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ONTARIO TEACHERS' MANUALS

HISTORY

AUTHORIZED BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION

TORONTO THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED

COPYRIGHT, CANADA, 1915, BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION FOR ONTARIO



CONTENTS

PAGE

PUBLIC AND SEPARATE SCHOOL COURSE OF STUDY 1

CHAPTER I THE AIMS AND STAGES OF STUDY 13

CHAPTER II GENERAL METHODS IN THE TEACHING OF HISTORY 21

CHAPTER III CORRELATION OF SUBJECTS 40

CHAPTER IV SPECIAL TOPICS 49 Current Events 49 Local Material 51 Civics 52 The Teacher of History 57

CHAPTER V ILLUSTRATIVE LESSONS 60 Forms I and II 60 Form II 62 Form III 66 Forms III and IV 75 Form IV 78 For Teachers' Reference 119

DEVICES 127

BIBLIOGRAPHY 130

APPENDIX 136



MANUAL OF SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS OF HISTORY



PUBLIC AND SEPARATE SCHOOL COURSE OF STUDY

DETAILS

The course in literature and composition includes the telling by the teacher of suitable stories from the Bible, stories of primitive peoples, of child life in other lands, of famous persons and peoples; and the oral reproduction of these stories by the pupils. In this way history, literature, and composition are combined.

For Method in telling stories, consult How to Tell Stories to Children, by Sara Cone Bryant, Houghton, Mifflin Company, Boston, $1.00.



FORM I

BIBLE STORIES:

Moses in the Bulrushes, his Childhood, the Burning Bush, the Crossing of the Red Sea, the Tables of Stone; Joseph's Boyhood Dreams, Joseph sold into Egypt, the Famine, the Visits of his Brethren; David and Goliath; Samson.

STORIES OF CHILD LIFE:

The Eskimo Girl, the Andean Girl, the Arabian Girl, the Little Syrian Girl, the Swiss Girl, the Chinese Girl, the African Girl, the German Girl, the Canadian Girl; the Little Red Child, the Little White Child, the Little Black Child, the Little Yellow Child, the Little Brown Child.

Consult The Seven Little Sisters, by Jane Andrews, Ginn & Co., Boston, 50c.; The Little Cousin Series, by Mary Hazelton Wade, The Page Co., Boston, 60c. each; Five Little Strangers, Julia Augusta Schwarz, American Book Co., New York; Each and All, Jane Andrews (sequel to The Seven Little Sisters), 50 cents.

SPECIAL DAYS:

Christmas: The Birth of Christ, the First Christmas Tree (see Appendix); Arbor Day; Constructive work suggested by St. Valentine's Day and Thanksgiving Day; Stories of these Days.

NOTE: Advantage should be taken of every opportunity to teach obedience to authority and respect for the property and rights of others.



FORM II

BIBLE STORIES:

Abraham and Lot, Joshua, David and Jonathan, David and Saul, Ruth and Naomi, Daniel, Miriam and Moses, Abraham and Isaac, Boyhood of Christ, the Shipwreck of St. Paul.

STORIES OF CHILD LIFE:

The Aryan Boy, the Persian Boy, the Greek Boy, the Roman Boy, the Saxon Boy, the Page Boy, the English Boy, the Puritan Boy, the Canadian Boy of To-day, Child Life in Canada (a) in the early days, (b) to-day on the farm and in the city or town; occupations, games, and plays, etc.

Consult Ten Little Boys Who Lived on the Road from Long Ago till Now, by Jane Andrews, Ginn & Co., 50c.

STORIES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE:

Boadicea, Alfred, Harold, First Prince of Wales, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Columbus, Cabot, Cartier, Champlain, Madeleine de Vercheres, Pontiac, Brock, Laura Secord, Florence Nightingale.

Consult The Story of the British People, Thomas Nelson & Sons, Toronto, 35c. (For Florence Nightingale, see Appendix.)

PIONEER LIFE:

In Ancient Britain: See Second Reader, p. 109; Ontario Public School History of England, p. 10.

In Roman Britain: See The Story of The British People, pp. 18-24.

Old English Life: See Third Reader, p. 325; Ontario High School History of England, pp. 33-40.

At the Close of the French Period in Canada: See Fourth Reader, p. 65.

In Upper Canada in the "Thirties": See Fourth Reader, p. 122.

Our Forefathers: Where they lived before coming here, how they got here, hardships in travel, condition of the country at that time, how they cleared the land, their homes, their difficulties, danger from wild animals, the natives of the country, modes of travel, implements and tools, etc.

Consult Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada, Briggs, $2.00; Ontario High School History of Canada.

INVENTORS:

Watt, Stephenson, Fulton, Bell, Edison, Marconi.

CIVICS:

Elementary lessons in local government:

(a) In cities, towns, and incorporated villages—the postmaster, (see Illustrative Lesson, p. 65), the postman and policeman; city or town hall, post-office, mail boxes, school-houses.

(b) For rural districts—postmaster, trustees, roads and bridges, rural mail delivery.

SPECIAL DAYS:

Empire Day, Victoria Day, Dominion Day; local occasions such as Fair Day, Election Day; review of those Days taken in Form I.



FORMS III AND IV

PRELIMINARY NOTE

Below are the topics and sub-topics of the Course in History for Forms III and IV.

In dealing with the subject in both Forms, the teacher should keep constantly in mind the chief aims suited to this stage of the pupil's development. (See pp. 16, 17.) The most vital of these is "to create and foster a liking for historical study." The teacher should make use of simple map drawing to illustrate the subject. This is especially necessary in dealing with the history of Canada. There should be much illustration by means of maps and pictures. See Educational Pamphlet No. 4, Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.

The chapter numbers in the Course for Form III are those of the chapters in The Story of the British People prescribed for the Form. These chapters should be carefully read and, in Form IV, the authorized text-books should be followed for the main account. Having regard to the time available for the Course, only the most important details should be taken up.



FORM III

JUNIOR GRADE

CANADIAN HISTORY

Columbus—The Discovery of America (Chap. XX) John Cabot and the New World (Chap. XXI) Jacques Cartier (Chap. XXIII) Raleigh and Gilbert (Chap. XXVI) The Beginnings of Acadia (Chap. XXVII) Champlain, the Father of New France (Chap. XXVIII) The Pilgrim Fathers (Chap. XXIX) The Jesuits in Canada (Chap. XXXI) The Settlement of French Canada (Chap. XXXI) La Salle (Chap. XXXIV) Henry Hudson—New York and Hudson Bay (Chap. XXXV) Frontenac (Chaps. XXXIV, XXXVII) The Conquest of Canada—Wolfe and Montcalm, Pontiac (Chap. XLI) The Coming of the Loyalists (Chap. XLII) How Canada Fought for the Empire (Chap. XLIV) William Lyon Mackenzie (Chap. XLVI) The Great North-West—Selkirk, Mackenzie, Strathcona, Riel (Chap. XLVII) Canada and the Empire—Royal Visitors (Chap. L)



FORM III

SENIOR GRADE

BRITISH HISTORY

The First Britons (Chap. I) The Coming of the Romans (Chap. II) A Day in Roman Britain (Chap. III) The Coming of the English (Chap. IV) The Coming of Christianity (Chap. V) The Vikings (Chap. VI) Alfred the Great (Chap. VII) Rivals for a Throne (Chap. VIII) The Coming of the Normans (Chap. IX) A Norman Castle (Chap. X) A Glance at Scotland (Chap. XI) Henry the Second and Ireland (Chap. XII) Richard the Lion Heart (Chap. XIII) King John and the Great Charter (Chap. XIV) The First Prince of Wales (Chap. XV) Wallace and Bruce (Chaps. XVI, XVII) The Black Prince (Chap. XVIII) The Father of the British Navy (Chap. XXII) The New Worship (Chap. XXIV) Francis Drake, Sea-dog (Chap. XXV) King Charles the First (Chap. XXX) The Rule of Cromwell (Chap. XXXII) The King Enjoys his Own again (Chap. XXXIII) The Revolution and After (Chap. XXXVI) The Greatest Soldier of his Time (Chap. XXXVIII) Bonnie Prince Charlie (Chap. XXXIX) Robert Clive, the Daring in War (Chap. XL) The Terror of Europe (Chap. XLIII) Waterloo (Chap. XLV) Victoria the Good (Chaps. XLVI, XLVIII, XLIX)

CIVICS

Review of the work in Form II; election of town or township council; taxes—the money people pay to keep up schools and roads, etc.; how local taxes are levied for the support of the school; election of members of County Council, of members of Provincial Legislature; duties of citizenship.



