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Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Management
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ONTARIO

TEACHERS' MANUALS

HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

AUTHORIZED BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION

TORONTO

THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED



COPYRIGHT, CANADA, 1916, BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION FOR ONTARIO



CONTENTS

PAGE COURSE OF STUDY—DETAILS 1

CHAPTER I Introduction 5 Correlation with Other School Subjects 7 Rooms 9 Equipment 12 Tables, seats, racks, sinks, class cupboard, stoves, black-boards, illustrative material, book-case, utensils 23 Equipment for Twenty-four Pupils 23 Class table, sink and walls, general cupboard equipment, kitchen linen, cleaning cupboard, laundry equipment, dining-room equipment, miscellaneous 28 Equipment for Ordinary Class-rooms 28 Equipment, Packing-box 30 For Class 31 Individual Equipment for Six Pupils 32

CHAPTER II Suggestions for Class Management 33 Teachers' Preparation 33 Number in Class 33 Uniforms, etc. 33 Discipline 34 Division of Periods 35 Assignment of Work 36 Supplies 37 Practice Work at Home 37 Suggestions, General 38 Suggestions for Schools with Limited or no Equipment 39

CHAPTER III. FORM III: JUNIOR GRADE Correlations 42 Arithmetic, geography, nature study, hygiene, physical training, composition, spelling, manual training, art, sewing 45

CHAPTER IV. FORM III: SENIOR GRADE Scope of Household Management 46 Equipment, Uniform, etc., Survey of 47 Equipment, Use of 48 Cleaning, Development of a Lesson on Meaning of Cleaning 49 Methods of Cleaning 49 Common Household Cleansing Agents 50 Black-board Outline 51 Dish Washing 52 Table Cleaning 53 Sink Cleaning 54 Dusting 54 Measures and Recipes Measures 55 Equivalent Measures and Weights, Table of 58 Measuring, Plan of Lesson on 58 Time limit, preparation, development, practical work to apply measuring, serving, note-taking, housekeeping, recipe for cocoa 62 Recipes 62

CHAPTER V. FORM III: SENIOR GRADE (Continued) Cookery Meaning of Cooking 64 Reasons for Cooking Food 64 Kinds of Heat Used 64 Different Ways of Applying Dry Heat 64 Different Ways of Applying Moist Heat 64 Thermometer, Lesson on 65 Boiling Carrots, Plan of Lesson on 68 Aim, time limit, preparation for practical work; practical work; development of the ideas of boiling as a method of cooking; serving, housekeeping, recipe in detail 70 Simmering Apples, Plan of Lesson on 70 Introduction, discussion of recipe, practical work, development of ideas of simmering; serving, housekeeping, recipe (individual) 72 Methods of Cooking: Details 73 Boiling 73 Simmering 74 Steaming 74 Steeping 75 Toasting 76 Broiling 76 Pan-broiling 77 Sauteing 78 Baking 78 Frying 79 Left-overs, Suggestions for the Use of 82 Bread, cake, meat, fish, eggs, cheese, vegetables, canned fruit 84 Beverages 84 Meaning of Beverages 84 Kinds of Beverages 85 Tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate 86 Table Setting 87 Table Manners 90

CHAPTER VI. FORM IV. JUNIOR GRADE Kitchen Fire, The 92 Requirements 93 Heat, oxygen, fuels 96 Kitchen Stove, The 96 Fireless Cooker, The 99 Principles of Fireless Cooker 100 Reasons for Use of Fireless Cooker 100 Ways of Using Fireless Cooker 100 Home-made Fireless Cooker, A 101

CHAPTER VII. FORM IV: JUNIOR GRADE (Continued) Food, Study of 103 Uses of Food 103 Necessary Substances in Food 105 Sources of Food 106 Common Foods, Study of 106 Milk 107 Eggs 110 Vegetable Food, Study of 114 Comparative food value of different parts of plants 119 Green vegetables, root vegetables and tubers, ripe seeds (peas, beans, and lentils) 120 Vegetables, General Rules for Cooking 122 Fruit, General Rules for Cooking 123 Fresh Fruit 123 Dried Fruit 123 Starch, Use of, to Thicken Liquids 124 Flour, Use of, to Thicken Liquids 125 Cream of Vegetable Soups 126 Principles of Cream Soups 126 Seeds, Outline of Lesson on Cooking 127 Cereals 127 Legumes: Peas, Beans, Lentils 128 Nuts 128 Salads 129 Ingredients of Salads 129 Food Values of Salads 129 Preparation of Ingredients 130 Dressings for Salads 130 Mineral Food, Study of 131 Summary of Sources of Mineral Foods 133 Diet 133 Reference Table of Food Constituents 134 Water, mineral matter, protein, sugar, starch, fat 134 Preparing and Serving Meals: Rules 136

CHAPTER VIII. FORM IV: JUNIOR GRADE (Continued) House, Care of the 138 Bed-room, Directions for Care of 138 Sweeping, Directions for 139 Dusting, Directions for 140 Metals, Care and Cleaning of 140 Iron or steel, tin, granite and enamel ware, aluminium, zinc, galvanized iron, copper or brass, silver, recipe for silver polish 144

CHAPTER IX. FORM IV: JUNIOR GRADE (Continued) Laundry Work 145 White Cotton and Linen Clothes, Lesson on Washing 145 Materials—water, alkalies, soap, soap substitutes or adjuncts, blueing, starch 149 Preparation for Washing 150 Process of Washing 151 Removal of Stains 152 Woollens, Outline of Lessons on Washing 153 Experiments with Cloth Made of Wool Fibre 154 Points in Washing Woollens 156 Steps in Washing Woollens 156

CHAPTER X. FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE Foods 157 Food, Preservation of 158 Bacteria 158 Canning 160 Jams and Preserves 163 Jelly 164 Pickling 165

CHAPTER XI. FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE (Continued) Cookery 166 Flour, Outline of Lesson on 166 Sources of flour, kinds of flour made from wheat, composition of white flour, kinds of wheat flour, tests for bread flour 167 Flour Mixtures, Outline of Series of Lessons on 168 Meaning of flour mixtures, kinds of flour mixtures, methods of mixing flour mixtures, framework of flour mixtures, lightening agents used in flour mixtures 169 Experiments 170 Baking-powder 170 Cake making 171 Classes of cake, directions for making cake, rules for mixing cake, directions for baking cake 173 Recipe for Basic Cake 174 Variations of Recipe for Basic Cake 174 Spice cake, nut cake, fruit cake, chocolate cake 174 Recipe for Basic Biscuits 175 Variations of Recipe for Basic Biscuits 175 Sweet biscuit, fruit biscuit, scones, fruit scones, short cake for fruit, dumplings for stew, steamed fruit pudding 175 Bread Making 176 Yeast, Outline of Lessons on 177 Bread Making, Practical 179 Ingredients of plain bread, amount of ingredients for one small loaf, process in making bread 180 Breads, Fancy 180 Bread-mixer, The 182 Pastry 183 Pastry, outline of lesson on—ingredients 184 Notes on flour, fat, water: lightening agents used in pastry: kinds of pastry: amount of ingredients for plain pastry for one pie 184

CHAPTER XII. FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE (Continued) Meat 186 Names of Meat 187 Parts of Meat 188 Composition of Fat 188 Composition of Bone 188 Composition of Muscle 190 Meat Experiments 191 Selection of Meat 192 Care of Meat 193 General Ways of Preparing Meat 193 Notes on Tough Meat 193 Digestibility of Meat 195 General Rules for Cooking Meat 198 Baking, broiling, boiling, stewing, beef juice 199 Fish Points of Difference Between Fish and Ordinary Meat 199 Kinds of Fish 200 Selection of Fish 200 Cooking of Fish 200 Gelatine 200 Source 201 Commercial Forms 201 Properties 201 Steps in Dissolving 201 Value in Diet 202 Ways of Using 202 Frozen Dishes 203 Value 203 Kinds 203 Water ice, frappe sherbet, ice cream, plain ice cream, mousse 203 Practical Work 204 Freezing, packing, moulding 204 Planning of Meals 205

CHAPTER XIII. FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE (Continued) Infant Feeding 208 Modified Milk, Recipe for 209 Pasteurizing Milk, Directions for 209 Bottles, Care of 210 Food, Care of 210 Feeding, Schedule for 211

CHAPTER XIV. FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE (Continued) Household Sanitation 212 Means of Bacteria Entering the Body 212 Common Disease-producing Bacteria 213 Methods of Sanitation 214 Disposal of Waste in Villages and Rural Districts 215 Methods of Disinfecting 215 Home Nursing 216 Sick Room, The 216 Location, furniture, ventilation, care 216 Disinfecting, Methods of 218 Patient, The 218 Care of the bed, and diet 218 Poultices 221 Fomentations 222

BIBLIOGRAPHY Home, The 223 Science and Sanitation 223 Food and Dietetics 223 Cooking and Serving 224 Laundry Work 224 Home Nursing 225 Economics 225 Magazines 225



PUBLIC AND SEPARATE SCHOOL COURSE OF STUDY

DETAILS

FORM III: JUNIOR GRADE

BILLS OF HOUSEHOLD SUPPLIES:

Furniture, bed and table linen, material for clothing Fuel, meat, milk, groceries Weekly or monthly expenses of an average household Comparison of home and store cost of cooked food, such as cake, bread, meat, canned fruit.

SOURCES OF HOUSEHOLD MATERIALS:

Fuel Timber for building, and furniture Cotton, linen, woollen, paper, china Common groceries, such as salt, sugar, spices, tea, coffee, cocoa, cheese, butter, cereals Cleansing agents, such as coal-oil, gasolene, turpentine, whiting, bathbrick, soap.

MANUFACTURE OF HOUSEHOLD MATERIALS:

Cotton, linen, woollens, paper Salt, sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa, cheese, butter, cereals.

KITCHEN AND EQUIPMENT:

Arrangement of a convenient kitchen Necessary utensils.

FORM III: SENIOR GRADE

CLEANING:

Elementary principles of cleaning Practice in cleaning dishes, tables, sinks, towels.

COOKERY:

Table of cooking measurements A recipe (parts, steps in following) Reasons for cooking food; kinds of heat used; methods of cooking Practice in making simple dishes of one main ingredient.

SERVING:

Setting the table Table service and manners.

FORM IV: JUNIOR GRADE

THE KITCHEN FIRE:

Requirements of a fire Comparative merits of fuels Construction and care of a practical stove.

