ONTARIO TEACHERS' MANUALS
HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE IN RURAL SCHOOLS
AUTHORIZED BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION
TORONTO WILLIAM BRIGGS
Copyright. Canada. 1918. by The Minister of Education for Ontario
Three Short Courses in Home-making 1 Introduction 1 A Library on Home Economics for the Rural School 2 Twenty Lessons in the Care of the Home 4 Suggestions to the Teacher 4 Equipment 5 Reference Books 6 Lesson I: Arrangement and Care of the Kitchen 7 Lesson II: Care of Cupboards and Utensils 10 Lesson III: Care of Foods 12 Lesson IV: Disposal of Waste 14 Lesson V: Making Soap 17 Lesson VI: Setting and Clearing the Table 18 Lesson VII: Waiting on Table 21 Lessons VIII and IX: General Cleaning of a Room 23 Lesson X: Care of the Bed-room 25 Lesson XI: Care of Lamps 27 Lesson XII: Prevention of Pests 29 Lesson XIII: Removing Stains, Bleaching Fabrics, and Setting Colours 32 Lesson XIV: Washing Dish-Towels, Aprons, etc. 34 Lesson XV: Ironing 35 Lessons XVI and XVII: Care of the Baby 36 Lesson XVIII: Cost of Food, Clothing, and House 39 Lesson XIX: How to Keep Accounts 39 Lesson XX: Care of the Exterior of the House 41 Reference Books 44
Twenty Lessons in Cooking 45 Suggestions to the Teacher 45 Abbreviations and Measurements 48 Table of Level Measurements 48 Comparisons Between Weights and Measures 48 Reference Books 49 Lesson I: Discussion of Foods and Cooking 50 Recipes 52 Lesson II: Preparing and Serving Vegetables 53 Recipes 55 Lesson III: The Value of Carbohydrates in the Diet 58 Recipes 59 Lesson IV: Fruits and Vegetables 60 Recipes—Open-kettle Method; Cold-pack Method; Single Process Method; Intermittent Method 63 Lesson V: Fats—Vegetables—Continued 66 Recipes 68 Experiments in Using Starch for Thickening 69 Conclusions Based on the Foregoing Experiments 69 Lesson VI: Cereals 70 Recipes 71 Lesson VII: Classification of Foods—Reviewed 73 Black-board Summary 76 Lesson VIII: The Planning and Serving of Meals 76 Examples of Well-chosen Menus 77 Lesson IX: Milk 79 Recipes 81 Lesson X: Soups 82 Recipes 83 Lesson XI: Eggs 85 Recipes 86 Lesson XII: Simple Desserts—Custards 88 Recipes 89 Lesson XIII: Batters and Doughs 90 Recipes 91 Lesson XIV: Batters and Doughs—Continued 92 Recipes 93 Lesson XV: Meats 94 Recipes 95 Lesson XVI: Baked Pork and Beans—Baking-powder Biscuits 98 Recipes 98 Lesson XVII: Butter Cakes—Plain Yellow Cake—Cocoa Coffee—Tea 99 Recipes 101 Lesson XVIII: Yeast Bread 103 Recipes 104 Lesson XIX: Serving a Simple Dinner Without Meat—Baked Omelet—Macaroni and Cheese 106 Recipes 106 Lesson XX: Sugar 107 Recipes 108
Twenty Lessons in Sewing 110 Suggestions to the Teacher 110 Reference Books 112 Lesson I: Preparation for Sewing 113 Lesson II: Hemming Towels 115 Lesson III: Hemming Towels—Continued 116 Lesson IV: Bags 119 Lesson V: Bags—Continued 120 Lesson VI: Bags—Continued 122 Lesson VII: Bags—Continued 123 Lesson VIII: Bags—Continued 124 Lesson IX: Darning Stockings 127 Lesson X: Patching 128 Lesson XI: Cutting Out Aprons or Undergarments 130 Lesson XII: Aprons or Undergarments—Continued 132 Lesson XIII: Aprons or Undergarments—Continued 134 Lesson XIV: Aprons or Undergarments—Continued 135 Lesson XV: Aprons or Undergarments—Continued 136 Lesson XVI: Aprons or Undergarments—Continued 137 Lesson XVII: Methods of Fastening Garments 138 Lesson XVIII: Methods of Fastening Garments—Continued 140 Lesson XIX: A Padded Holder for Handling Hot Dishes Binding 142 Lesson XX: A Cap to Wear with the Cooking Apron 144
Household Science Equipment 146 Household Science Cabinet Materials Required, Stock Bill, Tools, Directions for Making 161 Equipment for Rural School Household Science Cabinet—No. I 173 Equipment for Rural School Household Science Cabinet—No. II 174 The Hectograph 177
The Rural School Lunch 178 The Box Lunch 179 Contents of the Lunch Box 181 Sandwich Making 182 Suggestions for Sandwich Fillings 182 Suggestions for Planning 183 Suggestions for Desserts 184 Packing the Lunch Box 184 Rules for Packing 184 Equipment for Packing 185
Serving a Hot Dish 186 The Method 186 Suggested Menus 189 Suggestions for Hot Dishes for Four Weeks 189
Recipes Suitable for the Rural School Lunch 191 Useful Bulletins 200
Household Science Without School Equipment 201 First Method 201 Second Method 204
The Fireless Cooker 208 Directions for Fireless Cooker—No. I 210 The Outside Container 210 The Insulating Material 212 The Inside Container 214 The Kettle 214 Extra Source of Heat 215 Covering Pad 215 Directions for Fireless Cooker—No. II 217 Method of Making 217 Directions for Fireless Cooker—No. III 217 Method of Making 218
Use of the Fireless Cooker in the Preparation of Lunches 218
Special Grants for Rural and Village Schools 221
This Manual is issued for the purpose of encouraging the introduction and furthering the progress of Household Science in the rural schools of this Province. There are 903 urban and 5,697 rural schools, and 45.87% of the school population is in attendance at the latter schools. The value of Household Science as an educational and practical subject has been recognized, to some extent, in the urban schools of the Province but, up to the present, little attempt has been made to give the subject a place among the activities of the rural schools.
There is a wide-spread impression that it is not possible in Household Science to give any instruction that is of value without the provision of separate rooms, elaborate equipment, and specially trained teachers. Where these conditions exist, of course, the best work can be accomplished; but, even where they cannot be realized, much may be done toward giving definite, useful instruction in the cardinal principles of home-making, which should be learned by every girl. There is certainly not a single rural school where some practical work in sewing and some valuable lessons in the care of the home may not be given. As for cookery, it is doubtful if there is a single school so small and so helpless that it is unable to use the hot noon-day lunch as a method of approach to this branch of the subject.
Students of the physical welfare of children are rapidly coming to the conclusion that a warm mid-day meal greatly increases the efficiency of the pupil and determines to a large extent the results of the afternoon's study. There are other benefits to be derived from a school lunch well prepared under proper conditions. In many communities it has been the means of bringing about a healthy and satisfactory co-operation between the school and the home, of developing a higher social life in the neighbourhood, and of introducing into the school a Household Science course, which has proved as great a benefit to the farmer's wife as to his children.
This Manual deals entirely with conditions that exist in our rural schools and outlines only such plans and schemes as can be carried out, even in adverse circumstances, by alert trustees, sympathetic inspectors, and resourceful teachers.
Permission has been obtained from the Bureau of Education, Washington, U.S.A., to make use of a recently issued bulletin—"Three Courses in Home-making for Rural Schools", and of various bulletins issued by State Agricultural Colleges. The freest use has been made of this material, and the permission to do so is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
Only such theory as can be readily assimilated has been given; and the teacher is advised for further information and help to consult the Manuals issued by the Department of Education on Household Management and Sewing. Those who wish to become thoroughly competent and to earn the highest Departmental grants should attend the Summer Schools provided by the Department of Education. Under certain conditions the expenses of teachers attending these courses are paid by the Department.
Nothing has been included or recommended that cannot be accomplished in the average rural school; and trustees, teachers, and inspectors are urged to make a beginning by selecting the lessons that appeal to them as being most suitable to the districts in which their schools are situated.
By careful planning and a wise use of the time before and after school and during recess, the regular organization of the school need not be interfered with; and, in addition to the educational and social advantages to be derived from undertaking this work, much benefit will result from the increased interest taken in the school by the parents and the general public.
It is not essential that the lessons in this Manual should be taken exactly in the order given. Any other arrangement called for by the peculiar circumstances of the school is admissible.
The Inspector of Manual Training and Household Science is ready at all times to visit rural schools for the purpose of conferring with the Public School Inspectors, the trustees, and the teachers regarding the introduction of Household Science as a regular subject of the school curriculum.
HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE IN RURAL SCHOOLS
THREE SHORT COURSES IN HOME-MAKING
The three brief courses in home-making outlined in this Manual have been especially prepared for use in elementary rural schools. They are in no sense complete outlines of the subjects with which they deal; rather, they indicate a few of the important phases of food study, sewing, and the care of the home with which the pupil in the elementary school should become familiar. The underlying thought for each problem should be: "Will this help the pupils to live more useful lives, and will it lead to better conditions in their homes?"