FORM IV

JUNIOR GRADE

CANADIAN HISTORY

Before the British Conquest—an introductory account:

The French settlements: Extent, life of the seignior, habitant, and coureur de bois; system of trade; government at Quebec—governor, bishop, intendant; territorial claims (Chaps. VII, VIII, IX, XI)

The English settlements—Hudson's Bay Company, English colonies in New York, New England, Acadia, and Newfoundland; population, life, trade, government, territorial claims (Chaps. VIII, X, XI)

British Conquest of New France—fall of Quebec (Chap. XI)

Conspiracy of Pontiac (Chap. XII)

Quebec Act (Chap. XII)

Canada and the American Revolution; U.E. Loyalists (Chaps. XIII, XV)

Constitutional Act—Representative Government (Chap. XIV)

Social Conditions, 1763-1812 (Chap. XV)

Hudson's Bay Company (Chaps. VIII, XVI, XXI)

North-West Company (Chap. XVI)

Exploration in North-West—Hearne, Mackenzie, Fraser, Thompson (Chap. XVI)

War of 1812-14 (Chap. XVII)

Family Compact (Chap. XVII)

Clergy Reserves (Chap. XVII)

William Lyon Mackenzie (Chap. XVII)

Lord Durham, Act of Union, 1840—Responsible Government (Chap. XVIII)

Social Progress, 1812-1841 (Chap. XIX)

Settlement of the North-West—Selkirk (Chaps. XVI, XX)

Confederation of the Provinces, 1867 (Chap. XXII)

Intercolonial Railway (Chap. XXIV)

Expansion of the Dominion by addition of new provinces (Chap. XXII)

Social Progress, 1841-1867 (Chap. XXIII)

Canadian Pacific Railway (Chap. XXIV)

Riel Rebellion (Chap. XXIV)

Disputes between Canada and the United States since 1814 settled by treaty or arbitration. The Hundred Years of Peace

Canada, at the opening of the twentieth century; transportation, industry, means of defence, education (Chap. XXV)

Ontario since Confederation: John Sandfield Macdonald, Sir Oliver Mowat, Arthur Sturgis Hardy, Sir George W. Ross, Sir James P. Whitney (Chap. XXVI)

An account of how Canada is governed, simple and concrete and as far as possible related to the experience of the pupils; Municipal Government, Provincial Government, Federal Government (Chap. XXVII)



FORM IV

SENIOR GRADE

BRITISH HISTORY

A

A Course of about Two Months

The Early Inhabitants—The Britons

The Coming of the Romans

The Coming of the Saxons

The Coming of Christianity

Alfred the Great

The Coming of the Normans—The Feudal System

Richard I and the Crusaders

John and Magna Charta

The Scottish War of Independence

The Hundred Years' War—Crecy, Agincourt, Joan of Arc.

The Wars of the Roses (no lists of battles or details of fighting)

Caxton and Printing

Separation between the English Church and Rome

B

A Course of about Eight Months

Brief account of the British Isles, territorial, political, and religious, as an introduction to the reign of Elizabeth.

Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots; the Spanish Armada; Drake, Hawkins, Gilbert, Raleigh, Shakespeare.

The Stuarts: "Divine Right of Kings" supported by majority of gentry and landowners (cavaliers), opposed by the commercial and trading classes and yeomen (roundheads). The Kings strove for absolute power, the Parliament for constitutional government.

James I: Union of the English and Scottish Crowns.

Charles I: Struggle between King and Parliament; Petition of Right, Ship Money, rebellion, execution of Charles.

Commonwealth: nominally a republic, really a dictatorship under Cromwell. He gave Britain a strong government at home, and made her respected abroad, and laid the foundations of Britain's foreign trade and colonial empire.

Charles II: The Restoration: Reaction in state, church, and society; King striving for absolute power; Nonconformists persecuted; society profligate in its revolt against the strictness of Puritanism; Habeas Corpus Act; Test Act; Plague and Great Fire.

James II: Revolution of 1688, the death-knell of "divine right"; Parliament supreme; Declaration of Rights.

William and Mary: Party government—Whigs and Tories; King to act by advice of his ministers; each parliament limited to three years; Bill of Rights; Act of Settlement.

Anne: Marlborough; Union between England and Scotland, 1707; the Jacobites, 1715 and 1745.

George II: Walpole, the great peace minister—home and colonial trade fostered and material wealth of the nation greatly increased; Pitt, the great war minister; territorial expansion in Canada and India—Wolfe, Clive; the Methodist Movement, Wesley.

George III: The American Revolution, 1776-83: loss of the American Colonies; Pitt; Washington; acquisition of Australia by Great Britain, 1788; legislative union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801; Napoleonic wars; Nelson, Wellington, Aboukir, Trafalgar, and Waterloo; industrial revolution—the change from an agricultural to an industrial country.

William IV: Reform Act of 1832, a great forward movement in democratic government; abolition of slavery, 1833; railways and steamships.

Victoria: First British settlement in New Zealand, 1839; Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846—free trade, the commercial policy of England; Elementary Education Act, 1870, education compulsory; parliamentary franchise extended—vote by ballot; Crimean war; Indian Mutiny; Egypt and the Suez Canal; Boer War—Orange Free State and South African Republic annexed; social progress.

Edward VII: Irish Land Act of 1903; pensions for aged labourers; King Edward, "the Peace-maker."

CIVICS

Taxation—direct and indirect; how the revenue of the Dominion, provinces, and municipalities, respectively, is collected.

Federal Government—Governor-general, Senate, House of Commons, Premier, Cabinet.

Imperial Government—King, House of Lords, House of Commons, Premier, Cabinet.



HISTORY

CHAPTER I

THE AIMS AND STAGES OF STUDY

AIMS

History may be made, in several ways, an important factor in forming intelligent, patriotic citizens:

(a) It must be remembered that society, with all its institutions, is a growth, not a sudden creation. It follows that, if we wish to understand the present and to use that knowledge as a guide to future action, we must know the story of how our present institutions and conditions have come to be what they are; we must know the ideals of our forefathers, the means they took to realize them, and to what extent they succeeded. It is only in this way that we become capable of passing judgment, as citizens, on what is proposed by political and social reformers, and thus justify and guarantee our existence as a democracy.

(b) Patriotism, which depends largely on the associations formed in childhood, is intensified by learning how our forefathers fought and laboured and suffered to obtain all that we now value most in our homes and social life. The courage with which the early settlers of Upper Canada faced their tremendous labours and hardships should make us appreciate our inheritance in the Ontario of to-day, and determine, as they did, to leave our country better than we found it.

To-morrow yet would reap to-day, As we bear blossom of the dead.

(c) "History teaches that right and wrong are real distinctions." The study of history, especially in the sphere of biography, has a moral value, and much may be done, even in the primary classes, to inspire children to admire the heroic and the self-sacrificing, and to despise the treacherous and the self-seeking. The constant struggle to right what is wrong in the world may be emphasized in the senior classes to show that nothing is ever settled until it is settled right.

(d) History affords specially good exercise for the judgment we use in everyday life in weighing evidence and balancing probabilities. Such a question as "Did Champlain do right in taking the side of the Hurons against the Iroquois, or even in taking sides at all?" may be suggested to the older pupils for consideration.

(e) History, when taught by a broad-minded, well-informed teacher, may do much to correct the prejudices—social, political, religious—of individuals and communities.

(f) The imagination is exercised in the effort to recall or reconstruct the scenes of the past and in discovering relations of cause and effect.

(g) The memory is aided and stimulated by the increase in the number of the centres of interest round which facts, both new and old, may be grouped.

(h) A knowledge of the facts and inferences of history is invaluable for general reading and culture.

To sum up: It is important that the good citizen should know his physical environment; it is just as important for him "to know his social and political environment, to have some appreciation of the nature of the state and society, some sense of the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, some capacity in dealing with political and governmental questions, something of the broad and tolerant spirit which is bred by the study of past times and conditions."

SCOPE

The ideal course in history would include (1) a general view of the history of the world, giving the pupil knowledge enough to provide the proper setting for the history of his own country; (2) a more detailed knowledge of the whole history of his own country; (3) and a special knowledge of certain outstanding periods or tendencies in that history. In our schools, we should give most attention to the study of Canadian and British history as a whole, to enough of the history of France and other countries to make clear certain parts of our own history, and to certain important periods, such as the settlement of Upper Canada by the United Empire Loyalists, etc. (See Detailed Course of Study, p. 5.) We may also study our history along special lines of development—political, military, social, educational, religious, industrial, and commercial—but these phases are subjects of study rather for secondary schools and colleges.

STAGES OF STUDY

There are three stages in the study of history which, though they overlap each other, yet indicate different methods of treatment for pupils at different ages. They are the Story stage, the Information stage, and the Reflective stage. These stages are not exclusive, nor do they coincide with the first three Forms in the schools.

THE STORY STAGE

This stage is suitable for children in the primary grades and is chiefly preparatory to the real study of history in the higher grades. The need for this stage lies in the fact that the child's "ideas are of the pictorial rather than of the abstract order"; yet his spontaneous interest in these things must be made to serve "as a stepping-stone to the acquired interests of civilized life." The definite objects at this stage are:

(a) To create and foster a liking for historical study. It is impossible, in the public school life of a child, which is usually ended at the age of twelve to fourteen years, to accomplish all that has been indicated above concerning the aims of history teaching. The most that can be done is to lay the foundation and give the pupil a desire to continue his reading after his school days are over. Serious blame rests on the teacher whose methods of teaching history, instead of attracting the child to the subject, give him a distaste for it. If history is made real and living to children, it is usually not difficult to have them like it. (For suggestions, see p. 34.)