STUDY OF FOODS:

Uses of food to the body Necessary elements in food Composition of the common foods, excepting meat and fish.

COOKERY:

Practice lessons in preparing and cooking the common foods, (milk, eggs, meat, fish, fruit, vegetables) Cooking and serving a simple breakfast and a luncheon.

CARE OF THE HOUSE:

Review of methods of cleaning taken in Form III Cleaning and care of household metals Sweeping and dusting Care of a bed-room.

LAUNDRY WORK:

Necessary materials and the action of each Process in washing white clothes.

NOTE.—These subjects are intended to be taught simply (not technically). In schools where there is no laundry equipment, the order of work may be developed in class and the practice carried on at home.



FORM IV: SENIOR GRADE

PRESERVATION OF FOOD:

Causes of decay, principles and methods of preservation Practice in canning.

COOKERY:

Practice lessons to review cooking common foods Flour (kinds, composition of white flour); flour mixtures (kinds, methods of mixing, lightening agents) Practice in making bread and cake Practice in cooking meat Cooking and serving a simple home dinner at a fixed cost.

FOODS:

Composition of meat and fish Planning meals so as to obtain a broad balance of food elements.

INFANT FEEDING:

Proper food; pasteurizing milk Care of bottles and food Schedule for feeding.

HOUSEHOLD SANITATION:

Disposal of waste Principles and methods of sterilizing and disinfecting.

HOME NURSING:

Two simple lessons to include the following:

1. The sick-room (location, size, ventilation, care) 2. Care of patient's bed, and diet 3. Making of mustard and other simple poultices.

NOTE.—Where no equipment has been provided, a large doll and doll's bed will serve.

LAUNDRY WORK:

Washing of woollens (the processes).



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Until a comparatively recent period, education was regarded mainly as a means of training the intellect, but this conception of education is now considered incomplete and inadequate. Our ideas of the purpose of schools are becoming broader, and we have decided that not only the mental nature, but all the child's activities and interests, should be given direction by means of the training given in our schools. We believe also that these activities and interests can be used to advantage in assisting the mental development.

Household Management aims to educate in this way, by directing the mind to ideas connected with the home and by training the muscles to perform household duties.

Though deemed essentially practical, this subject will, if rightly presented, give a mental training similar to other subjects of the Course of Study. It should do more. While a pupil is made familiar with the duties of home life and with the materials and appliances used in the home, she will be unavoidably led to think of the work of the larger world and to realize her relation to it. When such knowledge comes, and a girl begins to feel that some part of the world's work depends on her, true character-building will begin.

The purpose of this Manual is to assist teachers in presenting Household Management to public and separate school classes in such a way as to attain these ends. It is hoped that it will be especially useful to those teachers whose training in the subject has been limited.

An attempt has been made to explain the work of Form III Senior, and of the Junior and Senior divisions of Form IV. The topics of Form II Junior are not discussed, as the work of this Form is intended to be taught as information lessons, for which general methods will suffice. In the other Forms mentioned, the topics of lessons are outlined in detail, but the method of presentation is not given except in typical cases. Both outline and method are intended to be merely suggestive and to leave opportunity for the teacher's originality.

In cases where topics seem incompletely outlined, it is due to the fact that they are treated in other school subjects or postponed until the pupils reach a more advanced stage of mental development.

The order of lessons is optional, also the amount of work each should include, unless this is specially stated.

Many lessons are suitable for rural schools, which have no equipment except what the ingenuity of the teacher may provide. In such schools, the teacher may perform the practical work, while the class observes.

Throughout the lessons, there is the difficulty of presenting scientific facts to immature minds in a way that will be simple and clear. The use of technical language would often assist the expression, and this is apt to be unconsciously employed, but there is danger of such forms of speech not being intelligible to the pupils; the teacher should therefore choose her words carefully. Technical terms may be taught, but this is not advised in Junior classes, unless really necessary. If the facts are intelligently related to the experiences of the pupils, that is all that is desired.

Temperatures, as indicated by Fahrenheit thermometers, have always been given, as this scale is best known in the home.

Since this Manual is designed for teachers, few recipes have been furnished. The books of reference which are appended will supply these and additional information on the subject.

CORRELATION WITH OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS

One of the benefits of placing Household Management in a Course of Study is that it relates the knowledge gained in school to the home life.

The Household Management teacher has great opportunity for this correlation. She should be more than a teacher of household duties. She should lead the pupils to see the importance and necessity of mastering the other school subjects. Wherever interest in these subjects has already been established, this interest will form a basis for development in many Household Management lessons.

Then, too, the teachers of other subjects should, as far as possible, work with the Household Management teacher in relating their instruction to the operations and requirements in the home. If the teachers co-operate in planning their lessons, the pupils will receive a deeper impression of the facts learned in each subject and will have an increased interest in the work, through seeing how one branch of knowledge is related to another.

The following will show how some of the subjects are related to the class work of Household Management:

Arithmetic.—This subject is used in household accounts, in measurements, in the division of recipes, and in computing the cost of foods prepared for the table.

Reading.—The pupils should be asked to read aloud the recipes and their notes and should be required to do this distinctly and accurately.

Spelling, Writing, Language Work.—In writing recipes and notes, in stories of household topics, and in written answers, the teacher should insist on neat writing, correct spelling, and good English.

Geography.—The study of materials for food, clothing, and house furnishings brings before the mind our commercial relations with foreign countries and the occupations of their inhabitants. It also suggests consideration of climate and soils.

History.—The evolution of furniture and utensils, of methods of housekeeping, and of preparing and serving food, brings out historical facts.

Elementary Science.—Throughout the Course, this subject is the foundation of much of the instruction given, as it explains the principles underlying household industries. Soap-making, bread-making, preservation of food, and the processes of cooking and cleaning are examples of this.

Some knowledge of elementary science is also necessary to an understanding of the construction and practical working of the kitchen stove, the fireless cooker, the cream separator, and many household appliances. Its principles determine the methods of heating, lighting, and ventilating.

Physiology and Hygiene.—The study of food and the planning and preparation of meals should include a knowledge of the body and its requirements. The sanitary care of the house and its premises is directly related to hygiene.

Nature Study.—Animals and plants furnish us with most of our food, and familiarity with these is necessary to the housekeeper. A knowledge of the structure of animals is essential in studying the cuts of meat; the structure of plants and the functions of their different parts give a key to the value of vegetable food.

Physical Training.—The class should be carefully trained throughout in correct muscular movements. The position of the body should be closely watched in working and in sitting, and the classes should enter and leave the room in systematic order.

Manual Training.—The practical part of housekeeping demands constant use of the hands. The teacher should be watchful of awkward handling of materials and utensils and be careful to correct it. She should require deft, natural movements until they become habits.

Art.—Ideas of colour and design should be applied in choosing wall-papers, carpets, dishes, furniture, and clothing. The pupils might be asked to make original coloured designs for these household articles.

ROOMS

It is most desirable to have Household Management include all home operations and, to make this possible, more than one room should be provided. Many school boards, however, in introducing the work, find that one room is all that can be afforded. Where this is the case, it is necessary that this room be equipped as a kitchen, though it must be used for other purposes as well. It will serve also for table-setting and serving, for simple laundry work, for lessons in home-nursing, and for sewing.



This kitchen should be large and airy, so that the class can work comfortably and conveniently. A room having greater length than width admits of the best arrangement.

On account of the odours that arise from cooking and other domestic operations, the kitchen should be on the top floor and should have more adequate means of ventilation than ordinary class-rooms. A north exposure makes it cooler in summer.



EQUIPMENT

In planning an equipment, one must be guided by the conditions to be met. It is difficult to be definite in details, but certain general principles should be observed.

The entire equipment should be suited to the needs of the pupils, and it should also be one which it is desirable and possible for them to have in their own homes.



The walls and floor should be washable, and they, as well as the furniture, should have plain, smooth surfaces which do not catch dust and are easily cleaned.

The sinks, stoves, tables, and cupboards should be placed so as to save steps.

TABLES

Where economy is necessary, movable tables may be used, but the fixed ones are to be preferred. The latter may be placed in the form of a hollow square or an oval, with openings from opposite sides to give convenient access to a centre table, which can be used for supplies or as a dining table.



Drawers and cupboards to hold the necessary utensils and supplies should be provided in the tables for each pupil. Provision may also be made under the table top for desk boards, which may be pulled out when notes are written, in order to allow the pupils to sit comfortably in front of the cupboards. The table top should be of hard wood or some non-absorbent material, jointed in narrow strips in order to prevent warping. Part of this must be protected by a metal or glass strip on which to set the individual stoves or hot dishes.



A working drawing and design of the tables used in the Normal Schools may be obtained from the Department of Education, Toronto.



SEATS

The seats may be swing seats, stools, or chairs. The swing seats are noiseless and easily put out of the way, but are uncomfortable and unsteady, so that the pupils are inclined to prop themselves by placing their elbows on the table. The stools and chairs are noisy and occupy a great deal of room, but the latter are restful and conducive to the correct position of the pupils, the importance of which cannot be over-estimated. The former are inexpensive, if made with a plain, wooden top. Both should admit of being pushed under the table, and for this reason the chairs should have folding backs. The legs should be tipped with rubber in order to minimize the noise.



RACKS

Towel racks should be placed near the sinks and, if possible, should allow space for hanging the towels without folding. In some tables a towel rack may be attached to one of the sides.

SINKS

A sink at each corner of the room saves much time and inconveniences in the work. Each of these should be provided with hot and cold water. They may be made of porcelain or of enamelled iron.



CLASS CUPBOARD

A large class cupboard in two sections, having glass doors in the upper part to show the class china and glass, should be placed where it will be most convenient and add to the attractiveness of the room. This cupboard will hold the dinner set and extra dishes and utensils, as well as the linen and some staple food supplies. A refrigerator is desirable for such foods as butter, eggs, meat, etc.



STOVES



The stoves provided will depend on the fuel that is available in the neighbourhood. Wood is still in use in some rural sections, while coal is the ordinary fuel in small towns and villages. Where either of these fuels is commonly used, there should be two ranges. One should be for coal or wood, to teach the use of the home fuel, and the other an oil, gas, or electric stove, to demonstrate the time and labour saved the housekeeper by the use of one of these. If possible, the stoves should have high ovens, to obviate the necessity of stooping. A section of glass in the oven door is a great convenience, as it allows the contents of the oven to be easily watched.