The lessons are purposely made simple, and the plans are definitely outlined, so that even the inexperienced teacher may be able to achieve a certain measure of success. The experienced teacher will find in them suggestions that may be of value in the further development of the course.
The teacher who desires to use this course will necessarily have to adapt it to her own community, and it is hoped that she may be able to do this with but little alteration. While conditions of living and choice of foods differ in various parts of the Province, the general principles of nutrition, the rules of sanitation, and the methods of cooking and serving are much the same for all.
Owing to the difficulty of securing time on the programme for frequent lessons in home-making, each of the courses has been limited to twenty lessons. Some teachers may not be able to have a greater number of lessons during the school year, and they may find it well to carry the three courses through three successive years. In other schools, where more frequent lessons can be given, it may be well to offer all three courses during one year. The courses in cooking and the care of the home can be advantageously combined, as many of the problems in both are related. The lessons in sewing may be given on another day of the week, or it may be well to give them early in the year, to be followed, later, by the cooking lessons. Thus an opportunity will be furnished for the making of the cooking aprons and the hemming of the towels.
It is most desirable that periods of at least forty minutes should be provided for all the practical lessons. Longer periods will be necessary for some of them, such as the preparation and the serving of a meal. If no practical work is undertaken in the lesson, a forty-minute period is sufficient.
LIBRARY ON HOME ECONOMICS FOR THE RURAL SCHOOL
In addition to the text-books recommended as sources of special reference for the rural teacher, the following books, bearing on home economics or on methods of teaching, are suggested for the rural school library. These books have been chosen with the threefold purpose of providing references for the teachers, reading matter for the pupils, and a lending library for the parents.
Laundering. Balderston, L. Ray. Pub. by the Author. Philadelphia $1.25
Country Life and the Country School. Carney, M. Row, Peterson & Co., Chicago 1.25
How the World is Fed. Carpenter, F. O. American Book Co., New York .60
How the World is Clothed. Carpenter, F. O. American Book Co., New York .60
How the World is Housed. Carpenter, F. O. American Book Co., New York .60
How We Are Clothed. Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's, Toronto .45
How We Are Fed. Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's, Toronto .45
How We Are Sheltered. Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's, Toronto .45
Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home. Conn, H. W. Ginn & Co., Boston 1.00
The Boston Cooking-school Cook Book. Farmer, F. M. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto) 1.80
The Rural School Lunch. Farnsworth, N. W. Webb Pub. Co., St. Paul, Minn. .25
Clothing and Shelter. Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto 1.10
Foods and Household Management. Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto 1.10
Means and Methods of Agricultural Education. Leake, A. H. Houghton, Mifflin Co., New York. (Thos. Allen, Toronto) 2.00
Rural Hygiene. Ogden, H. N. Saunders, Philadelphia 1.50
Health and Cleanliness. O'Shea, M. V., and Kellogg, J. H. Macmillan's, Toronto .56
Rural Education. Pickard, A. E. Webb Pub. Co., St. Paul, Minn. 1.00
Manual of Personal Hygiene. Pyle, W. L. Saunders, Philadelphia 1.50
Feeding the Family. Rose, M. S. Macmillan's, Toronto 2.10
Food Products. Sherman, H. C. Macmillan's, Toronto 2.00
TWENTY LESSONS IN THE CARE OF THE HOME
SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER
The purpose of this course is to give the pupils instruction in various household tasks, in order that better living conditions may be secured in the homes. The beauty and sacredness of an ideal home life should receive emphasis, so that the pupils may be impressed with the importance of conscientious work in the performance of their daily household duties. They should have some insight into the sanitary, economic, and social problems that are involved in housekeeping, so that they may develop an increased appreciation of the importance of the home-maker's work.
The two most important things to be taught are "cleanliness and order". Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the value of fresh air and sunshine and the necessity for the free use of hot water and soap. The value of property should also be emphasized. Economy in the purchase and handling of house furnishings and equipment should be considered. Instruction should also be given in the care of foods and clothing and in the care and arrangement of furniture. Simple instruction in the care of babies should be given, since the older children are often responsible, to some extent, for the care of the younger members of their families.
In some of the lessons more subjects may be suggested than the teacher will have time to take up in a single period. In that case it will be well for her to choose the subject which seems most vital to the immediate needs of the community. In many cases she may be able to give an increased number of lessons. Practice and drill in all of the processes involved in housewifery are essential to successful training.
If a cupboard and a table have been arranged for the use of the cooking classes, most of the suggested work can be carried out with the school equipment. Where there is no equipment in the school and school conditions do not approximate home conditions, it may be possible to secure permission to give the lesson after school hours in the home of one of the pupils who lives nearby.
In each lesson the teacher, while giving the pupils helpful general information on the subject under discussion, should strive to impress on them the importance of doing some one simple thing well.
The rural teacher who is eager to make her school-room an attractive place may devote some time in these lessons to such problems as the hanging and the care of simple curtains, the care of indoor plants, the arrangement of pictures, the planning of storage arrangements for supplies and of cupboards for dishes, and the preparations for the serving of the school lunch.
In order to teach these lessons effectively, it is desirable to have the following simple equipment on hand. Additional special equipment may be borrowed from the homes.
Broom, 1 Cloths for cleaning, 6 Dish-cloths, 2 Dish-towels, 12 Dust-brush, 1 Dust-pan, 1 Garbage can (covered), 1 Lamp, 1 Oil-can, 1
Rural Hygiene. Brewer, I. W. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia $1.25 The Healthful Farmhouse. Dodd, H. Whitcomb & Barrows, Boston .60 Community Hygiene. Hutchinson, Woods. Houghton, Mifflin Co., New York. (Thos. Allen, Toronto) .65 Foods and Sanitation. Forster, G. H., and Weigley, M. Row, Peterson &. Co., Chicago 1.00 The Home and the Family. Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto .80 Housekeeping Notes. Kittredge, M. H. Whitcomb & Barrows, Boston .80 Practical Home-making. Kittredge, M. H. The Century Co., New York .70 A Second Course in Home-making. Kittredge, M. H. The Century Co., New York .80
LESSON I: ARRANGEMENT AND CARE OF THE KITCHEN
In arranging the kitchen, the three things of most importance are the stove, the sink, and the kitchen table. If there is no sink in the kitchen, there will be some other place arranged for washing the dishes, probably the kitchen table, and this must be taken into consideration when the furniture is placed. As most of the work is done at the stove and the table, both these must be placed where they will have a good light, and they should be close to each other, so that but few steps are necessary for the worker.
In furnishing the kitchen, the housekeeper will find a high stool very useful, as it will enable her to wash dishes, prepare vegetables, and do other work while seated.
All the furniture should be kept so clean and free from dust that the kitchen will have a neat and attractive appearance. A vase of flowers or a potted plant, and a washable table-cover to be used after the dishes have been put away, will help to make this room a pleasant place for the family. Special attention should be given to the ventilation.
The kitchen should be thoroughly cleaned after each meal. If it has become dusty or disarranged, it should be put in order before the next meal is to be prepared. While the cooking is under way, everything should be kept in an orderly condition. As soon as the meal is completed, the left-over food should be covered and put away; the scraps and waste material should be gathered and disposed of; and the dishes, pots, and pans should be scraped, and washed in hot, soapy water, then rinsed in clear, hot water, dried, and put away. The table should be scrubbed, the stove cleaned, the floor swept and scrubbed whenever necessary, and everything put neatly in its place.
Care of the coal or wood range.—All spots should be removed from the range by wiping it with old paper. If it is in bad condition, it should be washed with soap and water. If it is oiled occasionally, blacking will not be necessary; but if blacking is used, it should be applied with a cloth and rubbed to a polish with a brush, just as the fire is being started. The ashes and soot flues back of the oven and underneath it should be cleaned out once a week.
Directions for building a fire.—To build and care for a fire in the coal or wood range, close all the dampers, clean the grate, and remove the ashes from the pan. Put on the covers and brush the dust off the stove. Open the creative damper and the oven damper, leaving the check damper closed. Lay some paper, slightly crumpled into rolls, across the base of the grate. Place small pieces of kindling wood across one another, with the large pieces on top. Lay pieces of hardwood or a shovelful of coal on top of the kindling, building so as to admit of the free circulation of air. If the stove is to be polished, rub it with blacking. Light the paper from below. When the fire begins to burn briskly, add coal or wood: then add more when that kindles. When the fire is well started and blue flame is no longer seen (about ten minutes), close the oven damper. Close the creative damper when the fire is sufficiently hot. Brush the stove and the floor beneath it as soon as the fire is started. Polish the stove. If the fire becomes too hot, open the check damper. Fill the tea-kettle with fresh water and set it on the front of the range.
Care of the sink, wash-basin, and garbage pail.—A neglected sink or garbage pail may be a fruitful source of disease, in addition to attracting water-bugs and other pests. Scraps should never be left in the sink. After washing the dishes it should be thoroughly cleaned, a brush and scouring material being used. The nickel part may be washed with hot soap-suds, wiped dry, and polished. Water should never be left in the wash-basin. Both the soap-dish and the wash-basin should be scoured daily. The garbage pail should be emptied and washed every day, and carefully scalded once or twice a week.
