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Chapter V, "The World's Columbian Exposition" from Volume V of "History of the United States" by E. Benjamin Andrews (1905) is included to provide a contemporary description of the Exposition. ]
OFFICIAL VIEWS OF THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION
ISSUED BY THE
DEPARTMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHY
C. D. ARNOLD H. D. HIGINBOTHAM Official Photographers
PRESS CHICAGO PHOTO-GRAVURE CO.
Scene Plate Administration Building 23, 25, 33 Agricultural Building 18 Arabian Village 112, 113, 114 Austrian Exhibit 9 Band Stand 26 Battle Ship "Illinois" 69 Belgian Exhibit. 10 Bell Telephone Exhibit 32 Blarney Castle 93 Brazilian Building 74 Cafe de la Marine 52 Cairo Street 103 Ceylon Building 79 Chocolate Pavilion 14 Choral Hall 42 Cliff Dwellers 90 Colonnade 20 Columbian Fountain 24, 28 Columbus' Caravels 85, 86 Court of Honor 15, 115 Dahomey Village 110 Donegal Castle. 95 Electricity Building 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 Ferris Wheel 91, 105 Fine Arts Palace 59, 60, 61 Fisheries Building 46, 53 French Exhibit 10 French Government Building 73 General Views 4, 16, 17, 19, 21. 27, 28, 33, 38, 44, 46, 48, 62, 66, 68, 97, 98 German Government Building 72 German Exhibits 8, 40, 87 German Village 99, 100 Government Buildings 54, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 Guatemala Building 78 Hagenbeck's Arena 94 Hayti Building 75 Horticultural Building 43, 57 Illinois Building 47 Indian Pavilion 81 Indians' Wigwams, etc. 88, 89 Japanese Exhibits 49, 50, 51, 54, 55 Johore Bungalow 101 Krupp Building 87 Lapland Village 111 Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 21, 24, 56 Machinery Hall 22, 24, 25 Merchant Tailors Building 58 Midway Views 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114 Mines Building 34, 35 Movable Sidewalk 83 New South Wales Building 75 New York Building 64 Norwegian Exhibit 11 Old Vienna 106, 107, 108, 109 Pennsylvania Building 65 Peristyle 12 Peristyle and Quadriga 13 Rabida Convent 84 Russian Exhibit 7 Samoan Village 96 Spanish Building 72 State Buildings 47, 63, 64, 65 Swedish Building 75 Terminal Station 36 Tiffany and Gorham Exhibits 6 Train of 1831 37 Transportation Building 39, 40, 41 Turkish Building 77 Turkish Village 102, 104 U. S. Government Building 54 U. S. Life Saving Station 67 Venezuela Building 76 Venetian Boat 35 Victoria House 71 Viking Ship 72 Whaleback at Pier 88 West Point Cadets Encampment 67 Woman's Building 45, 40 Wooded Island 52 World's Congress of Beauty 98
PLATE 1—MANUFACTURES AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
PLATE 2—NORTHERN FACADE OF LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
PLATE 3—LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING—WEST ENTRANCE.
PLATE 4—BIRDS EYE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
PLATE 5—SOUTHWEST PAVILION OF LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
PLATE 6—TIFFANY AND GORHAM EXHIBITS—MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 7—RUSSIAN EXHIBIT—MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 8—ENTRANCE TO GERMAN EXHIBIT—LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
PLATE 9—AUSTRIAN EXHIBIT—MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 10—FRENCH AND BELGIAN SECTIONS—MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 11—NORWEGIAN EXHIBIT—MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 12—THE PERISTYLE.
PLATE 13—PERISTYLE AND QUADRIGA.
PLATE 14—A CHOCOLATE PAVILION.
PLATE 15—THE COURT OF HONOR.
PLATE 16—A VIEW NEAR THE PERISTYLE.
PLATE 17—LOOKING WEST FROM PERISTYLE.
PLATE 18—AGRICULTURAL BUILDING.
PLATE 19—GENERAL VIEW—LOOKING TOWARDS COLONNADE.
PLATE 20—THE COLONNADE.
PLATE 21—THE LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING FROM COLONNADE.
PLATE 22—PALACE OF MECHANIC ARTS.
PLATE 23—ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.
PLATE 24—THE COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN.