For individual work small table stoves are required. These may be supplied with oil, alcohol, gas, or electricity, as may be most readily obtained. These stoves may be arranged so that they can be swung from the table when not in use. In this way more room is provided for work, and the table is more easily cleaned. The tops of the stoves should be wide and flat, so that cooking dishes will not easily upset.

A fireless cooker, though not really necessary, is most helpful. Where funds are lacking, one may be made by the pupils at small expense. A barrel, wooden box, or large pail may be filled with hay or excelsior, and small, covered, granite pails may be used to contain the food.

BLACK-BOARDS

The black-boards should be of slate or glass, and as large as the size of the room allows. The windows and doors should be so placed that there will be unbroken stretches of wall for this purpose. Part of the black-board should be provided with a sliding board which, when required, can be drawn to conceal what is written. A separate black-board for current prices of common food materials is an excellent idea. The responsibility of keeping these prices correct should be given to the pupils.

ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL

A cabinet, or display case, for illustrative material, is of great educational value and, to the pupils, is one of the most attractive features of the room. The following list of specimens is suggestive for this:



1. Standard china, such as Crown Derby, Wedgewood, Limoges, Dresden, Beleek, etc.

2. Standard carpet, such as Axminster, Wilton, Brussels, Tapestry

3. Woods used for furniture and building

4. Food materials in various stages of preparation, such as sugar, spices, cereals, tea, coffee, cocoa

5. Fruit canned by the pupils

6. Designs for wall-paper, linoleum, dishes, etc., made by the pupils.

Other illustrative material in the form of charts showing the comparative values of the common foods, or illustrating cuts of meat or different kinds of vegetables and fish, will be found to aid greatly in making the teaching effective. There are few of these to be obtained, but home-made ones may be prepared from cuts in bulletins and magazines. Pictures illustrating the production and manufacture of food may also be mounted and used.

BOOK-CASE

Book shelves should be provided, where a small library of books bearing on the various phases of the subject may be kept, together with the Government Bulletins and some well-chosen periodicals and magazines. These may be selected from the Catalogue of Books which has been prepared by the Department of Education.

UTENSILS

In regard to the selection of small articles required, such as dishes and utensils of various kinds, the greatest care should be exercised. This part of the equipment can be exactly duplicated by the pupils in their homes, and in this way may be of educational value to the community. The cooking and serving dishes should combine quality, utility, and beauty.

It is not economy to buy cheap utensils. As far as possible, they should be chosen with smooth, curved surfaces, as seams and angles allow lodging places for food and make the cleaning difficult.

Everything should be of good quality, the latest of its kind that has been approved, and, at the same time, have a shape and colour that is artistic.

It is wise to buy from stock which can be duplicated if breakages occur, so that the equipment may be kept uniform. For individual work the utensils should not be too large.

Coloured granite ware is best for most of the cooking dishes. Where tin is necessary, it should be of a good quality. Crockery is desirable for some bowls, jars, and serving dishes. Spoons and serving forks should be of Nevada silver, and knives of the best steel with well-made wooden handles.

The cost of this part of the equipment and the number of articles purchased must of course depend on the funds available. The following list is intended to give what is really desirable in a specially equipped room, at prices which are a fair average.

EQUIPMENT

FOR TWENTY-FOUR PUPILS

I. CLASS TABLE

1. UTENSIL DRAWER:

24 plates, enamel, 9 inch $0.70 14 " white crockery, 7 inch .80 24 bowls white crockery, 7 inch 3.60 24 " " " 5 1/2 inch 1.20 24 enamel bowls, 6 inch 2.40 24 popover cups 1.80 24 bakers, crockery (oval) 1.20 24 platters, " (small) 1.50 24 sieves (wire bowl) 1.30 24 spoons, wooden 1.92 24 spatulas, wire handle 7.20 24 knives, paring 2.00 24 forks, Nevada silver 2.50 24 spoons, table, Nevada silver 2.50 48 spoons, tea, " " 1.20 24 cups, measuring, tin 2.40

2. SUPPLY DRAWER:

12 boxes (for flour), tin 10.00 12 " (for sugar), " 7.50 12 cheese jars (for salt) .68 24 shakers, glass 2.40 24 bread tins 4.32 24 biscuit cutters .72 13 safety match-box holders 1.62

3. SUPPLY CUPBOARD:

12 double boilers 5.76 24 stew pans, tin cover, wooden knob 4.56 24 frying-pans 1.20 24 saucepans 2.16 12 knife-boards 1.80 12 meat boards 3.00 6 scrub basins 1.50 12 dish pans 6.00 12 rinsing pans 3.00 12 draining pans 3.00 6 tea-kettles 3.00 12 scrub-brushes 2.00 12 vegetable brushes .30 12 soap dishes .75 12 garbage crocks .96 24 asbestos mats 1.10

II. SINK AND WALLS

1 garbage pail, galvanized iron 1.00 1 waste-paper basket, willow (large) .75 1 soap dish .11 1 brush, hand .03 1 brush, scrub .17 2 basins, hand, enamel .40 2 basins, scrub, enamel .50 1 dish pan .70 1 crock for washing soda .30 2 towel racks 1.50 1 clock 5.50 12 tablets for housekeeping rules .70

III. GENERAL CUPBOARD EQUIPMENT

2 kettles, granite 1.50 1 tea-kettle, granite .85 1 saucepan .28 1 saucepan .35 5 covers, tin .25 1 pie pan .10 1 coffee-pot .32 6 saucepans, 1 qt. size, white enamel 1.08 1 double boiler .59 6 covers, tin .30 1 soup ladle, enamel .09 2 pudding dishes, white enamel .40 12 strainers and mashers 1.80 1 kneading pan .85 3 steamers .67 10 graters 1.00 2 vegetable baskets .30 6 potato mashers .48 4 muffin pans .60 24 patty-pans .20 12 Dover egg beaters 1.20 1 spice box .50 1 japanned tray .25 24 wire toasters 2.40 1 egg spade .15 1 scale 3.10 1 freezer 3.00 1 cast-iron frying-pan .40 1 dripping pan .25 2 roasting pans .60 1 quart measure, granite .60 1 pint measure, " .45 1 funnel, tin .05 4 baking sheets 7" x 17" .92 6 " " 10" x 10" 1.08 24 cups and saucers 1.30 24 tumblers 1.50 6 platters .36 6 plates .34 6 pitchers, 1 1/2 pt. 1.00 3 brown bowls, 2 qt. .75 2 brown bowls .25 nest of mixing bowls 1.00 6 glass measuring cups .60 6 glass lemon reamers .60 6 tea-pots (pint) 1.50 1 covered crock .25 1 doz. 1 qt. fruit jars .65 1 " 2 qt. " " .75 1 " 1 pt. " " .55 1 meat chopper 3.10 1 bread knife .25 1 bread board .25 2 knives, French .85 2 spoons, granite .21 1 fork, large wooden handle .15 2 can openers .20 1 corkscrew .25 1 bunch skewers .15 1 brush, pastry .05 1 knife sharpener .25 3 graters, nutmeg .09 1 box toothpicks .05 1 pad tissue paper .05 3 scissors 1.25 1 doz. jelly glasses .35 1 cream and sugar .30 24 rolling-pins 3.00 1 butter spade .15 1 file and catch .65 3 doz. test-tubes .90 1 " thermometers (Dairy) 2.50 2 lamp chimneys .30 1 bell .40

IV. KITCHEN LINEN

36 yards towelling (3 doz. dish towels) 5.40 16 " " (4 doz. wash cloths) 2.40 13 " check towelling (3 doz. dish cloths) 1.60 6 " towelling .75 6 " " (6 meat cloths) .60 1 1/2 " flannelette (oven cloths) .23 12 " cheesecloth .60 1 3/8 " denim (stove apron) .27 2 " flannelette (for polishing silver) .20 chamois .25

V. CLEANING CUPBOARD

1 stove apron .27 1 stove brush .25 1 dauber .10 3 whisk brooms .45 1 dust-pan .20 1 pair stove mitts .30 1 broom .45

VI. LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT

14 pony wash-boards 1.75 6 doz. clothes-pins .10 1 clothes-line .25

VII. DINING-ROOM EQUIPMENT

1. China and Glass:

1 flower vase .25 1 dinner set, Limoges china 15.50 1 doz. water glasses .80 1 glass fruit set 1.50

2. Silver and Steel:

2 doz. teaspoons 4.20 1 " dessert spoons 4.00 1/2 " tablespoons 1.15 1 " dessert knives 4.50 1 " dessert forks 4.50 1 " dinner knives 4.50 1 " dinner forks 4.50 1 carving set 2.00 1 butter pick .20

3. Linen, etc.:

1 silence cloth 1.50 1 4 yd. table-cloth 5.40 1 doz. napkins 2.75 1 centre-piece .40 2 doylies .50 2 tray cloths 1.00

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS

1 "First Aid" cabinet 10.00 1 fire blanket 2.00

EQUIPMENT FOR ORDINARY CLASS-ROOMS

In some schools it is impossible to set aside a special room for Household Management work, and the ordinary class-room is all that is available. In such cases the equipment must be a movable one, and gas stoves and plumbing are impossible. Table tops may be placed on trestles or laid across the ordinary desks, and oil or alcohol lamps must be used. These and the necessary utensils may be kept in a cupboard in the room.

With certain restrictions, the Department of Education assists in equipping special rooms in villages and rural districts and also in maintaining instruction in this subject.



