now printed for the first time or difficult to be procured from their rarity, edited by eminent Literary Men.

* * * * *

CAMDEN SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS, complete, from the Commencement in 1838 to the Present Time, 58 vols. small 4to. cloth, a very clean copy, from a Subscriber, 8l. 8s. 1838-53.

This is a most important series of works, being reprints of exceedingly rare and valuable books, and publications of MSS. never before published; printed verbatim, with copious Introductions, Notes, and Illustrations by the learned members of the Society.

* * * * *

PARKER SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS, complete, from the Commencement in 1841 to 1853, 50 vols. 8vo., royal 8vo., and 12mo. cloth, from a Subscriber, 7l. 10s. 1841-53.

This valuable publication contains, without abridgment, alteration, or omission, the best works of the Fathers and early Writers of the Reformed English Church, published in the period between the Accession of K. Edward VI. and Q. Elizabeth; and also other esteemed Writers of the Sixteenth century, including some of the early English Translations of the Foreign Reformers.

* * * * *

Splendid Illuminated Work.

The ENGLISH CRUSADERS, containing an Account of all the English Knights who formed part of these Expeditions, with accurate representations of 300 Coats of Arms of the Crusaders, and various rich embellishments and large initial letters from ancient and rare MSS., all illuminated in gold and colours, by J. C. DANSEY, large vol. royal 4to., 2l. 2s. published at 4l. 4s. Dickinson, 1850.

This is a very superb and highly interesting volume, which cost the author several thousand pounds in the getting up. Only a few copies remain for sale at the present reduced price.

* * * * *

CHETHAM SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS.—Remains, Historical and Literary, connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester, published by the Chetham Society. A complete set of these valuable Works edited by distinguished Scholars, 29 vols. small 4to. (wanting one volume) cloth, 8l. 8s.

Printed for the Chetham Society, 1844-53.

* * * * *

GILES' (DR.) HISTORY of the ANCIENT BRITONS, from the Earliest Period to the Invasion of the Saxons, compiled from the Original Authorities. 2 vols. 8vo. Second Edition, cloth, 12s.; pub. at 1l. 10s. G. Willis, 1854.

The most valuable work on the subject. Vol. II. consists of the original Histories from which this work has been compiled, viz., Excerpta ex Scriptoribus Gr. et Lat.; Gildas; Nennius; Excerpta ex Beda, &c.

* * * * *

GILES' (DR.) LIFE AND TIMES OF ALFRED THE GREAT, drawn up from the most authentic Ancient Chroniclers, and including important Facts now first published. Second edition, with coloured plate of K. Alfred's Jewel, 8vo., new cloth, 6s. (pub. at 12s.) G. Willis, 1854.

The most valuable and authentic Life of Alfred the Great. Included are Alfred's Will, in Saxon, with translation the Treaty between Alfred and Guthrum in Saxon; Fulke's Letter to Alfred, Alfred's Preface to Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Saxon, with a translation; a Chronological Summary of Anglo-Saxon History, &c.

* * * * *

HUME'S (DR. A.) THE LEARNED SOCIETIES and PRINTING CLUBS of the United Kingdom; being an Account of their respective Origin, History, Objects, and Constitution, with a SUPPLEMENT containing all the recently established Societies and Printing Clubs, and complete Lists of their Publications to the Present Time, by A. I. EVANS, post 8vo., new cloth, 5s. G. Willis, 1853.

This Work will be found of great utility to all Literary Men, Public Libraries, &c.

* * * * *

RAYNOUARD, LEXIQUE ROMAN, ou Dictionaire de al Langue des Troubadours, comparee avec les autres Langues de l'Europe Latine, 6 large vols. royal 8vo., sewed, 2l. 10s. Paris, 1844.

This excellent and extensive work is preceded by "Nouvelles Recherches Historiques et Philologiques, un Resume de la Grammaire Romance, un nouveau choix des Poesies originales des Troubadours, et Extraits de Poemes divers," &c.

* * * * *

G. WILLIS, Great Piazza, Covent Garden.

* * * * *

THE HOMILIST for MAY (No. XVII.), price 1s., contains:

The Necessary Instrument of True Progress. Buying the Truth; by the Rev. A. Hannay. Germs of Thought: Christianity and Pharisaism; The Perfection of Humanity; The Moral Mirror of the Good. The Religion of Semblance. and the Religion of Substance; Glances at Great Preachers; Williams of Wern.

"It is, of all Thought-books for Ministers the most suggestive and philosophical we have seen for many a year. If we have any objection to make, it is on the score of too prodigal an expenditure of mental wealth."—Monthly Christian Spectator.

Just published, in 1 vol. price 8s. 6d. cloth,

CONSECRATED HEIGHTS; or, Scenes of Higher Manifestations. By the REV. R. FERGUSSON, LL.D., F.A.S., M.R.I.A.

In a few Days, in 1 vol., crown 8vo.

SACRED STUDIES; or, Aids to the Development of Truth. Being a Second and enlarged Edition of "Discourses on Important Subjects." By the REV. DR. FERGUSSON.

WARD & CO., 27. Paternoster Row.

* * * * *

Price One Shilling.

THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY FOR MAY contains:

1. Cronstadt. 2. A Chapter from the Romance of Vegetable Life. 3. Water. 4. A Scene on the Coasts of the Skagarack. 5. Mediaeval London—continued. 6. Advertising Columns and their Associations. 7. The Military Geography of Turkey. 8. Notices. 9. Poetry.

At the OFFICE, No. 1. Exeter Street, Strand, London.

* * * * *

Now ready, No. VI., 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series) consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

* * * * *

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVIII., is published THIS DAY.

CONTENTS: I. LAURENCE STERNE. II. SACRED GEOGRAPHY. III. THE WHIG PARTY. IV. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. V. CRIMINAL LAW DIGEST. VI. THE TURKS AND THE GREEKS. VII. TREASURES OF ART IN BRITAIN. VIII. NEW REFORM BILL.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS.—The new Volume of this Series of STANDARD EDITIONS of ENGLISH AUTHORS, contains the Third Volume of CUNNINGHAM'S EDITION OF GOLDSMITH'S WORKS, and is now published; and the Fourth Volume, completing the Work, will be ready early in May.

ALBEMARLE STREET, April 29th, 1854.

* * * * * {415}

LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 6, 1854

* * * * *

Notes.

AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF VENTILATION.

"The House [of Commons] met to-day [27th April] after the Easter holidays—and honourable members, on entering, seemed highly to appreciate the unusual luxury of a little fresh air."—THE TIMES, 28th April.

The failure of some late attempts to ventilate public buildings invites me to set forth an Encyclopaedia of ventilation—at a cheap rate, and in a compendious form.

Aware of the abilities and celebrity of many of the writers on this subject—from Whitehurst and Franklin to Reid and Gurney—I must ward off the imputation of self-conceit by expressing my belief that the errors of those who have failed should be chiefly ascribed to excessive cleverness; to unadvised attempts at outwitting nature! I hope to escape that snare. In the execution of my humble task, I shall entirely rely on common sense and common experience.

Air is essential to human life, and as respiration destroys its vital qualities, the ventilation of rooms which are intended for habitation should be a primary object in all architectural plans.

Architects, however, seldom provide for the ventilation of rooms otherwise than as they provide for the admission of light. Now the properties of light and air, with reference to our domestic requirements, differ in some important particulars—of which it may not be amiss to give a brief enumeration.

Light moves with uniform velocity: air is sometimes quiescent, and sometimes moves at the rate of thirty miles an hour. Light diffuses itself with much uniformity: air passes in a current from the point of its entrance to that of its exit. Light, whatever be its velocity, has no sensible effect on the human frame: air, in the shape of a partial current, is both offensive to the feelings and productive of serious diseases. Light, once admitted, supplies our wants till nightfall: air requires to be replaced at very short intervals. Light may be conveniently admitted from above: air requires to be admitted on the level of the sitter. Light, by the aid of ground glass, may be modified permanently: air requires to be variously adjusted according to its direction, its velocity, the seasons, the time of the day, the number of persons assembled, &c.

An attentive consideration of the above circumstances leads me to certain conclusions which I shall now state aphoristically, and proceed to describe in more detail.

A room designed for a numerous assemblage of persons—as a reading-room, a lecture-room, or a school-room—should be provided with apertures, adapted to admit spontaneous supplies of fresh air, in such variable quantities as may be required, on at least two of its opposite sides, and within three feet from the floor; also, with apertures in the ceiling, or on a level therewith, to promote the exit of the vitiated air. The apertures of both descriptions may be quite distinct from those which admit light.