It will be well to have this lesson succeed or follow a cooking lesson, for then the pupils will have a keener interest in the problems of the kitchen. (See Twenty Lessons in Cooking, Lesson I.)
METHOD OF WORK
Cleanliness and order are the two points to be considered in this lesson. The doing well of each simple household task and the thoughtful arrangement and planning of all parts of the house should be emphasized as being of great importance to the housekeeper's success.
Begin the lesson with a discussion of the purpose of the kitchen; then discuss its arrangement from the standpoint of convenience for the work that must be done there. Emphasize the importance of having the furniture so arranged that the work may be done quickly and easily, and that the kitchen may be given a comfortable and attractive appearance. Let the pupils arrange the furniture in the school-room. Discuss and demonstrate the care of the stove by the use of the school stove. Assign each pupil a time when she is to look after the stove on succeeding days and grade her on her work. Let each pupil bring a report from home as to what she is doing to help in the care of the home kitchen. Make a specific assignment for home work.
Questions Used to Develop the Lesson
What is the purpose of the kitchen?
What are the principal articles of furniture in the kitchen?
How should we arrange these things?
Can we make any general rules as to arrangements?
Why is it difficult to keep the kitchen clean?
At what times is the kitchen most apt to become disarranged?
Why is it important to keep the kitchen in good order?
In what order should the kitchen be at the time we begin the preparation of the meal?
How should the floor be cleaned? The utensils?
What should we do with any left-over food?
How should we take care of the stove after the meal?
LESSON II: CARE OF CUPBOARDS AND UTENSILS
It is of the utmost importance that cupboards and other places where food is stored should be kept free from dirt and scraps of food. Ants, cockroaches, mice, and other pests infest dirty places where food is kept, and render a house unfit for human habitation. It requires constant care and watchfulness on the part of the housewife to keep the cupboards clean. She must look over the shelves daily, wiping them off whenever they need it, and giving them a thorough cleaning at least once a week.
The housekeeper should know how to care for the various utensils used and understand the simplest and best methods of keeping them clean. Utensils should never be put in the cupboards until perfectly clean and dry. Particular attention should be paid to the care of milk vessels. Pans, pails, pitchers, or bottles in which milk has been kept, should be rinsed in cold water, washed in strong, clean soap-suds, rinsed in clean, boiling water, and dried in the sun. If utensils have become discoloured or badly coated, they should be specially scoured. If something has been burned in a kettle, the kettle should be cleaned by filling with cold water, adding washing-soda, and boiling briskly for half an hour; after that a slight scraping ought to remove the burned portion. If the kettle is not yet clean, the process should be repeated. If a kettle has been used directly over a wood fire and becomes blackened with soot, it should be rubbed off with a newspaper and then with an old cloth. Kettles should be dried well before being put away. With proper care they seldom become rusty. If an iron kettle has rusted, it should be rubbed with kerosene and ashes, then washed in strong, hot, soda-water, rinsed in clear hot water, and dried on the stove. If a kettle is very rusty, it should be covered thoroughly with some sort of grease, sprinkled with lime, and left overnight. In the morning it should be washed out with hot soda-water and rinsed in clear, hot water. A new kettle is generally rusty, and should be greased thoroughly inside and out and allowed to stand for two days; then washed in hot soda-water.
Bath-brick should be used for scouring iron utensils and steel knives and forks. If iron pots and frying-pans are scrubbed with a piece of bath-brick each time they are used and then washed in hot soap-suds, they can be kept in good condition. Tinware and steel knives and forks may be cleaned by scouring with ashes, but only fine ashes should be used on tinware. The brown stains on granite utensils should be scoured off; and this ware should be carefully handled, in order to avoid chipping. Coffee-pots and tea-pots should be cleaned daily, the grounds removed, and the interior of the pots washed out thoroughly. The tea-kettle should be washed and dried overnight and left uncovered to air.
If school lunches are served or cooking lessons are given at the school, it will be well to use this lesson to get the cupboards in readiness. If it is impossible to do this at school, arrange to have such a lesson in one of the homes outside of school hours. Be sure that the housekeeper is in sympathy with the work and is willing to co-operate.
METHOD OF WORK
Assign each pupil a task in the cleaning, the scouring of the dishes, and the arrangement of the cupboard. Set a definite amount to be done and carry out the plans, leaving a clean and neatly arranged cupboard at the end of the lesson.
LESSON III: CARE OF FOODS
Several important points must be borne in mind if foods are to be kept in a good condition. Most foods change easily. Vegetables and fruits lose water, wilt, and become unfit to eat. Flour and corn-meal become mouldy. Potatoes decay and sprout. Some foods, such as milk, turn sour. Eggs become tainted, and fat grows rancid. With proper care in handling, storing, and keeping, this spoiling can be prevented.
The spoiling of foods is due to the presence of micro-organisms; and if foods are fresh and sound and kept cool and clean in every way, they will not spoil readily, because such conditions are unfavourable to the development of the micro-organisms. On the other hand, if foods are roughly handled and bruised, decomposition will take place readily, for micro-organisms develop in the bruised portions. Care must, therefore, be taken to select foods wisely, handle them carefully, wash them if they are not already clean, put them in clean receptacles, and keep them in a clean, cool place. All pots, pans, and dishes in which foods are kept or cooked should be thoroughly cleansed and rinsed well, so that no fragments stick to them which may decay and cause possible infection to the next food that is put in. Every part of the kitchen and store-rooms should be kept clean, dry, and well aired. Light is the best germicide and purifier known.
Covered receptacles should be secured for all foods. Those that are mouse-proof and insect-proof are essential to a well-kept pantry. All bottles and cans should be neatly labelled and so arranged that each one can be conveniently reached. The outside of the bottle or case should always be wiped off after it has been opened and food has been removed from it. The shelves on which the cases are kept should be wiped off every day. If supplies of fruit or vegetables are kept on hand, they should be looked over frequently, and whatever shows even the slightest suggestion of spoiling should be removed. Bread should be kept in a covered tin box, and the box should be washed out once or twice a week and frequently scalded and aired.
If cooking lessons are to be given, it will be well to take this lesson on the care of foods in connection with the first cooking lesson, and to make it a means of arranging for the materials that are to be kept on hand and of determining how everything is to be handled.
METHOD OF WORK
Devote a large part of the lesson to a discussion of the necessity for care in the handling, storing, and keeping of foods. If facilities permit, devote a few minutes to the putting away of foods that are to be used in the next cooking lesson or in the school lunch, discussing the reasons for such care.
LESSON IV: DISPOSAL OF WASTE
If the daily disposal of waste is attended to, there will be no undesirable accumulation of garbage. Scraps of food that cannot be utilized for the table should be fed to the pigs or the chickens and should not be allowed to stand and gather flies. A covered pail or pan should be used for holding the garbage, until final disposal is made of it. Those portions that are badly spoiled and will be of no value in feeding the stock should be burned at once. Waste vegetable substances, if suitable, should be fed to the stock, and if not, should be buried in a thin layer on the ground at some distance from the house, so that they may enrich the soil.
Old papers that are badly soiled should be burned, but all others should be kept for use in cleaning the stove, starting the fires, etc. Empty cans should be well washed and buried, so that they will not prove a breeding-place for flies. It is well to pierce them through the bottom immediately after opening them, so that they will not hold water. Dish-water should be emptied at some distance from the house, unless there is a drain nearby. All receptacles that hold water should be carefully emptied, and all depressions in the soil should be filled, in order to prevent mosquitoes from breeding. All waste water should be used on the garden.
Protection of the water supply.—Only the water from deep wells should be used for drinking purposes, because all surface water and water in shallow wells becomes dangerous through seepage from compost, pig-pens, privies, and other places where decayed organic matter may accumulate. In order that the water may be kept clean, the well must be supplied with a tight-fitting top which need not be opened and a metal pump to bring up the water. A well platform that allows the water spilled on it to run back into the well is unsafe, for any filth carried on the platform in any way will be washed directly into it. Rats, mice, and other animals get into the well if the top is not tight, and these, in addition to being unpleasant, are liable to introduce disease germs.
Simple disinfectants.—Sunshine and fresh air are nature's disinfectants and should be freely admitted to every part of the house. Windows should be left open whenever possible. The windows in the sleeping rooms should always be opened at night. The interior of the house should be kept perfectly dry. Decay does not easily take place in dry places. A damp cellar should be drained, and the grounds around the house should not be allowed to drain into the cellar. Coarse coal ashes should be used to fill in around the house, on the walks, etc., to help in securing thorough drainage. Wood ashes may be used as a simple disinfectant to cover decayed organic matter. Whitewash is a good disinfectant and should be frequently used both inside and outside the house and on all out-buildings. Kerosene and creosote also make good disinfectants.
Care of out-of-door closets.—The privy should be so arranged that it may be cleaned often and all excreta disposed of in a safe way. The building should be so well constructed that there will be no cracks for the admission of flies. In a poorly constructed building, old paper can be pasted over the cracks, to make the structure fly-proof. Dry earth, street dust, or lime should be frequently sprinkled over the excreta, and the seat should be closed, to prevent the entrance of flies or mosquitoes. The seat should be washed frequently, and both the seat and the floor scrubbed at least once a week.