(b) To acquaint the pupils with some of the important historical persons. We wish to take advantage of the fact that "the primitive form of attention which is captured at once by objects that strike the senses is giving place in some degree to appreciative attention, which is yielded to things that connect themselves with what we already know, and which implies ability to adopt the reflective attitude towards a proposed problem."[A] Now children are more interested in people than in institutions or events; and, if we can give them a knowledge of some of the striking incidents in the lives of important characters in history, we may expect them to be more interested in the study of history at a later period, because they will frequently meet with these familiar names. The emphasis at this stage is therefore on biography.

[Footnote A: Raymont: Principles of Education]

(c) To help the development of the "historical sense." The "historical sense" includes the notion of time, the notion of a social unit and, according to some, the notion of cause and effect. The notion of time implies the power "to represent the past as if it were present"—that is, the power to enter into the thoughts and feelings of people of the past as if we were living amongst them. This notion of time comes at different ages; to some early, to others very late. It came to Professor Shaler at the age of about eight or nine years, as the direct result of vivid story-telling:

Of all the folk who were about me, the survivors of the Indian wars were the most interesting. There were several of these old clapper-clawed fellows still living, with their more or less apocryphal tales of adventures they had heard of or shared. There was current a tradition—I have seen it in print—that there had been a fight between the Indians and whites where the government barracks stood, and that two wounded whites had been left upon the ground, where they were not found by the savages. One of these had both arms broken, the other was similarly disabled as to his legs. It was told that they managed to subsist by combining their limited resources. The man with sound legs drove game up within range of the other cripple's gun, and as the turkeys or rabbits fell, he kicked them within reach of his hands, and in like manner provided him with sticks for their fire. This legend, much elaborated in the telling, gave me, I believe at about my eighth year, my first sense of a historic past, and it led to much in the way of fanciful invention of like tales. (N.F. Shaler: Autobiography, Chap. I.)

The best means at the teacher's command to assist its coming is to tell good stories from history with all the skill he has; the stories need not be told in chronological order. The notion of time implies also in the older pupils the power to place events in chronological order.

The notion of a social unit is also of slow growth and must spring from the child's conception of the social units he belongs to—the home, the school, the community.

The notion of cause and effect does not belong so wholly to the study of history as the notions of time and of the social unit; it is surprising, however, how soon it makes its appearance in the child's conceptions of history, in his desire to know the "why" of things. (See Barnes' Studies in Historical Method.)

THE INFORMATION STAGE

There are several questions that children soon come to ask: "When?" and "Where?" "What?" and "Who?" This stage may be said to begin in earnest with the Second Form, and it continues through the whole course. One of the essential elements in history study is to have a knowledge of the important facts of history, without which there can be no inferences of value for present use. The all-important point in this teaching of facts is to keep the lessons interesting and not allow them to become mere lifeless memorizing of isolated happenings; for a fact is of value only when related to other facts. (See pp. 36, 38.)

THE REFLECTIVE STAGE

This stage naturally follows the Information stage, as one must acquire facts before reflecting on them in order to draw inferences. But reflection of a simple kind may begin as soon as any facts are given that will show the relations of cause and effect. The question for the pupil here is "Why?" just as in the preceding stage the questions were "When?" and "Where?" "What?" and "Who?" Information and reflection may therefore be combined—with due regard to the pupil's capacity.

PRACTICAL DIFFICULTIES

We may speak of two difficulties. The first concerns the enormous amount of historical material that exists. It is increased still more by the intermingling of legend with history and by the partial narratives of prejudiced writers. The legendary part may be taken up in the Story stage; and the evils of one-sided accounts are often balanced by the greater vigour and interest of the narrative, as in Macaulay's writings. The difficulty connected with the great amount of material can be solved by the selection (already largely made by the text-books) of the more important parts, that is, those facts of history that have the greatest influence on after times—"the points of vital growth and large connection" without which subsequent history cannot be properly understood.

The second difficulty has to do with deciding where to begin the teaching of history. There are two principles of teaching that will help to solve this difficulty: (1) The child learns by relating everything new to his present fund of experiences; (2) A child's notions grow more complex as his knowledge increases. To apply these, we must know the child's experiences and his present notions. We cannot assume that the present conditions of social life are known to the child through his experiences. Our social life is also too complex to be understood by him yet; he can understand an individual hero better than he can the complex idea of a nation. How many children would be able to begin a study of history by having, as one writer suggests, "a short series of lessons ... to make some simple and fundamental historical ideas intelligible—a state, a nation, a dynasty, a monarch, a parliament, legislation, the administration of justice, taxes, civil and foreign war!" These are ideas far beyond the comprehension of the beginner. We must be guided, not by "what happens to be near the child in time and place, but by what lies near his interests." As Professor Bourne says: "it may be that mediaeval man, because his characteristics belong to a simple type, is closer to the experience of a child than many a later hero." With older children it is more likely to be true that the life of history lies "in its personal connections with what is here and now and still alive with us"; with historic places and relics, etc., which make their appeal first through the senses; with institutions, such as trial by jury; with anniversaries and celebrations of great events which may be used to arouse interest in the history which they suggest and recall.

However, as McMurry points out, we are in a peculiarly favourable position in Canada, because we have in our own history, in the comparatively short time of 400 years, the development of a free and prosperous country from a state of wildness and savagery. The early stages of our history present those elements of life that appeal strongly to children—namely, Indians with all their ways of living and fighting, and the early settlers with their simpler problems and difficulties. The development of this simpler life to the more complex life of the present can be more readily understood by children as they follow up the changes that have taken place. (See McMurry, Special Method in History, pp. 26-30.) Of course, at every step appeal must be made to the experiences of children, as the teacher knows them. In Civics, however, the beginning must be made with conditions that exist to-day—schools, taxes, the policeman, the postmaster, etc. The beginning of the real teaching of history may then be made at the beginning of Canadian History, as this will enable the child to go gradually from the simple, or individual, to the complex, and will also allow the teacher to make use of whatever historical remains may be within reach.



CHAPTER II

GENERAL METHODS IN THE TEACHING OF HISTORY

There are many methods used in the teaching of history. A brief description of the principal ones is given for reference merely, since their best features are incorporated in a combination of methods, which is strongly recommended to teachers, and is described fully in succeeding pages.

1. Methods based on the arrangement and selection of the matter: Chronological, Topical

THE CHRONOLOGICAL METHOD

The matter is chosen according to the "time" order, beginning at the first of the history, and the events are taught in the order of occurrence without any marked emphasis on their importance, or without considering whether a knowledge of the event is useful or interesting to the class at this stage. Such an arrangement of matter is more suitable when the formal study of history is begun.

THE TOPICAL METHOD

In studying a certain period of history the events are arranged under topics or heads; for example, the period of discovery in Canadian History may be arranged thus—Discoveries, Explorations, Early Settlements, Indian Wars—and the study of each of these pursued to completion, contemporary events belonging to other topics being neglected for a time.

Events having the same underlying purpose, though occurring in different periods, may be arranged under one topic for review; for example, all the voyages of discovery to America may be grouped under the topic, "The Road to Cathay." (See p. 92.) In this way a comprehensive knowledge is gained. This method gives a full treatment of each topic and may be used to best advantage in connection with reviews in junior classes and occasionally as a text-book or library exercise in senior classes.

2. Methods based on the treatment of historical facts: Comparative, Regressive, Concentric

THE COMPARATIVE METHOD

By this method a comparison is made between two events, two biographies, two reigns, etc., a very useful device when applied in connection with other methods.

THE REGRESSIVE METHOD

In this method the pupil is expected to begin with the present and work backward; that is, to begin with institutions as they are to-day and to work back through the various steps in their progress to their present state. This method may be followed most profitably in advanced classes. In junior classes it is sufficient to refer to things as they exist to-day in order to arouse curiosity regarding the facts of history that are to be taught; for example, by the use of local material; by a visit to some place of historical interest to prepare for the story of what has occurred there in the past. (See p. 112.)

THE CONCENTRIC METHOD

This method, which is much used, deals in ever widening circles with the same topic or event; for example, a simple story of Champlain's life and voyages to Canada is told to Form II; the same story is considered again in Form III, but this time the different voyages are noted, the results of each investigated, and the whole summarized and memorized; again, in Form IV, but this time by the topical and comparative methods, where comparison is made of the purposes and achievements of the explorer with those of other explorers—Jacques Cartier, La Salle, etc. In this third discussion a full knowledge of Champlain's work is given.

The excellence of this work lies in its review and repetition. The old or former knowledge is recalled and used in each succeeding discussion of the topic. The pupils grow gradually into fuller knowledge.

3. Methods based on class procedure: Oral, Text-book

THE ORAL METHOD

This usually takes the form of an oral presentation of the story or description of the event by the teacher, while the pupils listen and afterwards reproduce what they have heard. The narration of the story is accompanied by pictures, sketches, maps, etc., illustrative of persons, places, and facts mentioned. It may also take the "development" form, in which a combination of narrative and questioning is employed. (See pp. 66, 92.)