Suppose a room to be twenty-four feet square, and sixteen feet in height, with two apertures for light on each side, each aperture being three feet wide by eight feet in height, and rising from the floor. There are not many rooms constructed on a plan so favourable to the admission of fresh air—but it has some serious defects. 1. The air would enter in broad and partial currents. 2. It would not reach the angular portions of the room. 3. The vitiated air might rise above the apertures, and so accumulate without the means of escape.

Now, suppose the same room to have its apertures at eight feet from the floor, and so to reach the ceiling. The escape of the vitiated air might then take place—if not prevented by a counter-current. But whence comes the fresh air for the occupants? There is no direct provision for its admission. The elevated apertures are utterly insufficient for that purpose; and the perpetual requisite is no otherwise afforded than by the occasional opening of a door!

It being thus established that the same apertures can never effectually serve for light and ventilation, I propose with regard to reading-rooms, lecture-rooms, and school-rooms, which require accommodation for books, maps, charts, and drawings, rather than a view of external objects, that the windows should be placed in the upper part of the room—that the admission of fresh air should be provided for by ducts near the floor—and the escape of the vitiated air by openings in, or on a level with, the ceiling.

The number of windows, and their size, must depend on the size of the room. If windows are to admit light only, a smaller number may be sufficient, and they may not be required on more than one side; a circumstance which recommends the plan proposal, as we can seldom have windows on each side of a room, or even on two of its opposite sides, but may devise a method of so admitting air.

Rejecting the use of windows as a means of ventilation, and rejecting artificial currents of every description, I propose the substitution of air-ducts of incorrodible iron, to be inserted horizontally in the walls of at least two opposite sides of the room, within three feet from the floor, and at intervals of about four feet. The ducts to be six or eight inches in diameter, according to the size of the room. The external orifice of each duct to be formed of perforated zinc, and the internal orifice, which may be trumpet-shaped, of {416} perforated zinc or wire-gauze, with a device which would serve to adjust the quantum of air according to circumstances, and to exclude it at night. By such contrivances, while the offensive and noxious currents which proceed from wide openings would be obviated, the supplies of fresh air would always be equal to the demand. The purest air may not be accessible—but, as Franklin says, "no common air from without is so unwholesome as the air within a close room."

The escape of the vitiated air requires less consideration. If the ceiling of the room be flat, with another room above it, the upper part of each window, in the shape of a narrow slip, might be made to act as a sort of safety-valve; but if the windows are on one side only, corresponding openings should be made on the opposite side, so that there would almost always be, more or less, a leeward opening. A vaulted ceiling, without any other room over it, seems to be the most desirable form, as the vitiated air would rise and collect towards its centre, where there could be no counter-current to impede its egress.

It is the union of those two objects, the admission of fresh air and the riddance of the vitiated air, skilfully and economically effected, which forms the circle of the science of ventilation.

I have restricted myself to the means of ventilation, which is requisite at all seasons of the year, but am quite aware that warmth, or a temperature above that of the external air, is sometimes indispensable to health and comfort, and therefore to the free exercise of the faculties. I believe, however, that the means proposed for the admission of fresh air might also be made available for the admission of heated air, and that either description of air might be admitted independently of the other, or both descriptions simultaneously.

A vast increase of reading-rooms, lecture-rooms, and school-rooms, may be safely predicted, and as the due ventilation of such rooms is a project of undeniable importance, I hope this note, eccentric in form, but earnest as to its purpose, may invite the remarks of others more conversant with architecture and physics—either in correction, or confirmation, or extension, of its general principles and details.

BOLTON CORNEY.

The Terrace, Barnes, 28th April, 1854.

* * * * *

THE HOUSE OF RUSSELL, OR DU ROZEL.

At a time when the readers of "N. & Q.," and the world at large, have been hearing of the gift of a bell to a village church in Normandy, so pleasantly and readily made by the princely house of Russell, far exceeding the modest solicitation of the cure for assistance by way of a subscription, in remembrance of the Du Rozels having left their native patrimony in France to share the fortunes of the Conqueror in Old England, the following particulars may not be uninteresting.

Mr. Wiffen, when compiling his elaborate Historical Memoirs of the House of Russell, from the Time of the Norman Conquest, had occasion to make some inquiries respecting a statement put forth by a M. Richard Seguin, a rich dealer in merceries and wooden shoes at Vire, in the department of Calvados; who, it appears, had a mania for appropriating the literary labours of others as his own, and, in fact, is stigmatised as a voleur litteraire by M. Querard, in his curious work entitled Les Supercheries Litteraires Devoilees. Mr. Wiffen wished to ascertain M. Seguin's authority for affirming in some work, the name of which is not given by M. Querard, but which is probably the Histoire du Pays d'Auge et des Eveques Comtes de Lisieux, Vire, 1832, that the Du Rozels were descended from Bertrand de Briquebec. M. Seguin's reply is contained in the following letter from M. Le Normand of Vire, to whom Mr. Wiffen had written, requesting him to obtain M. Seguin's authority for his statement:

"J'ai vu M. Seguin, et je lui ai demande d'ou provenaient les renseignements dont il s'etait servi pour dire dans son ouvrage que les Du Rozel descendaient des Bertrand de Bricquebec. Il m'a repondu qu'il l'ignorait; qu'il avait eu en sa possession une grande quantite de Copies de Chartres et d'anciens titres qui lui avaient fourni les materiaux de son histoire, mais qu'il ne savait nullement d'ou elles provenaient."—Historical Memoirs, &c., vol. i. p. 5. n. 1.

The fact appears to be, that M. Seguin had obtained possession, through marriage, of a quantity of MSS., and was in the habit of printing them as his own works. Some of them had belonged to an Abbe Lefranc, one of the priests who were murdered in the diabolical massacre of the clergy in the prisons of Paris in September, 1792; and others of the MSS. had been the property of a M. Noel Deshayes, Cure de Compigni, whose Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire des Eveques de Lisieux, were published by Seguin as his own, but altered and disfigured under the title of—

"Histoire du Pays d'Auge et des Eveques Comtes de Lisieux, contenant des Notions sur l'Archeologie, les Droits, Coutumes, Franchises et Libertes du Bocage et de la Normandie; Vire, Adam, 1832."

The MS., however, from which Seguin printed his forgery, turns out to have been but a copy; the original having since been discovered by M. Formeville in the library of the Seminaire of Evreux, and is now about to be published by that gentleman (see Supercheries, tom. iv., Paris, 1852). By a just retribution, M. Formeville is one of the literary men to whom Sequin refused to point out his original authorities. M. Querard quotes some {417} passages, in juxtaposition, from Seguin's pretended work and from the original MS., to show how the latter had been altered and corrupted in the printed copy. M. Seguin was quite illiterate, and has committed the most egregious blunders in his chef d'oeuvre de plagiat, as his Histoire du Pays d'Auge is termed by Querard. Many other authors, besides Mr. Wiffen and M. Formeville, wrote to Seguin for his authorities on various subjects, but he never pointed out a single one. Full details are given of his literary thefts by M. Querard and his coadjutors. When the original work of M. Deshayes appears, in its genuine state, as promised by M. Formeville, the world will then learn what was really stated respecting the descent of the Du Rozels from Bertrand de Briquebec; although the amiable and accomplished Mr. Wiffen is no longer living to avail himself of the information. Seguin died in 1847.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

* * * * *

FERDINAND CHARLES III., DUKE OF PARMA.

Englishmen might, perhaps, feel even more horror than they will do at the assassination, on Mar. 26, of the Duke of Parma, if they were reminded that he was the representative and lineal descendant of Charles I., and as such possessed a claim, by hereditary descent, on our Crown, superior to that of our gracious Queen, who is only lineally descended from James I.

I subjoin his pedigree:

Charles I.== ___ Henrietta Maria==Philip Duc d'Orleans. ____ Anna Maria==Victor Amadeus II., Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia. _ Charles Emanuel III., King of Sardinia, 1730== ______ Victor Amadeus III., King of Sardinia== ______ Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, 1802== ______ Maria Theresa==Charles II., Duke of Parma. ___ Ferdinand Charles III., Duke of Parma, born January 14, 1823, married, November 10, 1845, Louisa Maria Theresa of Bourbon, daughter of the late Duc de Berry, and was assassinated March 26, 1854.

It is rather a singular circumstance, that the Duchess of Parma should have been the wife of the hereditary heir to the throne of England, and the sister of the hereditary heir to the throne of France,—her husband, the Duke of Parma, having been the representative of the House of Stuart,—and her brother, the Count de Chambord, being the representative of the House of Bourbon.

E. S. S. W.

* * * * *

ORIGINAL ENGLISH ROYAL LETTERS TO THE GRAND MASTERS OF MALTA.

