UNITED STATES NAVY.
- Transcriber's Note: There are some very wide tables in this work, either on one page or across two pages. These have been broken apart to fit within a 75 character width; they can all be put back together, with some minor adjustments for those sections that have information across multiple columns. Inconsistent spelling is maintained in this document. -
UNITED STATES NAVY.
RELATING TO THE PREPARATION OF VESSELS OF WAR FOR BATTLE, AND TO THE DUTIES OF OFFICERS AND OTHERS WHEN AT QUARTERS.
THE EQUIPMENT AND MANOEUVRE OF BOATS AND EXERCISE OF BOAT HOWITZERS.
ORDNANCE AND ORDNANCE STORES.
FOURTH EDITION.—PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT.
WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1866.
Officers are requested to communicate to the Bureau of Ordnance any suggestions relative to future additions or corrections, with the reasons for any proposed changes, quoting part, page, and paragraph by its number.
[A full index will be found at the end of the book.]
PART PAGE Captain 1 3-6 Executive Officer 1 6, 7 Officers in charge of divisions 1 8, 9 Master 1 9 Chief Engineer 1 9 Gunner 1 9-12 Carpenter 1 12 Yeoman 1 13 General distribution of officers and men at quarters 1 14-20 Distribution and arms of men at the guns 1 21-25 Duties at quarters in battle or exercise 1 26-40 Equipments and Implements 1 33-35 Broadside guns, stations and gun-numbers 1 35 Calls for assembling at quarters 1 36, 37 Preparations for exercise at general quarters 1 38-40 Arrangements for delivering and distributing powder 1 41-45 Naval gun-carriages 1 45 Exercise of broadside-guns 1 46-60 Exercise of pivot-guns 1 61-73 Notes upon the manual exercise 1 74-88 The use of fuzes 1 89-91 Boarders 1 92, 93 General precautions to be observed in time of war 1 94-96 Directions in case of fire 1 97-100 Rifled Cannon 1 101-107 Monitors 1 108-112 Mortars 1 113-127 Miscellaneous Operations 1 128-131 Equipment of boats 2 3-9 Fixtures in boats for boat-guns 2 6-9 Exercise and Manoeuvre for boat-howitzers 2 10-18 Exercise with howitzer on field-carriage 2 19, 20 Remarks on the use of Naval Light Artillery 2 21, 22 Notes on the use of boat-howitzers 2 22-24 Manoeuvres of boats armed for service 2 24 Landing seamen, marines, and howitzers 2 25-27 Ordnance and Ordnance Stores 3 3-80 Inspection and Proof of Naval guns 3 8-17 Use of the Inspecting Instruments 3 18-21 Powder-Proof 3 22 Water-Proof 3 23 Marking guns 3 23 Extreme proof of trial guns 3 24-26 Preparation of guns for service 3 27-29 Preservation of guns 3 30-32 Examination of guns 3 33-35 Inspection of shot and shells 3 36-38 Shot and shell gauges 3 39, 40 Piling of balls 3 41, 42 Preservation of shot and empty shells 3 43 Preparation of shell for service 3 44-47 Gunpowder 3 48-55 Preservation and storage of powder 3 48-53 Service-charges for naval guns 3 53, 54 Boxes for small-arm ammunition 3 55, 56 Cannon and Friction primers 3 56, 57 Cartridge-bags 3 57-59 Magazines and shell rooms 3 60-64 Gun-carriages 3 65, 66 Gun-gear 3 66, 67 Griolet 3 68 Directions for cleaning arms 3 80-82 Paints and Lacquers 3 83-89
Directions as to using the allowance tables of crews A iii-v Table I. Showing the number of hands for various kinds of guns A vi Table II. Allowance of Petty Officers for various kinds of vessels A vii, viii Table III. Allowance of Officers, when A ix Table IV. Allowance of Marines, when A x Graduation of sights and ranges, of 32 pds.: of 27 or 33 cwt.: No. 1 B xi Graduation of sights and ranges, 32 pds.: of 42 or 57 cwt.: No. 2 B xii Graduation of sights and ranges, 8 in.: of 55 or 63 cwt.: No. 3 B xiii Graduation of sights and ranges, 9 and 11 in. shell guns, No. 4 B xiv Approximate ranges of Shell guns No. 5 B xv Approximate ranges of Shot guns and howitzers No. 6 B xvi Approximate ranges of Rifle guns No. 7 B xvii Table for finding the distance of an object at sea No. 8 B xviii Form of Report of Target Practice with great guns No. 9. B xx, xxi Form of Report of Target Practice with small arms No. 9. B xxii Directions as to preparing Reports of Target Practice No. 10 B xxiii Form of Reports of Inspection No. 1 C xxiv-xxvi Questions to be embraced in Reports of Target Practice No. 2 C xxvii Tables of Allowances of Ordnance Equipments and Stores D xxviii-li
RELATING TO THE
PREPARATION OF VESSELS OF WAR FOR BATTLE.
BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, } NAVY DEPARTMENT. January 1st, 1866. }
The Ordnance Instructions for the Navy having been again carefully revised, and such additions and corrections made as the new armaments of vessels of the Navy rendered necessary, they are approved by the Bureau, and I have the honor to submit them for the adoption of the Navy Department.
I am, Sir, with high respect, Your obedient servant, H.A. WISE, U.S.N., Chief of Bureau.
* * * * *
NAVY DEPARTMENT, } WASHINGTON, January 1st, 1866. }
The revised Ordnance Instructions for the Navy, submitted with your letter of this date, are hereby approved and adopted by the Department, and all officers of the Navy will strictly observe and enforce them.
Very respectfully, GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.
Commander H.A. WISE, U.S.N. Chief of Bureau of Ordnance.
GENERAL DUTIES OF OFFICERS
IN RELATION TO ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY, AND TO MILITARY EQUIPMENTS AND EXERCISES.
1. THE CAPTAIN OR COMMANDING OFFICER will be careful to require that all the Ordnance Instructions are strictly enforced on board the vessel under his command; and although particular duties are assigned, and various instructions given to the other officers of the vessel, yet he is to see that the duties are performed, and the instructions obeyed, by the officers to whom they are respectively addressed.
2. As soon as the crew is received on board the vessel, he shall cause a fire-bill to be prepared, the crew shown their stations, and see that they are duly stationed at quarters for battle (See Articles 78 to 103), and exercised at general quarters, and by divisions, particularly the powder division (See Articles 180 to 201), until each officer and man is thoroughly instructed in his duties; after which the exercises are to be frequent during the cruise. Exercises which are short and spirited are preferable to those which are long and fatiguing. Distinctions and indulgences to those who excel are recommended.
When the men have become well acquainted with their duties at the guns, and in passing powder, or when the general duties of the ship are unusually fatiguing, the divisional exercises may be confined to those belonging to one watch. It is directed that, unless bad weather prevent, Monday of each week be set apart for general quarters.
3. He will, at least once in two months for the first year of the cruise, and once in three months for the remainder thereof, assemble the crew at quarters in the night, without any previous intimation of his intention to do so, and have a general exercise. He will inspect the ship throughout, and cause an entry to be made in the log-book of the length of time required between the beginning of the call to quarters and the complete preparation for commencing action; also, when every gun is ready for a second fire.
4. In order to ascertain whether the equipments are complete and their uses understood, as soon after the ship has been commissioned as circumstances will permit, he will cause at least one round to be fired, with shot or shell, according to the nature of the gun; and, when practicable, at targets at known distances and with the appropriate service charges. (See TABLES OF RANGES, Appendix.)
5. He will immediately endeavor to discover whether defects or deficiencies in the armament or equipment exist, and, if any be found, will remedy them as far as in his power consistently with instructions, representing them to the Commandant of the yard of outfit, if near it; and, if important, to the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance.
6. On the representation of the Gunner that the Ordnance Stores are injured or liable to injury, he will order the survey called for by Article 49.
7. He will, in each quarter of the first year of the cruise, expend in target-practice six rounds, and in each succeeding quarter-year six broadsides, making the report required by Art. 14.