PLATE 25—SECTION OF PALACE OF MECHANIC ARTS AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.
PLATE 26—BAND STAND AT ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.
PLATE 27—VIEW FROM ELECTRICITY BUILDING—LOOKING SOUTHEAST.
PLATE 28—ELECTRICITY BUILDING AND COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN.
PLATE 29—ELECTRICITY BUILDING.
PLATE 30—INTERIOR OF ELECTRICITY BUILDING.
PLATE 31—BASE OF ELECTRIC TOWER.—ELECTRICITY BUILDING.
PLATE 32—BELL TELEPHONE EXHIBIT—ELECTRICITY BUILDING.
PLATE 33—ADMINISTRATION BUILDING FROM WOODED ISLAND.
PLATE 34—MINES BUILDING—FROM THE NORTH.
PLATE 35—VENETIAN BOAT ON THE LAGOON AT NORTH ENTRANCE OF MINES BUILDING.
PLATE 36—THE TERMINAL STATION.
PLATE 37—FIRST TRAIN IN STATE OF NEW YORK, RUN ON THE MOHAWK & HUDSON R. R., 1831.
PLATE 38—LOOKING NORTH FROM TERMINAL STATION.
PLATE 39—TRANSPORTATION BUILDING.
PLATE 40—A GERMAN GATEWAY IN WROUGHT IRON—TRANSPORTATION BUILDING.
PLATE 41—THE GOLDEN DOOR, TRANSPORTATION BUILDING.
PLATE 42—CHORAL HALL.
PLATE 43—HORTICULTURAL BUILDING FROM WOODED ISLAND.
PLATE 44—LOOKING SOUTH FROM LOGGIA OF WOMAN'S BUILDING.
PLATE 45—WOMAN'S BUILDING.
PLATE 46—BRAZIL SWEDEN CAFE DE LA MARINE FISHERIES LOOKING EAST FROM WOMAN'S BUILDING.
PLATE 47—THE ILLINOIS BUILDING.
PLATE 48—LOOKING WEST FROM CAFE DE LA MARINE.
PLATE 49—VIEW OF JAPANESE TEA GARDEN—FROM LAGOON.
PLATE 50—THE JAPANESE TEA GARDEN.
PLATE 51—JAPANESE BOAT ON THE LAGOON.
PLATE 52—CAFE DE LA MARINE.
PLATE 53—FISHERIES BUILDING FROM WOODED ISLAND.
PLATE 54—UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING AND JAPANESE HO-O-DEN.
PLATE 55—THE JAPANESE HO-O-DEN.
PLATE 56—LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING FROM WOODED ISLAND.
PLATE 57—WOODED ISLAND NEAR HORTICULTURAL BUILDING.
PLATE 58—MERCHANT TAILORS BUILDING.
PLATE 59—PALACE OF FINE ARTS.
PLATE 60—PALACE OF FINE ARTS—SECTION OF SOUTH FRONT.
PLATE 61—INTERIOR OF PALACE OF FINE ARTS.
PLATE 62—FEEDING THE DUCKS.
PLATE 63—AVENUE OF STATE BUILDINGS.
PLATE 64—NEW YORK STATE BUILDING.
PLATE 65—PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING.
PLATE 66—LOOKING WEST FROM LIFE SAVING STATION.
PLATE 67—UNITED STATES LIFE SAVING STATION.
PLATE 68—ENCAMPMENT OF WEST POINT CADETS, GOVERNMENT PLAZA.
PLATE 69—BATTLE SHIP "ILLINOIS."
PLATE 70—THE VIKING SHIP.
PLATE 71—GREAT BRITAIN, VICTORIA HOUSE.
PLATE 72—BUILDINGS OF SPANISH AND GERMAN GOVERNMENTS.
PLATE 73—GOVERNMENT BUILDING, FRANCE.
PLATE 74—THE BRAZILIAN BUILDING.
PLATE 75—GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, SWEDEN, HAYTI AND NEW SOUTH WALES.
PLATE 76—GOVERNMENT BUILDING, VENEZUELA.
PLATE 77—TURKISH BUILDING.
PLATE 78—GUATEMALA BUILDING.
PLATE 79—THE CEYLON BUILDING.
PLATE 80—ON THE BEACH—EAST OF MANUFACTURES BUILDING.