The Lecture method of Colleges and Universities is an advanced oral method. In this the teacher narrates and describes events, propounds questions, and discusses and answers them himself, while the pupils listen and during the lecture, or afterwards, make notes of what has been heard.

THE TEXT-BOOK METHOD

By this method the teacher assigns a lesson in the book and, after the pupils have an opportunity to study it, he asks questions concerning the facts learned. The exclusive use of this method results ordinarily in dull, lifeless teaching, and with junior pupils will prevent their enjoying, or receiving much benefit from, the study of history. There are two reasons for the too general use of it—first, it is an easy method for the teacher, and secondly, it is easy for the pupils to memorize facts for the sole purpose of passing examinations. While this criticism is true when an exclusive use is made of the text-book, the same cannot be said when the text-book is used as an auxiliary to the teacher. Following the oral presentation of the story, reference may be made to the book for another version or for a fuller account and, in Form IV, topics may be assigned and the pupils directed to consult the text-book for the necessary information. (See pp. 26, 28.)

The text-book should be one that does not show an abrupt change from the story told by the teacher. It should not be merely a short outline of the important facts in history, written separately and then pieced together in chronological order, but should be written in a readable form by one who is able to distinguish the important and necessary from the unimportant and burdensome. It should have short summaries at the ends of chapters or stories of events, so that a grasp of what has been read may be easily obtained. It should also have many pictures, illustrations, and maps, to take the place of the teacher's explanations in the earlier stage. (On the use of the text-book, see p. 29.)

A COMBINATION OF THESE METHODS

General Description.—As each of the above methods has its strong and its weak points, we should attempt to combine the strong points into one method, varied to keep pace with the mental development of the pupil, and thus secure the best results. The general outline of such a combination may be given as follows: The "oral story" is to be used in the junior classes, with "development" problems presented where helpful; in Form III the pupils should be introduced to the text-book (The History Reader for Form III), besides being taught by the oral method; in Form IV, the oral method is still to be the chief means used by the teacher, who will now, however, pay more attention to the arrangement of the matter (for example, in topical outlines), to accustom the pupils to grasp more thoroughly the relations of cause and effect in history. The topics of history will also be taken up more exhaustively than in the junior classes, and the pupils must have more practice in acquiring knowledge from the text-books.

DETAILS OF METHOD

FORMS I, II

In Forms I and II, the pupils are accustomed to the oral reproduction of stories told by the teacher. In these should be included a good many historical stories, such as those suggested in the Course of Study in History for these Forms; they will serve the usual purposes of oral reproduction work for composition and literature, and will be, besides, a good foundation for the study of history in the higher forms. (For objects of the Story stage, see p. 16.)

The oral presentation of a story or description of an event requires a certain degree of skill on the part of a teacher—skill in story-telling, in grasping the important parts of the story or description, in knowing what details to omit as well as what to narrate, in explaining the story in a way that will make it real to the pupils, in preparing pictures and sketches to illustrate the different parts, and in questioning so that the minds of the pupils will be active as well as receptive. The care and time necessary to secure this skill will be well repaid by the interest aroused in history, by the appreciation of the thoughts thus presented, and by the lasting impressions conveyed. Simple, clear language should be employed, not necessarily small words, but words whose meaning is made clear by the context or illustration. (For material for these Forms, see Bibliography, C, p. 132.)

When the whole story is told, revision may be made by having the pupils reproduce it after suitable questioning, either immediately or at some future time. Exercises in reproduction may also be given, for either seat work or class work, in constructive or art work; for example, after the story of the North American Indians, the pupils may be asked to construct a wigwam, a canoe, a bow and arrow, or to make pictures of Indians, of their houses, of their dress, etc.

Further exercise in composition may also be given by having the pupils write the story. To each pupil may be assigned a special part; for example, the story of Moses may be divided thus: (1) As a babe; (2) His adoption by the Princess; (3) His life at the palace; (4) His flight to Midian; (5) The Burning Bush, etc. The whole story is then reproduced by having these parts read aloud in a reading lesson.

FORM III

The value of the oral work done in Forms I and II will be realized by the teacher when the real study of history is begun in Forms III and IV. The pupils have a liking for the stories of history and have a knowledge of some of the leading actors and of the chief events in history that calls for more complete satisfaction.

There are several methods of using the History Reader which is the basis of the work in Form III. Perhaps the best method is to continue to make oral teaching the chief feature, and to add to that the use by the pupils, in various ways, of the History Reader.

For example, the teacher will tell the story of Jacques Cartier, following in the main the narrative as given in the History Reader. It is well, however, not to follow it too closely in order that, when the pupils come to read the story in the book for themselves, they will find it an interesting combination of the familiar and the new. For that reason, it will be necessary for the teacher to have prepared the story from a somewhat different narrative in some other book at her command. In the telling of the story, problems may be asked, if thought advisable (see p. 33); a few headings may be placed on the black-board for subsequent reproduction, oral or written, by the pupils; all difficulties of pronunciation, especially of proper names, should be attended to, orally and on the black-board; the places mentioned should be found on the map; pictures and sketches should be used; and in fact, every possible means taken to make the narrative more real to the class. (See p. 34.)

When the oral teaching is finished, the pupils may have the books to read at their desks, and they often ask permission to take them home. They may sometimes be required to read aloud from the History Reader for supplementary practice in oral reading. Reproduction by the pupils, either immediately or in a subsequent lesson, should follow. Teachers, however, are advised not to insist on too much written reproduction, as that might very easily arouse a dislike for both history and written composition. Procedure as outlined above has had most gratifying results in the way of creating a liking for, and an intelligent interest in, the study of history.

Other methods have also had good results. The teacher may, instead of telling the story, read aloud from the Reader to pave the way for the reading of the story by the pupils themselves. Difficulties, either in language or in meaning, may be taken up as in a literature lesson. The pupils will at first find the reading somewhat difficult, but the interest generated by the teacher's reading or oral narrative will carry them through that stage till they acquire a love for reading history, and have enlarged their vocabulary till reading is no longer a burdensome task.

A taste of the more serious study of history may be given by asking the pupils a few not very difficult questions that they can answer only by combining facts contained in several stories. For example, in the chapters selected for Form III, Junior Grade, the answer can be found to a question about the explorers of Canada, the order of their visits, and a comparison of their work; to another question about the expansion of Canada from the little part of Quebec first visited to the whole of British North America.

It is unnecessary, perhaps, to add that the emphasis in Form III history should be still very largely on biography, so as to influence the forming of moral ideals by concrete examples.

FORM IV

Although the pupils have now had some experience in the use of the History Reader, yet that is no reason why oral teaching should be discarded in Form IV history, any more than in arithmetic or geography. It is scarcely a high estimate to have of history, to think that pupils of this age can grasp even the simpler lines of development in history without guidance from the teacher. Hence it is necessary for the attainment of good results, that many of the lessons should be taught orally before the pupils are asked to study their books. The aim of the teaching should be not merely the acquisition of facts, but the welding of them together in a sequence of cause and effect, and the pupils at this stage can scarcely be expected to do that for themselves.

In preparing for a lesson in Form IV history, the teacher should analyse the incidents of the period to be studied, should see how certain causes have led to certain results, and should be sure enough of the facts to have little recourse to the text-book while teaching. It does not look like fair play to expect a class to answer questions that the teacher cannot answer without consulting the text. On the other hand, it is refreshing to see the interest aroused in a class by a teacher who thinks enough of the subject to be able to teach it without constant reference to the text-book. Therefore, let the oral method be here again the chief dependence of the teacher. In such a lesson, for example, as that on the Intercolonial Railway (see p. 82) no book is needed—only the map and the black-board.

TRAINING IN USE OF TEXT-BOOK

However, as the pupils must learn, for their own profit in after years, how to read history without a guiding hand, they need training in the use of the text-book. The chief line on which such training may proceed is to have the pupils search out the answers to definite questions. Any one who has searched for material on a certain topic will appreciate the good results that have come in the way of added knowledge and increased interest. The topics at first should be quite simple, gradually increasing in breadth. A few suggestions for such work are given below; they may be called examination questions to be answered with the help of the text-book:

1. Name, and tell something about, four of the explorers of Canada before 1759.

2. Name several other explorers of the New World.

3. Which explorer did the most for Canada, Champlain or La Salle?

4. In what wars did the French fight against the Iroquois? With what result?

5. What explorers of North America were trying to find a way to China and India? (This investigation by the class may precede the lesson on the "Road to Cathay." See p. 92.)

6. On what did English kings base their claim to be the overlords of Scotland? Trace the dispute down to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

7. Find out how the slave trade was treated by the English.

8. Make a list of the early newspapers in Canada. Did they have much influence on public opinion?

9. Compare the struggles for the control of taxation in Canada and in the Thirteen Colonies of America. Explain why these were settled differently in the two cases.

With questions such as these for investigation, no pupil will be likely to secure the full facts; each may state in the next lesson what he has found, and the work of each will be supplemented by that of the others. With succeeding investigations it may be expected that the pupils will be more eager to get at all the facts in the text-book. At any rate they are learning how to gather material from books—a very valuable training, no matter how simple the topic is.