He will not, however, either for this purpose or for saluting, reduce his supply of ammunition below 100 broadsides.
8. In order to accustom the men to the use of loaded shells, they are frequently to be used in preference to shot. For this purpose, however, empty shells, or those that are "bouched" only, will be carefully fitted, filled, and fused on board, in season, according to the directions (Chap. I. Part III.), and first expended.
They should be fitted only as required to replace those expended; a principal object in supplying a certain number of shells to be fitted on board ships, is to disseminate information on this subject.
9. The relative proportions of "distant," "ordinary," and "near-firing" charges are to be preserved (See TABLE OF CHARGES, Part III.) as nearly as practicable, and after action or exercise, deficiencies caused by the expenditure of any particular kind of charge will be made up, without unnecessary delay, from the others on hand.
10. The allowances for target-practice are not to be expended in one or two exercises, but are to be divided in such proportions as to allow target-practice once a fortnight, or at least once a month, when practicable; and at least three-fourths of the charges allowed shall be expended in practice at sea, when it can be conveniently done, opportunities being chosen for that purpose under all the circumstances of wind and weather in which vessels of war are liable to engage in battle.
11. When in port, and circumstances will admit, such places are to be selected for practice as are favorable for the recovery of the projectiles; when the effect of the bursting charge is not important, a blowing charge may be used in shells, to test the efficiency of the fuze without destroying the shell.
In practice the service charges for which the sights are marked are alone to be employed.
Distances within half a mile are preferable for solid shot, as best showing the result. Targets of ten feet high by twenty long will afford the means of general comparison, especially with the practice at the experimental battery at Washington. For shells, the distances should suit the ranges of their fuzes, or time of burning, that the degree of certainty of explosion in direct or ricochet fire may be seen and noted.
12. The whole crew is to be exercised in the use of the musket, carbine, pistol, and sword, and in firing at a target with small arms, by suitable persons, each division under the superintendence of its respective commanding officer. The company and the battalion drill is recommended as often as convenient opportunities of exercise present themselves.
13. He will cause the boats' crews to be exercised in all the preparations for attacking an enemy, either by land or water, and in the use of "boat and field howitzers," and small arms, under all the various circumstances likely to arise in such service, and particularly in embarking and disembarking the "boat and field" guns and ammunition. (See Part II.)
14. At the expiration of each quarter he will cause to be prepared, and forward, by the earliest favorable opportunity, to the Bureau of Ordnance, a report of all firing, with or without projectiles, according to the detail given in form C. Appendix; also the Quarterly return of receipts and expenditures in the Ordnance Department.
15. He will, once in every quarter, cause a thorough examination to be made into the condition of the armament, shot and shells; and will see that care is taken to keep the shot and shell lockers dry; that the shot and shells stowed therein are clean and free from rust, and, also, that the diameter of shot kept on deck is not increased above the high gauge by injudicious lacquering or painting, and report to the Bureau of Ordnance that this has been done.
16. He is to take care that especial attention is paid to the fuzes, whether spare or in the shells; and if there be reason to suspect injury from dampness or any other cause, he will have one or more fuzes burned for trial.
17. He will not permit shells to be filled, or their fuzes to be shifted or shortened, without his order; and whenever these operations are to be performed, he will see that a suitable and properly secured place, not in the shell-room, and as far from the magazine as convenient, is selected for the purpose. On such occasions the fires and lights are to be extinguished, and also the further precautions are to be observed, as to the manner of performing the work, contained in the directions for filling and emptying shells. (See Chap. I., Part III.)
18. He is not to dismount, strike below, or otherwise render unfit for immediate use, any of the guns on board the ship he commands, except imperative necessity should require it for the safety of the vessel. The particular circumstances of such necessity are to be immediately entered at large in the log, and information is to be given to the Commander of the squadron, and to the Secretary of the Navy.
When guns are to be struck below, or when shipped for transportation, he shall cause all the precautions to be taken to guard them from injury, prescribed in Article 46 of these instructions, and such others as circumstances require.
19. He is prohibited from giving away the arms of any description belonging to the vessel under his command.
20. He will keep the keys of the magazines and shell-rooms, and of the receptacles for percussion caps and primers, and of the cocks for flooding magazines and shell-rooms, in the cabin, where they may be obtained by the Executive Officer in case they should be wanted when the Captain is absent from the vessel; and they are only to be delivered to the Executive Officer, or the Officer of the Powder Division.
21. Before entering any friendly port, he will cause every gun to be drawn and reloaded with cartridge, if necessary to salute.
22. He will not permit friction-matches to be on board under any circumstances, and before sailing will notify all persons of this regulation, and institute a search to see that it has been complied with.
23. The Executive Officer will, under the orders and direction of the Captain, ascertain that all the ordnance stores and equipments ordered or allowed for the vessel are received on board in good order; that they are properly distributed and stowed; that they are only used or expended according to directions from proper authority, and that they are duly accounted for, according to the directions and forms which are or may be prescribed by the Bureau of Ordnance. In small vessels which have no Gunner, he shall receipt for and be accountable for all ordnance stores, making all the returns which the Gunner is herein directed to prepare.
24. He will be particularly attentive to the state of the batteries, small arms, magazines, shell-rooms, and shot-lockers; to the passages leading to and scuttles connected with them; and take care that they are kept clear and ready for action.
25. He will cause convenient places to be assigned for the stowage of spare articles which may be required in action, and see that shot for at least twenty broadsides for shot-guns, and one shell for each shell-gun, are always in readiness upon the respective decks.
26. When salutes are to be fired he is personally to examine, or to direct one of the Officers Commanding a Division to examine, ascertain and report that the necessary preparations are made and precautions taken to avoid accidents. The guns, if loaded, are to be drawn, wormed, sponged and reloaded. They are, nevertheless, to be so laid as to prevent the possibility of mischief, even in the contingency of a shot or wad being left in any of them. Hard wads are not to be used in firing salutes, nor are port-fires. The guns are to be fired either with percussion or friction primers, as the Captain may prefer. These, when in good order, are not apt to fail if the lock-string be properly pulled; as, however, a slight deterioration may interfere with the regularity of salutes, the precaution of dropping a few grains of gunpowder into the vent will be found effectual.
Guns of the lowest calibre and class, when sufficient in number, are to be used for saluting; and no heavier than their "near-firing" charge is to be used. (See TABLE OF CHARGES, Part III.) Two boats' howitzers will be found sufficient for saluting. "Saluting powder" to be used in all guns for this purpose, in preference to "Service powder."
27. In large vessels he will cause a cot with a spare sacking-bottom, or such other apparatus as may be approved by the Surgeon, to be prepared and kept for the purpose of lowering the wounded to the orlop or berth deck.
28. Before the powder is received on board, he, with the Gunner, will carefully inspect the magazines and shell-rooms, their passages and light-rooms, and have them thoroughly cleaned, dried and aired, and will see that the pipes and stop-cocks, and every thing connected with flooding the magazines, are in order, and acquaint himself with their position and mode of operation; the lighting apparatus cleaned and dried; and particularly that the glasses for transmitting light into the magazines and shell-rooms are clear and without fracture; that the light burns clearly, and the box is well ventilated; and shall report to the Ordnance Officer when the magazines are ready to receive the ammunition. (See Chap. II., Part III.)
OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF DIVISIONS.
29. OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF DIVISIONS OF GUNS are required to make themselves thoroughly conversant with every particular relating to the equipment, exercise, and management of the guns, as set forth in these instructions, and especially to familiarize themselves with the charges prescribed and the ranges given in the Tables; the principles and practice of pointing guns under all circumstances, and also with every precaution connected with the use of shells, and of percussion and time fuzes.
30. They are carefully to inspect their divisions when called to quarters for inspection or exercise, and see that every thing is, at all times, in place and in order for service; and in case of discovering any defect or deficiency, will report it to the Executive Officer.
31. They will be careful, when instructing the men at quarters, to require a strict adherence to the prescribed mode of performing their duties, and to all the details of execution, in order that general uniformity and the efficiency dependent on it may be secured. When the individuals of the guns' crews have become expert in the performance of their particular duties, then each man shall be instructed by the officer of his division, until he shall have become acquainted with the special duties of every station at the gun.