The classes in these schools are usually smaller, so that an outfit suitable for individual work with a class of twelve will generally suffice. The following, suggested by the Macdonald Institute, Guelph, is a good basis and may be modified as desired:

12 bowls, brown $0.85 12 bread tins .95 12 tea cups and saucers 1.25 12 tin measuring cups 1.25 12 egg beaters .30 12 forks .40 12 case knives 1.25 12 paring knives 1.25 12 plates .85 12 saucepans 1.68 12 tablespoons .50 24 teaspoons .40 12 wooden spoons .60 12 stew pans 2.40 12 strainers .65 2 trays .80 1 bowl, yellow .25 1 " " .35 1 " " .45 3 scissors 1.50 5 trestle tables 20.55 6 frying-pans .90 3 tea strainers .15 3 match-box stands .24 1 emery knife .20 3 soap dishes .25 12 pepper shakers 1.50 12 salt shakers 1.50 1 bell .50 4 lemon reamers .40 6 stoves, kerosene 6.00 12 plates, dinner 1.25 6 plates, soup .60 4 jugs .60 1 jug .45 1 butcher knife .30 1 French knife .60 2 spatulas .80 6 teaspoons .10 3 tablespoons .13 4 brushes .20 2 stove mitts .50 4 asbestos mats .20 1 corkscrew .25 4 egg beaters .60 4 wash basins .92 3 draining pans .69 4 dish pans 2.00 6 broilers .48 3 cake tins .35 4 graters .40 3 strainers .75 24 patty pans .20 2 tin dippers .40 2 fibre pails .70 1 colander .35 1 pail, enamel .70 1 pan, enamel .18 3 tea-kettles 2.70 1 saucepan .30 1 saucepan .25 1 saucepan .23 1 saucepan .30 1 double boiler .85 1 kettle, covered .60 [A]1 stove to burn coal or wood 30.00 ———— Total $100.05

FOOTNOTE:

[A] The above may be replaced by a twenty-dollar wood stove or a ten-dollar, two burner, coal-oil stove.

PACKING-BOX EQUIPMENT

When even the expense of the modified equipment is too great, the ingenuity of the teacher and the pupils may be used to provide a "packing-box" equipment suitable for six pupils. The outlay for this will vary according to what is provided, but it can in no case be large. The following equipment used by the Department of Domestic Science, Teachers' College, Columbia University, will be suggestive:



FOR CLASS

3 bread boards $0.15 1 rolling-pin .05 3 baking-powder can tops, for cookie cutters .. 1 flour sifter .10 1 large frying-pan .25 1 double boiler .50 1 quart kettle .25 1 tea-kettle .50 1 broiler .20 1 garbage can .25 2 pitchers .25 2 apple corers .10 1 chopping knife .10 1 chopping bowl .05 6 muffin tins .12 2 layer-cake tins .10 3 dish pans .45 3 rinsing pans .30 1 strainer .05 6 china plates .30 3 mixing bowls .30 6 sauce dishes .15 6 cups and saucers .30 1 coffee-pot .25 1 tea-pot .10 3 bread pans .15 6 quart jars .30 3 wooden pails with covers .30 6 dish towels .48 3 dish cloths .15 3 hand towels .15 1 broom .30 1 dust-pan .08 1 scrubbing-brush .10 1 scrubbing pail .20 1 Dover egg beater .09 1 pepper shaker .05 1 salt shaker .05 1 baking dish .10 1 bread knife .25 1 corkscrew .10 ——- Total $8.02

1 packing-box table 1.00 1 packing-box cupboard .50 Large blue-flame oil stove $10.00

INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT FOR SIX PUPILS

1 white bowl, 1 qt. $0.07 1 measuring cup .05 1 granite plate .10 1 saucepan .05 1 tin cover .05 1 steel fork .10 1 steel knife .10 1 tablespoon .03 2 teaspoons .05 ——- Total .60

1 oil stove .75 1 asbestos mat .05



CHAPTER II

SUGGESTIONS FOR CLASS MANAGEMENT

TEACHERS' PREPARATION

In no subject is careful planning of the details of the lesson more important than in Household Management. The definite length of the period allowed in the school programme for this work makes economy of time absolutely necessary. The cooking processes cannot be hurried, and unless there is in the teacher's mind a well-arranged plan for the use of the time, a part of the lesson is apt to be hastily and carelessly done. Then, too, in the limited space of one room, a number of people cannot work without confusion unless there is system.

The pupils enjoy a well-regulated lesson and their co-operation is gained, while, through the poor results of a lesson indifferently planned, they lose self-confidence and the sense of responsibility.

NUMBER IN THE CLASS

As a Household Management class is one that calls for individual supervision, the number should not exceed twenty-four, and a smaller class ensures more thorough supervision on the part of the teacher. Neatness, thoroughness, and accuracy are important factors in the work of each lesson, and the number of pupils should not be so large that a lack of these will pass unnoticed.

UNIFORMS, ETC.

The uniform consists of a large, plain, white apron with a bib large enough to protect the dress, a pair of sleevelets, a holder, a small towel for personal use, and a white muslin cap to confine the hair. (See Frontispiece.) Each pupil will also require a note-book and pencil for class, and a note-book to be used at home for re-copying the class work in ink. These books should be neatly written and kept for reference, and should be regularly examined and marked by the teacher for correction by the pupils.

The pupils should be encouraged to be clean and neat in appearance. They should be expected to have tidy hair, clean hands and nails, and neat uniforms. It is a good plan for each pupil to have two sets of uniforms, so that when one is in the wash the other will be ready to use. It may be wise to make a rule that the pupils without uniforms will not be allowed to work, but such a rule must be judiciously enforced, as in some cases it might result in much loss of time. There should be lockers or other proper provision provided at the school for keeping each uniform separately. Pasteboard boxes may be used for this purpose, when no such provision is made.

DISCIPLINE

The pupils should be trained to enter and leave the room in the same order as in their other classes. Each pupil should have a definite working place and should not be allowed to "visit" others during the class.

While at work, it is wise to allow the pupils as much freedom in talking and movement as possible, so as to portray the home life. They should be taught, however, that when their conduct interferes with the order of the room or the comforts and rights of others, they must suppress their inclinations. During the time of teaching there must be perfect quiet and attention. Marks are sometimes given to secure punctuality and good work, but the best way to have both is to try to make each member of the class interested and happy in her work.

DIVISION OF THE PERIODS

The time given to a practical lesson is usually one and a half hours. This must include both the theoretical and the practical work. In dividing the period, it is difficult to say how much time should be given to each of these, but, broadly speaking, the theoretical part may occupy one third of the time. The time for dish washing and cleaning will be included in the time allowance for practical work. These duties should require less time as the class advances in the work.

Notes should be copied at the most convenient time, usually while the food is cooking. Sitting to write notes will afford an opportunity for resting after any practical work. If printed cards are used, much of the note-taking is obviated. A sample card is given below.

HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

JUNIOR FOURTH CARD

VEGETABLE WATER SAUCE

1 c. veg. water 2 tbsp. flour pepper 2 tbsp. butter 1/4 tsp. salt

1. Put the vegetable water over a gentle heat.

2. Mix the flour with a little cold water until smooth and thick as cream.

3. When the vegetable water is steaming hot, gradually stir the flour paste into it and keep stirring until it thickens and boils.

4. Add the butter, salt, and pepper.

5. Pour the sauce over the hot vegetable.

ASSIGNMENT OF WORK

For practical work there are two plans in general use—individual and group work. In individual work, each pupil performs all the processes, handling small quantities of material. In group work, the pupils work in groups on one dish, each sharing the duties.

By the first method, the pupil has no chance to deal with quantities large enough for family purposes, and the small amount does not give adequate practice in manipulation, though it does give individual responsibility in every detail. By the second method, normal quantities are used, but a pupil never has entire responsibility throughout the processes.

The cost of supplies is often accountable for group work, but lack of utensils or oven room may make it a necessity. In some lessons, individual work with normal quantities may be obtained by allowing the pupils to bring the main ingredients from home; for example, fruit for a canning lesson. The finished product is then the property of the pupil who has made it.

The cleaning which always follows the use of the equipment is preferably done in groups. For instance, if there are groups of fours, number one can, during a lesson, wash all dishes used by the four, number two can wipe the dishes, number three can clean the table used by the group, and number four can clean the sink. During the next lesson number two is dish washer, and number three dish wiper, and so on, until, in four lessons, each pupil has had practice in four kinds of household work and has also been given an idea of the inter-dependence of family life and interests. The same numbers should be kept during the term, as this affords an easy way of definitely designating the pupils for certain duties.

SUPPLIES

The supplies for a lesson may be put on a centre table, or smaller amounts may be placed on the working tables in front of the groups. If the class is large, the latter plan is better, especially where measurements are necessary, as it saves time and confusion. Standard food supplies, such as salt, pepper, sugar, and flour may be kept in a drawer of the work-table of each pupil. (See page 15.)

Every member of the class should be familiar with the contents of the class pantry, cupboards, and drawers, so that she can get or put away utensils and materials without the help of the teacher.

If breakages occur through carelessness, the utensils should be replaced at the expense of the offender. This is not only a deserved punishment, but it always ensures a full equipment.

PRACTICE WORK AT HOME

As a lesson in Household Management comes but once a week, much is gained by having the work reviewed by practice at home. To encourage this, in some schools a "practice sheet" is posted, on which the work done by each pupil, between lessons, is recorded. There is a danger of the younger pupils attempting work that is too difficult, which will end in poor results and discouragement. To avoid this, with pupils in the Third Form, it may be wise to limit their practice in cookery to a review of the work done in class.

The home practice work may be taken at the beginning of a lesson or during the time the food is cooking. It may be quickly ascertained by the pupils rising in order and stating simply the name of the duty they have done or the dish they have made unless they have had poor results, when the nature of these should be told. If there have been failures, the pupils should, if possible, give reasons for these and suggest means of avoiding them in future.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS

1. The teacher should endeavour to plan lessons which will be definitely related to the home lives of the pupils. What is useful for one class may not be useful for another. The connection between the lessons and the home should be very real. It is also important to have a sequence in the lessons.

2. Great care should be exercised in criticising any of the home methods that are suggested by the pupils. A girl's faith in her mother should not be lessened.

3. The work should be taken up in a very simple manner; scientific presentation should be left for the high school.

4. Economy should be emphasized in all home duties; time, labour, and money should be used to give the best possible returns. Wholesome substitutes for expensive foods and attractive preparation and serving of left-over foods should be encouraged.

5. Too much vigilance cannot be exercised during the first year of practical work, when habits are being formed. It is much easier to form habits than to break away from them.

6. While nothing less than the best work should be accepted from the pupils, it requires much discernment to know when fault should be found, in order to avoid saying or doing anything that would discourage them.

7. As Household Management is a manual subject, the teacher is advised, as far as possible, not to spend time in talking about the work, but to have the class spend their time in doing the work.

SUGGESTIONS FOR SCHOOLS WITH LIMITED, OR NO EQUIPMENT

In schools where the ordinary class-room must be used for all subjects, there are unusual difficulties in teaching Household Management. For such schools, two modified equipments are outlined.

Since such class-rooms require special arrangement for practical lessons in this subject, it would be well to take this work in the afternoon, so that part of the noon hour may be taken for preparation. Pupils who have earned the right to responsibility may be appointed in turn to assist in this duty.