When, in the ordinary course of work, lessons from the text-book are assigned, the teacher should indicate the important points, should suggest certain matters for discussion, and should note certain questions to be answered, indicating precisely where the information may be obtained. In the recitation period following, the topic should be fully discussed, the pupils giving the information they have secured from the text-book, and the teacher supplementing this from his knowledge gained through wider reading. During the discussion an outline should be made on the board, largely by the suggestions of the pupils, and kept in their note-books for reference and review. (See p. 100, Lesson on the Feudal System.)

DRILL AND REVIEW

As has been already stated (p. 15), the Story stage is useful chiefly for the purpose of arousing interest and developing the historical sense; no drill or review is necessary other than the oral, and, in Form II, sometimes the written, reproduction of the stories. The oral reproduction can be obtained in Form I by using the stories as topics in language lessons.

In the Information stage, where we are concerned more with the acquiring of facts, and in the Reflective stage, where we wish to relate facts to each other according to cause and effect, drills and reviews are necessary. During the lesson, a summary is placed on the black-board by the teacher or pupil, as indicated above. It is used as a guide in oral reproduction and may also be copied in special note-books and used for reference when preparing for review lessons. The teacher may look over these note-books occasionally.

There is great difference of opinion on the value of note-taking by pupils, but it may be said of such notes as those mentioned above that they have the advantage of being largely the pupil's own work, especially when the pupils are asked to suggest the headings; they are a record of what has been decided in the class to be important points; they are arranged in the order in which the subject has been treated in the lesson, and are in every way superior to the small note-books in history that are sometimes used as aids or helps. For the proper teaching of history, the latter are hindrances rather than helps, because they rob the pupil of the profit gained by doing the work for himself. Notes obtained from books or dictated by the teacher are harmful to the right spirit of study, and create a distaste for the subject.

Special review lessons should be taken when a series of lessons on one topic, or on a series of connected topics, has been finished. At the close of each lesson, the facts learned are fixed more firmly in the mind by the usual drill; but there must be further organization of the several lessons by a proper review, so that history will not be a number of unconnected events, but will be seen as an orderly development. This may be accomplished: (1) by questioning the class from a point of view different from that taken in the first lessons, (2) by oral or written expansion of a topical outline, (3) by illustrations with maps or drawings, (4) by tracing the sequence of events backwards, (5) by submitting some new situation that will recall the old knowledge in a different way. It must be remembered that it is not a mere repetition that we seek, but a re-view of the facts, a new view that will prove the power of the pupils to use the knowledge they have gained. Thus the lesson on the St. Lawrence River (p. 112) is a good review of the facts of history suggested by the places mentioned; the lesson on the Road to Cathay (p. 92) may be considered a review of the chief explorers of North America. Such a review aims at seeing new relations, at connecting new knowledge and old, at "giving freshness and vividness to knowledge that may be somewhat faded, at throwing a number of discrete facts into a bird's-eye view."

THE USE OF PROBLEMS IN TEACHING HISTORY

The development, or problem, method is intended to get the pupils to do some independent thinking, instead of merely absorbing knowledge from the teacher. The plan is simply to set clearly before the pupils the conditions existing at a certain moment in the story so that they may see for themselves the difficulties that the people in the story had to overcome. The question for the class is: "What would you do in the circumstances?"

Let us take an example from the life of Ulysses. Ulysses had heard of the Sirens, who sang so beautifully that any one in a passing ship who heard them was impelled to throw himself overboard, with a frantic desire to swim to their island. Naturally the swimmers were all drowned in the attempt. Ulysses desired to hear for himself the wonderful singing, and to experience, perhaps, its terrible effect; but he certainly did not want to run any risk of drowning. Now, how did he accomplish his desire, without paying the penalty?

Again, in the story of Madeleine de Vercheres, the narrative may proceed to the point where Madeleine has succeeded in securing the gates. She finds herself in a weak fort with few to help her, and outside a numerous band of Indians, who are kept at bay for a whole week, without even attempting their usual night attacks. How did she do it?

In the case of the U.E. Loyalists, the teacher may narrate the story to the point where the Loyalists, after the treaty was signed, saw that they must remove to Canada. The class must know where the Loyalist centres in the New England States were. Now, what routes would they be likely to take in going to Canada? With the map before them, the class can usually tell the next part of the story themselves.

Even if the pupil is not able to give the correct answer to the problem submitted, he is nevertheless having an opportunity to exercise his judgment, he can see wherein his judgment differs from that of the persons concerned, his interest in their actions is increased, and the whole story will be more deeply impressed on his memory.

HOW TO MAKE HISTORY REAL

The chief difficulty in teaching history is to give a meaning to the language of history. Much of the language is merely empty words. The Magna Charta and the Clergy Reserves mean just about as much to pupils as x does in algebra, and even when they give a definition or description of these terms, it usually amounts to saying that x equals y; the definition is just as vague as the original terms. The problem is to give the language more meaning, to ensure that the words give mental pictures and ideas; in short, to turn the abstract into concrete facts.

Children can make their own only such knowledge as their experience helps them to interpret. Their interests are in the present, and the past appeals to them just so far as they can see in it their own activities, thoughts, and feelings. The great aim of the teacher, then, should be to help pupils to translate the facts of history into terms of their own experiences; unless that is done, they are really not learning anything. Some of the ways in which this may be attempted are outlined below.

1. In the junior classes where the children are intensely interested in stories, the stress should be put on giving them interesting personal details about the famous people in history, details that they can understand with their limited experiences of life, and that will appeal to their emotions. These stories should be told to the pupils with such vividness and animation that they will struggle with Columbus against a mutinous crew, will help the early explorers to blaze their way through the dense forests, will toil with the pioneers in making homes for themselves in Canada, and will suffer with the missionaries in their hardships and perils.

For these pupils the oral method is the only one to use, for there is nothing that appeals to children more quickly and with more reality than what they hear from the teacher. The oral method should find a large place in the teaching of history in all the Forms. It may be added that the teachers who use this method will find history become a more real and interesting study to themselves.

2. What the pupils hear should be reinforced by giving them something to see. Whatever pictures are obtainable (see pp. 45, 127) should be used freely at all stages, for the visual images of children are a powerful aid to their understanding; it is for this reason that books for children are now so fully illustrated, and the same principle should be applied to the teaching of history.

As soon as the children are ready for it, reference should be made to maps to illustrate historical facts. (See p. 127.) They should see on the map the course that Columbus took across the unknown sea; Champlain's explorations become real when they are traced on the map and the children have a concrete picture to carry away with them. In fact the subjects of geography, art, and constructive work, treated under the head of correlated subjects, are used in history with the aim of making it real through the eye. (See pp. 40, 44, 45.)

3. A greater difficulty presents itself when we have to deal, in the higher Forms, with topics like the Magna Charta and the Clergy Reserves, and it is a difficulty that will test to the full the resourcefulness of the teacher. How can the preceding conditions and the terms of the Magna Charta be brought home to a class? How can children be brought to appreciate the difficulties connected with the question of Clergy Reserves? A few words about the latter may suggest a means.

Two aspects of the Clergy Reserves question stand out prominently, the religious and the economic. The religious aspect will be the most difficult for Ontario children, for they have no immediate knowledge of what a State Church is—the point on which the religious dispute turned; nor do they know enough about the government of the religious bodies to which they belong to make the matter clear to them. A full understanding must come later. The best point of approach seems to be to give the class some idea of the number of settlers belonging to the churches of England and of Scotland, which claimed the right to the lands reserved, and compare with this the number of all other Protestant bodies that claimed to share in them; for this difference in numbers was one of the chief causes of bitterness. An arithmetical appeal is concrete. There was also the economic aspect. The Clergy Reserves were one seventh of the land in each township. Another seventh was withheld from free settlement as Crown Lands. Now in some townships there were about 50,000 acres. Let the class find out how many acres were thus kept from settlement. Tell them that this land was not all in one block, but distributed through the township. They can now be asked to consider how this would interfere with close settlement and therefore with the establishment of schools, churches, post-offices, mills, and stores. A diagram of a township would be of great help. These two points will help them to see why an early and fair settlement of the vexed question was desired. Wherever possible, present problems for them to solve by their own experiences.

4. The reading to the class of accounts of events written by people living at the time will give an atmosphere of reality and human interest to the events. For example, a story of early pioneer days told by a pioneer gives a personal element (see Pioneer Days, Kennedy); a letter by Mary Queen of Scots, to Elizabeth (see p. 143), will make both of these queens real living people, not mere names in history. (See Studies in the Teaching of History, Keatinge, p. 97, also selections from The Sources of English History, Colby, p. 163.) Not much of this may be possible, but more use might easily be made of such materials, especially with the early history of Ontario.

5. The use of local history and of current events will be treated elsewhere. (See pp. 49, 51.)

6. When possible, let the pupils form their idea of an historical person from his actions and words just as we form our estimate of each other, instead of having them memorize mere summaries of his character before they know his actions.