(Continued from Vol. ix., p. 267.)

Through the great kindness of my old friend at this island, Frederick Sedley, Esq., and the continued and constant assistance of Dr. Vella, I am now enabled to forward correct translations of the seven remaining letters bearing the autograph of Charles II. Mindful of the space which will be required for their insertion in "N. & Q.," I shall confine myself to a few preliminary remarks.

The first letter in the following list is the earliest in date, as it is of the greatest interest. In it we have, for the first time, found a curious statement recorded by an English monarch, making known that he not only built his galleys for the protection of trade in this sea in different ports of the Mediterranean, and purchased the slaves to man them of the Order of Malta, but also complaining to the Grand Master for permitting the collector of customs to charge an export toll of "five pieces of gold per head," which he considered an unjust tax on this kind of commerce, and the more especially so, because it was not demanded from his neighbours and allies, the Kings of France and Spain. That the Knights of St. John made their prisoners slaves, disposing of some to the wealthy residents or natives of the island, and employing others in the erection of their dwellings, palaces, and fortifications, is well known.

Historians have stated that when Dragut landed at Malta, in July, 1551, with Sinam, his admiral, who was in joint command, they went to the summit of Mount Sceberras to reconnoitre before an attack should be made on the convent. When employed on this service, Sinam, who was opposed to any hostile movement, pointing to the castle, thus remarked, "Surely no eagle could have chosen a more craggy and difficult place to make his nest in. Dost thou not see that men must have wings to get up to it, and that all the artillery and troops of the universe would not be able to take it by force?" An old Turkish officer of his suite, addressing Dragut, thus continued,—"See'st thou that bulwark which juts out in the sea, and on which the Maltese have planted the great standard of their order? I can assure thee that whilst I was a prisoner with them, I have helped to carry the large stones of which it is built, and am pretty sure that before thou canst make thyself master of it, thou wilt be overtaken by the winter season; and probably likewise prevented from succeeding by some powerful succours from Europe." There can be little doubt that this remark was {418} feelingly made, and that the aged Turk who uttered it had experienced, during his residence as a prisoner at Malta, all the horrors of slavery. That no consideration was given to the comfort of a slave, and little value set on his life, will be briefly shown by the following anecdote:—On the 13th of April, 1534, an accusation was made against an English knight of the name of Massimberg, to the effect that he had unwarrantably drawn his sword and killed four galley slaves; and being convicted of the crime on the 18th of May of the same year, he was asked why judgment should not be given against him. Massimberg thus replied, "In killing the four slaves I did well, but in not having at the same time killed our old and imbecile Grand Master I did badly." This plea not being considered satisfactory, he was deprived of his habit; but two days afterwards, that is, on the 20th May, 1534, he was reinstated in the Order, though for a time not permitted to enjoy his former dignity of a commander. This knight was also accused of having stolen a slave from a Maltese; but this accusation he stoutly denied, giving, in proof of his innocence, that the man bore on his shoulder a brand, or mark, by which he could be easily known as belonging to him. (Vide Manuscript Records of the Order.)

The next letter in the following list to which I would briefly call attention is that under date of June 21st, 1675, in which His Majesty Charles II. refers to a misunderstanding which had taken place between his admiral, Sir John Narbrough, and the Order of Malta. The nature of this difficulty is well explained by giving a correct copy of the admiral's letter to the Grand Master, which I have taken from the original now on file in the Record Office of this island. It reads as follows:—

To the most eminent Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cotoner, Grand Master of the Order of Malta.

Most eminent Sir,

After the tender of my humble service, with my hearty thanks for the manifold favours vouchsafed unto my Master, the King of Great Britain, &c., and for your highness' extraordinary kindness manifested to myself—and, most eminent sir, since your favour of product, I have sent on shore one of my captains to wait upon your highness with the presentment of this my grateful letter, and withal to certify to your eminence that I did, and do expect, a salute to be given by your highness to my Master's flag which I carry, correspondent to the salutes which you give to the flags of the King of Spain and the King of France, which are carried in the same place, it being the expectation of the King my Master.

Formerly your eminence was pleased to make some scruple of my command as admiral, which I humbly conceive your highness is fully satisfied in, since you received the last letter from the King of Great Britain.

Sir, I have, since my arrival at your eminence's port, often employed the Consul Desclaous to wait upon your highness concerning the salutes, but have not received any satisfactory answer thereto, which I now humbly desire may be returned unto me by my officer; and withal, that your eminence will be pleased to honour me with your commands wherein I may serve you, which shall be most cheerfully embraced, and readily performed by,

Most eminent Sir, Your highness' most humble And faithful Servant, JOHN NARBROUGH.

On board His Majesty's Ship Henrietta, Malta, October 17, 1675.

That the complaints of Sir John Narbrough, with reference to the Grand Master's refusal to salute the English flag, were, in the end, satisfactorily explained and removed, will be seen by the following extracts taken from the Diary of Henry Teonge, published in London in 1825. The reverend writer was serving as chaplain on board H. M. S. "Assistance" at the time (1675-76) his notes were written.

"August 1, 1675.—This morn wee com near Malta; before wee com to the cytty, a boate with the Malteese flagg in it coms to us to know whence wee cam. Wee told them from England; they asked if wee had a bill of health for prattick, viz., entertaynment; our captain told them he had no bill but what was in his guns' mouths. Wee cam on and anchored in the harbour betweene the old towne and the new, about nine of the clock; but must waite the governour's leasure to have leave to com on shoare, which was detarded because our captain would not salute the cytty, except they would retaliate. At last cam the Consull with his attendants to our ship (but would not com on board till our captain had been on shoare) to tell us that we had leave to com on shoare six, or eight, or ten, at a time, and might have anything that was there to be had; with a promise to accept our salute kindly. Wherupon our captain tooke a glasse of sack, and drank a health to King Charles, and fyred seven gunns: the cytty gave us five againe, which was more than they had don to all our men of warr that cam thither before."

"August 2.—This cytty is compassed almost cleane round with the sea, which makes severall safe harbours for hundreds of shipps. The people are generally extreamly courteouse, but especially to the English. A man cannot demonstrate all their excellencys and ingenuitys. Let it suffice to say thus much of this place: viz. Had a man no other business to invite him, yet it were sufficiently worth a man's cost and paines to make a voyage out of England on purpose to see that noble cytty of Malta, and their works and fortifications about it. Several of their knights and cavaliers cam on board us, six at one time, men of sufficient courage and friendly carriage, wishing us {419} good successe in our voyage, with whom I had much discourse, I being the only entertainer, because I could speak Latine; for which I was highly esteemed, and much invited on shoare again."

"August 3.—This morning a boate of ladys with their musick to our ship syd, and bottels of wine with them. They went severall times about our ship, and sang several songs very sweetly; very rich in habitt, and very courteous in behaviour; but would not com on board, though invited; but having taken their friscs, returned as they cam. After them cam, in a boate, four fryars, and cam round about our ship, puld off their hatts and capps, saluted us with congjes, and departed. After them cam a boat of musitians, playd severall lessons as they rowed gently round about us, and went their way."

"August 4.—This morning our captain was invited to dine with the Grand Master, which hindered our departure. In the mean time wee have severall of the Malteese com to visit us, all extreamly courteous. And now wee are preparing to sail for Tripoly. Deus vortat bene.

"Thus wee, th' 'Assistance,' and the new Sattee, Doe steare our course poynt blanke for Trypoly; Our ship new rigged, well stord with pigg, and ghoose a, Henns, ducks, and turkeys, and wine cald Syracoosa."

The Rev. Mr. Teonge, having returned to Malta on the 11th of January, 1675-6, thus continues:—

"This morning wee see the famous island of Malta; coming under Goza, a small island adjoyning to Malta, wee discover a sayle creeping closse to the shoare; we hayle her with a shott—she would not budge; we sent a second, and then a third, falling very neare her; then the leiuetenant cam aboard us, and payd for the shott; it proved a pittifull Frenchman."

"January 12.—A little after one a clock wee are at anchor in Malta harbour, and have many salutes. But we have no prattick by reason of the plague, which is begun heare."

"January 15.—This morning wee warp out of the harbour with six merchantmen and a doggar, which wee are to convoy towards the strait's mouth. Here also wee took in two mounths' provisions and fresh water. And as wee goe out wee meete six gallys of Malta coming in in all their pompe, and they salute us, and wee them, and part. And heare at Malta (which was very strainge to mee), at this time of the year, wee have radishes, cabbiges, and excellent colly flowers, and large ones for a penny a-piece."