32. They are at least once a week to examine the guns and all the iron work of the carriages, and see that they are kept free from rust, and especially the eccentric axles, elevating screws, and pivot-bolts, which must be protected by a mixture of tallow and white-lead, or other similar coating. The cap-squares must be frequently removed, the guns lifted and the trunnions cleaned; the elevating screws oiled, but never cleaned with brick or emery paper.
Once a quarter at least, all the connecting bolts, such as cap-square, bracket, breast, and transom bolts, are to be examined and tightened if they require it. To do this it is necessary, after lifting the gun, to turn the carriage bottom up. The threads of the screws of the bolts above named must be coated with the lacquer for small arms.
33. THE OFFICER OF THE POWDER DIVISION will, in like manner, carefully instruct and drill his men, and test the efficiency of the arrangements for passing powder, shot, and shell, in order to insure a sufficient supply of each to all parts of the batteries, without the danger of misdirection or of accumulations in any part thereof. To this end blocks of proper shapes and colors may be provided in the appropriate tanks of the magazines, and passed up instead of powder, when that is not used. These are to be counted and reported by the Officers of the Gun Divisions, and will enable the Executive Officer, and the Officer of the Powder Division, to detect and remedy defects or deficiencies in the system or its details, and to be sure that the men are properly stationed and instructed.
34. The MASTER will see that the number of fighting-stoppers, whips for preventer-stays, preventer-braces, slings for yards and gaffs, relieving-tackles, and other articles in his division which are directed, are all fitted and ready for use in action. At general quarters his division must be regularly drilled in fishing masts and spars, stoppering and knotting rigging, and trimming sails.
35. The CHIEF ENGINEER will ascertain that all the tools and implements necessary for the prompt and effectual repair of injuries which the engine and its dependencies may receive in action, are received on board and placed at hand.
36. He shall attend personally at the ordnance store where his stores shall be delivered to him, the Ordnance Officer furnishing him with means of transportation and men for stowing them in their appointed places on board ship, when the crew is not available for this purpose. He is to be especially careful that the equipments and stores belonging to the magazine are arranged therein in conformity to Ordnance Instructions. (See Chap. I., Part III. for further directions relative to his duties and responsibilities.)
37. The powder-tanks containing charges for each class of guns are to be stowed on their sides, with the lids next the alleys and hinges down, near the magazine scuttles through which these charges are to be delivered; the charges for "ordinary firing" nearest the scuttle. When tanks are emptied they are to be stowed on the upper shelves in order that the powder may be kept, as much as possible, below the water line.
38. In time of war, passing-boxes are to have charges for "ordinary firing" kept in them ready for passing up at once.
39. In future white will be used for all cylinders, the calibre and weight distinctly stencilled on each bag. In case of a deficiency of white cartridge cloth, the different charges for all classes of guns may be distinguished by the color of the cartridge-bags; white being used for distant firing, blue for "ordinary" firing, and red for "near" firing.
The lid ends of the powder-tanks for service charges are to be painted of the same colors as the cartridge-bags which they contain, and must be distinctly marked with the calibre and weight of the gun for which the cartridges are intended. Tanks for musket-powder must be marked MUSKET-POWDER; and this powder may be put up in either of the kind of charges allowed which will make the best stowage, the bags properly stencilled.
Tanks containing saluting powder are to be marked "SALUTING." It is to be kept in bags, stencilled "saluting."
40. No loose powder is ever to be taken or carried on board ship, and all, whether public or private belonging to officers, must be safely stowed in the magazines.
41. All metallic cartridges for small arms, percussion caps, and percussion or friction primers, or other articles containing fulminating matter, must be kept in boxes prepared for the purpose, and the boxes must be stowed separately from other articles, in a dry, secure, and safe place, under lock and key, and are on no account to be put in the magazine. It is recommended that they be distributed in two or three places, a portion conveniently at hand.
42. The fireworks, after carefully removing all fulminating matter, such as caps or primers, if any such be used to ignite them, are to be stowed in their proper packing-boxes in other light boxes of suitable length, made water-tight, with lock and key, and to fit between the beams and carlines of the gun decks of frigates and berth decks of single-decked vessels. Those for instant use must be placed near the after hatch, and the remainder abaft that position, if possible, so as to be constantly under the care of the sentinel at the cabin doors. In no case, however, are they to be placed over any standing light or lantern on any deck.
43. All ammunition packing-boxes, shell-bags, and metal cases are to be preserved, and returned into store at the end of the cruise.
44. No coopering is ever to be done in the magazines of ships. Should powder be received on board in barrels, the hoops and heads must be started on the orlop or berth deck before entering the magazine.
45. In stowing shell-rooms, filled shells are to be stowed together in boxes or bags; those having fuzes of different times of burning, and each kind of fuze, will be placed in tiers or ranges distinctly separate. (See Article ON FUZES, C. IV.) Empty shells are to be stowed by themselves, unsabotted, in bulk, in a dry place.
46. Whenever guns are to be struck below, or prepared for transportation, the gunner will see that the bores are washed with fresh water, carefully sponged, thoroughly dried, and coated with melted tallow, and a wad dipped in the same material inserted, and connected with a tompion by a lanyard. He is to see that the tompion is put in securely, and the vent and all screw-holes stopped by a plug of soft wood, and puttied over.
47. He is to examine and report daily, before 10 A.M. and 8 P.M., whether the guns and all their equipments; the whips for supplying shot and shells; the arm-chests, armory, and small arms; the supply and reserve division boxes, and other articles furnished as ordnance and ordnance stores, are in good order and in place, and make immediate report to the Commanding or Executive Officer of any defects or deficiencies which he may discover at any other time.
48. The guns and their equipments are to be kept as dry as possible, and no salt water used in cleaning them.
49. If he shall discover any articles to be injured, or liable to injury from any cause, he will ask, in writing, for a survey to be held, to determine the amount, cause, or liability of any of the stores or equipments to damage or deterioration; a copy of this request and report of survey to be furnished to him as a voucher, by the officer ordering the survey.
50. Whenever the magazines or shell-rooms are opened, he is to take every precaution to guard against accident by fire; to examine particularly that all the men stationed in any way in or about the magazine, embracing all stationed within the magazine screen, put on the magazine dress and shoes, and on no account have any thing metallic about them, and that no improper articles are introduced. He will also see that all the articles required for sweeping and removing loose powder are at hand, and that those operations are performed before the magazine is closed.
51. The tanks are never to be opened unless by special order, or when powder is actually required for service; and then no more of the lids are to be unscrewed than is necessary for immediate supply. The strictest attention to this regulation is required of the Gunner, as experience has proved that the preservation of the powder in good condition depends upon the entire exclusion of damp air.
52. When the guns are ordered to be drawn before entering a friendly port, the Gunner is to be particularly attentive to assure himself that no shot or wad is left in any gun.
53. In saluting, he is to guard against accident in loading, pointing, and firing, and to be particularly careful in reloading, where that operation is unavoidable.
54. In the absence or illness of the Gunner, his general duties will devolve on a Gunner's Mate, under the supervision of the Executive Officer.
55. The Gunner shall keep a minute-book of all expenditures in the Ordnance Department, and on Monday of each week shall submit it to the Executive Officer for examination and approval. Within ten days after the expiration of the quarter, he shall make out his quarterly return in the required form, which shall be signed by him, certified correct by the Executive Officer, approved by the Commander, and forwarded to the Bureau by the first opportunity. At the same time the ledger shall be posted.
56. When a vessel returns from a cruise to be refitted or repaired, or placed in ordinary, the Gunner, or person performing the duty of Gunner, is not to leave the ship, unless specially authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, until all the guns, powder, small arms, ammunition, and other articles under his charge, shall have been examined and surveyed, and turned over to his successor, or other person appointed to receive them, or to the Inspector of Ordnance, the receipt for which he shall show to the officer to whom he applies for leave.