7. Genealogical and chronological tables, written on the black-board and discussed with the class, will be of service in understanding certain periods, such as the Wars of the Roses, and in helping to form the time-sense of pupils. (See Chronological Chart, p. 128.)

8. Chief dependence must be placed, however, on increasing the pupil's knowledge of present-day conditions in agriculture, commerce, transportation, manufactures, in fact, in all social, economic, and political conditions, in order to enable him by comparison to realize earlier methods and ways of living. The pupil who understands best how we do things to-day can understand best the state of affairs when people had to depend on primitive methods, and can realize how they would strive to make things better.

ON MEMORIZING HISTORY

History is usually called a "memory" subject, and is accordingly often taught as a mere memorizing of facts, names, and dates. The following statement of the chief principles of memorizing will, it is hoped, put mere verbal repetition in its proper place. Interest is the chief condition for teaching history in the public schools, in order that the pupils may acquire a liking for the subject that will tempt them to pursue their reading in after years; without that interest, the small amount of historical fact they can accumulate in their school-days will be of little real value to them when they become full-fledged citizens. In fact, through this emphasis on interest instead of verbal repetition, the pupils are likely to obtain a better knowledge of history and, at the same time, will have a chance to develop, in no slight degree, their powers of judgment.

1. Memory depends on attention; we must observe attentively what we wish to remember. In history, attention may be secured by making the lessons interesting through the skill of the teacher in presenting the matter vividly to the pupils; also by using means to make history real instead of having it a mere mass of meaningless words. (See p. 34.)

2. Facts that we wish to remember should be grouped, or studied in relation to other facts with which they are vitally connected. The facts of history should be presented to the class in their relation of cause and effect, or associated with some larger centre of interest; in other words, pupils must understand, in some degree, what they are asked to remember. (See pp. 92, 97.)

3. If we increase the number of connections for facts, we are more likely to remember them. It is largely for this reason that history should be taught with correlated subjects, such as geography, literature, science (inventions), etc. For example, the story of the Spanish Armada is remembered better if we have read Westward Ho! and the story of the Renaissance is made clearer and is therefore remembered better, if we connect with it the inventions of printing, gunpowder, and the mariner's compass. (See p. 121.)

4. Repetition is necessary to memory. Facts or groups of facts must be repeated to be remembered. This is the purpose of the drills which are necessary to good teaching, but are only a part of it. Reviews are not to be considered merely as repetitions, but should be treated more as aids to better understanding. (See p. 31.)



CHAPTER III

CORRELATION OF SUBJECTS

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

These subjects are very intimately related, and each should be used in teaching the other. Geography, which is often called one of the "eyes of history," may be used in the teaching of this subject in two ways. In the first place, an account of an historical event lacks, to a certain degree, reality in the minds of the pupils if they do not know something of the place where it occurred. Accordingly, in studying or teaching history, reference should be constantly made to the map to give a local setting to the story. The voyage of Columbus, the operations of Wolfe, the coming of the Loyalists, are made more real if they are traced out on the map, and are therefore better understood and remembered by the pupils. For this purpose, it is better, in most cases, to use an outline map, which may be sketched on the black-board by the teacher or the pupils, because on the ordinary wall maps there are so many names and so much detail that the attention may be distracted. Many of the details on the map are, moreover, more modern than the events that are to be illustrated, so that wrong impressions may be given.

In the second place, it must be kept constantly in mind that many events in history have been influenced by the physical features of a country. For example: the lack of a natural boundary between France and Germany has led to many disputes between these countries; the fact of Great Britain being an island accounts for many things in her history (see p. 108); the physical features of Quebec and Gibraltar explain the importance of these places; and the waterways of Canada account for the progress of early settlement. The climate and soil of a country affect its history; treaties are often based on physical conditions, and trade routes determined by them; a nation's commerce and wealth depend largely on the character of its natural resources.

Some easy problems may be given to the senior classes to be answered by reference to physical conditions:

Why are London, New York, Chicago, Montreal, and Halifax, such important centres? Why are certain places fitted for certain manufactures? Will Winnipeg become a more important city than Montreal? Will Vancouver outstrip San Francisco? What is a possible future for the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan? What might have been the state of North America to-day, if the Rocky Mountains had run along the East coast, instead of along the West?

On the other hand, history contributes a human interest to geography; the places of greatest interest are often those associated with great events in history—Athens, Mount Sinai, Waterloo, Queenston Heights.

HISTORY AND LITERATURE

Literature gives life and human interest to both history and geography. By means of literature we are able to get a better notion of the ideals and motives of a people than the mere recital of the facts of their history can give. In this connection we naturally think of Homer's Iliad and its influence on the Greeks. It was their storehouse of history, morals, religion, aesthetics, and rules for the practical guidance of life, as well as their literary masterpiece.

It is often easy to interest pupils in a period of history by reading or quoting to them some ballad, poem, or prose narrative that colours the historical facts with the element of human feeling. Macaulay's Horatius gives a deeper impression of Roman patriotism than almost anything in pure history can; the various aspects of the Crusades are vividly shown by W. Stearns Davis in God Wills It, a story of the first Crusade. In fact, if stirring events can be linked in the child's mind with stirring verse, if the struggles and progress of nations can be presented in a vigorous narrative that echoes the thoughts, feelings, and interests of the time, we make an appeal to the interest of the pupil that is almost irresistible. The objection is sometimes urged against the reading of standard historical tales and novels, that these are somewhat exaggerated in sentiment and inaccurate in facts. Even if this be so, it may be said that they give in outline a fair picture of the period described, that the interest in history aroused by such tales begets a liking for history itself, and that such exaggerations and inaccuracies are soon corrected when the pupil begins to read history.

The course of history has been modified by songs, ballads, and stories. The influence on the national spirit and ideals of songs such as Rule Britannia and The Marseillaise, of stories such as Uncle Tom's Cabin, of novels such as those of Dickens and of Charles Reade is incalculable.

A few poems and prose compositions are given here as suggestions; a fuller list may be found in Allen's Reader's Guide to English History, Ginn & Co., 30c.

Poems: Boadicea, Cowper; Recessional, Kipling; Edinburgh After Flodden, Aytoun; Hands All Round, Tennyson; Columbus, Joaquin Miller; Waterloo, Byron; The Armada, Macaulay; The Revenge, Tennyson; The Charge of the Light Brigade, Tennyson.

Prose: "United Empire Loyalists," Roberts' History of Canada, Chap. XV; "Departure and Death of Nelson," Southey; Montcalm and Wolfe, Parkman; "The Crusader and the Saracen," in Scott's The Talisman; "The Heroine of Castle Dangerous," in Stories of New France, Machar and Marquis; "Adam Daulac," in Martyrs of New France, Herrington.

HISTORY AND SCIENCE

The connection between history and science is very close, because it was only after the invention of writing that history, the record of human progress, became possible. Further, the remarkable way in which the chief stages in the development of civilization coincide with certain inventions and discoveries makes the study of history very incomplete without a knowledge of the inventions and discoveries, inasmuch as these opened a road for human development. (See p. 119.)

To make this evident, it is enough merely to mention a few comparatively recent inventions, such as the mariner's compass, the printing-press, gunpowder, the steam-engine, the power-loom, the cotton-gin, and the telegraph.

To the introduction of the mariner's compass in the fourteenth century, by which sailors were made independent of landmarks and the stars, and could therefore go more boldly into the open sea, we owe the explorations of the fifteenth century that culminated in the discovery of America, and the way to India by the Cape of Good Hope. The introduction of gunpowder in the fourteenth century gave the lower and middle classes a weapon that made them equal in power with the nobles and brought about the downfall of the feudal system and the rise of modern democracies. The printing-press gave to the world the learning of the past and revolutionized social conditions. The invention of high explosives has made possible many of the great engineering works of to-day. The inventions that have made transportation and communication so easy and rapid have already done a great deal to bring nations to a better understanding of each other and thus to promote the peace of the world. Discoveries in medicine alone have had an incalculable influence on the health and prosperity of society. In fact, the study of history and an understanding of modern social and industrial conditions are impossible without a knowledge of scientific inventions and discoveries. (See pp. 87, 92.)

Children naturally take an interest in what individuals have done, and it is easy to interest them in the work of men such as Watt, Stephenson, Whitney, Fulton, Morse, Edison, Marconi, and their fellows. The biographies of famous inventors should therefore be given, both as a record of what they did and as an inspiration to like achievements.

HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTIVE WORK

Constructive work may be used to advantage in history and civics. It gives concrete expression to some facts of history through the construction by the pupils of objects mentioned therein. In studying Indian life, the class may make in paper, wood, etc., wigwams, bows and arrows, stockades, etc.; in connection with pioneer life, they may make some of the buildings and implements used by the pioneers,—log houses, spinning-wheels, hominy blocks, Red River carts, etc.; in studying campaigns, they may make models in plasticine or clay, or on the sand table, of forts, battle-fields, etc., for example—the Plains of Abraham, Queenston Heights, Chateauguay, Plymouth Harbour; the Union Jack may be cut out and coloured. (See p. 68.) In this way the activities of the child may be made of practical use.