In rural schools, the afternoon recess might be taken from 2.15 to 2.30 and, during this time, tables, stoves, and supplies may be placed, so as to be ready for the lesson to follow in the remaining hour and a half.

For pupils who are not in the Household Management class, definite work should be planned. They may occupy themselves with manual training, sewing, art work, map-drawing, composition, etc. In summer, school gardening may be done.

Since the end of the week, in many schools, is chosen for a break in the usual routine, Friday afternoon seems a suitable time for Household Management lessons.

Under such limited conditions, it will be necessary to group the larger pupils into one class for practical work, and it may be necessary for the pupils to take turns in working. In some cases, the teacher must demonstrate what the class may practise at home.

It will be impossible, in such schools, to cover the prescribed work. From the topics suggested in the Course of Study each teacher may arrange a programme by selecting what is most useful to the pupils and what is possible in the school.

Even in schools which have no equipment, much of the theory of Household Management can be taught and some experiments may be performed. On Friday afternoons a regular period may be devoted to this subject, when the ingenious teacher will find ways and means of teaching many useful lessons.

* * * * *

The following will be suggestive as suitable for lessons under such conditions:

1. Any of the lessons prescribed in the Course of Study for Form III, Junior.

2. Measuring.—Table of measures used in cookery, methods of measuring, equivalent measures and weights of standard foods.

3. Cleaning.—Principles, methods, agents.

4. Water.—Uses in the home, appearance under heat, highest temperature, ways of using cooking water.

5. Cooking.—Reasons for cooking, kinds of heat used, common methods of conducting heat to food, comparison of methods of cooking as to time required and effect of heat on food.

NOTE.—An alcohol stove, saucepan, and thermometer are necessary for this lesson.

6. The kitchen fire.—Experiments to show necessities of a fire, construction of a practical cooking stove.

7. Food.—Uses, kinds, common sources.

8. Preservation of food.—Cause of decay, methods of preservation, application of methods to well-known foods.

9. Yeast.—Description, necessary conditions, sources, use.

NOTE.—A few test-tubes and a saucepan are necessary for this lesson.

10. The table.—Laying a table, serving at table, table manners.

11. Care of a bed-room.—Making the bed, ventilating, sweeping, and dusting the room.

12. Sanitation.—Necessity for sanitation, household methods.

13. Laundry work.—Necessary materials, processes.

14. Home-nursing.—The ideal sick-room, care of the patient's bed, and diet.



CHAPTER III

FORM III: JUNIOR GRADE

The pupils of Form III, Junior, are generally too small to use the tables and stoves provided for the other classes and too young to be intrusted with fires, hot water, etc.; but they may be taught the simpler facts of Household Management by the special teacher of the subject, or by the regular teacher in correlation with the other subjects. In either case a special room is not necessary.

If the latter plan be adopted, the following correlations are suggested:

CORRELATIONS

Arithmetic.—1. Bills of household supplies, such as furniture, fuel, meat, groceries, bed and table linen, material for clothing. This will teach the current prices as well as the usual quantities purchased.

2. Making out the daily, weekly, or monthly supply and cost of any one item of food, being given the number in the family and the amount used by each per day.

Example: One loaf costs 6c. and cuts into 18 slices. Find the cost of bread for two days for a family of six, if each person uses 1 1/2 slices at one meal.

3. Making out the total weekly or monthly expenses of a household, given the items of meat, groceries, fuel, gas, etc. This brings up the question of the cost of living.

4. Making out the total cost of a cake, a loaf of bread, a jar of fruit, or a number of sandwiches, given the cost of the main materials and fuel used. Compare the home cost with the cost at a store. This may be used to teach economy.

* * * * *

Geography.—1. The sources of our water supply.

2. The geographical sources of our ordinary household materials, their shipping centres, the routes by which they reach us, and the means of transportation.

Examples: Fuels, common minerals used in building and furnishing; timber for floors and furniture; manufactured goods, such as cotton, linen, carpets, china; domestic and foreign fruits; common groceries, such as salt, sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, rice, cereals, and flour.

3. The preparation of our common household commodities.

Examples: Cotton, linen, china, paper, sugar, tea, coffee, cereals, flour.

4. The household products that are exported.

* * * * *

Nature Study.—1. The parts of plants used as food.

2. The natural sources of our common foods, such as cornstarch, flour, breakfast cereals, tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar, salt, cheese, butter.

3. The sources of common household substances, such as coal-oil, gasolene, paraffin, turpentine, washing soda, whiting, bathbrick, soap.

4. The forms of water, as ice, steam.

5. The composition and impurities of the air.

6. The ordinary woods used in house building and furnishing.

Hygiene.—The necessity for the following:

1. Fresh air in the home at all times—in living rooms and sleeping rooms

2. Good food and plenty of sleep

3. Cleanliness of the body

4. Cleanliness in preparing food

5. Cleanliness in the home and surroundings.

* * * * *

Physical Training.—1. The value of exercise gained by performing household duties.

2. The importance of correct positions in performing home duties, such as dish washing, sewing, etc.

3. The value of conveniences to save steps.

* * * * *

Composition.—Topics selected from household materials and activities.

Examples: Food materials, cleansing agents, planning a convenient kitchen or bath-room, sweeping day, baking day, arrangement of a kitchen cupboard or clothes closet, etc.

* * * * *

Spelling.—Names of household articles and duties as follows:

Furniture of a special room, such as kitchen or sitting-room, kitchen utensils, contents of a kitchen cupboard, dishes and food used at a particular meal, etc.

Manual Training.—Construction of household furnishings and utensils for a doll's house from raffia, paper, and plasticine.

Art.—Designing and colouring carpets, curtains, wall-papers, book covers, dishes, tiles, ribbons, and dress materials.

Sewing.—Making the uniform for Household Management work.

If the Household Management teacher takes the work with this class, she should follow the outline of work given in the Course of Study. This outline will make the pupils familiar with the common household materials as to their sources, preparation, and cost, and when, in the next class, they deal with these materials, they will do so with more interest and intelligence. It will also draw attention to the importance of economy in time and energy. The convenience of a kitchen and the use of proper utensils to facilitate labour will impress this fact.

The lessons should be taught simply as information lessons and should be of the same length as the other studies—from thirty to forty minutes. If the usual hour and a half period be set aside for this class, the remainder of the time may be devoted to sewing.



CHAPTER IV

FORM III: SENIOR GRADE

LESSON I

SCOPE OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

In introducing the practical side of Household Management to a class, it is an advantage to let them have a general idea of what the subject includes. They will then work with more intelligence and usually with more interest. Then, too, the prevalent idea that the subject means only cooking will be corrected from the first.

Throughout the introduction, the teacher should not forget that she is dealing with immature minds and that the ideas must be very simply expressed. She might ask what the pupils expect to learn in this class, have them name other subjects they study in school, and in each case lead up to the one thing of which a particular subject treats; for example, arithmetic treats of numbers; geography, of the world; history, of past events. She should lead the class to see that the one thing of which Household Management treats is the home; and that the two great requirements for a home are the house, and the people who live in it, or the occupants.

To get the details relating to each of these two divisions, let the pupils imagine they are boarding in some locality where they decide to make a home for themselves. The first thing to be done is to choose a building lot. Then they must decide upon the kind of house they want and the plan of the house. After the house is built, it must be furnished. When the house is ready, it must be cleaned and kept clean. As soon as the family move in, new considerations arise—they must have food, which must be bought, prepared, and served; each member of the family must be clothed and educated; they must receive proper care when sick. Only a few minutes should be spent on this introductory talk.

While the class is naturally led to think of and name these details, they should be written on the black-board in the order of development, somewhat as follows:

1. Household Management teaches us about the home.

2. A home includes two main ideas:

(1) A house, (2) a family.

3. In connection with a house we must consider:

(1) The lot, (2) the plan, (3) the furnishing, (4) the cleaning.

4. In connection with a family we must consider:

(1) Food (buying, cooking, serving), (2) clothing (buying, sewing, mending), (3) education, (4) home nursing.

Tell the pupils that a housekeeper should be informed on all of these points, but little girls can expect to study only a few of them, such as questions of food, clothing, and cleaning.

SURVEY OF EQUIPMENT, UNIFORM, ETC.

Equipment.—Most of the time of the first lesson should be used in making the pupils acquainted with their surroundings and individual necessities, so that they will be ready for work the next day.

Give each member of the class a definite working place, and let her examine the contents of the cupboard and drawers which belong to her place. Explain that the particular places which the pupils are given will be kept throughout the year, and that, while they have the privilege of using and enjoying them, they are responsible for their cleanliness and order.

Point out the remainder of the equipment—hot and cold water-taps, towel racks, class cupboard with its contents, refrigerator, large and individual stoves.

Teach each pupil how to light her stove and regulate its heat.

Uniforms, etc.—Tell the pupils that you have shown them what has been provided for them, but you want them also to provide some things for themselves. It will be necessary for them to bring a large, plain, white apron, having a bib large enough to protect the dress; a pair of sleevelets; a holder; a small towel for personal use; and a white muslin cap to confine the hair while working. They will also need a note-book and pencil for class, and a note-book to be used at home for re-copying the class work in ink. The latter book is to be very neatly written and kept for reference after it has been examined by the teacher.

LESSON II

USE OF EQUIPMENT

The little girls who make up the classes are not so far removed from their "playhouse" days that a survey of the dishes, stoves, and tables will not give them an eager desire to begin using them. This desire should be gratified, but as the use always necessitates the cleaning as well, it may be advisable at first to make use of the equipment only for the purpose of showing proper methods of cleaning.

A short lesson on cleaning may be given in a few minutes, and the rest of the period spent in putting it into practice. The teacher may proceed somewhat as follows in the development of a lesson on cleaning:

DEVELOPMENT OF A LESSON ON CLEANING

MEANING OF CLEANING

Take two dishes—plates or saucers—exactly alike. Have one clean and the other soiled with butter or some well-known substance. Ask the class the difference between them. One is clean and one dirty. What substance is on one that hinders your saying it is clean? Butter. What else could be on it? Jam. What else? Dust. What else? Gravy. Now instead of telling the name of the particular substance in each case, let us try to find one name that will apply to all of the substances which, as you say, make the dish dirty. Let us give these substances a name which will show that they do not belong to the plate. We may call each of them a foreign substance. And if I take the substance off the plate what am I doing to the plate? Cleaning it. Then what is cleaning? Cleaning is removing a foreign substance.