57. The CARPENTER shall ascertain and report to the Executive Officer that there are a sufficient number of tarpaulins to cover all the hatches leading to the fore and after orlops; that the pump-gear of every description is ready and in order for rigging the pumps, and that every preparation can be promptly made before going into action to free the ship, in case of receiving injuries below the water-line.
58. He is also to examine and keep in order the force and channel pumps, the fire-engine, the division-tubs, and, in short, all the apparatus necessary to give a good and speedy supply of water in case of fire in action.
59. He is specially charged with the care and distribution of articles for stopping shot-holes or repairing other injuries to the hull, which may be received in action, viz.: shot-plugs and mauls; pieces of pine board from eighteen inches to three feet long, and from twelve to fifteen inches wide, covered with felt or fearnaught, previously coated with tar or white lead; patches of sheet-lead, all with nail-holes punched; and trouser-slings for lowering men outside the vessel, to be provided with a pouch or pocket, to contain a hammer and nails. Tarred canvas or oakum should be prepared to shove into the shot-holes before the patches of board or lead are nailed on. Although shot-plugs are still to be allowed, the means just described are most to be relied on.
60. In case it shall not have already been done, the Carpenter, under the direction of the Commander or Executive Officer of the ship, will draw a black line, two inches broad, on the ceiling of the ship, to correspond with the ordinary height of the water-line. On this is to be marked, by corresponding intervals and numbers, the position of the ports on the lowest of the gun-decks. By this arrangement the position of the shot-hole can be easily ascertained and communicated, through the Officer Commanding the Powder Division, and a remedy promptly applied. To this end he is to pay habitual attention to keeping the wings clear to four feet below the water-line, and report any obstructions to the Executive Officer.
61. The YEOMAN is to charge himself with, and is to be accountable for, all articles of ordnance stores which may be placed in the storeroom under his charge, and is not to issue or expend any article, except by order of, or authority from, the Captain or Executive Officer.
62. On the return of a ship, to be laid up at a yard, or to be refitted or repaired, the Yeoman will be retained to deliver the ordnance stores in his charge into the hands of the Ordnance Officer. If any deficiency in the stores under his charge be discovered, or they are in bad order, the Ordnance Officer will report the same to the Commandant of the yard, who will order a survey, to ascertain the nature and extent of the deficiency, or injury, and whether either were caused by the Yeoman's negligence or fault. If the surveying officers shall find just cause for suspecting fraud or negligence, the Commandant shall suspend the payment and discharge of the Yeoman, until he shall report the case to the Bureau and receive the orders of the Department.
63. No person is to be knowingly appointed Yeoman who has already served in that capacity in any vessel of war of the United States, who cannot produce a satisfactory certificate of his former good conduct as Yeoman.
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF OFFICERS AND MEN AT QUARTERS.
64. The following directions for the general distribution of a ship's company at quarters, or for action, are intended to secure, upon the most important points, a degree of uniformity which will promote efficiency, and at the same time leave to the Captains the selection and arrangement of many individuals under their command, according to their own views of the particular qualifications of each.
65. The CAPTAIN'S station, in action, is upon the quarter-deck.
66. The Executive Officer, the Midshipmen acting as Aides to the Captain, and the Signal Officer, are also to be stationed on the quarter-deck.
67. The stations of the other Officers are to be regulated by divisions, as follows:
The guns upon each deck are to be numbered from forward, beginning with No. 1, and continuing aft, in succession, each gun and its opposite being designated by the same number, excepting pivot and shifting guns, each of which is to have a separate number. The guns on each deck are then to be divided as equally as possible into three or two divisions, according to the number of Lieutenants or other Watch Officers on board, so that each division of guns, and the persons belonging to it, may be commanded by a Lieutenant or other Watch Officer. These divisions are to be numbered consecutively, designating the forward division on the lowest gun-deck as the first division, and passing from the after division of one deck to the forward division of the next deck above it.
68. The command of these divisions of guns is to be assigned, in the order of their numbers, to the Lieutenants or other Watch Officers, according to their rank, assigning the first division to the officer next in rank to the Executive Officer. In case of a deficiency of Watch Officers, the quarter-deck division may be assigned to an Ensign or Midshipman, who will act under the general supervision of the Executive Officer. When the number of officers on board of vessels having pivot-guns will permit, each pivot-gun will be placed under the special charge of a suitable officer of the division of which it forms a part.
69. This division will comprise all those stationed in the tops, and those appointed to attend to the rigging, sails, steerage, and signals. The Master is to be stationed on the quarter-deck, and to be assisted by the Boatswain, whose station will be on the forecastle. The Boatswain will be charged with all his divisional duties in the event of his death or absence. (For ARMS, see Table in Article 101.)
70. This division will be under the direction either of a Lieutenant, Master, Ensign, or competent Midshipman. It will consist of all those stationed below the gun-decks, except persons belonging to the Surgeon's Division and the Paymaster and his Clerk.
The Gunner is to be stationed in the main magazine, and a Gunner's Mate or Quarter Gunner in the other magazine when there are two; and those persons of this division who may be stationed in the magazines and passages are to be under the immediate direction of the Gunner and his Mate, respectively. Those of the Carpenter's crew stationed in the hold or wings are to be under the immediate direction of the Carpenter's Mate, who will be stationed with them. All reports, however, are to be made through the Commanding Officer of the division.
DIVISION OF MARINES.
71. All the Marines who may not be distributed to other divisions for action are to compose a Division of Marines, to be under the immediate command of the Senior Officer of Marines on board. He will form his division on such part or parts of the spar or upper deck as the Captain may direct.
72. The SURGEON or senior Medical Officer will have the direction of this division, which shall comprise all the Medical Officers and such other persons as may be designated by the Captain to assist in the care of the wounded in action. This division will occupy the cockpit, or such other convenient place as the Captain of the vessel may direct.
73. The CHAPLAIN will be in attendance to perform the duties of his sacred office, and to render such other service as may be in his power.
74. The PAYMASTER'S station will be in the ward-room and on the berth-deck, in charge of the money, books and stores belonging to his Department.
75. The Engineer Division shall be under the direction of the Chief Engineer, and shall comprise the Assistant Engineers and such of the Firemen and Coalheavers as may be detailed for the purpose. An Assistant will be appointed to take charge of the fire party detailed from this Division.
76. Ensigns, Midshipmen, Mates, Captain's and other Clerks, the Sailmaker, and other officers not enumerated, are to be assigned to the different divisions at the discretion of the Captain.
77. In distributing the Petty Officers, Seamen, and others to the guns and other stations in the several divisions, it is desirable, as a general rule, that those stationed at the same gun or near each other at quarters, should be drawn from different stations for working ship; so that a great loss at any one gun may not fall too heavily on any watch station.
Exceptions to this general rule may be advantageously made where the duties of men require their habitual attendance on particular decks. In such cases it will generally be advisable to station them at quarters near to the places of their ordinary duties.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE CREW.
78. Table showing the number of men for the service of each kind and class of gun in use in the Navy, assuming the vessel to have the established complement.
PIVOT GUNS: XI-inch of 16,000 lbs., X-inch of 10,000 lbs. 24 X-inch of 12,000 lbs., 64-pdr. of 106 cwt. 20 IX-inch of 9,000 lbs., 100-pdr. rifle. 16 60-pdr. rifle. 10 30-pdr. rifle. 8 20-pdr. rifle. 6
BROADSIDE GUNS: IX-inch of 9,000 lbs., 100-pdr. rifle. 16 8-inch of 68 cwt. 14 8-inch of 6,500 lbs., 8-inch of 56 cwt. 12 32-pdr. of 57 cwt. 12 32-pdr. of 4,500 lbs., 32-pdr. of 42 cwt., 60-pdr. rifle. 10 32-pdr. of 33 cwt., 30-pdr. rifle. 8 32-pdr. of 27 cwt., 20-pdr. rifle. 6
To the XI, X, and IX-inch 100-pounder rifle, and 64-pounder pivot guns, a Powderman, and to all other guns a Powder-boy is to be added.
The number of men to form crews of guns mounted on carriages of special character, is to be regulated as may be found most advantageous by the Commanding Officer.