It will be well to teach this lesson at a time when improvements are necessary in the care of the school-house. The discussions in regard to out-of-door closets will, of course, be taken when the girls are alone with the teacher.
METHOD OF WORK
Discuss the disposal of waste, the care of garbage, etc., in the home and the school. Talk over the care of waste from the school lunch and discuss methods of keeping the school in a sanitary condition. Follow this by a general cleaning of the school-house.
LESSON V: MAKING SOAP
Home-Made Hard Soap
6 lb. fat 1 can lye 1 pt. cold water 1 tbsp. borax
Melt the fat slowly. Mix the lye and water in a bowl or kettle (do not use a tin pan), stirring with a stick until the potash dissolves. Add the borax and allow the mixture to cool. Cool the fat and, when it is lukewarm, add the lye, pouring it in a thin stream and stirring constantly. Stir with a smooth stick until about as thick as honey, and continue stirring for ten minutes. Pour the mixture into a box and allow it to harden. Cut into pieces the desired size and leave in a cool, dry place for ten days, to ripen before using.
When making the soap, be careful not to spill potash or lye on the hands, as it makes a bad burn. If the hands are burned, rub them with grease at once. Do not wet them.
Some time before this lesson is given ask the pupils to bring scraps of fat from home. See that these are in good condition, and weigh them, to determine the portion of the recipe that can be made. Ask one of the pupils to bring sufficient borax for the recipe.
METHOD OF WORK
Let the pupils look the fat over and put it on to melt, watching it carefully. While it is heating and cooling, discuss the process of soap-making, the cost of materials, the care necessary in the making of soap, and the importance of its use. Get ready the other materials, and a box for moulding the soap, and let the pupils work together. After the soap has hardened and been cut, have it put away on a shelf to dry.
LESSON VI: SETTING AND CLEARING THE TABLE
The following points must be remembered when a meal is to be served: The dining-room must be clean, well aired, sufficiently lighted, and in good order.
The table must be perfectly clean and covered with a clean white cover (table-cloth, doilies, paper napkins, or oil-cloth).
A vase of flowers or leaves or a small potted plant, in the centre of the table, will help to make it attractive.
The table should be prepared with everything necessary for serving the meal, but only those foods should be placed on it that will not be spoiled by standing. If there is danger of the food attracting flies, cover it carefully.
Plates for everyone who is to partake of the meal should be arranged at equal distances from one another, and half an inch from the edge of the table.
The knife should be placed at the right of the plate with the cutting edge toward the plate, and one inch from the edge of the table.
The fork should be placed at the left of the plate with the tines turned up, and one inch from the edge of the table.
The spoon should be placed, bowl upward, at the right of the plate, to the right of the knife. It should be placed one inch from the edge of the table. Spoons and forks for serving should be placed at the right and left of the dish to be served, or in another convenient position. No one should have to use the personal fork or spoon for serving.
The napkins should be folded simply and placed at the left of the fork.
The tumbler should be placed at the upper end of the knife.
The cups and saucers should be placed at the right of the plate with the handle of the cup toward the right.
The bread-and-butter plate, if used, should be placed at the upper left hand of the fork.
The salt-cellars and pepper-shakers should be placed near the centre of the table or at the sides, where they can be conveniently reached. Individual salt-cellars, if used, should be placed immediately in front of the individual plate.
The chairs should be placed at the table after it is set. Care should be taken not to put them so close to it that it will be necessary to move them after they are occupied.
If possible, arrange to give this lesson before Lesson VIII in the series of "Twenty Lessons in Cooking" is given; then the emphasis in that lesson may be put upon the food to be served, proper combinations, etc., while this lesson gives the drill in the arrangement and handling of the dishes.
It is desirable to give the pupils a thorough drill in table setting and table service, since much of the pleasure derived from eating depends upon the attention paid to these processes.
Be careful to see that everything necessary is on hand to set the table simply but daintily. For class practice a small table may be set for four. This will necessitate a table-cover, four or more dinner plates, four bread-and-butter plates, four tumblers, four cups and saucers, four knives, four forks, four teaspoons, four napkins, a salt-cellar, a pepper-shaker, a platter, one serving spoon, and one serving fork. If these things are not already in the school, probably they can be brought from home by the pupils. If linen cloths are not used and cannot be afforded on the tables in the homes, the pupils should be taught to use a white oil-cloth.
Have a diagram made on the black-board by one of the pupils of the arrangement of an individual place at the table.
METHOD OF WORK
The process of table setting should be demonstrated with the materials at hand, and the work should be adapted to home conditions.
If there is no available table in the school-room, the desk tops may be used for individual places.
Reasons for the arrangement of the table should be given—the convenience of placing the knives and the spoons to the right, the forks to the left, the cup and saucer and the tumbler to the right, the use of the napkin, etc.
LESSON VII: WAITING ON TABLE
The one who is to wait on table must be careful to see that everything is in readiness before the meal is announced, so that she can do her work easily, without subjecting those at the table to unnecessary delay. She should have water, bread, and butter (if used), hot dishes ready for the hot foods, and dessert dishes conveniently at hand. She must see that her hands are perfectly clean and her hair and dress in order. A clean, neat apron will always improve her appearance. The room should be clean and neatly arranged.
If the meal is to be a family one and all are to sit at the table together, plates will be passed from one to another as they are served: but it will still be well to have one person appointed to wait on the table. She should be ready to supply more bread, water, etc., when it is necessary, and to change the plates for the dessert course. She should rise from the table quickly and quietly, in order not to disturb others, and should take her place again as soon as the necessary service has been rendered.
The following rules should be observed: Hold the tumblers near the bottom, being careful not to touch the upper edge. Fill only three-quarters full.
Put the butter on the table just before the meal is announced, and serve in neat, compact pieces.
Cut the bread in even slices, pile them neatly on a serving plate, and place it on the table, covering it with a clean napkin or towel, if there are flies about or there is danger of dust. If preferred, the bread may be cut at the table as required. Place the dessert dishes at one end of the table or, better still, on a side table, until it is time to use them. When carrying the dishes to and from the table, be careful not to let the fingers come in contact with the food. Learn to place the hand under the dish. In particular service a napkin is used between the hand and the dish, or a tray, if the dish is a small one. The tray should be covered with a napkin or doily.
When a dish is being passed, hold it at the left of the person to be served and at a convenient height and distance. Be sure that each dish is supplied with a spoon or a fork for serving, and turn the handle of the spoon or the fork toward the one to be served.
If a plate is to be placed in front of a person, set it down from the right. Never reach in front of others at the table.
When a course is finished, remove the dishes containing the food first; then the soiled plates, knives, and forks. Be careful to handle only a few dishes at a time and not to pile them. If another course is to be served, remove the crumbs from the table, using for the purpose a napkin and plate, or a crumb tray and brush, and brushing the crumbs lightly into the plate. Fill the tumblers, and arrange the dishes and forks or spoons quickly for the next course.
When the meal is over, the chairs should be moved back from the table, the dishes neatly piled and carried to the kitchen sink, the table wiped, the crumbs brushed from the floor, and the room aired.
Let this lesson be a continuation of the previous one, placing emphasis on the method of waiting on table. The same articles will be required as were used in the last lesson. In addition to these the pupils must be careful to have clean aprons for this lesson.
METHOD OF WORK
Have the table set, as a review of the work of the last lesson; then have four or six of the pupils seat themselves and go through the forms of serving one another to any simple meal upon which the class may decide. Family meal service should be explained and demonstrated first; then service where there is one waitress. Have the pupils, in turn, act as waitresses and serve all the others, offering and placing the food, removing the soiled dishes, filling the tumblers, etc.
LESSONS VIII AND IX: GENERAL CLEANING OF A ROOM
Rooms which are in constant use should be swept and dusted every day. A thorough cleaning of each room in the house will be necessary every week or two, even though the room is swept and kept in order daily. First, all cupboards, drawers, and other receptacles in which articles collect should be cleaned; then all large movable articles should be dusted and moved out of the room; those that are not readily movable should be dusted and covered. The floor should be swept with the windows open; the ceiling and walls should be brushed with a covered broom, and the dust allowed to settle. The floor should then be wiped with a damp cloth on the broom.[A] The woodwork should be cleaned with a damp cloth and a soap that is not too strong. Soda or sapolio should not be used. The furniture should be carefully uncovered, and everything arranged in perfect order.
[A] If the floor is of unfinished-wood, it will require a thorough scrubbing. After sweeping the floor and allowing the dust to settle, a small portion at a time should be scrubbed with a floor-brush and soap. When scrubbing, the grain of the wood should be followed. The scrubbing-water should be changed frequently. For rinsing and drying the floor, a cloth should be wrung out of clear water.
The things that are highest should be dusted first, and care should be taken to collect all the dust in the dust-cloth. After collecting the dust, the cloth should be shaken out-of-doors, washed thoroughly, and boiled. The dust-cloth should be dampened before using on all surfaces except the polished furniture and windows.