On the 29th January, 1675-6, the reverend writer again returned to Malta, and made under this date the following note:—

"This day David Thomas and Marlin, the coock, and our master's boy, had their hands stretched out, and with their backs to the rayles, and the master's boy with his back to the maine mast, all looking one upon the other, and in each of their mouths a mandler spike, viz., an iron pinn clapt closse into their mouths, and tyd behind their heads; and there they stood a whole houre, till their mouths were very bloody, an excellent cure for swearers."

"February 4.—This day dined with us Sir Roger Strickland, Captaine Temple, Captaine Harrice, and one gentleman more. Wee had a gallant baked pudding, an excellent legg of porke, and colliflowers, an excellent dish made of piggs' petti-toes, two roasted piggs, one turkey cock, a rosted hogg's head, three ducks, a dish of Cyprus burds, and pistachoes and dates together, and store of good wines."

"February 5.—God blesse those that are at sea! The weather is very bad."

"February 11.—Sir John Narbrough cam in from Trypoly, and four more ships with him. The noble Malteese salute him with forty-five gunns; he answers them with so many that I could not count them. And what with our salutes, and his answers, there was nothing but fyre and smoake for almost two hours."

The great length of this communication prevents my taking other extracts from a "Diary" which contains much interesting information, and is written in a quaint and humorous style.

WILLIAM WINTHROP.

La Valetta, Malta.

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

Whipping a Lady.—The following is from a MS. Diary of the Rev. John Lewis, Rector of Chalfield and Curate of Tilbury:

"August, 1719. Sir Christopher Hales being jilted by a lady who promised him marriage, and put him off on the day set for their marriage, gave her a good whipping at parting. Remember the story."

Is there any corroboration of this?

E. D.

Mother of Thirty Children.—An instance has come under my notice of a woman, whose maiden name was Lee, born in Surrey; married, first, Berry, with whom she lived thirty years, and had twenty-six children (four times twins): all survived infancy. Married, secondly, Taylor, by whom she had four children. Died at Stratford, aged eighty-four. Within a few weeks of her death, was as upright as a young woman. At the time of her death, there were one hundred and twenty-two of her descendants living. She lived most of her married life near Whitechapel and Radcliffe, and was buried in the Brickfield burying-ground. She had sixteen boys and fourteen girls.

LEYTON.

"Ought" and "Aught."—I regret to observe that ought is gradually supplanting aught in our language, where the meaning intended to be conveyed is "anything." Todd's Johnson gives authorities, but may they not be errors of the press? I am aware that use has substituted nought for naught in the sense of "not anything", the latter now expressing only what is "bad," and convenience may justify that change, nought being not otherwise used. Let me add that I am the more {420} in fear for our old servant aught, who surely has done nought worthy of excommunication, from observing that such a writer as the Rev. Chevenix Trench has substituted ought for aught to express "anything." If convenience is allowed to justify our having nought and naught, it surely claims that we should keep aught and ought each for its appropriate signification in writing, impossible as it is to distinguish one from the other in speech.

[Upsilon].

Nilbud.

Walton.—The following note is written on the fly-leaf at the end of Hieron's Sermons, 1620:

"Mr. Gillamour.—I pray you be entreated to lend my wife what silver you think fittest upon this or other bookes to supplie our present wants, soe as I may have them againe when I restore it to you; you shall doo mee a greate curtesie, and I shall be very thankfull to you.

Yours to his power to be comanded, JOHS' WALTON, Cler."

I have no information as to either party, and no date is affixed to the request.

E. D.

Salutations.—The parting salutations of various nations are strikingly alike. The vale of the Latins corresponds with the [Greek: chaire] of the Greeks; and though Deity is not expressed distinctly in either, it was doubtless understood: for who can be kept in health without, as the ancients would say, the will of the gods? The Greek word perhaps has a higher signification than the Latin; for it was not a mere complimentary salutation, says Macknight: "St. John forbids it to be given to heretical teachers, Eph. ii. 10, 11." The French, on taking leave, say "Adieu," thus distinctly recognising the providential power of the Creator; and the same meaning is indeed conveyed in our English word, "good-bye," which is corruption of "God be with you." The Irish, in their warmth of manner and love of words, often extend the expression. A well-known guide, upon my leaving one of the loveliest spots in Wicklow, shook hands with me heartily, and said, in a voice somewhat more tremulous through age than it was when Tom Moore loved to listen to it: "God Almighty bless you, be with you, and guide you safely to your journey's end!" This salutation, when used thoughtfully and aright, has not only a pleasant sound, but deep meaning.

E. W. J.

Crawley.

Good Times for Equity Suitors.—Having lately met with the following particulars in Bishop Goodman's Diary, I send them for insertion, if you think fit, in "N. & Q.:"

"Then was the chancery so empty of causes, that Sir Thomas More could live in Chelsea, and yet very sufficiently discharge that office; and coming one day home by ten of the clock, whereas he was wont to stay until eleven or twelve, his lady came down to see whether he was sick or not; to whom Sir Thomas More said, 'Let your gentlewoman fetch me a cup of wine, and then I will tell you the occasion of my coming;' and when the wine came, he drank to his lady, and told her that he thanked God for it he had not one cause in chancery, and therefore came home for want of business and employment there. The gentlewoman who fetched the wine told this to a bishop, who did inform me."

ABHBA.

The Emperor of Russia and the Order of the Garter.—The Emperor of Russia is a knight of the Order of the Garter. Now, according to the statutes of the Order, no knight ought to take up arms against another, or in any way assist anybody so to do.

In illustration of this, we find it stated in Anstis' Register of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, who quotes from Caligula, L. 6., in Bib. Cott., that when the French king wished to borrow a sum of money from Henry VII., to employ in the war with the King of Naples, the answer was:

"Que le Roy ne povoit avec son honneur bailler aide et assistence a icelluy son bon frere et cousin a l'encontre du Roy de Naples, qui estoit son confrere et allye, veu et considere qu'il avoit prise et recue l'ordre de la garretiere. Et si le roi autrement faisoit, ce seroit contrevenir au serment qu'il a fait par les statuz du dit ordre."

Will the Emperor of Russia be deprived of his ill-deserved honours, or what is the course now pursued? It was not unusual formerly for kings to exchange orders, and to return them in case of war.

OSCAR BROWNING.

* * * * *

Queries.

SIR HENRY WOTTON'S VERSES, "THE CHARACTER OF A HAPPY LIFE."

Owing to the almost perfect identity of these verses with some by a German poet, George Rudolph Weckerlin, a doubt has been expressed in a German work as to whether they are to be considered the production of Sir Henry Wotton, or a translation from the Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte of Weckerlin, a lyrical poet of considerable eminence and popularity in his day, and who died in London in 1651. Weckerlin was employed in important affairs connected with the Protestants in Germany during the Thirty Years' War, as secretary to an embassy in London from that country; and was also employed on several occasions by James I. and Charles I. An edition of Weckerlin's Poems was edited by him while he resided in London, and was printed at Amsterdam in 1641, and again in 1648. A previous collection had {421} appeared at Stutgart in 1618. Many of his poems, which he had left in MS. with his brother Ludwig in Germany, perished with him during the horrors of the war. "What has become," Weckerlin feelingly exclaims, "of my Myrta, that dear poem, composed of so many sonnets and stanzas?"

Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q.," who are conversant with the literature of England and Germany during the period alluded to, may be able to solve the question as to the real author of the verses mentioned.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

Plants and Flowers.—Might I inquire of your correspondent EIRIONNACH why his long-promised Notes on the "ecclesiastical and rustic pet names" of plants and flowers have never been forthcoming? I have often lingered on the threshold of the "garden full of sunshine and of bees," where EIRIONNACH has laboured; would he kindly be my guide to the pleasant domain, and indicate (without trespassing on your columns I mean) the richest gatherings of the legendary lore and poetry of the vegetable kingdom? Are there any collections of similes drawn from plants and flowers? Dr. Aitkin has broken ground in his Essay on Poetical Similes. Any notes on this subject, addressed to the "care of the Editor," will greatly oblige

SIGMA.

Customs, London.

Quotations wanted.—Whence the following:

1. "Condendaque Lexica mandat Damnatis, poenam pro poenis omnibus unam."

Quoted at the end of the Preface to Liddell and Scott's Lexicon?

2. "Rex erat Elizabeth, sed erat Regina Jacobus?"[1]

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

[Footnote 1: Rapin has given the parentage of this pasquil at the end of his History of James I.:

"Tandis qu' Elizabeth fut Roy L'Anglois fut d'Espagne l'effroy, Maintenant, devise et caquette, Regi par la Reine Jaquette."

"Extinctus amabitur idem."

Unde?