79. In designating the Petty Officers and others for particular stations, it is assumed that the intelligence, skill, and force of the men have been equally divided between the two watches, and that the men in the starboard watch have all odd numbers, as 1, 3, 5, and those of the port watch even numbers, as 2, 4, 6.
To preserve this equality, and to secure the ability of those who may be upon deck to prepare the ship for action at night, whilst the watch below are bringing up and stowing the hammocks, all the odd-numbered guns will be entirely manned by men belonging to the starboard watch, and all the even-numbered guns by those belonging to the port watch, as far as practicable. The crews of pivot-guns to be taken half from each watch.
80. Where ports on opposite sides of the same deck are numbered the same, and are both provided with a gun, guns' crews are only to be furnished for the guns on one side. Pivot and shifting guns are each to have full guns' crews.
81. When the complements allowed to vessels of the Navy will permit, it is recommended as a general arrangement that the guns' crews be formed of about one-third Petty Officers and Seamen, one-third Ordinary Seamen, and one-third Landsmen and Boys, and that this system be observed as nearly as practicable.
82. At least one Quarter Gunner should be stationed at each division of guns; and a Gunner's Mate or Quarter Gunner in the smaller magazine, and in each shell-room.
If there be more shell-rooms than there are disposable Quarter Gunners to attend them, other careful and suitable persons are to be selected to supply the deficiency.
83. Before permanently assigning the individuals which form a gun's crew, to the performance of particular duties connected with its service in action, it is important to ascertain their respective qualifications, as far as may be practicable, by questioning them or by exercising them at the guns.
84. The Captains, especially, should be selected from those in whose skill, coolness, and judgment the greatest reliance can be placed, without regard to their ratings, though at the same time care should be taken to avoid stationing men of a higher rating than the Captains of the guns, to perform subordinate duties at the same guns. They should be examined by the Surgeon with reference to eyesight.
Spongers and Loaders rank next in importance, and, with activity and coolness, should possess the necessary physical strength and stature. For Handspikemen, weight is important, in addition to strength and coolness.
85. Very careful men should be selected for attending the Powder-scuttles on the different decks, as well to prevent noise and contention among the Powder-boys as to guard against accidents, and speedily to repair such as may occur. The boys should be trained to fall into line, to insure an equal distribution of powder.
86. Unless some special reason should require a different arrangement with regard to Boarders, Pikemen, Firemen, Sail-trimmers, and Pumpmen, the following will be observed:
87. Half the men composing a gun's crew, excluding the Powderman or Boy, are to be Boarders. When this rule gives an odd number of men, the odd one is to be a Second Boarder.
88. The Boarders are to constitute two divisions, called First and Second Boarders.
89. First Boarders are, generally, to be taken from the second part of a gun's crew; and Second Boarders from the first part.
90. All Petty Officers on the spar-deck, except the Quartermaster at the conn and the Quartermaster at the wheel, are to be First Boarders.—(For ARMS OF BOARDERS, see Table, Article 101.)
The Executive Officer leads the Boarders. All the Division Officers on the spar-deck shall be First Boarders, except the officer commanding the quarter-deck division, who shall lead the Pikemen. On gun-decks the officer commanding the second division shall be a First Boarder; the commanding officers of the other divisions shall be Second Boarders. If there are two officers in any division, the second shall lead those Boarders who do not go with his principal. A Lieutenant or other responsible officer should be detailed to command the gun-deck in the absence of the boarders and pikemen.
91. One-fourth of the number of men composing a gun's crew, rejecting fractions, and excepting the Powderman or Boy, and all the men of the Master's division on the spar-deck, except those designated as Boarders and those at the wheel and conn, are to be Pikemen, and compose but one division.
92. For each Pikeman at a gun there is to be a musket or carbine provided, which in action, when not in use, is to be kept with the bayonet unfixed, hooked securely against a carline or beam near the gun; or on a spar-deck placed conveniently at hand. When they are called away they will repair on deck with these arms, when, if ordered, they will place them in a secure place, to be designated by the Executive Officer, and arm themselves with pikes. Pikemen will wear a cartridge-box whenever at general quarters or in action.
Pikemen of the spar-deck divisions will, on being called away, arm themselves as directed.
Should it become necessary, in an emergency, to call "all hands" from below to repel an enemy, the Pikemen will, if not already so armed, arm themselves with muskets or carbines, leaving their pikes to be used by those whose arms are not designated—that is, by the remainder of the gun's crew and Powder Division.
93. One boarding-pike for each gun on covered decks is always to be kept triced up conveniently near it, and this is to be used by the Powderman, or any other person left at the gun to guard the port.
94. Pikemen are to be covered by the Marines with their bayonets fixed.
95. With broadside guns, one Fireman is to be taken from each gun's crew, and from pivot-guns two. Each Fireman is to have a fire-bucket at hand near his gun, and to wear his battle-axe in a belt around his waist.
98. In all vessels there shall be two divisions of Sail-trimmers, composed of all the men at the spar-deck guns, except 1st Captains, 1st Spongers, 1st Loaders, and Powder-boys. The 1st Sail-trimmers are to be taken from the guns on the forward half, and the 2d Sail-trimmers from those on the after half of the spar-deck.
97. In vessels carrying guns on more than one deck there are to be three divisions of Sail-trimmers, called 1st, 2d, and 3d Sail-trimmers, and the third division is to be made up of one man from each gun's crew on the other deck or decks, as designated in the tables.—(Article 101.)
This third division of Sail-trimmers is to be regarded as a reserved force, and is not to repair on deck at the general call for Sail-trimmers, nor except when specially ordered. Besides serving to re-enforce the other two divisions when absolutely necessary, it is also to re-enforce either the Firemen or the Pumpmen in cases of need.
98. The third division of Sail-trimmers, and all the Pikemen of the guns' crews, and others armed with muskets (See Tables, Article 101), may be made to assemble together as a body of Musketeers, either for landing or otherwise. No one gun more than another will be weakened by so doing; and this suggests the propriety of preferring these men ordinarily for the crews of boats.
99. Each gun's crew composed of as many as 14 men is to furnish two, but, when of less than 14 men, one Pumpman only.
100. When Pumpmen are sufficiently numerous to admit of working the pumps with one-half their force, they should compose two divisions, to be called 1st and 2d Pumpmen.
DISTRIBUTION AND ARMS OF MEN AT THE GUNS.
101. The annexed Tables show the stations of guns' crews at pivot-guns, and at broadside-guns, when composed, respectively, of the following numbers of men: 24, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, or 6; how each man of a gun's crew is to be armed, and the number of small arms of all kinds required for each gun's crew.
N.B.—To these Tables is annexed another, showing the small arms of the Master's Division.
PIVOT-GUN'S CREW, composed of 24 MEN and a POWDERMAN.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
+ -+ + -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. + -+ + + + + + + + 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 1 - - - - 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 1 - - - - 2d Loader, 1 B. 5 1 - 1 - - - 6 2d Sponger, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Shellman and Pump. 7 - - - - - 1 8 2d Shellman and Pump. - - - - - 1 1st Front Lever., 2 B. 9 1 1 - - - - 10 2d Front Lever., 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Compressor. and Pike. 13 - - - 1 1 - 14 2d Compressor. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Rear Lever. and Pike. 11 - - - 1 1 - 12 2d Rear Lever. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - Tr.-tkl., Deck-block, 2 B. 17 1 1 - - - - 18 Tr.-tkl., Deck-block, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - Tr.-tkl., Side-block, 2 B. 19 1 - 1 - - - 20 Tr.-tkl., Side-block, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - Shifting-tkl., Deck- block, and Pikeman. 21 - - - 1 1 - 22 Shifting-tkl., Deck-block, and Pikeman. - - - 1 1 - Shifting-tkl., Slide-block. 23 - - - - 1 1 24 Shifting-tkl., Slide-block. - - - - 1 1 1st Tr. Lev. and Fireman. 15 - - - - - 1 16 2d Tr. Lev. and Fireman. - - - - - 1 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - 2 2d Captain, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - Powderman 25 - - - - - - + -+ + + + + + + + Total number of Arms 12 7 5 6 8 6 -+ + + + + + +
GUN'S CREW composed of 16 MEN and a POWDERMAN.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
+ -+ + -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. + + + + + + + + + + 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 1 - - - - 6 2d Sponger, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 2d Loader, 1 B. 5 1 - 1 - - - 8 2d Shell. and 1st Pump. - - - - - 1 1st Shellman, 2d Pump. 7 - - - - - 1 10 2d Handspike., 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Handspikeman, 2 B. 9 1 - 1 - - - 14 2d Side-tackle. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Side-tackle. and Pike. 13 - - - 1 1 - 16 2d Port-tackle. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Port-tackle. and Pike. 15 - - - 1 1 - 12 2d Tr.-tack. and Sail-trim. - - - - 1 1 1st Train-tackle. and Fire. 11 - - - - - 1 2 2d Captain, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powderman - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + Total number of Arms 8 4 4 4 5 4 -+ + + + + + +
N.B.—On other than lower decks, for Port-tacklemen substitute 3d and 4th Side-tacklemen.