Sweeping should be done with short strokes and the broom should be kept close to the floor, so that the dust will not be scattered. The corners of the room should be swept first, the dust gathered in the centre, and then swept into the dust-pan. The dust should be burned, for it may contain disease germs. Loose hairs and fluff should be removed from the broom after using, and it should also be washed periodically.
Small rugs should be cleaned out-of-doors. They should be swept, beaten, and re-swept, then rolled until ready to be put on the floor. If the rug is a large one and cannot be removed, it should be wiped over with a damp cloth, rolled, and the under side of the rug and the floor beneath it should be wiped.
After the room has been cleaned, the windows should be arranged so that a supply of fresh, clean air can come constantly into it. This is essential to every room in the house, if perfect health is to be maintained.
It will be well to have Lesson IX given in one of the homes some day after school hours, if possible. If that cannot be arranged, the school-room may be utilized as the place for practice.
METHOD OF WORK
Devote Lesson VIII to a discussion of the methods of cleaning and to various short tasks in connection with the school-room. In Lesson IX have the pupils go through the entire process of cleaning a room. Assign some portion of the task to each one of them, so that all may take part in the work. Supervise the work carefully, assign home practice, and have each pupil clean a room at home once a week for a month.
LESSON X: CARE OF THE BED-ROOM
As soon as one is dressed in the morning, the windows in the bed-room should be opened wide to air the room thoroughly, and the bed-clothes should be removed and put on chairs before the window to air. The night clothing should also be aired. The slops should be emptied, and the chamber should be washed with cold water, using a special cloth. The basin should be washed in warm, soapy water, which should then be poured into the chamber and used for washing it. The toilet articles should be washed, then the basin rinsed and wiped dry. The slop jar should be washed out thoroughly, and both the slop jar and the chamber should be cleaned frequently with chloride of lime or some other disinfectant. The pitcher should be filled with fresh water, and all the articles arranged neatly on the wash-stand. If the towels are soiled, clean ones should be supplied. The mattress should be turned and the bed made carefully; the lower sheet being tucked under the mattress all around, and the other covers tucked in at the bottom and sides of the bed. The bed should be kept free from wrinkles and smooth in appearance, and the pillows should be well shaken and arranged at the head of the bed. The floor should be swept, the furniture dusted, and everything put in place. The windows should be left partly opened, so that the bed-room may be well aired. Fresh air is always necessary, but especially during sleep, when the body is repairing itself, and it is important that the room should be well aired during the day and the windows left open at night.
When the room is to be thoroughly cleaned, the frame of the bed should be dusted, the mattress turned, and the bed should be made. The window shades should be dusted and rolled up. The curtains should be well shaken and covered, if one has a dust sheet. All the small articles on the bureau, table, and shelf should be placed on the bed, and the whole covered with a sheet. The tables, chairs, and any other movable furniture should be dusted and placed outside the room or covered. The rugs should be rolled and cleaned out-of-doors. The room should be swept and dusted. As soon as the dust has settled, the covers should be removed, and the furniture, rugs, and all the small articles should be restored to their places. The shades should be adjusted, and the room left in perfect order. The broom and everything else that has been used in the work should be cleaned and put back into their places.
It may be possible for the teacher to give this lesson in her own bed-room or in the bed-room of one of the neighbours. If this is not feasible, the only way to make it effective is to have the pupils report each day on the work they do at home.
METHOD OF WORK
Illustrate each process and give the reasons for everything that is done. Emphasize the importance of the sanitary care of the bed-room, a regular time for doing the work, and the benefit of having each member of the family care for her own personal belongings and her own portion of the bed-room.
LESSON XI: CARE OF LAMPS
It is assumed that the teacher is acquainted with the possibilities of electricity and other methods of better lighting in country homes, and will instruct her pupils in the economic use of modern lighting facilities.
Directions for cleaning and filling lamps.—A bright light comes from clean burners that allow a good draught. This means constant care on the part of the one who looks after the lamps. In the daily cleaning, first dust the chimney shade and the body of the lamp. Wash the chimney. If sooty, clean with a newspaper before washing. Next, turn the wick high enough to show all the charred part; cut this off, making it perfectly even, then rub with a piece of soft paper. Wipe the burner and any other part of the lamp that may be oily. Dry with another cloth. Fill the body of the lamp with oil to within an inch of the top, leaving plenty of room for the gas that may be generated from the kerosene, as this gas, in a lamp that has been used many times without refilling, may be a source of danger.
When lighting the lamp, turn the wick down, allowing the chimney to become heated gradually. If it is necessary to move the lighted lamp, turn the wick low. The flaring up of the flame smokes the chimney. Do not leave a lighted lamp in a room where there is no one to watch it. When putting out the light, blow across the chimney, never down into it, as this might send the flame down into the kerosene.
About once a month give the lamp a thorough cleaning. Spread out a newspaper and take the lamp apart. Wash the chimney and the shade in hot water, dry with a towel, and polish, using soft paper. Boil every part of the burner in water to which two tablespoonfuls of soda have been added. Insert new wicks if the old ones are dirty, and put the parts all securely together again. Keep an old pan and some cloths exclusively for this purpose, and be very careful not to allow the dirty hands or a drop of kerosene to come near any food.
Have a regular time in the day for cleaning the lamps, preferably immediately after all the morning work has been done after breakfast. Do not fill the lamps near the kitchen stove. Do not light a match while the oil-can is near, and never fill a lamp while it is lighted or while near another one which is lighted. If a fire is caused by kerosene, smother it with a heavy rug or a woollen garment, and do not attempt to put it out with water.
It will be well to give this lesson just before some evening entertainment at the school-house. If there are no lamps at the school have a few brought in from neighbouring homes. Secure an old pan and some cloths to use in cleaning.
METHOD OF WORK
Discuss with the pupils the cost and properties of kerosene and the danger of having a light or too great heat near a can of kerosene. Explain the draught by means of which the kerosene can be made to burn on the wick and the danger if the burner becomes clogged up and the draught is cut off. Have the lamps taken apart, the burners boiled, the chimneys cleaned, and the body of the lamps filled and wiped off. Then have the lamps lighted, to see that they burn properly.
LESSON XII: PREVENTION OF PESTS
Household pests are annoying, dangerous to health, and destructive to property. They carry disease germs from one person to another and from the lower animals to human beings. Absolute cleanliness is essential, if the house is to be kept free from pests. As a rule, they flourish in dark, damp, dirty places. With proper care the housekeeper can keep her house free from them and, if they are noticed, she should know how to exterminate them.
A few simple methods of extermination are here given:
Bedbugs.—Kerosene should be poured into all the cracks, and a brush, dipped in kerosene, run briskly over all surfaces. Care must be taken to have no fire in the room while this is being done. The windows should be open, and the room should be kept free from dust. In four days this should be repeated, in order to kill any bugs that may have just hatched.
Cockroaches and water-bugs.—A solution of one pound of alum to three pints of water should be poured into all the cracks. Insect-powder and borax are also effective. Absolute cleanliness and freedom from dampness are necessary, if the house is to be kept free from cockroaches.
Ants.—Oil of cloves or pennyroyal on pieces of cotton-batting scattered about in the places where ants appear will drive them away. Saturating the nests with coal-oil will destroy them. Food which attracts ants should be removed from places which they are able to reach.
Rats and mice.—These are best exterminated by the use of a trap or some preparation such as "Rough on Rats". Traps should be set nightly and should be scalded and aired after a mouse has been caught. Rat holes may be stopped by sprinkling with chloride of lime and then filling with mortar or plaster of Paris.
Mosquitoes.—These breed in swampy places, or in old barrels or kegs or tin cans which hold stagnant water. Therefore, if the swampy places are drained and the grounds about the house are kept free from stagnant water, the housekeeper will, as a rule, not be troubled with mosquitoes. Empty barrels or kegs should be inverted, and old tin cans should have a hole punched in the bottom, so that they will not hold water. All high weeds near the house should be cut down and destroyed, so that they will not provide a damp place in which to harbour mosquitoes. If it is impossible to get rid of all standing water, the breeding of mosquitoes can be checked by pouring kerosene oil on the water. One ounce of oil on fifteen square feet of water is sufficient, and this will have to be renewed at least once in ten days. The doors, windows, and ventilators of the house should be well screened, as a protection against mosquitoes.
Flies.—These are one of the greatest carriers of typhoid and other germs, as well as filth of all sorts. They can be got rid of only by destroying the breeding places and killing the flies as rapidly as possible. Materials that attract them should not be exposed in and about the house. The house should be well screened with wire mesh or mosquito netting, in order to keep out the flies. A fly swatter should be kept at hand. The stables should be cleaned daily. Manure piles should be screened, and every effort should be made to kill the larvae by frequent spraying with kerosene, creoline (dilute creosote), or lime.
Fleas.—These will be troublesome if cats or dogs are kept in the house. These pets should be given frequent baths, the rugs on which they lie should be brushed and shaken daily, and the floors should be washed with soap and water and wiped with kerosene.
Moths.—These are apt to develop in woollen clothes unless the garments are thoroughly shaken and absolutely protected by wrapping in newspapers before being put away. Woollen garments that are used only occasionally should be kept in a light, dry place, examined frequently, and hung in the sun occasionally. Moths or carpet beetles can be exterminated by the use of kerosene.