PLATE 81—THE INDIAN PAVILION.
PLATE 82—WHALEBACK AT EXPOSITION PIER.
PLATE 83—THE MOVING SIDEWALK ON PIER.
PLATE 84—CONVENT OF LA RABIDA.
PLATE 85—THE SANTA MARIA.
PLATE 86—THE NINA AND PINTA.
PLATE 87—THE KRUPP BUILDING.
PLATE 88—BIRCHBARK WIGWAMS OF PENOBSCOT INDIANS.
PLATE 89—HOUSES AND TOTEM POLES OF ALASKAN INDIANS.
PLATE 90—THE CLIFF DWELLERS.
PLATE 91—THE FERRIS WHEEL.
PLATE 92—WORLD'S CONGRESS OF BEAUTY, ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 93—BLARNEY CASTLE, ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 94—HAGENBECK'S ARENA—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 95—DONEGAL CASTLE, ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 96—THE SAMOAN VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 97—THE MIDWAY, LOOKING WEST.
PLATE 98—THE MIDWAY, FROM FERRIS WHEEL, LOOKING EAST.
PLATE 99—ENTRANCE TO THE GERMAN VILLAGE, ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 100—GERMAN VILLAGE—MIDWAY.
PLATE 101—THE JOHORE BUNGALOW—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 102—IN THE TURKISH BAZAAR.
PLATE 103—A MINARET IN THE CAIRO STREET—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 104—TURKISH LADIES IN TURKISH VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 105—FERRIS WHEEL—FROM THE WEST.
PLATE 106—ENTRANCE TO OLD VIENNA—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 107—SAUSAGE VENDER—OLD VIENNA.
PLATE 108—OLD VIENNA—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 109—EAST COURT IN OLD VIENNA.
PLATE 110—DAHOMEY VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 111—THE LAPLAND VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 112—TYPES OF THE ARABIAN VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 113—SCENE AT ARABIAN VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 114—IN THE ARABIAN VILLAGE—ON THE MIDWAY.
PLATE 115—COURT OF HONOR FROM ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.
End of OFFICIAL VIEWS OF THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION
Excerpt from "History of the United States".
THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION
Columbian Celebration, New York, April 28, 1893. Parade passing Fifth Avenue Hotel.
The thought of celebrating by a world's fair the third centennial of Columbus's immortal deed anticipated the anniversary by several years. Congress organized the exposition so early as 1890, fixing Chicago as its seat. That city was commodious, central, typically American. A National Commission was appointed; also an Executive Committee, a Board of Reference and Control, a Chicago Local Board, and a Board of Lady Managers.
The task of preparation was herculean. Jackson Park had to be changed from a dreary lakeside swamp into a lovely city, with roads, lawns, groves and flowers, canals, lagoons and bridges, a dozen palaces, and ten score other edifices. An army of workmen, also fire, police, ambulance, hospital, and miscellaneous service was organized.
Wednesday, October 21 (Old Style, October 12), 1892, was observed as Columbus Day, marking the four hundredth anniversary of Columbus's discovery. A reception was held in the Chicago Auditorium, followed by dedication of the buildings and grounds at Jackson Park and an award of medals to artists and architects. Many cities held corresponding observances. New York chose October 12th for the anniversary. On April 26-28, 1893, again, the eastern metropolis was enlivened by grand parades honoring Columbus. In the naval display, April 22d, thirty-five war ships and more than 10,000 men of divers flags, took part.
Pinta, Santa Maria, Nina, lying in the North River, New York. The caravels which crossed from Spain to be present at the World's Fair at Chicago.
Between Columbus Day and the opening of the Exposition came the presidential election of 1892. Ex-President Cleveland had been nominated on the first ballot, in spite of the Hill delegation sent from his home State to oppose. Harrison, too, had overcome Platt, Hill's Republican counterpart in New York, and in Pennsylvania had preferred John Wanamaker to Quay. But Harrison was not "magnetic" like Blaine. With what politicians call the "boy" element of a party, he was especially weak. Stalwarts complained that he was ready to profit by their services, but abandoned them under fire. The circumstances connected with the civil service that so told against Cleveland four years before, now hurt Harrison equally. Though no doubt sincerely favoring reform, he had, like his predecessor, succumbed to the machine in more than one instance.