GUN'S CREW composed of 14 MEN and a POWDER-BOY.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
+ -+ + -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. + + + + + + + + + + 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 1 - - - - 6 2d Sponger, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 2d Loader, 1 B. 5 1 - 1 - - - 8 2d Shell. and 1st Pump. - - - - - 1 1st Shell. and 2d Pump. 7 - - - - - 1 10 2d Handspike. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Handspike., 2 B. 9 1 - 1 - - - 14 2d Side-tackle. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Side-tackle. and Pike. 13 - - - 1 1 - 12 2d Tr.-tack. and Sail-trim. - - - - 1 1 1st Train-tackle. and Fire. 11 - - - - - 1 2 2d Captain, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powder-boy - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + Total number of Arms 7 4 3 3 4 4 -+ + + + + + +
GUN'S CREW composed of 12 MEN and a POWDER-BOY.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
- - ARMS. - TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 1 - - - - 6 2d Sponger, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 2d Loader, 1 B. 5 1 - 1 - - - 8 2d Shellman and Pump. - - - - - 1 1st Shellman and Pike. 7 - - - 1 1 - 10 2d Handspike. and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 1st Handspike. and Pike. 9 - - - 1 1 - 12 2d Tr.-tkl. and Sail-trim. - - - - 1 1 1st Train-tackle. and Fire. 11 - - - - - 1 2 2d Captain, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powder-boy - - - - - - - + Total number of Arms 6 3 3 3 4 3 -+
GUN'S CREW composed of 10 MEN and a POWDER-BOY.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
+ -+ + -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. + + + + + + + + + + 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 1 - - - - 6 2d Sponger, 1 B. 1 - 1 - - - 2d Loader and Pike. 5 - - - 1 1 - 8 2d Shellman and Pump - - - - - 1 1st Shellman and Fire. 7 - - - - - 1 10 Train-tackle - - - - 1 1 1st Handspike. and Pike. 9 - - - 1 1 - 2 2d Captain, 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powder-boy - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + Total number of Arms 5 3 2 2 3 3 -+ + + + + + +
GUN'S CREW composed of 8 MEN and a POWDER-BOY.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
-+ -+ -+ -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. -+ + + -+ + + + + + + 4 1st Sponger, 2 B. 1 - 1 - - - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 - 1 - - - 6 2d Sponger and Pike. - - - 1 1 - 2d Loader and Pikeman. 5 - - - 1 1 - 8 Tr.-tkl., Fireman. - - - - 1 1 Shotman and Pumpman. 7 - - - - - 1 2 2d Capt. and Handsp., 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powder-boy - - - - - - -+ + + -+ + + + + + + Total number of Arms. 4 2 2 2 3 2 -+ + + + + + +
GUN'S CREW composed of 6 MEN and a POWDER-BOY.
KEY: A: SWORDS. B: REVOLVERS. C: PISTOLS. D: PIKES. E: MUSKETS. F: BATTLE-AXES.
-+ -+ -+ -+ ARMS. + -+ TITLES OF GUN'S CREW GUN TITLES OF GUN'S CREW A B C D E F ON LEFT SIDE OF GUN. NOS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF GUN. -+ + + -+ + + + + + + 4 1st Sponger and Pikeman. - - - 1 1 - 1st Loader, 2 B. 3 1 - 1 - - - 6 2d Sponger, Fireman. - - - - 1 1 2d Ldr., Shot., and Pump. 5 - - - - - 1 2 2d Captain, and Handspike., Train-tackle., 1 B. 1 1 - - - - 1st Captain, 2 B. 1 1 1 - - - - Powder-boy - - - - - - -+ + + -+ + + + + + + Total number of Arms. 3 2 1 1 2 2 -+ + + + + + +
SMALL ARMS OF MASTER'S DIVISION.
- STATIONS. RATINGS. ARMS. - Conn Quartermaster Pistol and Sword. Wheel Quartermaster and Seamen do. do. Signals Quartermaster do. do. do. Boys Pikes. Relieving Tackles Quartermaster and O.S. Swords. Main Braces C.A.C. Pistol and Sword. Mastmen B.M. Pistol, sword, and Battle-axe. do. Seamen and O.S. Pikes and Battle-axes. Topmen do. do. Muskets Forecastle C.F. Pistol and Sword. Bell S.C. do. do. -
[NOTE.—It is proposed to abandon the pike and all muzzle-loading small arms for a breech-loading carbine and pistol, with one uniform metallic cartridge for both. The revolver pistol does not realize in service with seamen the advantages claimed for that description of arm.]
102. The Captain will designate the different hatchways which shall be used by the Boarders and others from each gun when they are called upon deck at quarters. Cutlasses should not be drawn nor bayonets fixed until ordered, and, in moving from one part of the deck to another, should be sheathed, to avoid accidents.
103. The use of fire-arms in the tops being dangerous, and only admissible under very peculiar circumstances, they are never to be used there without the express direction of the Captain.
DUTIES AT QUARTERS, IN BATTLE OR EXERCISE.
104. The CAPTAIN, when at general quarters, either for exercise or in action, is to superintend and take the general direction of every thing connected with the management of the ship and the service of her armament.
105. He will from time to time carefully inspect the ship, in order, before commencing a general exercise, to ascertain that all the required and proper preparations have been made for battle. When time and other circumstances will permit, he will always make this inspection before going into action, and when prevented from making it personally, he will direct it to be made by the Executive Officer.
106. When engaged with an enemy at so great a distance as to require the guns to be elevated, he will, if practicable, cause the distance to be ascertained by observation, and, when that cannot be done, will estimate the distance, and from time to time send directions to the Officers of gun divisions for what distances the sights of their guns should be set, and the nature of the projectile, and, if a shell be used, the time of the fuze (See Article 326), and also the cartridges to be used, whether for "distant," "ordinary," or "near" firing.
107. He will determine and direct when two shot may be fired; when "quick-firing" may be permitted; when small arms shall be distributed and loaded; when Boarders shall be called up, and when they shall assail an enemy. He will receive, through the Executive Officer, the reports from all Officers commanding divisions.
108. The EXECUTIVE OFFICER, under the direction of the Captain, and with the aid of the Master, will work the ship when in action or at general quarters. He will receive the reports of the officers of the different divisions and others, and communicate them to the Captain of the ship.
109. The SIGNAL OFFICER is to see that every thing is prepared for making and answering signals promptly, and will make all such as the Captain may direct. He will provide himself with a watch, pencil, and signal note-book properly ruled.
110. He will note and report to the Captain all signals that are made to or by other vessels of the squadron, or other vessels in sight, and also note the time at which each signal was made. He will observe and report any material change which may take place in the positions of the vessels of the squadron, or of other vessels, and every event of moment that may occur.
111. The MASTER will cause the persons in his division to sling the yards and gaffs, to stopper the topsail sheets, to lead out the preventer and other braces, and will see that they are clear, and toggled, to prevent them from unreeving.
112. He will have the fighting stoppers at hand in the chains and tops for stoppering the rigging; hatchets and axes ready for clearing away any casual encumbrances from the guns; axes and hatchets for this purpose must be sharpened, covered with painted canvas, and labelled "not for general use;" and will cause proper arrangements to be made for applying and securing grapnels, if they should be required.