Give this lesson at a time when the pupils are asking about household pests or when the school is suffering from them. It would be well to have it in the spring, just before the school closes, so that the pupils may immediately put into practice what they learn. It may be desirable to devote their efforts to the destruction of one particular pest; for example, a fly crusade may be inaugurated.
METHOD OF WORK
If there are pests in the school-room, discuss their habits, what seems to attract them, where they come from, etc. Have the pupils report any that they may have at home. Explain why they are dangerous, tell how they can be exterminated, and assign to each pupil the task of exterminating one household pest. Have her report, each day, the success of her efforts. Continue this work for several weeks.
LESSON XIII: REMOVING STAINS, BLEACHING FABRICS, AND SETTING COLOURS
As garments and household linens are apt to become stained and thus lose their attractiveness, it is well to know the remedies for the most common stains and the principle upon which their removal depends. All stains should be removed as soon as possible. Boiling water will loosen and remove coffee, tea, and fresh fruit stains. The stained spot should be held over a bowl, and the water should be poured upon it with some force. Cold water will remove stains made by blood or meat juice. Soaking will help in the removal of blood stains. Rust stains may be removed by wetting the stained spot with lemon juice, covering it with salt, and placing the stained fabric in the sun. Stains from stove blacking, paint, and grass may be removed by soaking in kerosene and washing well with soap and water. Ink stains may be removed by soaking in water, removing as much of the stain as possible, and then soaking in milk. Stains from cream and other forms of grease may be washed out in cold water, followed by warm water and soap.
White cotton and white linen materials may be bleached by exposure to the sunshine while still damp. If they are left out overnight, the bleaching process is made effective by the moisture furnished by dew or frost. A stream of steam from the tea-kettle may also help in the bleaching process.
Some colours are set by the addition of a small amount of acid to the first water in which they are soaked, while others are set by the use of salt. It is necessary to try a small amount of the material before dipping in the entire garment, in order to be sure of satisfactory results. Vinegar should be used for blues, one-half cup to one gallon of water. Salt is most effective for browns, blacks, and pinks. In most cases, two cups of salt to one gallon of cold water will be sufficient.
The towels used for drying dishes or the linen used for some school entertainment may have become stained with coffee, fruit, or some other substance. Make this the basis of a lesson, and let the pupils bring from home other things which are stained. Each pupil should have an article on which to practise. This lesson should be preliminary to the lesson on laundry work.
METHOD OF WORK
Examine the various articles from which stains are to be removed. Discuss the method of removal, and let each pupil work at her own stain until it is as nearly removed as possible.
LESSON XIV: WASHING DISH-TOWELS, APRONS, ETC.
Dish-towels should be thoroughly washed at least once a day. Wash one piece at a time (the cleanest first) in warm, soapy water and rinse in clear water in another pan. Hang in the sun, if possible, so that the air will pass through. Boil at least once a week in soapy water, to keep them fresh and white. Sunshine and fresh air are valuable for the purposes of bleaching and purifying.
Wash the aprons in hot, soapy water; boil, rinse, and blue slightly. A small amount of thin starch may be desirable. A thin starch may be made as follows:
Recipe for Thin Starch
2 tbsp. starch 4 tbsp. cold water 1/2 tsp. lard, butter, or paraffin 1 qt. boiling water
Add the cold water to the starch and lard, stir until smooth, then add the boiling water slowly, stirring constantly. Boil for several minutes in order to cook the starch thoroughly; then add one pint of cold water and a small amount of blueing. Dilute if necessary.
Hang the articles in the sun to dry, shaking well before putting on the line, and folding the edge of each over at least six inches. Be sure to have the line clean. When dry, fold carefully. A short time before ironing, sprinkle well.
It may be desirable to give this lesson earlier in the course, if cooking lessons are being given and dish-towels are in use, or if the aprons are badly soiled. Other articles may be washed, if time and facilities permit.
METHOD OF WORK
Discuss briefly the need for laundry work and the general principles. Let the pupils take turns at washing the towels or aprons; examine each article after it is washed, and give careful directions for the boiling, blueing, and starching. While these processes are being completed, let some of the pupils prepare the line. Let two of them be appointed to bring the towels in, before going home from school.
LESSON XV: IRONING
To do good ironing it is necessary to have a firm, unwarped ironing board. This should be covered with some thick woollen material and a white cotton cover that is clean, smooth, and tightly drawn. The thick cover should be tacked on, while the top cover should be pinned, so that it may be easily taken off to be washed. A heavy iron-holder should be provided; and the irons should be clean and smooth. For this purpose paper should be kept at hand, as well as a piece of beeswax, sandpaper, or salt. A small cloth should be used to wipe the iron after using the beeswax. A newspaper should be spread on the floor, to protect any pieces that may hang down while being ironed. The coarser towels should be ironed first, as the longer the irons are used, the smoother they become. Starched pieces should not be ironed until the irons are very hot. If the article is first laid smooth, it will be easier to iron it and keep it in shape, and every piece should be ironed until it is perfectly dry. As soon as the ironing is completed, the articles should be hung up to air.
Arrange to have the ironing lesson just as soon after the laundry lesson as possible. It will probably be easy to borrow the necessary equipment from homes near the school. Each pupil may be directed to bring something that will contribute toward the equipment, and one may be instructed to have the fire ready and another to put the irons on to heat before the lesson hour.
METHOD OF WORK
Call the pupils together early in the morning or at some time previous to the lesson period, and give them directions for sprinkling the articles to be ironed. When the class hour comes, demonstrate the method of ironing, folding, and hanging the articles, and let the pupils take turns in doing the work.
LESSONS XVI AND XVII: CARE OF THE BABY
Because young girls are fond of little children and must help their mothers often with their baby brothers and sisters, they should know how to care for them. It is essential that they should understand the following points: The little body needs protection. The head is soft, and the brain may be injured by hard bumps or pressure. The skin is tender and is easily irritated by the bites of insects, friction, and so on. Kicking and wiggling are necessary to the development of the muscles, but the baby should not be played with all the time; and it is well for it while awake to lie quiet for part of the time. It should not be made to sit up until ready to do so. A desire to creep should be encouraged. Standing or walking should not be taught the baby until it tries to stand or walk itself, and then it must be helped very carefully.
The baby should have plenty of fresh air and should be allowed to spend much of its time out-of-doors. In cold weather it must be warmly covered and sheltered from high winds. Its eyes should always be protected from strong sunlight.
Regular hours should be observed for sleep, and the baby should be put to bed early in the evening. If the house is not well screened in summer, a mosquito bar should be put over the crib. The clothing should be light and loose, so that the body can move freely.
Perfect cleanliness is necessary to keep the baby's skin in good condition; and a daily bath should be given. A morning hour, midway between the meals, is usually the best time for this. The baby should be taught to use the chamber before the bath and after the nap. Everything should be ready before it is undressed. The room should be very warm. The water should be only moderately warm, and should be carefully tested to make sure that it is not too hot. The towels and covers for the baby should be at hand. The head and the feet should be washed first, and the body soaped before putting the child into the bath. Little soap should be used, for even the best soap is strong and is apt to irritate the delicate skin. The bath should be given quickly, and the body wrapped at once in a blanket or towel and kept covered as much as possible while it is being dried.
The baby should be fed in small quantities at regular intervals and given plenty of cold water to drink. Not until it is eleven or twelve months of age should it be given solid or semi-solid food. Even then, milk should continue to form the basis of its diet, and of this a considerable quantity should be used—about a quart a day from the twelfth month on. As the child grows older a more varied diet will be necessary. The most hygienic methods of food preparation should always be observed.
Certain foods should never be given; for example, fried foods, pastries, condiments, pickles, preserves, canned meats, fish, pork, sausage, cheap candies, coarse vegetables, unripe and overripe fruits, stimulants, foods treated with a preservative or colouring matter, and half-cooked starches.
The teacher should talk with the pupils, in order to see what points in connection with the care of the baby it is necessary for them to know, so that they may do their work at home intelligently.
METHOD OF WORK
It will probably not be possible to have anything more than a class discussion of the points in question, but the pupils' home experiences ought to make this discussion vital. If there is a nurse in the neighbourhood who can be secured to give one lesson on the care of the baby, the teacher should supplement her own lessons by an additional lesson given by the nurse.
LESSON XVIII: COST OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND HOUSE
It is of great importance that children should learn in an elementary way the value of property. This will prepare them for the knowledge of the cost of living that is essential. They should learn that the cost of food can be decreased by having gardens, and by the proper choice, care, and handling of foods; that taking care of clothing will reduce another item of expense; and that the owning of one's own house and lot is something worth working for, in order to obviate the necessity of paying rent.
The teacher will have to acquaint herself thoroughly with conditions in the community, so that she can talk intelligently with the pupils, emphasize the right points, and give constructive help.
METHOD OF WORK
Begin with a discussion of the cost of food; how much the pupils earn or spend during the week; and why it is worth while to cook and sew well and to look after property. Continue such discussions from time to time, in connection with other school work.