The campaign was conducted in good humor and without personalities. Owing to Australian voting and to a more sensitive public opinion, the election was much purer than that of 1888. The Republicans defended McKinley protection, boasting of it as sure, among other things, to transfer the tin industry from Wales to America. Free sugar was also made prominent. Some cleavage was now manifest between East and West upon the tariff issue. In the West "reciprocity" was the Republican slogan; in the East, "protection." Near the Atlantic, Democrats contented themselves with advocacy of "freer raw materials "; those by the Mississippi denounced "Republican protection" as fraud and robbery. If the platform gave color to the charge that Democrats wished "British free trade," Mr. Cleveland's letter of acceptance was certainly conservative.
Populism, emphasizing State aid to industry, particularly in behalf of the agricultural class, made great gains in the election. General Weaver was its presidential nominee. In Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, and Wyoming most Democrats voted for him. Partial fusion of the sort prevailed also in North Dakota, Nevada, Minnesota, and Oregon. Weaver carried all these States save the two last named. In Louisiana and Alabama Republicans fused with Populists. The Tillman movement in South Carolina, nominally Democratic, was akin to Populism, but was complicated with the color question, and later with novel liquor legislation. It was a revolt of the ordinary whites from the traditional dominance of the aristocracy. In Alabama a similar movement, led by Reuben F. Kolb, was defeated, as he thought, by vicious manipulation of votes in the Black Belt.
The Manufactures and liberal Arts Building, seen from the southwest.
Of the total four hundred and forty-four electoral votes Cleveland received two hundred and seventy-seven, a plurality of one hundred and thirty-two. The Senate now held forty-four Democrats, thirty-seven Republicans, and four Populists; the House two hundred and sixteen Democrats, one hundred and twenty-five Republicans, and eleven Populists.
Early on the opening day of the Exposition, May 1, 1893, the Chief Magistrate of the nation sat beside Columbus's descendant, the Duke of Veragua. Patient multitudes were waiting for the gates of Jackson Park to swing. "It only remains for you, Mr. President," said the Director-General, concluding his address, "if in your opinion the Exposition here presented is commensurate in dignity with what the world should expect of our great country, to direct that it shall be opened to the public. When you touch this magic key the ponderous machinery will start in its revolutions and the activity of the Exposition will begin." After a brief response Mr. Cleveland laid his finger on the key. A tumult of applause mingled with the jubilant melody of Handel's "Hallelujah Chorus." Myriad wheels revolved, waters gushed and sparkled, bells pealed and artillery thundered, while flags and gonfalons fluttered forth.
The Exposition formed a huge quadrilateral upon the westerly shore of Lake Michigan, from whose waters one passed by the North Inlet into the North Pond, or by the South Inlet into the South Pond. These united with the central Grand Basin in the peerless Court of Honor. The grounds and buildings were of surpassing magnitude and splendor. Interesting but simple features were the village of States, the Nations' tabernacles, lying almost under the guns of the facsimile battleship Illinois, and the pigmy caravels, Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria, named and modelled after those that bore Columbus to the New World. These, like their originals, had fared from Spain across the Atlantic, and then had come by the St, Lawrence and the Lakes, without portage, to their moorings at Chicago.
Horticultural Building, with Illinois Building in the background.
Near the centre of the ground stood the Government Building, with a ready-made look out of keeping with the other architecture. Critics declared it the only discordant note in the symphony, Looking from the Illinois Building across the North pond, one saw the Art Palace, of pure Ionic style, perfectly proportioned, restful to view, contesting with the Administration Building for the architectural laurels of the Fair. South of the Illinois Building rose the Woman's Building, and next Horticultural Hall, with dome high enough to shelter the tallest palms. The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building, of magnificent proportions, did not tyrannize over its neighbors, though thrice the size of St. Peter's at Rome, and able easily to have sheltered the Vendome Column. It was severely classical, with a long perspective of arches, broken only at the corners and in the centre by portals fit to immortalize Alexander's triumphs.