W. T. M.

Griffith, William, Bishop of Ossory.—Any facts relative to the life of this prelate will be acceptable, as I am about to go to press with a work comprising Lives of the Bishops of Ossory.

JAMES GRAVES.

Killkenny.

"Cowperiana."—Southey, in his preface to the last volume of his edition of Cowper's Works (dated Aug. 12, 1837), speaks of his intention to publish two additional volumes under the title of Cowperiana. Were these ever published? If not, will they ever be?

W. P. STORER.

Olney, Bucks.

John Keats's Poems.—Can any of your readers inform me what legend (if any) John Keats the poet refers to in his beautiful poem of St. Agnes' Eve, st. xix., when he says:

"Never on such a night have lovers met, Since Merlin paid his demon all the monstrous debt."

And pray let me know what is implied in the concluding lines of his absurd poem of Hyperion, as they have always been a mystery to me.

[Greek: Xanthos].

Holland.—We have the kingdom of Holland, we have the Holland division of Lincolnshire, and in Lancashire we have the two townships of Downholland and Upholland. Is the derivation of each the same, and, if it be, what is the affinity?

PRESTONIENSIS.

Armorial.—Can the younger son of a peer use the supporters to his family arms?

PRESTONIENSIS.

Stoke and Upton.—These names of places are so very common, and in some counties, as Bucks, Worcester, and Devon, apply to adjoining villages, that it would be interesting to know the origin of the names, and of their association.

JNO. D. ALCROFT.

Slavery in England.—One of the recent volumes published by the Chetham Society, the Stanley Papers, part ii., contains the household books of the third and fourth Earls of Derby, temp. Queen Elizabeth. I find in the "orders touching the government of my Lo. his house," that at the date thereof (1558) slavery in some form or other existed in England, for in the mansion of this powerful noble it was provided—

"That no slaves nor boyes shall sitt in the hall, but in place therefore appoynted convenyent."

And,—

"That the yemen of horses and groomes of the stable shall not suffre any boyes or slaves to abye about the stables, nor lye in theym, nor in anie place about theym."

Was there then in England the form of slavery now in existence in the United States, and until lately in the West Indies; or was it more like the serfdom of Russia? And when was this slavery abolished in England?

PRESTONIENSIS.

"Go to Bath."—What is the origin of this saying?

R. R.

{422}

Mummy Chests.—Harris, in his Natural History of the Bible, says:

"The imperishable chests which contain the Egyptian mummies were of cypress."

Shaw, in his Travels, p. 376., says:

"The mummy chests, and whatever figures and instruments are found in the catacombs, are all of them of sycamore."

Which is right, and how can we account for the contradiction?

N. L. J.

The Blechenden Family.—Thomas Blechenden, D.D., a Prebendary of Canterbury, whose will was proved in 1663, had a younger brother Richard, who had a daughter Mary. It is desired to know if Mary married, and if so, to whom? The family were of Ruffin's Hill in Kent, and Richard is described as "of London."

GWILLIM.

Philadelphia.

Francklyn Household Book.—In the extracts from this MS., given in the Archaeologia, vol. xv. p. 157., is an entry,—

"Given to the prisoners at White Chappel, 1s."

Who were they?

"Nov. 12, 1624. Given to Mr. Atkynson's man for writing out the causes which are to be hearde in the Star Chamber this tearme, 1s."

Who and what was Mr. Atkynson?

"June 13, 1625. Spent by Wyllyam when he was sworn by the pages, 6s. 6d."

What does this refer to?

"April 17, 1625. Given to Sir Charles Morrison's groomes, 3s."

Who and what was Sir Charles Morrison?

In another extract given elsewhere, I find,—

"August 5, 1644. For bay salt to stop the barrells, 6d."

What does this mean?

"January 17, 1644. For four giggs and scourgesticks, 1s."

What are giggs and scourgesticks?

"November 10, 1646. For haulfe a pound of cakes and jumballs, 10d."

What are jumballs?

Can any of your readers tell me where this Livre des Acconts pour Chevalier Jean Francklyn en son [sic] Maison au Wilsden now is? When the extracts were published in the Archaeologia, it was said to be in the possession of the late Sir John Chardin Musgrave, Bart. I have applied to the present Sir George Musgrave, and also to George Musgrave, Esq., of Gordon Square, and Bedfordshire, who is descended from Sir Christopher Musgrave, who married to his second wife a daughter of Sir George Francklyn; but neither can give me any tidings of this MS.

J. K.

Lord Rosehill's Marriage.—An American paper of August 22, 1768, has the following:

"Last week was married in Maryland, the Right Honorable Lord Rosehill to Miss Margaret Cheer, a lady much admired for her theatrical performances."

Who was Lord Rosehill?

W. D. R.

Philadelphia.

Colonel Butler.—Can you give me any information respecting Colonel Butler, who fought during the civil wars, I fear, under the banner of the usurper? He belonged to a Lincolnshire family, and either his daughter or some relative married a person of the name of Hairby or Harby.

AGARES.

Willesdon, co. Middlesex.—Information is solicited respecting the families of Willesdon, Roberts, Francklyn, Barne, Poulett, Atye, Troyford, and Nicolls of this place, as well as of other families known to have belonged to this parish.

Any communications as to the church, its original construction, or its reconstruction about the end of the fourteenth, or beginning of the fifteenth, century, or illustrative of the general history of the parish in early or recent times, or biographical notices of its vicars, will be gladly received; and as such information may not be generally interesting to your readers, I would request contributors to address any communications they may be pleased to favour me with, to J. K., care of Mr. Fenton, Kensall Green, Harrow Road, Middlesex.

J. K.

* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

Ashes of "Lignites."—A paragraph has been making the circuit of the public papers, recommending the use of ashes of lignites, to preserve esculent roots. It may have originated with some dealer in lignites; but plain dealers would like to be informed what lignites are?

RUSTICUS.

[Lignite is a fossil wood carbonized to a certain degree, but retaining distinctly its woody texture. Dr. MacCulloch, On Rocks, p. 636., observes: "In its chemical properties, lignite holds a station intermediate between peat and coal; while among the varieties a gradation in this respect may be traced; the brown and more organised kinds approaching very near to peat, while the more compact kinds, such as jet, approximate to coal."]

Bishop Bathurst.—I have heard it often asserted that the late Dr. Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich, was the youngest of forty-two children. Can this {423} be satisfactorily ascertained? I remember hearing it many years since during the bishop's lifetime. Such a circumstance is not beyond the bounds of possibility, if we are to believe the Parish Register of Bermondsey; for there appears an entry there of the marriage, on Jan. 4, 1624-5, of James Harriott, Esq., one of the forty children of his father. I myself knew intimately a lady, a clergyman's widow, who was the mother of twenty-six children (Vol. v., p. 106.; Vol. ix., p. 186.); and I have heard it said that one of her brothers-in-law was father of twenty-four, and another of fourteen children. The late Sir Robert Wigram, Bart., had twenty-four children: he died at the age of eighty-six.

Y. S. M.

[Mrs. Thistlethwaite, in her Memoirs of her father, p. 6, states, that "Benjamin Bathurst, Esq., the father of the Bishop of Norwich, having married, first, Miss Poole, an heiress, he had issue by her twenty-two children; by his second wife, Miss Brodrick, daughter of Dr. Brodrick, a Brother of Lord Midleton's, Mr. Bathurst had a second family of fourteen children, of whom my father was third child and second son. He was a seven months' child, and I have heard that he was so extremely small an infant, that he could not be dressed like other children for some time after his birth, but was obliged to be wrapped in cotton. My father used to say in a joke, that he was wrapped in cotton, and put into a quart mug." The bishop's father had four children, one daughter and three sons. These four had a hundred children between them, thirty-six of whom fell to the lot of the bishop's father.]

"Selah."—What is the meaning of the word Selah, which occurs so often in the Psalms? I have observed that most people, in reading, omit it. Should it be read or not?

F. M. MIDDLETON.

[A diversity of opinion prevails as to the exact import of this term. The great musical critic Mattheson, in a work written on the word, having rejected eleven meanings, decides in favour of the twelfth, which makes the word equivalent to the modern Italian da capo. In this view, the word selah directs a repetition of the air or song from the commencement, to the parts where it is placed. Herder held that selah denoted a swell, or a change in the rapidity of the movement, or in the key. The Easterns, he says, are fond of a very uniform, and, as it appears to Europeans, mournful music; but at certain points, they of a sudden change the key, and pass into a different melody. These points, he thinks, were among the Hebrews indicated by the word selah. The balance of authority, however, is in favour of the former view.—The People's Dict. of the Bible. Consult also, Julius Bate's Critica Hebraea, and Gesenius' Hebrew and English Lexicon.]