LESSON XIX: HOW TO KEEP ACCOUNTS
It is well for every one to keep a written record of all money received and all money spent. Children should be taught to do this as soon as they are old enough to have money in their possession. A simple little note-book in which all expenditures are entered on the right side and all receipts on the left side, with the balance drawn up each week or month, will prove an easy and satisfactory method of keeping accounts. If the little girl learns to do this with her pennies, she will be better able to take care of the more important household accounts when she is in charge of a home. However, there will be no real incentive for her to keep accounts unless she is endeavouring to save for some good purpose. If she learns to save for the future purchase of a book, a dress, or some little treat, she will feel that her account-keeping is worth while. As a housekeeper, she will appreciate the importance of saving for some future benefit to the family.
In order to make the lesson of vital interest, introduce it at a time when the pupils are saving for some specific purpose—material for a dress to be made in the sewing class, refreshments for a party for their mothers, a school library, or something else that will be a pleasure and help in the work of the school.
METHOD OF WORK
After discussing the sources of income of the pupil and of her family, and the means of increasing and taking care of that income, discuss simple methods of keeping accounts, illustrate these on the black-board, show how to balance the accounts, and see that each pupil has a small book suitable for the purpose. It may be necessary to make or to rule this book as a portion of the class exercise.
LESSON XX: CARE OF THE EXTERIOR OF THE HOUSE
Closely allied to the housekeeper's work within the home is the care of the exterior of the house and its surroundings. It is absolutely necessary that the grounds be kept neat and clean. In addition to this they should be made attractive by the careful selection of a few trees and shrubs suitably placed. While the gardens at the rear of the house may be planned solely for the pleasure and use of the family, in planning the lawn at the sides and front the neighbours and passers-by must be considered. The grounds should be a picture of which the house is the centre, the trees and shrubs being grouped to frame the picture.
In placing shrubs, the effect of the whole landscape should be considered. As a rule, shrubs should be placed in corners, to hide outhouses from view, or to screen other places which should be shielded. The centre of the lawn should be left free, and in no case should a shrub be placed in the middle of an open space in a lawn or yard. A few flowers should be planted among the shrubs, to give colour at different seasons.
The exterior of the house must be considered, if the picture framed by the shrubs and vines is to be a pleasing one. The house should be painted in a soft brown or dark green to blend with the landscape of oaks and pines. The paint will help to preserve the house, but its colour must be carefully chosen to give a pleasing effect.
The general plan of the grounds and local conditions in regard to soil and climate will determine to a large extent the kind of shrubs to be used. Many beautiful shrubs which have been introduced from foreign countries do well in Ontario, but our native shrubs serve all decorative purposes. For damp ground there is no better shrub than the red osier dogwood. This shrub will do well on almost any kind of soil. The swamp bush honeysuckle grows quickly and is suitable for clay land; so are the black elderberry and several species of viburnum. The hazel which may be obtained from the woods makes a good dense shrub, and the wild rose also has possibilities. The common barberry is an attractive shrub; but, as it assists in the formation of wheat rust, it should not be used in rural sections. The lilac may be used where a high shrub is desirable. The common arbor vitae or cedar of the swamps makes a good evergreen shrub. It serves well as a shield for both winter and summer and thrives with moderate care. The weigela, forsythia, and spiraea are also excellent shrubs.
The ground at the back of the house should be used for vegetable gardens with flower borders. For this purpose a deep, rich soil is necessary, and every square foot of space should be utilized. Every family should learn to make use of an increased number of vegetables and fruits and to cook them in a variety of ways. No crops should be allowed to go to waste. A family of five people could be entirely provided with vegetables for the summer and autumn from a garden less than fifty by seventy-five feet.
The attractiveness, as well as the usefulness, of the borders depends upon the choice and arrangement of flowers. These should be chosen with due consideration as to height of plants, colour of blooms, and seasons of blooming. The tallest plants should be placed at the back of the border; for a border six feet wide none of the plants need be over five feet in height. There can be a riot of colours, if the flowers are arranged in clumps of four to six throughout the entire length of the border. In a well-planned flower border some flowers should be in bloom each month. Hardy perennial flowers should predominate, with enough annuals to fill up the spaces and hide the soil. The well-tried, old-fashioned flowers will give the best satisfaction. Every four years the flower borders need to be spaded, well manured, and replanted.
The following lists of flowers for borders may be suggestive:
Perennials.—Bleeding-heart, carnations, chrysanthemums, columbine, coreopsis, dahlias, gaillardias, golden glow, iris, larkspur, oriental poppies, peonies, phlox, pinks, platycodon, snapdragon.
Biennials.—Forget-me-not, foxglove, Canterbury bells, hollyhock, sweet-william, wallflower.
Annuals.—African daisy, ageratum, aster, calendula, calliopsis, balsam, candytuft, cornflower, cosmos, marigold, mignonette, nasturtium, petunia, poppy, stock, sweet alyssum, sweet-pea, verbena, zinnia, annual phlox, red sunflower, cut-and-come-again sunflower.
Each home gardener should study garden literature, in order to assist in solving the garden problems; for the day has passed when one needed only to scratch the soil with a shell, plant the seeds, and receive an abundant crop. Today successful gardening depends upon intelligent management of the soil and crop and upon persistent labour.
The teacher should, if possible, visit the homes of all the pupils, in order to make herself familiar with the condition in which their grounds are kept. She may be able to secure permission from one of the housekeepers to use her grounds as the practice place for the lesson, or it may be more desirable to give this lesson at the school and to conduct a school garden as a model home garden.
METHOD OF WORK
Discuss the arrangement and care of the home or school grounds. Have the class tidy the lawn and garden chosen for the lesson, supervising the work carefully. Assign the tidying up of the home lawns or work in the home gardens for the coming week. Let this lesson serve as a means of interesting the pupils in home gardening, if that has not already been taken up, or of emphasizing the relation of gardening to the housekeeper's work, if they are already interested in the former.
Bush Fruits. Card. Macmillan's, Toronto $1.75
When Mother Lets Us Garden. Duncan. Moffat, Yard & Co., New York .75
A Woman's Hardy Garden. Ely. Macmillan's, Toronto 1.75
The Beginner's Garden Book. French. Macmillan's, Toronto 1.00
Productive Vegetable Garden. Lloyd. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia 1.50
TWENTY LESSONS IN COOKING
SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER
The teacher should learn how the pupils live in their own homes, what food produce is grown for home use, what foods they use, and how they prepare and serve their foods. The instruction given in the lessons should be based on this knowledge, and the possibilities for the improvement of accepted methods of cooking should be considered. Those foods should be used in the recipes which the pupils can afford to use at home. They should be encouraged to grow in their gardens a variety of garden produce, and to keep chickens, pigs, and cows.
Elementary principles of nutrition and sanitation should be taught. Simple meals, with plain but well-cooked dishes, should be planned. Variations should be suggested, and the value of a mixed diet emphasized. Care should be taken not to waste time on points that are unrelated to the homes of the pupils, except as such points may be necessary to raise their ideals.
All the work should be done carefully. The sanitary handling of food and care in the storage of foods should be insisted upon. Careful attention should be given to the dish-washing, care of the dish-towels, etc., emphasizing the points in sanitation involved. The pupils should be drilled faithfully in all points connected with the handling of anything that comes in contact with the food.
Proper methods of sweeping and cleaning should be employed, and thoroughness must be practised in every detail of the work. Constant drill in these processes should be given.
The order in which the lessons are to be given will be regulated, in part, by the season of the year in which they occur, the locality, the foods obtainable, and any special local needs. However, care must be taken that the lessons are given in proper sequence, so that the pupils may see the relation of one to another and may appreciate the value of each. It may be necessary to combine two lessons or to give only part of a lesson. In some of the lessons more recipes are suggested than can be prepared in a brief period. In every case the choice of a recipe will have to be made by the teacher. Wherever it is possible, simple experiments should be performed to show the composition of, and the effect of heat on, food.
No attempt has been made to give a complete set of recipes; but those included here are chosen as illustrating the subjects to be discussed in the lessons. The teacher who desires to make use of a greater number of recipes will do well to supply herself with one of the text-books listed. Level measurements should be used in the preparation of all the recipes, and all the directions should be carefully followed.
The first few lessons are more fully outlined than the others, furnishing suggestions for methods of procedure that may be adapted to later lessons. The teacher should have a detailed plan for every lesson, outlining her method of work, the leading questions for the discussion, and the home assignments which she desires to make.
Foods that are in common use are suggested for the lessons outlined. There will necessarily be exceptions to their use in different localities. If any foods used in the homes are harmful because of the manner in which they are prepared, the teacher should do all in her power to correct the situation, but she must, at the same time, be careful not to be too radical. If the lessons given are not followed by home practice, the time devoted to them will be, to all intents and purposes, wasted. Simple meal service should be introduced wherever it is possible, and as much instruction on the furnishing and the care of the kitchen should be included as time permits.
By the time the course is completed, the pupil should be able to keep her kitchen in a sanitary condition and should have a sufficient knowledge of food values and of the processes of cooking to enable her to provide simple, wholesome meals for her family.
For the teaching of food values, it will be helpful to secure the set of sixteen food charts which may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., price one dollar.