The artistic jewel of the Exposition was the "Court of Honor." Down the Grand Basin you saw the noble statue of the Republic, in dazzling gold, with the peristyle beyond, a forest of columns surmounted by the Columbus quadriga. On the right hand stood the Agricultural Building, upon whose summit the "Diana" of Augustus St. Gaudens had alighted. To the left To the left stood the enormous Hall of Manufactures. Looking from the peristyle the eye met the Administration Building, a rare exemplification of the French school, the dome resembling that of the Hotel des lnvalides in Paris.
A view toward the Peristyle from Machinery Hall.
A most unique conception was the Cold Storage Building, where a hundred tons at ice were made daily. Save for the entrance, flanked by windows, and the fifth floor, designed for an ice skating rink, its walls were blank. Four corner towers set off the fifth, which rose from the centre sheer to a height of 225 feet.
The cheering coolness of this building was destined not to last. Early in the afternoon of July 10th flames burst out from the top of the central tower. Delaying his departure until he had provided against explosion, the brave engineer barely saved his life. Firemen were soon on hand. Sixteen of them forthwith made their way to the balcony near the blazing summit. Suddenly their retreat was cut off by a burst of fire from the base of the tower. The rope and hose parted and precipitated a number who were sliding back to the roof. Others leaped from the colossal torch. In an instant, it seemed, the whole pyre was swathed in flames. As it toppled, the last wretched form was seen to poise and plunge with it into the glowing abyss.
The Fisheries Building received much attention. Its pillars were twined with processions of aquatic creatures and surmounted by capitals quaintly resembling lobster-pots. Its balustrades were supported by small fishy caryatids.
If wonder fatigued the visitor, he reached sequestered shade and quiet upon the Wooded Island, where nearly every variety of American tree and shrub might be seen.
The Government's displays were of extreme interest. The War Department exhibits showed our superiority in heavy ordnance, likewise that of Europe in small arms. A first-class post-office was operated on the grounds. A combination postal car, manned by the most expert sorters and operators, interested vast crowds. Close by was an ancient mail coach once actually captured by the Indians, with effigies of the pony express formerly so familiar on the Western plains, of a mail sledge drawn by dogs, and of a mail carrier mounted on a bicycle. Models of a quaint little Mississippi mail steamer and of the ocean steamer Paris stood side by side.
The Administration Building, seen from the Agricultural Building.
Swarms visited the Midway Plaisance, a long avenue out from the fair grounds proper, lined with shows. Here were villages transported from the ends of the earth, animal shows, theatres, and bazaars. Cairo Street boasted 2,250,000 visitors, and the Hagenbeck Circus over 2,000,000. The chief feature was the Ferris Wheel, described in engineering terms as a cantilever bridge wrought around two enormous bicycle wheels. The axle, supported upon steel pyramids, alone weighed more than a locomotive. In cars strung upon its periphery passengers were swung from the ground far above the highest buildings.
Midway Plaisance, World's Fair, Chicago.
Facilitating passenger transportation to and from the Fair remarkable railway achievements were made. One train from New York to Chicago covered over 48 miles an hour, including stops. In preparation for the event the Illinois Central raised its tracks for two and a half miles over thirteen city streets, built 300 special cars, and erected many new stations. These improvements cost over $2,000,000. The Fair increased Illinois Central traffic over 200 per cent.
Save the Art Building, the structures at the Fair were designed to be temporary, and they were superfluous when the occasion which called them into being had passed. The question of disposing of them was summarily solved. One day some boys playing near the Terminal Station saw a sinister leer of flame inside. A high wind soon blew a conflagration, which enveloped the structures, leaving next day naught but ashes, tortured iron work, and here and there an arch, to tell of the regal White City that had been.
Electricity Building. Mines and Mining Building. The Burning of the White City.
The financial backers of the Fair showed no mercenary temper. The architects, too, worked with public spirit and zeal which money never could have elicited. Notwithstanding the World's Fair was not financially a "success," this was rather to the credit of its unstinted magnificence than to the want of public appreciation. The paid admissions were over 21,000,000, a daily average of 120,000. The gross attendance exceeded by nearly a million the number at the Paris Exposition of 1889 for the corresponding period, though rather more than half a million below the total at the French capital. The monthly average at Chicago increased from 1,000,000 at first to 7,000,000 in October.
The crowd was typical of the best side of American life; orderly, good-natured, intelligent, sober. The grounds were clean, and there was no ruffianism. Of the $32,988 worth of property reported stolen, $31,875 was recovered and restored.