The Long Parliament.—Where is a list of it, including its various changes, to be seen?

Y. S. M.

[Among the King's Pamphlets in the British Museum (Press-mark, E. 1836.) is the following "A List of the Names of the Long Parliament, anno 1640; likewise of the Parliament holden at Oxford; as also of the three ensuing Parliaments holden at Westminster in the years 1653, 1654, 1656, and of the late Parliament, dissolved April 22, 1659, with a Catalogue of the Lords of the other House. London: Printed in the year 1659." There is also another pamphlet entitled "The Names of the Members of Parliament which began on the 4th June, 1653. 4to. London, 1654."]

"The Three Pigeons."—Was it the house at Brentford, mentioned by DR. RIMBAULT (Vol. ix., p. 331.), that suggested Tony Lumpkin's convivial ballad in praise of "The Three Jolly Pigeons?"

G. TAYLOR.

Reading.

[It is highly probable that the scene "An Ale-house Room" in Goldsmith's comedy She Stoops to Conquer is the "Three Pigeons" at Brentford, as this remarkable hostel dates its origin from the days of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson. It is frequently mentioned by the early dramatists, and appears at one time to have been in some repute, having had for its landlord the celebrated tragedian, John Lowin, cotemporary of Shakspeare, and one of the original actors in his plays, who died in this house at a very advanced age:

"Thou art admirably suited for the Three Pigeons At Brentford, I swear I know thee not."—The Roaring Girl.

"We will turn our courage to Braynford—westward, My bird of the night—to the Pigeons."—Ben Jonson's Alchymist.

See Faulkner's History of Brentford, p. 144.]

Captain Cook.—Wanted, the pedigree of Capt. Jas. Cook (the circumnavigator), and full account of his lineal and collateral descendants.

WARDALE G. MCALLISTER.

Philadelphia.

[Dr. Kippis's Life of Captain Cook may be consulted with advantage. It is carefully compiled, and will be found in the fourth volume of his Biographia Britannica, as well as in a separate 4to. volume, 1788. For the death of the eldest and only surviving son of the celebrated navigator, see Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1794, p. 182., and p. 199. of the same volume.]

Varnish for old Books.—Can any of your readers oblige me with a good receipt for varnishing the bindings of old books? Bees-wax and turpentine, used very thin, is a tolerably good one; but I am desirous of learning another.

INVESTIGATOR.

[A little common glue-size, made thin, would be better than bees-wax and turpentine. The best varnish that can be used is that made in France, and may be had at Barbe Lechertier's, Artists' Colourman, 60. Regent's Quadrant. It is called French varnish for leather, and is sold at 14s. per pound. There is also a common varnish for leather, which can be purchased {424} at Reilly's varnish manufactory, 19. Old Street, St. Luke's. It is sold at about 3s. 6d. per pint.]

Cabbages.—When were cabbages first cultivated in England? Who introduced them?

C. H.

[Evelyn says, "'Tis scarce a hundred years since we first had cabbages out of Holland, Sir Anthony Ashley, of Wiburg St. Giles, in Dorsetshire, being, as I am told, the first who planted them in England."—Acetaria, sect. 11. They were introduced into Scotland by the soldiers of Cromwell's army.]

* * * * *

Replies.

ADDISON'S HYMNS.

(Vol. ix., p. 373.)

After the correspondence that took place ("N. & Q.," Vol. v.), I had hoped that Addison would have been left in peaceable possession of those "divine hymns" ascribed to his pen; but this is not to be. A former correspondent, J. G. F., doubted whether they were not composed by Andrew Marvell? This inquiry was, I hope, satisfactorily answered, by myself in the first instance, and afterwards by MR. CROSSLEY, Vol. v., pp. 513, 548.

In No. 234. a later correspondent, S. M., asks whether the hymn "When rising from the bed of death," which he says is "taken from the chapter on 'Death and Judgment,' in Addison's Evidences of the Christian Religion," was written by Addison or Dr. Isaac Watts? In what edition of the Evidences does S. M. find either the chapter he speaks of, or this hymn? The place which it occupies is in No. 513. of the Spectator. As I have elsewhere stated, Addison was accustomed to throw a little mystery over these poems; and "the excellent man in holy orders," to whom this hymn is attributed, is unquestionably the ideal clergyman, the occasional visitor of the club, spoken of in the second number of the Spectator.

In the letter that accompanies this hymn, the supposed writer says,—

"The indisposition which has long hung upon me, is at last grown to such a head, that it must quickly make an end of me or of itself.... Were I able to dress up several thoughts of a serious nature, which have made great impressions on my mind during a long fit of sickness, they might not be an improper entertainment for one of your Saturday's papers."

What a natural remark from a writer who, Addison tells us, treats divine topics "as one who has no interests in this world, as one who is hastening to the object of all his wishes, and conceives hope from his decays and infirmities!" This sublime paper, or "series of thoughts," stamped with the peculiar beauties and polish of Addison's style, closes with the hymn in question, composed, as the writer says, "during this my sickness."

Watts survived the date of this paper above thirty-five years. Had it been his own composition, would he not have claimed the authorship, and incorporated the hymn amongst his sacred songs?

Let us not, in the pages of "N. & Q." at least, witness farther attempts to misappropriate the writings of one, whose undying fame will be cotemporaneous with the literature of England. Still, in the beautiful language of Addison's friend Tickell, may he in his hymns—

——"warn poor mortals left behind, A task well suited to his gentle mind."

J. H. MARKLAND.

* * * * *

LONGFELLOW.

(Vol. ix., pp. 174. 255.)

A communication from a gentleman, who married into a family of this name, informs me that the Longfellows of Brecon were a branch of a Yorkshire family; and that a portion of more than one family, probably from the same county, are now settled in Kent. My friend has not before had his attention turned to this subject, but he promises farther inquiry.

T. S. N.

Bermondsey.

Why should W. P. STORER suppose that the name of Longfellow originated otherwise than in the lengthy proportions of an ancestor? Surely the well-known surnames, Rufus, Longshanks, Strongbow, are sufficient to warrant us in saying that Longfellow need have nothing to do with Longueville. From what shall we derive the names of Longman, Greathead, Littlejohn, and Tallboy?

JOHN P. STILWELL.

Dorking.

By the kindness of the Registrar-General, I am enabled to point, with some precision, to a few of the localities in which the name of Longfellow exists in this country. Upon reference to the well-arranged indexes in his office, it appears that the deaths of sixty-one persons bearing this name were recorded in the years 1838 to 1852; and of these, fifty occurred in the West Riding of Yorkshire, namely, in Leeds thirty-five; Otley, and its neighbourhood, ten; Selby four, and in Keighley one. The other instances were, in the metropolis seven, and one each in Swansea, Newport (Monmouth), Tewkesbury, and Hastings. More than one third of the males bore the Christian name of William.

It is not probable that the Longfellows are numerous in any part of England: indeed, as we {425} know that of the general population the average annual mortality is 2.2 per cent, the sixty-one deaths in fifteen years, or four deaths yearly, might be supposed to result from about two hundred persons of the name; but inferences of this nature, except when large masses are dealt with, are often very fallacious.

May not the derivation of the name be from long fallow, of the same family as Fallows, Fellowes, Fallowfield, and Langmead, which are not uncommon?

JAMES T. HAMMACK.

19. St. Mark's Crescent, Regent's Park.

C. H. quotes some lines said to have been written on a window-shutter of the "Golden Lion," Brecon, when a Mr. Longfellow was proprietor, fifty or sixty years ago:

"Tom Longfellow's name is most justly his due; Long his neck, long his bill, which is very long too; Long the time ere your horse to the stable is led," &c.

These lines remind me of the following passage of the poet Longfellow's in his Hyperion, which, not to speak of a possible plagiarism, has at least a strange family resemblance:

"If you go to Zurich, beware how you stop at 'The Raven.' I wrote in the travellers' book—

'Beware of the Raven of Zurich; 'Tis a bird of omen ill, With a noisy and an unclean breast, And a very, very long bill.'

"If you go to 'The Golden Falken' you will find it there. I am the author of those lines—LONGFELLOW."

G. DYMOND.

* * * * *

BOOKS BURNT BY THE HANGMAN.

(Vol. ix., pp. 78. 226.)