On the industrial and social side of history, which is being more and more emphasized, it is of great value to the child to become acquainted, even though on a small scale and through the simplest implements and machines, with the construction of machinery and modes of manufacture. For a lesson on the Industrial Revolution in England, for example, it will give pupils a better understanding of the changes, if they know something, through their own activities, of the way of making cloth.

For suggestions on constructive work, see the Manual on Manual Training:

P. 22: Suggestions for the various seasons and days. P. 26: On the use of the sand table. P. 55: On collecting and preserving pictures. P. 58: On relief maps and geographical formations.

HISTORY AND ART

Art assists history in two ways. First, pictures may be used to illustrate events in history and make them real. It is often difficult for children to form a definite mental image of historical scenes merely from the words of the teacher or of the text-book, because their experiences are limited and the power to combine these properly is lacking. This is recognized now in the many text-books which are freely illustrated. Pictures of persons famous in history are also of value, in that they make these persons more real to the pupils. Materials for class use may be collected by the teacher and pupils,—engravings, prints, cuts from newspapers and magazines of famous people, buildings, cities, monuments, events; for example, the Landing of Columbus, the Coming of the Loyalists, the Fathers of Confederation, the Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, an Old-Time Trading Post, the Death of Brock. A good idea is to have a class scrap-book, to be filled with suitable contributions from the class. The teacher will find a private scrap-book exceedingly useful. Many fine pictures are given in The Highroads of History, and The Story of the British People for Form III. It may be added that these pictures should be supplemented freely by descriptions and narratives given by the teacher. (See Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.)

Second, the pupils may be asked to illustrate, by drawings and sketch maps, historic places, routes of armies and of explorers, the journeys of settlers, etc.

HISTORY AND COMPOSITION

History, no less than other subjects of study, needs to be expressed by the pupils, if it is to make them more efficient. Some of the usual modes of expression are given above in connection with constructive work and art. The chief mode of expression, however, for history is through composition, both oral and written.

In the Junior Forms the stories should be reproduced orally (see Details of Method for Forms I and II, p. 25), either by pure narration or by dramatization; the pupils relate in their own language what they have learned, or are allowed to dramatize the story. In the dramatization, the pupils should be given a good deal of freedom in constructing the conversation, once they get to know what is wanted, the only restriction being that no pupil shall be allowed to take part who does not know the story thoroughly. Incidents such as Harold taking the oath to help William of Normandy gain the crown of England, Joseph being sold into Egypt, the Greeks using the wooden horse to capture Troy, are very easily dramatized.

In the Senior Forms the black-board outline may be used as the basis of written or oral reproduction. The subject of composition will itself be less objectionable by reason of these exercises, as the pupils are asked to reproduce the history as material valuable and interesting in itself, not merely as a means of showing their skill in expression. Moreover, in the study of history, the pupil hears or reads the compositions of others, and unconsciously gains, by these examples, much in vocabulary and in power of expression. In fact, much of the culture value of history depends on the training it affords in composition, and, by intimately connecting these two subjects, a double advantage is gained—the ability to comprehend historical material, and practice in effective expression.

HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY OR THE USE OF DATES

Geography is one of "the eyes of history"; chronology, or the arranging of events according to their dates, is the other. This suggests that dates are to be used merely as a help in "seeing" events in history in their proper order, so that their relations to other events may be better understood. When these relations are seen, the dates lose much of their value.

For example, let us consider the following dates: 1763, 1774, 1775, 1783, 1791. The short interval between 1763, when Great Britain finally assumed control of Canada by treaty, and 1774, when the Quebec Act was passed, helps to make clear the reason for the French citizens receiving so many concessions. They outnumbered the English so much that these concessions were deemed necessary to hold their allegiance to the Crown in face of the efforts made by the discontented New England colonies to get their support in the coming revolution against Great Britain. The success of the Act was shown in 1775, when the invasion by the revolutionists failed. The war of the Revolution was ended by treaty in 1783, and Canada received as settlers, principally in Upper Canada, the United Empire Loyalists, whose ideas of government were so different from those of the Lower Canadians that the separation of Upper and Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791 became necessary. These dates, so close together, emphasize the rapidity with which events moved in that period, as well as the sequence of cause and effect. We think also of the dates of Cartier's voyages, 1534, 1535, and 1541, merely to raise the question as to why so much time elapsed between the second and third voyages. When these points are properly seen, the events are kept in place by their relation of cause and effect, and the dates lose their value. Moreover, the relations thus discovered will do most toward fixing these dates in the memory. It should be understood, therefore, that dates are only a means to an end, not an end in themselves.

It is important also to know the dates of certain events when we are studying the history of several countries, in order that we may consider together those events that are contemporary.

There are, of course, some dates that should be remembered because of the importance of the events connected with them, for example: 1066, 1215, 1492, 1603, 1688, 1759, 1776, 1789, 1841, 1867.

In the Junior Forms, because the pupils are still lacking in the "historical sense," little emphasis need be put on the giving of dates. A few of the most important may be given in Form II, but it is very questionable if they have any significance to the pupils at this early stage.



CHAPTER IV

SPECIAL TOPICS

CURRENT EVENTS

The study of history should not end with what is contained in text-books, for the making of history never ceases. The study of current events will be found to be a very valuable element in history teaching. Teachers and pupils who are interested in the events of to-day are much more likely to be interested in the events of the past. A knowledge of current events will arouse curiosity in what led up to them, will suggest a motive for studying the past, and will often supply concrete examples for both history and civics. In fact, the teaching of civics may be based almost entirely on current events. (See Civics, p. 52 et seq.) The influence of a knowledge of current events on the study of history is very plainly seen to-day in the earnest and widespread effort to discover the causes of the war that is devastating Europe at the present time. History becomes real when pupils understand that what is happening now has its roots in the past and, at the same time, is history in the making. For example, the present war will certainly intensify our interest in the great movement to prevent war by means of world-wide arbitration of disputes between nations, or by any other means. The value of this phase of history teaching depends very largely on the interest taken in it by the teacher and on the work that the pupils can be induced to do for themselves. The teacher talks to the pupils about some important current event in an interesting way. Then the pupils are encouraged to add to what he has said by relating what they have heard, or have read in the newspapers. After a few lessons the chief difficulty is to make a suitable selection of topics to be discussed in class. Those of national importance, if within the scope of the Form work, will have prominence, and the pupils will be given hints as to articles about these topics in papers, magazines, and books. It is obvious that topics likely to arouse religious, political, or other party feeling, should be avoided. For actual school-room practice the following scheme has been used successfully in Form III:

CURRENT EVENTS (10 MINUTES DAILY)

The teacher has suggested the kinds of events that are worthy of discussion, and the pupils come to class prepared to tell what they have read in the papers about some of these. The teacher aids them to give fit expression to their information, and the pupil who has been chosen as editor writes a summary of the lesson on the black-board, and later, on a sheet of paper.

Ordinarily, the editors should be chosen from those who write and spell well.

Where the subject-matter lends itself to such treatment, these summaries may be placed in two columns—one, the Girls' News Column; the other, the Boys' News Column. The summaries on the sheets of paper may be arranged in order for a week or a month and be known as The School Review. Such a lesson includes history, and oral and written composition.

The following items of news were those discussed in a Form III room at the end of the week, when some time is taken to talk over the events of the week:

FEB. 5TH, 1915

Rescue of the crew of the Japanese cruiser Asama. Rescue work in the earthquake in Italy. Wireless message frustrates a German plot to blow up a French steamer. Fire in a New York factory—rescue of the inmates. Inhuman treatment of Belgian women and children. British officer praises the enemy. The Austrians are defeated by the Montenegrins. Canadians wounded in France. Importance of discipline and accurate shooting for Canadian troops. Germany proclaims a war zone around Britain. Two New York boy heroes of a fire. Tsar honours a girl wounded while carrying ammunition to the troops. Opening of the war session of the Canadian Parliament.

These items are sifted from a great many suggested by the pupils. In the sifting process, a very useful discussion is had as to what constitutes real "news," and what is mere "gossip"; that is, what is of value as news to the world at large, and what is of purely local, personal interest.

In civics, current topics may be made very useful. Items of municipal, provincial, or federal affairs furnish a concrete basis for the study of our system of government, and may also suggest moral examples.

LOCAL MATERIAL

One of the chief uses of local history in the class-room is to make the study of general history more vivid and interesting (1) by making more real those facts of history associated with the locality in which we live, and (2) by providing suitable illustrations, from the pupil's own experience, of facts in general history. When a pupil has seen the place where an event of history has happened, he has an interest in that event that he could scarcely gain in any other way, and the history of that period may then be taught with more interest and profit to him. A pupil finds also in local history certain facts that he must understand in order to interpret the story of happenings, distant in time and place.