METHODS OF CLEANING

1. Scraping or rubbing away the foreign substance:

What would you use to remove the butter from the plate? A piece of paper or a knife. What are you doing with the knife or paper? Scraping or rubbing off the foreign substance. Then how was it removed? It was removed by scraping or rubbing.

Suppose some one has sharpened a pencil and let the pieces fall on the floor, what would you take to remove the foreign substance from the floor? A broom. What would you say you are doing with the broom? Sweeping. How does the movement of the broom over the floor compare with the movement of the knife over the plate? It is similar. What would you take to remove the dust from the window-sill? A duster. What would you say you are doing? Dusting. How does the movement of the duster compare with the movement of the knife and the broom? It is similar. In all of these cases of dish, floor, and sill, how did we remove the foreign substance? We scraped or rubbed it off. Name one way of removing a foreign substance. Scraping or rubbing it away.

2. Dissolving the foreign substance and then scraping it away:

Show a much soiled towel and ask what is usually done to clean it. It is washed. Ask the pupils to tell just what they mean by that. The towel is put in water and soap used on it. What effect will the soap and water have on the foreign substance? They will soften or dissolve it. Then what must be done next? The towel must be rubbed on a board or with the hands. What effect has this operation on the foreign substance? It scrapes or rubs the foreign substance away. Then we have another way of cleaning: By first dissolving the foreign substance, and then scraping or rubbing it away.

A number of well-known cleaning operations may then be given, and the pupils asked in each case to decide the method used—such as, whisking a coat, scrubbing a table, cleaning the teeth, or washing dishes.

COMMON HOUSEHOLD CLEANSING AGENTS

Next, get lists of the common cleansing agents found in an ordinary home, and arrange them in order of coarseness.

BLACK-BOARD OUTLINE

The black-board scheme, as the lesson develops, will appear as follows:

1. Meaning of Cleaning:

Cleaning is removing any foreign substance.

2. Methods of Cleaning:

(1) Scraping or rubbing away the foreign substance.

(2) Dissolving the foreign substance and then scraping or rubbing it away.

3. Household cleansing agents used in the first method:

(1) Duster (2) Brush (3) Broom (4) Washboard (5) Knife (6) Whiting (7) Bathbrick (8) Coarse salt (9) Sand (10) Ashes.

4. Household cleansing agents used in the second method:

(1) Water (2) Hot water (3) Soap (4) Lux (5) Ammonia (6) Borax (7) Washing soda (8) Coal-oil (9) Gasolene (10) Acids (11) Lye.

5. Combination cleansing agents:

(1) Bon Ami, (2) Dutch Cleanser, (3) Sapolio.

When the class have these ideas, they are ready to put them into practice, and the remainder of the lesson should be spent in practical work.

If the pupils have soiled no dishes, it may be wise to drill them first in table washing or towel washing, so as to get them ready for the next lesson when tables and towels will be used.

LESSONS III, IV, ETC.

Gradually, in connection with the making of simple dishes, the pupils should be taught special methods of dish washing, sink cleaning, and dusting. Each day as they are appointed to different duties in cleaning, these methods should be strictly followed until they become well known.

While they are still new to the class, it will be a great help to have outlines of the kinds of cleaning which are necessary in every lesson posted conveniently in different parts of the room for reference.

These outlines may be as follows:

DISH WASHING

Preparation for washing:

1. Put away the food.

2. Scrape and pile the dishes.

3. Put the dishes that need it to soak.

4. Place soap, pans, brushes, and towels.

5. Put water in the pans.

(1) Fill the dish pan about half full of warm water, then soap it.

(2) Fill the rinsing pan nearly full of hot water.

Order of washing:

1. Glass 2. Silver 3. China 4. Crockery 5. Granite ware 6. Tins 7. Pots 8. Steel knives and forks.

Finishing after washing:

1. Soap a dish cloth and wash the sides and bottom of the dish pan, before emptying it.

2. Empty the dish pan, rinse at the sink, and half fill with clear, warm water, to rinse the towels.

3. Wash the towels in the rinsing pan, rinse them in the dish pan, shake them straight, fold, and hang.

4. Soap the dish cloth, wash the inside of the rinsing pan, empty, rinse, and wipe with the dish cloth.

5. Wash and wipe the soap dish.

6. Empty the dish pan and wipe with the dish cloth.

7. Pile the pans, place the brushes and soap, and set away.

8. Fold the dish cloth and hang it to dry.

TABLE CLEANING (CLASS WORK)

1. If necessary, scrape or brush off the table stoves.

2. Get a scrub cloth, a wash-basin of warm water, and a scrub-brush.

3. Wash the part of the table used by your group, doing the part not occupied by the dish washing first; then get the dish washers to move along, so that you can finish it, proceeding as follows:

(1) Wet the table all over.

(2) Rub the soap cake over it.

(3) Scrub with the wet brush with the grain of the wood.

(4) Rinse the soap off with the clear water.

(5) Wipe with the cloth wrung dry.

4. Get clear water. Rinse the brush and put it away. Rinse the scrub cloth and wring it dry.

5. Take the basin and cloth to the sink. Empty, rinse the basin, and dry it with the cloth. Rinse the cloth under the tap and wring it dry.

6. Fold and hang the cloth to dry. Bring back a dry cloth and thoroughly dry the aluminium strip.

7. Put away the dry cloth and basin.

SINK CLEANING

1. Let the other housekeepers get the water they need.

2. Get a sink pan, a scrub cloth, and a brush. Put warm water in the pan.

3. Scrub the drain board if there be one, as follows:

(1) Wet the board all over.

(2) Rub the soap cake over it.

(3) Scrub with a wet brush with the grain of wood.

(4) Rinse the soap off with clear water.

(5) Wipe with the cloth wrung dry.

4. Wash the nickel part of the sink (tap and stand) with soap. Wipe with the cloth wrung dry.

5. Wash the outside of the basin of the sink.

6. When the other housekeepers have emptied their water, wash the inside of the sink basin and wipe with the cloth wrung dry.

7. Wash the scrub cloth and pan, rinse the brush, and put all away.

8. Polish the nickel with a dry duster.

DUSTING

1. Get a cheesecloth duster.

2. Dust the chairs and put them in place.

3. Dust the table legs and drawer handles.

4. Dust the cupboard and refrigerator.

5. Dust the wood-work, window-sills, ledges, etc.

6. Wash the duster and hang it up to dry.

MEASURES AND RECIPES

Another preliminary part of the work will be teaching the pupils to measure and follow a recipe.

MEASURES

The measures used in kitchen work are teaspoon, tablespoon, pint, quart, and gallon, of which a table should be developed as follows:

3 teaspoonfuls (tsp.) 1 tablespoonful (tbsp.) 16 tbsp. 1 cup 2 cups 1 pint (pt.) 2 pt. 1 quart (qt.) 4 qt. 1 gallon (gal.)

In connection with this table the following points should be brought out:

1. That all measurements are made level.

2. That in measuring liquids, the measure should be set on a level surface.

3. That to halve the contents of a spoon, the division should be made lengthwise.

4. That to quarter the contents of a spoon, the half should be divided crosswise.

5. That in measuring flour, it should not be shaken down to level it.

6. That in using one measure for both dry and liquid ingredients, the dry should be measured first.

7. That in measuring a cupful of dry ingredients, the cup should be filled by using a spoon or scoop.



TABLE OF EQUIVALENT MEASURES AND WEIGHTS

A table of equivalent measures and weights of some staple foods will also be useful and may be given to the class:

2 cups butter (packed solidly) 1 pound 2 c. granulated sugar 1 " 2 c. rice (about) 1 " 2 c. finely chopped meat 1 " 2 2/3 c. brown sugar 1 " 2 2/3 c. powdered sugar 1 " 2 2/3 c. oatmeal 1 " 2 2/3 c. cornmeal 1 " 4 c. white flour 1 "

PLAN OF LESSON ON MEASURING

TIME LIMIT

One and one-half hours to be divided approximately as follows—one-half hour for teaching the theory, one-half hour for the practical application of the theory, and one-half hour for housekeeping (washing of dishes, tables, sinks, etc., and putting the kitchen in order).

PREPARATION

1. Place a set of measures at hand.

2. Place a large bowl of flour on the teacher's table.

3. Place flour and sugar in the boxes of the supply drawers.

4. Place cans of cocoa and jugs of milk on the centre table.

DEVELOPMENT

1. Introduction.—What do we take for a guide when cooking? How can we be sure that we use the exact quantities the recipes require? Name some measures that you have learned in arithmetic. In this lesson we are going to learn the measures we require in cooking, also the proper ways of using them.

2. Names of measures.—Show and name the measures, beginning at the smallest: teaspoon, tablespoon, cup, pint, quart, gallon. As the measures are named, place them on the table in order of size.

3. Methods of using measures.—Ask two or three pupils, in turn, to measure a teaspoonful of flour from the bowl on the teacher's table. They will not agree in their measurements, and the necessity for levelling will be shown. What can we use for levelling measures? How can we level liquids?

If we need less than a spoonful, how can we measure it? Which part of the spoon is deeper? How shall we divide the spoonful to make both halves equal? How must we divide a spoonful into quarters? Into eighths? Examine and explain the divisions of the cup. To use one measure for both liquid and dry ingredients, which should be measured first? (As these points are obtained, they should be written on the black-board.)

4. Table of measures.—In the tables of measures which you have learned, you state the number of times one measure is contained in the next higher. We shall form a table of the measures learned to-day. By measuring flour from their boxes, let each pupil find how many teaspoonfuls fill a tablespoon. How many tablespoonfuls fill a cup, a half cup, a quarter of a cup. They will state the remainder of the table from memory. Write the table on the black-board and teach the abbreviations.

NOTE.—After the lesson on measuring is developed, the class should be given individual work which will put these ideas into practice. A simple recipe may be dictated by the teacher, step by step. Cocoa makes a good recipe for this lesson, as it affords practice in measuring liquids as well as dry ingredients, both powdered and granular. If each girl makes half a cupful of cocoa, it will give practice in dividing the contents of a spoon.

PRACTICAL WORK TO APPLY MEASURING

Have each pupil make half a cupful of cocoa by carrying out each step as it is dictated by the teacher, as follows:

1. Numbers one put two cups of water in the tea kettle; numbers two light a fire and put the water to boil; numbers three get cocoa from the centre table; numbers four get milk.