113. He will see that the hammocks are compactly stowed, covered, and stopped down, and will cause the boat and boom covers to be hauled over and securely stopped down; the relieving tackles to be hooked and ready for use; a compass to be placed to steer by; and see the spare tiller at hand, the chronometer and other instruments put out of the reach of shot, and relieved as much as possible from the jar of the guns.
114. In case the Captain should give orders for sending small arms and ammunition into the tops, he will attend to having them sent there, and will be watchful that they are not so used as to expose the sails and rigging to danger from taking fire; and in order to furnish a sufficient supply of water, in case of accident, he will have four fire-buckets fitted for each top, with lanyards long enough to reach the water from the yard-arms, and these should be filled with water in preparing for action.
115. On the probability of an engagement, when the ship is on soundings, the Master will have the ground-tackling ready and clear; boats ready for getting out, and every preparation made for towing, warping, anchoring, and getting springs upon the cables; and have leads and lines in the chains. If at anchor, he will have the boats dropped astern, the oars secured to the thwarts, and, if directed, have the plugs ready to be taken out that the boats may fill, and also cause the spare spars to be put overboard.
116. Whenever the cables are bent, they shall be kept stoppered until wanted for use.
117. In action, besides aiding the Executive Officer in working ship, the Master is to pay special attention to the steerage of the vessel, and to the rigging, sails, and spars, and will see that the stoppers are properly applied, and damages repaired as speedily as possible.
In vessels where there is no Signal Officer, the Master, in action or general exercise, may be directed to perform the duties of Signal Officer.
118. The Boatswain being the assistant of the Master, is to see that the rigging, especially forward, is kept clear, and that all damages are promptly reported and repaired. In the absence of the Master, all the above preparations will be at once made by the Boatswain, and reported to the Executive Officer by him.
119. The CHIEF ENGINEER will see all proper preparations made for repairing damages to the engine and its dependencies, and will have the apparatus for extinguishing fire ready for immediate use. As soon as these preparations are fully made, and his men mustered, he will report his division ready to the Executive Officer. He will also report such damages as may be received in action, and what assistance is required to repair them, and he will have charge of the preparations made for extinguishing fires below.
120. The Officer commanding this division, when called to quarters for general exercise or action, will receive from the Captain the keys of the magazines and shell-rooms, and of their respective water-cocks, and will deliver them to the persons in charge, who are not to open them without his special order.
121. He will have the fire-screens let down, and the light-rooms and the deck under his charge lighted.
122. He will see that the shot and shell whips are in place and in working order, and that shot-troughs are placed for conveying shot where required; that the Gunner and his Mates at the magazine hatches and scuttles, and the persons stationed at the shell-room scuttles, are ready to open them when the order is given.
123. That all the precautions mentioned in the duties of Gunner and Carpenter have been taken against fire, namely: that the division-tubs are filled with water, and that wet swabs are placed by them, and under all the lower scuttles through which passing-boxes are returned; that a fire-tub is placed at the bottom of each chute for the return of empty boxes; that it is nearly filled with water, and has its wire grating shipped; that a proper supply of fresh water is provided for the use of the men; that the hatchways of the decks next above that on which the Powder Division is stationed are properly covered; that the air-ports are closed and secured; and that the hose is screwed to the force-pumps and ready for use.
124. He is to see that the means which are provided for lowering the wounded are ready and properly fitted, and that the wounded, when lowered down, are conveyed to the part of the vessel set apart for the Surgeon's Division, by the persons detailed for that purpose.
125. He will also see that all obstructions to the safe and rapid passage of powder, shot, and shells are removed; and when every preparation for action has been made in his division, will report it ready to the Executive Officer.
126. When the order is given from the Captain to open the magazines, shell-rooms, and scuttles, he will direct the Gunner and Gunner's Mate to repair to their respective scuttles, put on their magazine dresses and shoes, divest themselves of every article of metal, and see that the men stationed with them do the same; they are also to see that wet swabs and cans of fresh water are provided.
127. The magazines being opened, the lids of the tanks are not to be unscrewed until orders are given to that effect. Then the Gunner and his Mate, and their assistants in their respective magazines, will open as many, and no more, tanks than are necessary to supply charges of the kind ordered, which they will pass up to the men stationed on the deck above to receive them. These men will be particularly careful to observe the orders transmitted from time to time, designating the kind of charges required at the guns.
128. While at general quarters he will see that the men preserve their proper stations in silence, order, and coolness; and he will give particular attention to the sufficient and correct supply of powder and projectiles to the various divisions, and take care that in time of action, or of exercise with powder, the passing-boxes, after being once taken out of the magazine, are not passed into it again, or even inside of the screen, during the whole of such action or exercise. These duties are of the highest importance.
129. In exercise where no powder is used, he will see that such substitutes for the various charges as the Captain may direct are passed up in their proper boxes, so that the number of rounds and the kind of charge, whether "distant," "ordinary," or "near," may be ascertained, and compared with those ordered. Should any defect or deficiency in the arrangement for giving a full supply to the guns be discovered, it is to be reported immediately to the Captain, in order that a remedy may be applied as speedily as possible, by additional men or other proper means.
130. The Carpenter will see that the hatches on the deck next above the berth-deck or orlop are properly covered with gratings and tarpaulins, and that the air-ports are closed and secured.
131. He will then cause all the pumps to be rigged, namely, the main pumps, for freeing the ship in case of leaks, and the force and channel pumps. He will have the engine also rigged and filled to supply water for extinguishing fire.
132. He will attend particularly to the preparations for stopping shot-holes, and see that all the articles enumerated in his general duties (Article 59) are distributed among his mates and crew.
133. He will, when directed, cause the cabin and other bulkheads to be taken down, and every other obstruction removed which comes within his department, that may interfere with the working of the guns or the passage of ammunition; and having performed this service, will report to that effect to the Officers of the Divisions in which such obstructions existed.
134. When these preparations are completed, he will see that the men under his direction are in their proper stations, and, when all their preparatory duties have been performed, will so report to the Executive Officer, and to the Officer commanding the Powder Division what relates to that division.
135. During an action the Carpenter will attend the pumps, sound the well frequently, and, should he discover indications of serious injury below the water-line, will immediately make them known personally, either to the Captain or to the Executive Officer, and to them only.
136. During an action, such of the Carpenter's crew as are stationed in the wings, or on the orlop, in line-of-battle ships, or on the berth-deck in other vessels, will be constantly on the look-out for shot-holes.
When a shot enters they are to make its position known by reference to the numbers of the ports under or near which the hole is found, and its distance below or above the water-line, as shown by the interior line corresponding to it, already described in the general duties of the Carpenter (Article 60); and are also to apply promptly such remedy themselves as may be in their power.
137. The MASTER-AT-ARMS, assisted by the Ship's Corporals, will see the galley fire and all unauthorized lights put out; that the lamps are in their places, properly trimmed and lighted; and that the lenses and reflectors are cleaned and polished.
After the magazines have been swept, closed, and secured, and the retreat has been beaten, the Master-at-arms will see that the lights in the light-rooms are extinguished, and apply to the Executive Officer for permission to renew the usual lights and fires.
138. The SURGEON or senior Medical Officer will see that all necessary preparations are made for the reception and treatment of the wounded, in the part of the ship which may have been set apart by the Captain for that purpose, and report to the Executive Officer when such preparations are completed.
139. He will cause a sufficient number of tourniquets, or temporary substitutes for them, to be distributed to such men of the different divisions, and in each top, as may be appointed to receive them; and he will take care that the persons in his division, and such others as the Captain may direct, are instructed in the use of tourniquets, to prevent, as far as possible, any dangerous loss of blood before the Surgeon or his Assistants can attend to wounded men.
OFFICERS COMMANDING DIVISIONS OF GUNS.
140. Each Officer Commanding a Division of Guns is to see that all persons belonging to it are present; that all the prescribed arrangements are duly and promptly made; that every article designated for use in the division is in order and in place; that the decks are wet and well sanded; that the hand-swabs at the guns are wet; and that any small arms that may be distributed among the men of his division are properly loaded at the time directed by the Captain.