Some parts of Ontario are much richer in material than others, but in all historic spots may be found. On the St. Lawrence River, in the Niagara peninsula, in the Talbot settlement district, in York county, along the Ottawa River, in the Huron tract, there is no lack of useful material. But it is not necessary to confine such local history to the outstanding events of war or the larger happenings of civil progress. In every locality there are remains of the earlier Indian inhabitants, in the form of mounds, sites of villages, relics of war and the chase (arrow-heads, stone implements, beads, etc.); relics of the early settlers, in the form of roads and old log houses; relics of pioneer life consisting of furniture, household and outdoor implements, etc., that will serve as a basis for comparison with present-day conditions, and make real to the children the lives of the earlier inhabitants and settlers of Ontario.

CIVICS

The teaching of civics has a threefold aim:

1. To instruct in the mechanism of government. (Descriptive)

2. To instruct in the history of national institutions so as to show the line of development, and also to impress the fact that existing institutions are capable of development, are not fixed. (Historical)

3. "To show the cost of each institution in the efforts and sacrifices of past generations and to quicken and make permanent the children's interest in public life and their sense of responsibility to their fellows." (Patriotic and Ethical)

Two points stand out clearly—to teach the machinery of government and to instil ideals of public conduct. Of these the second is by far the more important and the more difficult to teach directly. The best way to attempt it is by means of biography and personal references. There are great men and women in history whose lives are worthy examples to the young: Sir John Eliot, Pym, Hampden, who stood for freedom of speech and debate; Gladstone, who helped to right historic wrongs in the East; Lincoln, who stood for union and the freedom of the individual; many eminent Canadians, such as Sir John Macdonald, George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Egerton Ryerson, Sir Oliver Mowat, and Sir James Whitney; women such as Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Fry, Laura Secord and Sarah Maxwell. Besides these eminent examples, there are in every locality men and women who give unselfishly of their energy and time for the good of the community.

There should also be impressed on the minds of the young a sense of their responsibility for an honest and faithful use of the ballot, a right won for them by the long and earnest effort of their forefathers; and the necessity for purity of government in our democratic form of administration. In school life, a good deal can be done to create a sense of fair play, respect for the rights of others, and of the necessity for submission to lawful authority by encouraging the pupils to conduct all their school organizations, whether in play or in work, honourably and by right methods.

Some of the lessons that may be taught to children during their school life are as follows:

1. Respect for the rights of others. Pupils may be brought to see that misconduct on their part affects others, not themselves only.

2. Respect for the property of others. This may be secured best by teaching them to take good care of their own property first, for unless a child cares rightly for his own, he is not likely to take much thought for the things of others.

3. Respect for public property. This is something that needs attention badly. It is a very common thing to find people destroying trees, flowers, etc., in public places, throwing refuse on the street, and otherwise disfiguring their surroundings. A beginning of better habits may be made by getting the pupils to aid in beautifying and decorating the school building by means of pictures, either prints or their own work, by flowers in pots, by keeping the floor and walls clean and free from marks and litter; also in making the grounds around the school more attractive by means of flowers and shrubs. Arbor Day may be made of great use in this respect, if the spirit of that Day can be carried through the whole year. A pride in the attractiveness of the school will have its influence on the pupils in the wider life of the community.

A knowledge of the machinery of government may be based on the pupils' knowledge of the organization of the school. The appointment, power, and duties of the teacher are the starting-point. The next step will be to investigate the composition of the board of school trustees. This may be done at the time of an election for school trustees. The following questions may serve as an outline of study for all the political bodies by which we are governed:

1. Who compose the board of trustees? (In the smaller local bodies, the names of the members may be mentioned, as giving a personal interest in the matter.)

2. How and by whom are they elected?

3. For what period are they elected?

4. How is the board organized for the conduct of business?

5. What powers do they possess?

6. What duties have they to fulfil?

7. How do they raise the money needed for their work?

8. How is the board rendered continuous? (By electing a successor to a member who resigns; by the trustees remaining in office till their successors are elected.)

Other governing bodies may be taken up similarly, for example: Municipal Councils (township, county, village, town, or city council), Provincial Legislature, Dominion or Federal Parliament, Imperial Parliament. A suitable time to bring up the topic of how elections are conducted would be when an election for any of the above bodies is in progress. Information on this topic may be found in Canadian Civics, by Jenkins; a fuller account is given in Bourinot's How Canada is Governed.

Lessons concerning special bodies of municipal and civil servants may be taken; for example, the assessor, tax-collector, policeman, postal employees, firemen, etc. In connection with all of these, the question of taxation is constantly arising. It is suggested that something should be done to put the pupils in the right attitude toward this subject. Many people have an idea that when they pay taxes they are being robbed, because they do not stop to think of what they are getting in return for their money. The chief reason for this seems to be that the taxes are usually paid once or twice a year, while the services rendered are continuous. A good way to proceed is to have the class calculate the value of the services given in return for the taxes. For example, suppose it is found that the yearly cost for each pupil in a certain section is $25.00. Divide this by the number of days (200) a pupil attends school during the year, and the cost each day for each pupil is shown be only 12-1/2 cents, not a very large sum for a community to pay for a child's education.

Other calculations may be made to show the saving to farmers by spending money in the construction of good roads to make teaming more profitable. For example: In a strip of country served by a road ten miles long, there is room for eighty farms of one hundred acres each, all the produce of which would be hauled on that road. Let us suppose that this produce would amount to 3,000 loads, such as could be hauled on an ordinary country road. The average haul being five miles, two trips a day could be made. At $5.00 a day, the cost of haulage would be $7,500.

Suppose this road to be converted into a good stone road at a cost of $3,000 a mile, a total cost of $30,000. On this road, with the larger and heavier wagons that could now be used, the farmers could easily double the size of the load. This would mean that, instead of 3,000 loads being necessary, 1,500 would be sufficient. At the same rate as before, the cost of haulage would be $3,750, an annual saving of $3,750; so that the whole cost of the road would be saved in eight years, to say nothing of the greater ease and comfort of travel to both man and beast. Better roads would also give the farmer access to market for a greater part of the year and thus enable him to take advantage of higher prices at certain seasons. It is believed that these figures are quite within the bounds of probability.

In large towns and cities the cost of public utilities may be calculated; for example, the expense of a fire-station in buildings, equipment, horses, men, etc., to show how the money raised by taxes is spent for the good of the whole community, and helps to keep down the rates for fire insurance. The kinds of taxation may also be discussed—direct and indirect; also the sources from which direct taxes are derived—customs, excise, etc.; methods of levying and collecting taxes; how taxes are spent for the various educational and charitable institutions—schools, libraries, hospitals, asylums, homes for the poor and neglected, etc.; for the protection of life and property; for the administration of justice, etc. The distribution of taxes among public institutions may be studied from the public accounts printed for the use of ratepayers.

The lessons learned about the fairness of taxation may be used to illustrate certain periods of history when people struggled against unjust and arbitrary taxation; for example, Wat Tyler's Rebellion, the Civil War in England in the seventeenth century, the American and French Revolutions, Acts of Parliament in Canada from the Quebec Act to the Act of Confederation.

A Dominion or Provincial election offers a good opportunity for a lesson on how to vote and how we came to have the right to vote; on the constitution of Parliament; on the sanctity of the ballot, etc.

A trial by jury in which the people of the district are interested may be used to introduce the history and purpose of the jury.

THE TEACHER OF HISTORY

The teacher of history must know his subject. This does not mean that every school teacher must have an expert knowledge of the whole subject, but he should know the history that is to be taught thoroughly enough to be able to teach the lesson orally without referring constantly to the text-book or to notes. This, at least, is the ideal to strive for. To accomplish this, the teacher is earnestly recommended to read at least one book in addition to the authorized text-book, which does not usually contain much more than the important facts of history. To clothe the skeleton of facts with flesh and blood so as to make history what it really is, a record of human beings who not only did things but had also thoughts and feelings like our own, it is necessary to be able to supply the personal details that make the figures of history real, living, men and women. (See the Story of Florence Nightingale, p. 62.) The teacher who does this will himself come to have a more lively interest in history.

The teacher must also know children. For the understanding of history, pupils are dependent on their previous knowledge of life and its interests. They must be led by timely suggestions or questions to see the connection between their own knowledge of life and the experiences of the actors in history. Without this connection, the facts of history remain meaningless.

To present history to the pupils in an interesting way, the oral method is the best. It is not necessary for the teacher to have a special gift for narration; any one who is really interested in the story to be told is able to tell it well enough to hold the attention of the class. In narration, mere fluency is not the chief requisite; it is more important that the pupils should feel the teacher's interest in the topic. The narration must also be confined to the facts and details that count; the teacher needs to know what to omit as well as what to narrate. If the matter has been well thought out and clearly arranged in topics with due regard to the relation of cause and effect, the telling of the story will be an easier matter, and the pupils will be trained also in a clear and logical way of treating history. The oral method should be supported by the free use of devices for making the story real. (See p. 34.) While it is quite true that certain important topics are to be thoroughly mastered as centres of connection for the less important facts, yet it must be insisted on that a more important aim of the teacher is to arouse and stimulate an interest in history so that the pupil's study of it may continue after the close of his school-days. No mastery of facts through memorization alone will counterbalance the lack of interest in, and liking for, the subject.

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