2. Set out sugar boxes and open them.

3. Each take a small saucepan, a measuring cup, a teaspoon, a paring-knife, and a small cup.

4. Measure half a teaspoonful of sugar into the saucepan.

5. Measure half a teaspoonful of cocoa into the saucepan.

6. Mix the sugar and cocoa by shaking the saucepan.

7. Measure half of a third of a cupful of boiling water and stir it into the sugar and cocoa.

8. Set the mixture over a gentle fire and stir until it bubbles. Cook for three minutes.

9. Measure half of a third of a cupful of milk.

10. Stir the milk into the mixture and heat it until it is steaming hot, but do not boil it.

11. Serve the cocoa in the small cups.

12. Turn out the fires and put the saucepans to soak.

SERVING

Each pupil puts her table in order by moving all cooking utensils to the metal part of the table and wiping off any soiled spots on the wooden part; she then sits to drink the cocoa she has made.

NOTE-TAKING

Notes are copied from the black-board in pencil in the ordinary class note-books. The desk boards under the table tops are pulled out for this purpose. In this lesson the notes consist of:

1. Table of measures, with abbreviations

2. Points in measuring

3. Recipe for cocoa (if there are recipe cards, these should be distributed).

HOUSEKEEPING

This will be done in groups of fours, according to their previous lessons in cleaning. If necessary, some special cleaning, as dish washing or sink cleaning, may be taught at this point of the lesson:

1. Number one will wash dishes for her group.

2. Number two will wipe dishes for her group.

3. Number three will clean the entire table belonging to her group.

4. Number four will do work outside of her group as appointed, such as dusting, cleaning a sink or the centre table.

RECIPE FOR COCOA

1 tsp. sugar 1 tsp. cocoa 1/3 c. boiling water 1/3 c. milk.

1. Mix the sugar and cocoa in a saucepan.

2. Stir the boiling water into the mixture, then set it over a gentle heat.

3. Keep stirring until the mixture bubbles, then boil gently for about three minutes.

4. Stir in the milk and heat it until it steams, but do not boil it.

5. Serve the cocoa hot or ice-cold.

RECIPES

In connection with a recipe, the pupils should be taught to look for three parts:

1. The name

2. The list and amount of ingredients

3. The method.

In carrying out a recipe, they should, from the first, be taught to work in the following systematic order:

1. To attend to the fire if necessary

2. To collect the necessary utensils

3. To collect the necessary ingredients

4. To obey the method.

For this lesson, some simple recipe which will review measuring should be clearly written on the black-board—the recipe for apple sauce or cranberry sauce would be suitable. While the pupils are learning obedience in following a recipe, it is better to keep them together in carrying out their work. The method should be written in definite, numbered steps, which may be checked off as each step is accomplished.

When the class has had instruction in cleaning, measuring, and recipes, they are ready for a series of lessons involving the use of simple recipes which will put into practice the ideas they have learned. For this practice, such recipes as the following are suggested:

Boiled potatoes, mashed potatoes; boiled parsnips; boiled celery; boiled carrots, asparagus, green peas; cranberry sauce; rhubarb sauce; preparing and combining ingredients for salads (fruit salad, potato salad, cabbage and nut salad, Waldorf salad)—the dressing being supplied; stuffed eggs; sandwiches.

The carrying out of these lessons will develop in the pupils accuracy and obedience, and make them familiar with the use and care of their utensils, as well as give opportunity for the cleaning of these and other parts of the equipment.

During these first lessons, careful supervision should be given each pupil, so that only correct habits may be formed in regard to neatness, thoroughness, quietness, and natural use of muscles.

The pupils should be encouraged to begin a book of recipes to contain neatly written copies of all they have used in school. The Art teacher might correlate the work here by assisting them to design a suitable cover for this book.



CHAPTER V

FORM III: SENIOR GRADE (Continued)

COOKERY

LESSON I

After a number of practice lessons have developed in the pupils a certain ability and self-confidence in working, formal cookery may be introduced, and the following ideas should be brought out:

1. The meaning of cooking:

Cooking is the application of sufficient heat to make a change in the food.

2. Reasons for cooking food:

(1) To make some food digestible.

(2) To change flavours and make some food more appetizing.

(3) To preserve food.

(4) To kill harmful germs in food.

3. Kinds of heat used:

(1) Dry heat—heat, only, is conveyed to the food.

(2) Moist heat—heat and moisture are conveyed to the food.

4. Different ways of applying dry heat:

Toasting, broiling, pan-broiling, sauteing, frying, baking.

5. Different ways of applying moist heat:

Boiling, simmering, steaming, steeping.

NOTE.—If the class cannot name these methods, the teacher may name and write them with only a word of comment regarding each, or they may not be given until the methods are studied.

As the moist heat methods are simpler and better known, they should be studied first. The class should be led to see that some liquid must be used to supply the moisture and should account for the common use of water for this purpose. Experiments should then be performed in heating water, and its appearance and temperature should be noted.

NOTE.—A preliminary lesson on the use of the thermometer may be necessary to show how to read it, and to develop the idea that it is an instrument for measuring heat. This may be taught in the regular class work, previous to the Household Management lesson.

LESSON ON THE THERMOMETER

1. Development of the idea of "measuring":

What would you use to measure the length of the table? A foot measure. What to measure the water in a tub? A pint, quart, or gallon measure. What to measure the amount of gas burned? A gas-meter.

2. Development of the name "thermometer":

What do we call the instrument

For measuring gas? A gas-meter

For measuring electricity? An electrometer

For measuring speed of a motor? A speedometer (speed-meter)

For measuring the distance a bicycle travels? A cyclometer (cycle-meter).

In each case what does "meter" mean? It means an instrument for measuring. What name may I give to an instrument for measuring heat? You may call it a heat-meter.

Tell the pupils that, in science, many Greek words are used, and that you will put a Greek word in place of the English word "heat", namely "thermos", as in thermos bottle. What will the name become? Thermosmeter, or thermometer.

3. Practice in using thermometers:

The unit of measurement (degree) should be given, and the scale taught from the black-board. Thermometers may then be given to the class to examine and use.

Saucepans having white inner surfaces are best to use for the experiments, as changes made by the heat are more plainly seen.

Observations of water under heat:

(1) At a temperature of about 100 degrees, very small bubbles form at the bottom and sides of the dish and rise slowly to the surface of the water. These bubbles are a film of water containing the air that was in solution, which, when expanded, rises to the top of the water.

(2) At a temperature of about 180 degrees, a few larger bubbles form at the bottom of the dish and rise slowly to the surface of the water, making a slight movement in it. In these bubbles air is replaced by steam which is formed from the water by the heat.

(3) At a temperature of 212 degrees, a great number of large bubbles form and rise quickly to the surface, making much movement in the water. The water is then said to boil.

(4) The water will take no higher temperature than 212 degrees.

(5) After water once boils, it requires little heat to keep it at this point, therefore the heat may be reduced.

(6) An increase of heat increases the number, size, and rate of the bubbles and the volume of steam, but makes the liquid no hotter.

Application of these observations:

(1) If food be cooked in a liquid at its greatest heat, where many bubbles are making much movement in it, the process is called boiling.

(2) If cooked in a liquid heated to 180-200, where there is scarcely any movement in the liquid, the process is called simmering.

(3) If cooked in the steam rising from a boiling liquid, the process is called steaming.

(4) If boiling liquid be poured over food and no further heat applied, the process is called steeping.

LESSONS II, III, IV, ETC.

Practice should then be given in each of the moist heat methods of cooking. The common foods, such as vegetables, fruit, eggs, and milk should be used for this purpose.

After the class has carried out a method for the first time, they should be led to consider the order of work required for it. The necessary steps should be arranged to form a set of rules for reference. The effects of the method in each case should also be noted.

When the moist heat methods are well known, the dry heat methods should be taught and practised. The outlines on pages 73-81 will suggest the development under each method.

PLAN OF LESSON ON BOILING CARROTS

AIM

To apply the principles of boiling, as taught in a previous lesson, to the cooking of food.

TIME LIMIT

One and one-half hours to be used approximately as follows: twenty-five minutes for preparation for practical work and the first part of the practical work, twenty-five minutes for the development of ideas of boiling as a method of cooking, fifteen minutes for the serving of food, twenty-five minutes for housekeeping.

PREPARATION FOR PRACTICAL WORK

1. Review.—Question the pupils as follows: What kind of heat is used in cooking food by boiling? At what temperature is the food cooked by this method? Name the kinds of boiling. How much hotter is rapid boiling? How is water made to boil rapidly? When is rapid boiling useful?

2. Discussion of recipe.—Have the recipe written on the black-board and read by one of the pupils, while the others follow the reading carefully.

(1) Have the class decide: (a) When the fires should be lighted (b) The dishes required for the work (c) The kind of boiling to use.

(2) Demonstrate the scrubbing, scraping, and dicing of a carrot, also the draining of a food cooked in liquid.

(3) State the quantity of ingredients each will use.

(4) Caution the pupils as to accuracy, neatness, and quietness while working.



PRACTICAL WORK

Have each pupil prepare the food according to the recipe and put it on to cook within a certain time. While the class works, carefully observe each pupil and give individual help to those who require it.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEAS OF BOILING AS A METHOD OF COOKING

This will be done while the carrots are cooking. The ideas brought out from review and the class work, by questioning, will be those which are given on boiling under the methods of cooking.

1. Definition of boiling

2. Kinds of boiling

3. Uses of rapid boiling

4. Rules for boiling

5. Effects of boiling.

As these ideas are obtained from the class, they should be written by the teacher on the black-board and by the pupils in their note-books.

SERVING

The pupils will drain, season, and serve the food. Each girl will set one place on the wooden part of the table and serve herself. While the food is being eaten, the table manners of each girl should be observed, and, if necessary, corrected in a tactful manner.

HOUSEKEEPING

The work of putting the kitchen in order may be done in groups of twos or fours.

RECIPE: BOILED CARROTS

Carrots Boiling water Salt and pepper Butter.

1. Scrub, scrape, and rinse the carrots.

2. Cut them into pieces by dicing them.

3. Put the pieces in a saucepan, set over the fire, and pour in boiling water until the food is covered.

4. Cook the carrots until the pieces are soft at the centre when pierced with a fork.

5. Drain off the liquid, then season the food with salt, pepper, and butter.

6. Serve in a hot vegetable dish.

PLAN OF LESSON ON SIMMERING: APPLES

INTRODUCTION

1. Review:

(1) Appearance and temperature of a boiling liquid.