141. In action he will cause the wounded of his division to be promptly and properly conveyed to the Surgeon, but will see that no man leaves his quarters on pretence of assisting the wounded. Four men, "aids to wounded", should be attached to each Division of Guns, so as not to take men from guns for that purpose.
142. On the lower deck of line-of-battle ships, or the main deck of frigates and spar-deck of single-deck vessels, he will see the hatchways in the range of his division properly covered by the Carpenter's crew, assisted by the handspikemen or compressor-men of the nearest guns, and the scuttles and whips duly prepared for passing powder, shot, and shells.
143. He will be particularly careful to prevent the men from loading the guns improperly, or otherwise than may be specially ordered, and will prevent any unnecessary noise.
144. He will see that the guns are very carefully pointed and properly aimed; that there is no firing until correct sight can be obtained, as random firing is not only a waste of ammunition, but it encourages an enemy, when he sees shot and shell falling harmlessly about and beyond him.
He will carefully impress upon the Captains of guns that there is no excuse for several successive bad shots, as observation of the first or second will surely indicate an erroneous estimate of distance, and afford means of correcting it. Accuracy of fire is to be encouraged rather than rapidity.
It is essential to rapidity and accuracy of fire, particularly on covered decks, that the Division Officers shall keep the Gun Captains constantly advised of the position and distance of the object.
145. He will also take care to prevent confusion at the powder-scuttles in the range of his division, and that all orders which require to be repeated are duly passed. In case of accident to the Powder-passers, he will promptly supply their places by such men as can be best spared from his division.
146. He will take care that each gun in his division is provided with all the "Equipments and Implements" prescribed for its use; and that the "spare" articles which may be required in his division in action are in place.—(Article 148.)
147. He will report to the Executive Officer when all preparations have been made for action; and also after action and exercise, when the guns have been properly secured, and the stores and implements belonging to his division have been returned to their places.
EQUIPMENTS AND IMPLEMENTS.
148. Those for broadside-guns, whether mounted on two or four truck carriages, or on slides, are to be as follows, viz.:
+ - ARTICLES FOR EACH GUN. WHERE THEY ARE TO BE PUT WHEN THE GUN IS SECURED. + Carriage complete, with bed and quoin, or elevating screw At its port. Breeching with shackle-bolts and pins At the gun. Compressors and levers, pivot-bolt and housing-chock, for Friction Carriages At the gun. Two side-tackles Hooked to the securing-bolts on each side of the port and to the carriage. One train-tackle Hooked to the securing-bolts in the side, with the parts of the fall round the breech of the gun. Two handspikes Resting on the bed-bolt, in-board ends secured by beckets. One tompion with lanyard and wad In the muzzle of the gun. One sponge and cap On the beam or carling over the right side of the gun (on movable brackets). One rammer On the beam or carling over the left side of the gun (on movable brackets). One lock with string and vent-plug complete In place on the gun. One breech-sight with cover In place on the gun. One reinforce-sight with cover In place on the gun. One priming-wire and one boring-bit, Inside of the brackets of the with beckets for the wrist carriage, near the breech. One fire-bucket with lanyard On gun-decks, close to the side, near the beam over the gun; on spar-decks, round the capstan and the boats forward. One bucket of prepared grease or oil for rifle cannon On the breast-piece. One battle-lantern, with candle or lamp trimmed and primed, but provided for gun-decks only; none In the fire-buckets. The candle in for spar-decks supply box. Battle-axes (as prescribed according to the number of men at gun). See Art. 101 Inside of the brackets. One hand-swab On the breast-piece of the carriage. One deck-bucket and large swab To be kept in the hold until wanted. Two chocking-quoins for When not in use, between the truck-carriages brackets and the bed. Two lanyards for each half port In place. Lanyards, chain pendents, runners and tackles for tricing up, and bars and keys for securing lower deck ports In place. Ten shot for shot-guns In racks round hatches nearest the gun. For shell-guns, one shell in its box Between the trucks on the left side of the gun. Ten selvagee wads for shot and shell On the breast-piece of the carriage, guns strung on a pin. Two housing-chocks for lower deck Placed before the front trucks guns when the gun is run in for housing. +
149. He will also assure himself that the following articles, which may be required, are in readiness in his division, and prepared for use, namely: One rattle for calling Boarders; one division-tub for fresh water; one spare bed and quoin for carriages requiring them; two spare gun-trucks; four spare handspikes; one worm; one scraper; one bristle sponge for cleaning guns; two spare breechings; four swabs, and, if any of the guns be on slides, a spare pivot-bolt. Of these articles the worm, scraper, sponge, and spare breechings are to be becketed up between the beams and carlings on the gun-decks as far as practicable, and those which cannot be so placed will be kept at hand in the storeroom or other convenient place. A ladle is supplied for each calibre on board, and will be kept ready in such place as may be designated by the Executive Officer.
The above allowance of articles designated as "spare," including worm, scraper, sponge, and swabs, is upon the supposition that each division is composed of five guns and their opposites. In case the number of guns should be either more or less, the articles will be increased or diminished proportionally to the nearest whole number.
150. He will take care that the Quarter Gunners of his division keep the two division-boxes marked "supply" and "reserve" constantly provided with the following articles, all in good order, viz.:
The "Supply" box with a waist-belt for each Boarder, Pikeman, Fireman, Sail-trimmer, and Pumpman; a primed candle for each battle-lantern; a thumbstall and vent-guard for the 1st and 2d Captains of each gun. The belts of Boarders to be furnished with a frog for a pistol, with its cartridges and percussion-caps; those of 1st and 2d Captains of guns with a box containing fifty primers fitted to slip on the waist-belt. Those for Firemen, Sail-trimmers, and Pumpmen to have each a frog for the battle-axe.
The "Reserve" box with one drill-brace; three vent-drills; one vent-punch; two gun-locks and strings complete; a flask of priming-powder; two boring-bits; three priming-wires; eight thumbstalls; four boxes of percussion-primers; one box of friction-primers; one spare lock-string for each gun, and one fuze-wrench; a shackle-punch and pin, and some rags for wiping. These boxes are to be placed by the Quarter Gunners in their respective divisions, near the mast, and on the opposite side to that engaged.
In vessels of the class of Frigates and upward, these boxes are to be, on covered decks, kept in their several divisions and secured overhead.
On spar-decks they are to be kept under the break of the poop and the topgallant forecastle, and, in vessels having neither poop nor topgallant forecastle, between the beams on the berth-deck. They will be kept under lock and key.
151. He will see that such men of the divisions, and others who are appointed for the purpose, obtain the requisite number of tourniquets, and distribute them to the men selected to use them. (See Article 139.)
STATIONS AND GUN-NUMBERS.
152. The following are to be the gun-numbers and stations for a gun's crew composed of sixteen Men and a Powderman, when working broadside-guns on lower decks; on other decks 15 and 16 are 3d and 4th Side-Tacklemen.
- - - LEFT SIDE. GUN-NOS. RIGHT SIDE. - - - - First Loader. 3 4 First Sponger. Second Loader. 5 6 Second Sponger. First Shellman. 7 8 Second Shellman. First Handspikeman. 9 10 Second Handspikeman. First Side-Tackleman. 13 14 Second Side-Tackleman. First Port-Tackleman. 15 16 Second Port-Tackleman. First Train-Tackleman. 11 12 Second Train-Tackleman. First Captain. 1 2 Second Captain. - - - -
Powderman near the midships, and on the left of the gun.
For a gun's crew of fourteen men and a Powder-boy, or of twelve men, the higher numbers are those to be omitted, and the stations and duties of all the others remain unchanged.
With a gun's crew of ten men, all the numbers continue with the same stations and duties excepting No. 10, who becomes Train-Tackleman, and the 2d Captain handles the handspike.
With a gun's crew of eight men, numbers from 1 to 7 inclusive retain the same stations and duties; No. 2 will, in addition to his duties as 2d Captain, also attend to the handspike, and No. 8 becomes Train-Tackleman.