It will be shown later how the school luncheon may be managed with very little interference with the ordinary organization of the school. Where definite instruction is given in Household Science, a place must be provided for it on the school time-table, as is the case with the other school subjects. In sewing and household management lessons of forty minutes each are sufficient, and these can be arranged for at the times found to be most convenient. If each pupil keeps her sewing in a box or bag, it may often be used as "busy work" when the pupil has finished her assigned work or while she is waiting for the teacher, who may be engaged with another class. Lessons in cookery should be, if possible, at least one hour in length, and should be given at a time when this period can be exceeded, if the character of the lesson renders it desirable; for example, in those cases where the cooking is not completed at the expiration of the time assigned. For this reason the last hour on Friday afternoon has proved a very suitable time. In some schools the lesson is commenced at half-past three and runs on until completed, and in this way only half an hour of the regular school time is taken. The possibilities of a Saturday morning cooking class should not be overlooked.
ABBREVIATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS
tbsp. = tablespoonful tsp. = teaspoonful c. = cupful qt. = quart pt. = pint oz. = ounce lb. = pound min. = minute hr. = hour
TABLE OF LEVEL MEASUREMENTS
3 tsp. = 1 tbsp. 16 tbsp. = 1 c. (dry measure) 12 tbsp. (liquid) = 1 c. 2 c. = 1 pt.
COMPARISONS BETWEEN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
2 c. butter, packed solidly = 1 lb. 2 c. sugar (granulated) = 1 lb. 2 c. meat, finely chopped = 1 lb. 2-2/3 c. brown sugar = 1 lb. 2-2/3 c. oatmeal = 1 lb. 4-3/4 c. rolled oats = 1 lb. 4 c. flour = 1 lb. 2 tbsp. butter = 1 oz. 4 tbsp. flour = 1 oz. 9 or 10 eggs = 1 lb. 1 lemon (juice) = 3 tbsp.
Note.—The half-pint measuring cup and not the ordinary tea cup is the one to be used.
Household Management. Ontario Teachers' Manual. The Copp, Clark Co., Ltd., Toronto $0.19
Domestic Science. Austin, B. J. Lyons & Carnahan, Chicago. Vol. I .60 Vol. II .60
Principles of Cooking. Conley, G. American Book Co., New York .52
Home Economics. Flagg, G. P. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto). .75
Lessons in Elementary Cooking. Jones, M. C. Boston Cooking School Magazine Co., Boston 1.00
Food and Health. Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto .65
The School Kitchen Text-book. Lincoln, M. J. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto) .60
Food and Cookery. Metcalf, M. L. Industrial Education Co., Indianapolis 1.00
Household Science and Arts. Morris, J. American Book Co., New York .60
The Science of Home-making. Pirie, E. E. Scott, Foresman & Co., Chicago .90
Elements of the Theory and Practice of Cookery. Williams, M. E., and Fisher, K. R. Macmillan's, Toronto 1.00
LESSON I: DISCUSSION OF FOODS AND COOKING
Management of the kitchen stove. Cooking by dry heat. Baked vegetable or fruit.
Foods.—The body uses food to build and repair its tissues, to provide heat and energy, and to regulate the body processes. Foods differ from one another in their composition and in their ability to assist the body in the performance of its varied functions. These differences have led to the classification of foods into five groups, which are spoken of as the five food-stuffs or food principles.
Cooking.—While some foods can be used as they occur in nature, most of them are made more acceptable by the application of heat. Heat softens the structure of vegetables and fruits, makes tender the tissues of meat, prepares starch for digestion, develops the flavour in many foods, and destroys the parasites and germs that may be present. The five food-stuffs are differently affected by heat—some require slow cooking, others require intense heat. Hence, it is necessary to study cooking, in order that each food may be properly prepared.
The stove.—A knowledge of the construction of the stove and the methods whereby heat is obtained is imperative if one is to be a successful cook. For all stoves three things are necessary—fuel, a supply of oxygen, and a certain degree of heat, known as the kindling point, whereby the fire is started. The supply of oxygen is regulated by dampers and checks so arranged as to admit or cut off the draught of air.
The creative dampers are doors or slides that come below the fire box. When open, they admit the entrance of air, increase the draught, and facilitate combustion.
The oven damper is a flat plate which closes the opening into the chimney flue, to decrease the drawing of the draught. When the oven damper is closed, the heat from the fire remains in the stove and passes around the oven.
Checks are doors or slides higher than the fire-box, which, when open, allow the cold air to pass over the fire, retarding combustion.
A stove is also provided with means for disposing of the ashes, soot, and the gases formed. All parts of the stove are so arranged that they may be kept clean.
(See Twenty Lessons in the Care of the Home. Lesson I)
There should be provided for this lesson (from the homes of the pupils or the school garden), some fruit or vegetable in season that can be cooked by dry heat. Each pupil may be able to bring an apple or a potato. The teacher should be sure to have an oven that can be well heated for baking and to have the fire well started before the lesson begins, so that the oven will be ready for use.
Lessons in geography and nature study should be correlated with the cooking lesson, to give the pupils an opportunity to study the source of foods and the reasons for cooking them.
One of the pupils should write the recipes on the black-board before the lesson hour.
Wash the apples, core them, and cut through the skin with a knife, so that the apple can expand in baking without breaking the skin. Place the apples in a baking-dish and fill each cavity with sugar. Cover the bottom of the dish with water one quarter of an inch deep and bake until the apples are soft (20 to 45 minutes), basting them every 10 minutes. Place them in a serving dish and pour the juice over them. Serve hot or cold.
Select smooth potatoes of medium size, scrub carefully, and place in a baking-pan. Bake in a hot oven from 45 minutes to one hour. When soft, break the skin to let the steam escape and serve at once.
METHOD OF WORK
Discuss very briefly the food that is to be cooked and the method of cooking it. Have as many apples or potatoes baked as there are members of the class or as the baking-dish will hold.
Assign tasks to special members of the class.
As quickly as possible put the vegetable or fruit in the oven to bake.
While the baking is in process, take up a general discussion of foods and cooking and a special discussion of the food which is being used and the method of cooking that is being employed.
Give as thorough a lesson on the stove and combustion as time permits. Examine the baked article and discuss the methods of serving it, the time for serving, and so on.
Use the finished product for the school lunch or have it served daintily in the class. Encourage the pupils to bring a dish to school in order to take the results of their work home for the family meal, if a school lunch is not served or if they do not need a lunch. Give careful directions for washing the dishes and supervise the housework carefully. (See pages 52, 53, Household Management.)
Note.—It may be necessary to go on with some other recitation before the baking is completed, in which case one member of the class should be appointed to watch the oven.
Questions Used to Develop the Lesson
What food have we on hand for use to-day?
Does this food need cooking? Why?
How shall we prepare it for cooking?
How shall we prepare the oven?
How shall we care for the fire?
How long will it be necessary to cook this food?
(Time the baking carefully and discuss more thoroughly at the close of the lesson.)
How can we tell when it is cooked?
How shall we serve it?
For what meal shall we serve it?
Of what value is it to the body?
Home assignment.—The pupils should prepare the baked dish at home and at the next lesson report the result of their work.
Note.—The recipes given in this Manual are prepared for normal times; but in every case the Regulations of the Canada Food Board should be observed, and substitutes used wherever possible.
LESSON II: PREPARING AND SERVING VEGETABLES
Water and mineral matter in vegetables. How to prepare and serve uncooked vegetables—lettuce, cress, cabbage, etc. Cooking by moist heat. How to boil, season, and serve beet tops, turnip tops, cabbage, sprouts, kale, spinach, mustard, or other vegetable greens.
Water.—All fluids and tissues of the body contain large quantities of water, therefore water is regarded as one of the most important food-stuffs required by the body. Practically all foods contain some water. Fresh vegetables and fruits provide the body with a high percentage of water.
Water is a valuable medium for cooking. As it heats, small bubbles are formed, which continually increase in number and size, but gradually disappear. Some time before the boiling-point is reached, an occasional large bubble will rise to the surface and disappear. The water has then reached the simmering-point, 185 deg., a temperature frequently made use of in cooking. When many bubbles form and break, causing a commotion on the surface of the water, the boiling-point, 212 deg., has been reached.
Mineral matter.—Mineral matter is a second food-stuff that is needed by the body, but the amount required is very small. If a variety of food is used, there is generally sufficient mineral matter in the diet. Fruits and vegetables, especially fresh green vegetables, are comparatively rich in mineral matter. Mineral matter builds up the bones and certain tissues, such as the hair, teeth, and nails, and regulates the body processes by keeping the blood and digestive fluids in proper condition.
Green vegetables.—Green vegetables hold an important place in the diet, because they contain valuable mineral matter. They also contain a high percentage of water and considerable cellulose. With few exceptions they should be eaten raw, because the mineral salts, being soluble, are lost in the water in which they are cooked and because the cellulose serves its purpose best in the crisp form. Cabbage is rendered much more difficult of digestion by cooking. Spinach, beet tops, etc., are more palatable when cooked. The delicately flavoured vegetables should be boiled in a very small amount of water, so that they need not be drained. Thus the mineral matter will be retained when the vegetables are served.