(2) Appearance and temperature of a simmering liquid.

2. State the difficulty of keeping a liquid at simmering temperature; show the double boiler and explain its use for this purpose.

3. Compare boiling and simmering as to length of time required and difficulty.

4. Tell the pupils they are going to study simmering by making Coddled Apples.

DISCUSSION OF RECIPE

1. Read recipe.

2. Question regarding:

(1) Kind of heat used

(2) Whether to prepare apples or syrup first, and why

(3) Management in measuring so as to use only one cup

(4) Why one quantity of syrup is sufficient for so many apples.

3. Decide on the dishes required for the work.

PRACTICAL WORK

Assign work in groups of twos—numbers one and three prepare syrup; numbers two and four prepare apples; all attend to the cooking.

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS OF SIMMERING

(To be dealt with while food is cooking)

1. Definition.—Obtain this by comparing simmering with boiling.

2. Effects:

(1) Compare a raw and simmered apple to get the idea of "soft and tender".

(2) Tell the pupils simmering temperature will not harden and toughen meat and eggs as much as boiling does.

(3) Lying longer in the liquid to cook dissolves out more of the food substance.

(4) Less water going off as vapour does not carry away as much flavour.

(5) Less motion in the liquid does not break up the food.

SERVING

When the apples are tender, let each girl serve herself with what she has cooked. While the fruit is being eaten, direct attention to the flavour of apple in the syrup.

HOUSEKEEPING

Assign the work which is necessary to put the kitchen in order, and allow the pupils to carry it out in groups of twos or fours.

RECIPE (INDIVIDUAL): CODDLED APPLES

1 apple 1/4 c. sugar 1/2 c. water.

1. Put the sugar and water in the inside part of a double boiler, set over the fire, and boil gently for about five minutes.

2. Wash and pare the apple, cut it into halves, and remove the core.

3. Put the prepared fruit into the syrup, cover the dish closely, and set in the under part of the double boiler.

4. Simmer the pieces of apple until tender, turning them occasionally.

5. Lift the fruit carefully into a serving dish, then pour the syrup over it.

6. Serve hot or cold.

NOTE.—One cup of sugar will make sufficient syrup for six or seven apples.

METHODS OF COOKING: DETAILS

BOILING

1. Definition:

Boiling is a method of cooking in which the heat reaches the food through a boiling liquid.

2. Kinds of boiling:

(1) Gentle boiling—temperature of 212 degrees.

(2) Rapid boiling—temperature of 212 degrees.

3. Uses of rapid boiling:

(1) To make much steam

(2) To break up food

(3) To keep small particles of food in motion.

4. Rules for boiling:

(1) Put the food in a cooking dish, set over the heat, and pour in the boiling liquid to cover the food well.

(2) Regulate the heat to the kind of boiling required.

(3) Keep the food boiling during the entire cooking.

(4) Continue the cooking until the food is tender at the centre when it is tested, or for the time required by the recipe.

(5) When the food is cooked, lift it from the liquid or drain the liquid from the food.

5. Effects of boiling:

(1) It makes some food soft and tender—fruit, vegetables.

(2) It makes some food hard and tough—eggs, etc.

(3) It breaks up food.

(4) It dissolves out some of the food substance.

(5) It causes some loss of flavour (in the steam).

(6) It kills germs.

SIMMERING

1. Definition:

Simmering is a method of cooking in a liquid at a temperature of about 180 degrees.

2. Rules for simmering:

(1) Use a double boiler to keep the temperature correct.

(2) Put the food in liquid in the top dish, and proceed as in boiling.

3. Effects of simmering:

(1) It makes some foods soft and tender—fruit and vegetables.

(2) It does not make the protein of animal food (milk, eggs, and meat) hard as boiling does.

(3) It dissolves out a good deal of the food substance into the cooking liquid.

(4) It causes very little loss of flavour.

(5) It does not break up the food.

STEAMING

1. Definition:

Steaming is a method of cooking in the steam from boiling liquid.

2. Rules for steaming:

(1) Have the water boiling rapidly in the under part of the steamer.

(2) Put the food in the upper part, cover closely, and place over the lower part.

(3) Keep the water boiling rapidly during the entire cooking.

(4) If extra water be needed, only boiling water should be added, as quickly and as gently as possible.

(5) Continue the cooking according to the time required by the recipe, or test as in boiling, if the food permits.

3. Effects of steaming:

(1) It makes vegetable food tender.

(2) It makes the protein of animal food harder than simmering, but not so hard as boiling does.

(3) It does not break up the food.

(4) It does not dissolve out the food substance.

(5) It causes little loss of flavour if closely covered.

STEEPING

1. Definition:

Steeping is a method of cooking, by pouring boiling water over food, and letting it stand in a moderately warm place.

2. Rules for steeping:

(1) Heat the steeping dish.

(2) Use water freshly boiled.

(3) Put the food in the hot dish, pour water over, cover closely, and set in a warm place.

(4) Let the food remain in the liquid until you have extracted what is desired.

(5) Strain off the liquid and use as required.

3. Effects of steeping:

(1) To heat and soften the food.

(2) To extract the flavour and, sometimes, the substance of the food.

TOASTING

1. Definition:

Toasting is a method of cooking in which the heat reaches the food directly from the fire. It is used mainly for bread.

2. Rules for toasting:

(1) Have a clear, hot fire.

(2) Cut bread in slices from one third to one half an inch thick.

(3) Hold the food at some distance from the fire, in a gentle heat at first, to dry and heat the surfaces. This drying may be done in the oven.

(4) Then hold the dried, hot surfaces in a strong heat, to brown and crisp them.

(5) Serve so that the surfaces will not become steamed from the moisture still contained in the slices. Put the toast in a toast-rack or stack it on a hot plate. Buttered toast may be piled.

3. Effects of toasting:

(1) To heat and dry the surface of the food.

(2) To brown and crisp the surface.

(3) To change the flavour.

(4) To change the starch of the surface into a brown substance, which is a form of sugar, and more digestible than starch.

BROILING

1. Definition:

Broiling is a method of cooking in which the heat reaches the food directly. It is used mainly for meat and fish in slices or thin portions.

2. Rules for broiling:

(1) Have a clear, hot fire.

(2) Grease the broiler and trim the food.

(3) Lay the food in the broiler compactly.

(4) Hold the broiler in a very strong heat to seal the tubes of the food which hold the juices, and turn frequently.

(5) When the surface is seared, hold in a gentler heat to cook the food to the centre, and turn occasionally while doing this.

(6) Time the cooking to the thickness of the food—one inch of thickness cooks rare in eight minutes.

(7) Serve at once on a hot dish, and spread with butter, salt, and pepper.

3. Effects of broiling:

(1) To sear the surface.

(2) To cook to the centre while browning the surface.

(3) To change the flavour and develop a very delicious one in the browned surface.

(4) To make the browned surface hard to digest.

PAN-BROILING

1. Definition:

Pan-broiling is an imitation of broiling and is a method of cooking on a hissing-hot, metal surface.

2. Rules for pan-broiling:

(1) Have a hot fire.

(2) Heat the pan or metal surface until it hisses when touched with water.

(3) Lay the food in compactly, and turn constantly until the entire surface is seared.

(4) Place the pan in a gentle heat and cook the food to the centre, turning occasionally.

(5) Time the cooking to the thickness of the food—one inch cooks rare in ten minutes.

(6) Serve at once, as in broiling.

3. Effects of pan-broiling:

The same as in broiling.

SAUTEING

1. Definition:

Sauteing is a method of cooking in which the heat reaches the food through a smoking-hot, greased surface.

2. Rules for sauteing:

(1) Heat the pan enough to melt the fat.

(2) Put in just enough fat to keep the food from sticking, and let it run over the surface of the pan, and get smoking hot.

(3) Put in the food and let it brown on one side, then turn it and brown the other side.

(4) Serve on a hot dish.

3. Effects of sauteing:

(1) To sear the surface of the food.

(2) To brown the surface and develop a delicious flavour, while cooking to the centre.

(3) To make the surface slightly fat-soaked with fat which has been very highly heated.

(4) To make the surface indigestible.

BAKING

1. Definition:

Baking is a method of cooking in which the heat is brought to the food through the confined heat of an oven.

2. Kinds of ovens:

(1) Slow.

(2) Moderate—white paper browns in ten minutes.

(3) Hot—white paper browns in five minutes.

(4) Very hot—white paper browns in one minute.

3. Rules for baking:

(1) Heat the oven according to the recipe.

(2) Put the food in the oven, usually on the lower shelf, to get an under heat first, then toward the last of the cooking, set it on the top shelf to brown.

(3) Watch carefully during the baking, but in opening the oven door, be gentle and quick.

(4) If the oven gets too hot, set a pan of cold water in it, or leave the door slightly open. If browning too quickly, cover the surface with brown paper.

(5) Cook the food according to the time required by the recipe, or until it is done, as shown by some test.

FRYING

1. Definition:

Frying is a method of cooking in which the heat is brought to the food by immersing it in smoking-hot fat.

2. Temperature for frying:

(1) For cooked foods which have only to brown and warm through—about 400 degrees.

(2) For raw foods which have to cook—about 350 degrees.

3. Rules for frying:

(1) Use a deep iron, steel, or granite kettle, which will hold the heat.

(2) Put in sufficient fat to cover the food well, but never fill the kettle more than two-thirds full.

(3) Heat the fat to the desired temperature.

(4) Have the food as dry as possible and not very cold.

(5) When the fat begins to give off a small quantity of white vapour, test it for the required heat, as follows: (a) For raw food, put in a small square of bread, and allow it sixty seconds to brown. (b) For cooked food, allow a square of bread forty seconds to brown.

(6) Put the food carefully into the hot fat, and only an amount which will not cool it too much.

(7) When the food is nicely browned, lift it from the fat with an open spoon or lifter and drain over the pot until it stops dripping.

(8) Lay the food on crumpled brown paper or blotting paper, to absorb any fat still clinging to the surface.

(9) Strain the fat through cheesecloth and set it away to cool.

4. Effects of frying:

(1) To sear the surface and prevent it from absorbing fat.

(2) To cook or heat the food to the centre.

(3) To brown the surface of the food and make it crisp.

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