As the subject is interesting, you will probably permit me to cite a few more examples:—In Geo. Chalmers' Catalogue, "Burnt by the hangman" is appended to a copy of Wm. Thomas' Historie of Italie, 1549; but I do not find this stated elsewhere. The opinions emitted in this work are of a free nature certainly, in respect to the governed and governing powers; but whatever was the fate of his book, I rather think Thomas (who was executed in Mary's reign) suffered for some alleged act of overt treason, and not for publishing seditious books. An Information from the States of the Kingdome of Scotland to the Kingdome of England, showing how they have bin dealt with by His Majesty's Commissioners, 1640: in a proclamation (March 30, 1640) against seditious pamphlets sent from Scotland, this tract was prohibited on account of its containing many most notorious falsehoods, scandals, &c.; it was ordered to be burnt by the common hangman. (Rymer's Foed., as quoted by Chalmers.)

There is now before me a modern impression of an old cut in two compartments: the upper representing the demolition of the "Crosse in Cheapeside on the 2nd May, 1643;" and the lower a goodly gathering of the public around a bonfire, viewing, with apparent satisfaction, the committal of a book to the flames by the common executioner, with this inscription:

"10th May, the Boocke of Spartes vpon the Lord's Day, was burnt by the hangman in the place where the Crosse stoode, and at (the) Exchange."

That great lover of sights, Master Pepys, notices one of these exhibitions:

"1661, 28th May, with Mr. Shipley," says our gossip, "to the Exchange about business; and there, by Mr. Rawlinson's favour, got into a balcone over against the Exchange, and there saw the hangman burn, by vote of Parliament, two old acts: the one for constituting us a Commonwealth, and the other I have forgot; which still do make me think of the greatness of this late turne, and what people will do to-morrow against what they all, thro' profit or fear, did promise and practise this day."

A note to this passage in the Diary (vol. i. p. 236., 3rd edit.) supplies the defective memory of Pepys, by informing us that the last was an "Act for subscribing the Engagement;" and adds, on the same day there had been burnt by the hangman, at Westminster Hall, the "Act for erecting a High Court of Justice for trying and judging Charles Stuart." They seem to have been just then cleansing out the Augean stable of the Commonwealth: for it is added, "two more acts" were similarly burnt next day.

In A Letter to a Clergyman, relating to his Sermon on the 30th Jan., by a Lover of Truth, 1746, the lay author (one Coade, I believe), inveighing against high churchmen, reminds the preacher that he—

"Was pleased to dress up the principles of the Presbyterians in a frightful shape; but let me tell you, Sir, in my turn, that the principles of your party have been burnt, not by a rude and lawless rabble, but by the common hangman, in broad day-light, before the Royal Exchange in London, and by authority of Parliament. Perhaps," he continues, "you never heard of this contemptuous treatment of the Oxford principles, and therefore I will give it you from the Parliamentary Records:—'Anno Domini 1710. The House of Lords, taking into consideration the judgment and decree of the University of Oxford, passed in their Convocation July 21, 1683,—it was resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that the said judgment and decree contains in it several positions contrary to the Constitution of this kingdom, and destructive to the Protestant Succession as by law established. And it was thereupon ordered, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that the said judgment and decree shall be burnt by the hands of the common hangman before the Royal {426} Exchange, between hours of twelve and one, on Monday the 17th March, in the presence of the Lord Mayor of the City of London,' &c."

Doleman's Conference about the next Succession to the Crown of England, reprinted at N. with licence, in 1681, was, in 1683, condemned by the University of Oxford, and burnt by the common hangman.

In the above examples I have confined myself to those books, &c. only which were expressly consigned to the flames by the hangman. The instances of book-burning where this indignity was either not imposed, or its infliction not recorded, are numerous. Among the curiosities of literature of Elizabeth's reign, were certain books ascribed to a Dutchman, by name Henry Nicholas, translated into English, and probably imported from the Low Countries. This person, imbibing the "damnable heresies" of David George, of Leyden, became the apostle of a sect who styled themselves "The Family of Love," and their fanatical books becoming obnoxious to the dominant party, they were, by proclamation, ordered to be burnt; and, as such manifestations of the royal will usually ran, all persons were held punishable for having them in their possession. (See Herbert's Ames.) As an example of the spiritual power thus dealing with a book, apparently upon its own authority, the following may be offered:—Servetus de Trinitate, &c. (London, 1723.) This edition, which is without name of place or printer, and without date, was printed by Palmer for Osborne the bookseller; but, as soon as completed was seized at the instance of Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London, and burnt, with the exception of a very few copies. (Davis' Journey round the Library, &c.) The last unfortunate book I shall mention is the Metrical Psalms of Dod; which was also, most likely, an episcopal seizure. Mr. Holland, in his Psalmists of Britain, quoting from George Withers' Scholler's Purgatory, says, "Dod the silkman's late ridiculous translation of the Psalms was, by authority, worthily condemned to the fire," and, judging from its extreme scarcity, I should say very few escaped.

J. O.

I have not seen in your list of martyred books the following, in the year A.D. 1684: A Plea for the Nonconformists, by Thomas De Laune, Gentleman. He died in Newgate, during his imprisonment for the book, in pursuance of the following sentence:

"Ad General. Quartercal. Session. Pacis Dom. Regis tent. pro Civitat. London per adjornament, apud Justice-hall in le Old Bayly, die Mercurii Scil. Decimo Sexto die January, Anno Regis Caroli Secundi cundi nunc Ang. &c.

"Thomas De Laune Convict. pro illicite Scribend. Imprimend. et Publicand. Libel. Seditios. dert. concernen. librum Communis praecationis. Fin. 100 Marc. Et committit, etc.! Et ulterius quousq; Inven. bon. de se bene gerend. per spacium Unius Anni Integri ex tunc prox. sequen. Et quad libel. sedit. cum igne Combust. sint apud Excambium Regal. in London, et si Del. Sol. 5 shil. WAGSTAFFE."

In a letter containing a narrative of his trial and imprisonment, written by him from prison, occur many touches of humour. In his remarks on the sentence he says,—

"The six shillings to be paid on my discharge is to the hangman, for the faggots, I suppose."

"The Court told us that, in respect to our education as scholars, we should not be pillory'd, though ('twas said) we deserved it.... We were sent back to our confinement, and the next execution-day our books were burnt WITH FIRE (not with water, you must note), and we continue here; but, since I writ this, Mr. Ralphson had a supersedeas by death to a better place!"

In his account he affirms that, on his own confession of being the author of The Plea, and because he could find no bail, he was committed to Newgate—

"Lodged among the felons, whose horrid company made a perfect representation of that horrible place which you describe when you mention hell. A hard bench was my bed, and two bricks my pillow. But after two days and nights, without any refreshment, the unusualness of that society and place having impaired my health, which at the very best is tender, and crazy, I was removed, and am now in the press-yard, a place of some sobriety, though still a prison ubi nihil amabile est!"

Twenty years after, 1704, his Plea was republished, with his narrative, by one of his fellow-prisoners, who had been released, and who calls it "an elaborate piece"! He adds, that De Laune, being unable to pay

"the seventy-five pound, his children, his wife, and himself were imprison'd, and all dy'd in New-gate; of which myself was an eye-witness, and a companion with him for the same cause in the same prison, where I continued above a year after his death."

E. F. WOODMAN.

P. S.—Query, What is the meaning, in the foregoing, of the expression "at the next execution-day"? Have we any instance on record of the execution of a malefactor in front of the Royal Exchange? and, if not, did the hangman come from Newgate, after "doing duty" there, and burn the book at the Exchange?

In 1611 the books of Conrad Vorstius were publicly burnt in St. Paul's Churchyard and both the universities by the king's order. (Wilson's Life and Reign of James I., p. 120.)

On Sunday, November 21, 1613, the books of Francis Suarez, the Spanish Jesuit, were publicly burnt at St. Paul's Cross. (Court and Times of James I., vol. i. pp. 279, 280.)

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

* * * * *

{427}

SACK.

(Vol. ix., p. 272.)

With respect to the wines called Sacks, much diversity of opinion has prevailed, and although the question has been frequently discussed, it still remains, in a great measure, undetermined. It seems admitted, on all hands, that the term sack was originally applied to certain growths of Spain. In a MS. account of the disbursements by the chamberlain of the city of Worcester for 1592, Dr. Percy found the ancient mode of spelling to be seck, and thence concluded that sack is a corruption of sec, signifying a dry wine. Moreover, in the French version of a proclamation for regulating the prices of wines, issued by the privy Council in 1633, the expression vins secs corresponds with the word sacks in the original. The term sec is still used as a substantive by the French to denote a Spanish wine; and the dry wine of Xerez is known at the place of its growth by the name of vino seco. The foregoing account is abridged from The History of Ancient and Modern Wines, by Alex. Henderson, Lond. 1824. The following is taken from Cyrus Redding's History of Modern Wines, Lond. 1833:

"In the early voyages to these islands (the Canaries), quoted in Ashley's collection, there is a passage relative to sack, which will puzzle wise heads about that wine. It is under the head of 'Nicols' Voyage.' Nicols lived eight years in the islands. The island of Teneriffe produces three sorts of wine, Canary, Malvasia, and Verdona, 'which may all go under the denomination of sack.' The term then was applied neither to sweet nor dry wines exclusively, but to Canary, Xeres (i. e. sherry), or Malaga generally. In Anglo-Spanish dictionaries of a century and a quarter old, sack is given as Vino de Canarias. Hence it was Canary sack, Xeres sack, or Malaga sack."

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

In reply to your correspondent, I believe sack to be nothing but vino secco, dry wine, probably identical with sherry or madeira. I once, when an undergraduate at Oxford, ordered a dozen from a travelling agent to a London wine merchant, probably from Shakspearian associations, and my belief is that what he sold me under that name was an Italian wine of some sort, bearing a good deal of resemblance to the vino panto, of which Perugia is the head-quarters.

B. D.

This is the same wine which is now named sherry. Falstaff calls it sherris sack, and also sherris only, using in fact both names indiscriminately (2 Henry IV., Act IV. Sc. 3.). For various commentaries regarding it, see Blount's Glossographia; Dr. Venner's Via recta ad Vitam longam, published in 1637; Nares' Glossary, &c. Cotgrave, in his Dictionary, makes sack to be derived from vin sec, French; and it is called seck in an article by Bishop Percy, from an old account-book at Worcester, anno Elizbethae 34.

N. L. J.

* * * * *

IRISH LAW IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

(vol. ix., p. 270.)

What has been mistaken by your correspondent for a piece of Irish barbarity, was, until the Act 12 Geo. III. c. 20., the usual punishment awarded by the law to culprits standing mute upon an arraignment of felony (that is, without speaking at all, or without putting himself upon God and the country). The judgment in such case was:

"That the man or woman should be remanded to the prison, and laid there in some low and dark room, where they should lie naked on the bare earth, without any litter, rushes, or other clothing, and without any garment about them, but something to cover their privy parts, and that they should lie upon their backs, their heads uncovered and their feet, and one arm to be drawn to one quarter of the room with a cord, and the other arm to another quarter, and in the same manner to be done with their legs; and there should be laid upon their bodies iron and stone, so much as they might bear, and more; and the next day following, to leave three morsels of barley bread without any drink, and the second day to drink thrice of the water next to the house of the prison (except running water), without any bread; and this to be their diet until they were dead. So as, upon the matter, they should die three manner of ways, by weight, by famine, and by cold. And the reason of this terrible judgment was because they refused to stand to the common law of the land."—2 Inst. 178, 179.

In the Year-Book of 8 Henry IV. the form of the judgment is first given. The Marshal of the King's Bench is ordered to put the criminals into "diverses measons bases et estoppes, que ils gisent par la terre touts nuds forsque leurs braces, que ils mettroit sur chascun d'eux tants de fer et poids quils puissent porter et plus," &c., (as above).

It appears also, from Barrington's Observations on the Statutes, that, until the above-mentioned act, it was usual to torture a prisoner by tying his thumbs tightly together with whipcord in order to extort a plea; and he mentions the following instances where one or more of these barbarous cruelties have been inflicted:

"In 1714 a prisoner's thumbs were thus tied at the same place" (Old Bailey), "who then pleaded; and in January, 1720, William Spigget submitted in the same manner after the thumbs being tied as usual, and his accomplice, Phillips, was absolutely pressed for a considerable time, till he begged to stand on his trial. In April, 1720, Mary Andrews continued so obstinate, that three whipcords were broken before she would plead. In December, 1721, Nathanael Haws suffered in the same manner by squeezing the thumbs; after {428} which he continued under the press for seven minutes with 250 lbs., and then submitted."

Barrington also says in the text:

"As it is very unusual for criminals to stand mute on their trials in more modern days, and it was not unfrequent, if we go some centuries back in English History, it may not be improper to observe, that the occasion of its being then more common, was to prevent forfeitures, and involving perhaps innocent children in their parents' guilt. These forfeitures only accrued upon judgment of life and limb, and, to the disgrace of the crown, were too frequently levied with the utmost rigour. The sentence, however, hath continued to be put into execution till the late Act of Parliament (12 Geo. III. c. 20.) properly abolished it."

He mentions two other cases, one of which happened at the Sussex assizes, under Baron Thompson, and the other at Cambridge, in 1741, when Baron Carter was the judge. I do not think there are any more modern instances than these, for they are the only ones cited by counsel in General Picton's case, in justification of inflicting torture on a prisoner. (State Trials, vol. xxx.) The Marquis Beccaria, in an exquisite piece of raillery, has proposed this problem with a gravity and precision truly mathematical:

"The force of the muscles and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to make himself guilty of a given crime."—1 Bl. Com. 327. n.

A prisoner standing mute at the present day would be sentenced to undergo the punishment that would be awarded to him, if found guilty of the crime laid to his charge.

INVESTIGATOR.

Manchester, April 4, 1854.

Blackstone (book iv. chap. 25.) speaks of the cases in which punishment of "peine forte et dure" was inflicted according to the ancient law. It would occupy too great space to quote what he says on this point, and, therefore I must refer your correspondent to his work itself, where he will also find an inquiry into its origin. The punishment is described almost in the words of your correspondent's quotation; thus:

"That the prisoner be remanded to the prison from whence he came, and be put into a low, dark chamber; and there be laid on his back, on the bare floor, naked, unless where decency forbids, that there be placed upon his body as great a weight of iron as he could bear, and more; that he have no sustenance, save only, on the first day, three morsels of the worst bread, and, on the second day, three draughts of standing water, that should be nearest to the prison door; and in this situation this should be alternately his daily diet, till he died, or (as anciently the judgment ran) till he answered."

Blackstone farther intimates that this punishment was abolished by statute 12 Geo. III. c. 20., which shows, of course, that it continued to be according to law for more than thirty years after the date mentioned by ABHBA.

R. O.

The punishment, or more properly torture, alluded to by ABHBA, was the "peine forte et dure," commonly applied in the early part of the last century to such criminals as refused to plead. Many died under it in order to save their estates, &c. from forfeiture to the crowns. In my forthcoming anecdotes of "The Eighteenth Century," several cases are cited from the newspapers of the time; but, as the MS. is now in the printer's hands, I cannot refer to them. Writing from memory, I think that the last case in which this torture was applied at the Old Bailey in London was in 1735, and reported in the London Magazine of that year. The "Press-yard" at Newgate derives its name from being the scene of these tortures.

ALEXANDER ANDREWS.

* * * * *

JOB XIX. 26.

(Vol. ix., p. 303.)

Perhaps the best mode in which I can comply with MR. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY'S request, is to send for insertion in the "N. & Q." my MS. note on the text in question:

[Hebrew: W'CHR 'WRY NQPW Z'T] [Hebrew: WMBSHRY 'CHZH 'LWH:]

The difficulties which the reader experiences, on reading the authorised version of this passage, are by no means trifling. Every one knows that the words printed in Italics are not to be found in the original; the strictly literal rendering, according to the construction put upon the verse by our translators, would therefore run thus:

"And after my skin, destroy this, Yet in my flesh shall I see God."

To say the least of it, "it is hard to be understood." The three words in Italics, arbitrarily introduced, make the passage by no means more intelligible.

The erudite author of the marginal readings (see "N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 108.) felt the difficulty, and therefore proposed another translation, which is,—

"After I shall awake, though this body be destroyed, Yet out of my flesh shall I see God."

By an effort of violent criticism, [Hebrew: 'WRY] might be translated my awaking; but it will require an extraordinary critical mind to turn [Hebrew: NQPW Z'T] into though this body be destroyed.

The difficulties seem to have originated with the misapprehension of the proper meaning of the verb [Hebrew: NQP] here. Instead of translating it according to its primitive signification, viz. to surround {429} a foreign sense has been palmed upon it, viz. to destroy. Job, no doubt, meant to say thus:

"And after my skin has returned, this shall be; And out of my flesh shall I see God."

Thus the literal meaning demonstrates a connecting link between verses 25 and 26. The authorised version and the marginal reading seem to lack that link:

"And I know that my Redeemer liveth, And He shall at length abide upon the earth."

But would you know when this at length is to take place? It will come to pass when a shaking of the dry bones shall take place, when bone to bone shall be joined, when sinews and flesh shall come upon them, and skin cover them above; that is, when the skeleton of my mutilated body shall be raised a glorified body. In other words,—

"And after my skin returned, this shall be; And out of my flesh shall I see God."

The most ancient translators have evidently put this construction upon the verse under consideration. The Chaldee paraphrase runs thus:

1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse