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READING MADE EASY FOR FOREIGNERS

Third Reader



BY

JOHN L. HUeLSHOF



TEACHER OF MODERN LANGUAGES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS

OF NEW YORK CITY



HINDS, NOBLE & ELDREDGE

31-33-35 West 15th Street, New York City



COPYRIGHT, 1909,

BY

HINDS, NOBLE & ELDREDGE



PREFACE

This Reader is intended more particularly for pupils in Class A of the public evening schools.

The pupils of this class may be considered as having passed the transition stage of which mention was made in the Second Reader, and as having entered upon the last stage in acquiring the English language.

They have not only acquired a considerable vocabulary, but have now a practical mastery of our vernacular. They use English in their conversation; in short, they have acquired the power of expressing their feelings and thoughts in the English language. Notwithstanding all this, they are conscious of the fact that their language is less idiomatic than that of the native born, and their power over the written expression is wofully weak.

To remedy these defects, they flock to the evening schools. They have decided to make this country their permanent home, and they are deeply interested in everything appertaining to our government, our institutions, our literature, in fact our civilization.

A glance at the contents of this reader will convince the experienced teacher that the reading material is many-sided enough to satisfy the demands of both teacher and pupils.

That this series of readers may become a powerful incentive in implanting right ideals of social conduct, and lay the foundation of true American citizenship, is the heartfelt wish of

THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS

PREFACE

REMARKS TO THE TEACHER

LESSONS.

I. FLAG DAY II. BREATHE PURE AIR III. COFFEE IV. OUR NATIONAL FLAG V. PRESS ON VI. RESIGNATION VII. STATUE OF LIBERTY IN NEW YORK HARBOR VIII. INDEPENDENCE IX. NEWFOUNDLAND X. THE USE OF TRIFLES XI. ROSA BONHEUR XII. ALEXANDER AND THE ROBBER XIII. THE AMERICAN INDIAN XIV. THE FIRST STEAMBOAT XV. KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION XVI. TACT AND TALENT XVII. GEORGE WASHINGTON, PART I XVIII. BEHAVIOR XIX. ESSENCE OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES XX. THE ART OF OBSERVATION XXI. LETTERS XXII. REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES XXIII. ALI BABA XXIV. BIRDS XXV. SLEEP XXVI. CURIOUS BIRDS' NESTS XXVII. BUSINESS QUALIFICATIONS XXVIII. ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES OF STATES XXIX. THE SUN XXX. IVORY XXXI. FLOWERS XXXII. THE MOSQUITO XXXIII. SELF-RELIANCE XXXIV. FRANKLIN'S TOAST XXXV. HUMANITY REWARDED XXXVI. WORK PROCLAIMS A WORKMAN XXXVII. REPUBLICS XXXVIII. FALSE NOTIONS OF LIBERTY XXXIX. THE VOICE XL. THE INTREPID YOUTH XLI. AUTUMN XLII. WORDS AND THEIR MEANING XLIII. HOW TO SELECT A BOY XLIV. SALT XLV. STUDIES XLVI. RULES OF BEHAVIOR XLVII. USING THE EYES XLVIII. THE AFFECTION AND REVERENCE DUE A MOTHER XLIX. WHEAT L. COUNTENANCE AND CHARACTER LI. THE VALUE OF TIME LII. THE STUDY OF CIVICS LIII. THE SEA AND ITS USES LIV. WONDERLAND LV. OUR COUNTRY TO-DAY, PART I LVI. OUR COUNTRY TO-DAY, PART II LVII. PICTURES FROM AMERICAN HISTORY LVIII. THOMAS A. EDISON LIX. ABRAHAM LINCOLN LX. ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE DEDICATION OF THE CEMETERY AT GETTYSBURG LXI. WAGES LXII. LOVE FOR THE DEAD LXIII. ECONOMY OF TIME LXIV. GEORGE STEPHENSON, THE ENGINEER LXV. GEORGE WASHINGTON, PART II LXVI. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN LXVII. NOBILITY REWARDED

POETRY

SELECTION.

I. A CITY STREET II. THE SHIP OF STATE III. BE TRUE IV. BRING BACK MY FLOWERS V. "OLD IRONSIDES" VI. TREASURE TROVE VII. THE HERITAGE VIII. THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER IX. THE SWORD OF BUNKER HILL X. THE HUNTERS XI. MY FATHERLAND XII. WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE XIII. PRAYER IN BATTLE XIV. THE RETORT XV. A PSALM OF LIFE XVI. THE OLD OAKEN BUCKET XVII. OFT IN THE STILLY NIGHT XVIII. THE PICKET OF THE POTOMAC XIX. COLUMBIA, THE GEM OF THE OCEAN; OR, RED, WHITE, AND BLUE XX. RECESSIONAL XXI. HUMAN PROGRESS XXII. GIVE ME THE PEOPLE

MISCELLANEOUS

CHARACTERISTIC OF HEROISM CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE FREEDOM OF THOUGHT USEFUL INFORMATION WISE SAYINGS



REMARKS TO THE TEACHER

Complete answers should be given by the pupils. The simple words "yes" or "no" do not constitute an answer in these exercises; such expressions give no practice in the use of the language.

The teacher should prepare himself thoroughly for each lesson in order to ask many pointed questions relative to the reading matter.

The entire time spent in reading the lesson and questioning the class should not exceed thirty minutes. Too much detail will only confuse and fatigue the pupils. Five or six words that present any difficulty either in spelling or pronunciation may be selected from the reading lesson for dictation. Such words should not be given singly, but rather in short sentences.

These sentences may first be read by the class from the blackboard and then copied. After new slips have been distributed, the same sentences should then be written from dictation (the writing on the blackboard being covered or erased in the meantime). The pupils are afterwards required to compare their work with that on the board and make the necessary corrections themselves.

READING MADE EASY FOR FOREIGNERS

THIRD READER

LESSON I

FLAG DAY

In this fair land of ours you can see the Stars and Stripes floating over every public school. This beautiful flag stands for our country. Every American is proud of his country's flag. It stands for all that is good and dear to an American. It stands for Liberty. It proclaims liberty to all. Every star stands for liberty. Every stripe stands for liberty. It stands for liberty of thought and liberty of speech as well.

The first American flag was made in June, 1777, by Mrs. Ross, in the city of Philadelphia. When General Washington saw the flag, he was delighted with it. Every American is not only delighted with it, but he loves the dear old flag. The fourteenth day of June of each year is set apart as Flag Day.

"I pledge allegiance to my flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABOVE LESSON ACCORDING TO THE RATIONAL METHOD.

See Remarks to the Teacher, Page vii.

What kind of a land is ours? What is meant by the stars and stripes? Over what buildings do we see the flag floating? What kind of a flag is it? For what does our flag stand? For what else does it stand? What does our flag proclaim? Who is proud of the flag? What does our flag tell to all the people? How many stars are there in the flag? For what does each star stand? When was the first American flag made? By whom was it made? In what city was it made? What did Washington think of it when he saw it? How do we Americans look upon the flag? When is Flag Day? etc., etc.

DICTATION EXERCISES

See Remarks to the Teacher, Page vii.

Our country has a beautiful flag. This flag proclaims or declares liberty to the people. I am delighted with my country's flag. I pledge allegiance or fidelity to my flag. Our nation is indivisible; it cannot be parted.



SELECTION I

A CITY STREET

I love the woods, the fields, the streams, The wild flowers fresh and sweet, And yet I love no less than these The crowded city street; For haunts of men, where'er they be, Awake my deepest sympathy.

I see within the city street Life's most extreme estates; The gorgeous domes of palaces; The dismal prison gates; The hearths by household virtues blest, The dens that are the serpent's nest.

I see the rich man, proudly fed And richly clothed, pass by; I see the shivering, houseless wretch With hunger in his eye; For life's severest contrasts meet Forever in the city street.

Hence is it that a city street Can deepest thoughts impart, For all its people, high and low, Are kindred to my heart; And with a yearning love I share In all their joy, their pain, their care.

Mary Howitt.

Questions: Can you put this little poem in prose? Tell what you admire in nature. Then tell what you observe in the city. Tell about the rich and where they live. Also about the poor and how they are housed and clothed. Let us write a composition together.



LESSON II

BREATHE PURE AIR

Some boys were playing hide-and-seek one day, when one of their number thought it would be good sport to hide little Robert in a large empty trunk. He did so and then turned the key in the lock. The little fellow in the chest was very quiet indeed, and they almost forgot about him. After some time they thought of him and some one went to the trunk and asked: "Hello, Robert. Do you want to come out now?" No answer came. They opened the trunk and found poor little Robert nearly dead. The doctor had to be called, and he worked long and hard to restore the poor boy to health.

The air which we breathe out is not fit to be breathed in again. We soon use up, in this way, all the pure air about us. So we must have a fresh supply. As soon as Robert had breathed in all the good air that was in the trunk, there was nothing left but poisoned air. If fresh air had not been given to him by opening the trunk, he could not have lived three minutes longer.

Nothing is so needful to health as good, pure air. Whether you are in the schoolroom or in the house, remember this. Bad air is so much poison, and the more we breathe it the worse it gets. The poison is carbonic acid, and to breathe it long is certain death.

Not many years ago, during a storm at sea, a stupid sea-captain ordered his passengers to go below in the hold of the vessel. Then he covered up the hold, so that no fresh air could enter. When the storm was over he opened the hold, and found that seventy human beings had died for want of pure air.

Through his gross ignorance of the laws of life, he had done all this mischief. Remember what I say: insist on having good air; for impure air, though it may not always kill you, is always bad for your health.



LESSON III

COFFEE

Coffee is made from the berries of a tree called the coffee plant, or coffee tree. This tree grows in some of the hot countries of the world, as Brazil, Cuba, Arabia, and Java. The best coffee comes from Arabia. But most of the coffee that is used in this country comes from Brazil.

When first known, the coffee tree was a wild shrub growing among the hills of Caffa, in the northeastern part of Africa. But when people learned what a pleasant drink could be made from its berries, they began to take it into other countries, where they cultivated it with much care.

There is an old story told of a shepherd who, it is said, was the first to use this drink. He noticed that after his goats had fed on the leaves of a certain tree—the coffee plant—they were always very lively and wakeful. So he took some of the leaves and berries of the plant, and boiling them in water, he made a drink for himself. He found it so pleasant to the taste that he told some of his neighbors about it. They tried it and were as much pleased as himself. And so, little by little, the drink came, after a while, into common use.

The coffee plant is a beautiful little tree, growing sometimes to the height of twenty feet. It has smooth, dark leaves, long and pointed. It has pretty, white blossoms, which grow in thick clusters close to the branches. Its fruit looks a little like a cherry; and within it are the coffee berries, two in each cherry.

When ripe, the red fruit turns to a deep purple and is sweet to the taste. In Arabia the fruit is allowed to fall on mats placed under the trees; but in other countries it is commonly gathered as soon as it is ripe, and it is then dried by being placed on mats in the sun.

After the outside part has been removed the berries are again dried. They are then put in sacks and boxes to be sent into other parts of the world.



LESSON IV

OUR NATIONAL FLAG

There is a national flag. He must be cold indeed who can look upon its folds rippling in the breeze without pride of country. If he be in a foreign land, the flag is companionship and country itself with all its endearments. Who, as he sees it, can think of a state merely? Whose eyes, once fastened upon it, can fail to recognize the image of the whole nation? It has been called a "floating piece of poetry."

Its highest beauty is in what it symbolizes. It is because it represents all, that all gaze at it with delight and reverence. It is a piece of bunting lifted in the air, but it speaks sublimely, and every part has a voice. Its stripes of alternate red and white proclaim the original union of thirteen states. Its stars of white on a field of blue proclaim the union of the states. A new star is added with every new state. The very colors have a language, which was understood by our fathers.

White is for purity, red for valor, blue for justice. Thus the bunting, stripes and stars together, make the flag of our country—loved by all our hearts and upheld by all our hands.



SELECTION II

THE SHIP OF STATE

Thou, too, sail on, O ship of State! Sail on, O Union, strong and great! Humanity, with all its fears, With all the hopes of future years, Is hanging breathless on thy fate.

We know what Master laid thy keel, What Workman wrought thy ribs of steel, Who made each mast, and sail, and rope, What anvils rang, what hammers beat, In what forge and what a heat Were shaped the anchors of thy hope!

Fear not each sudden sound and shock, 'Tis of the wave, and not the rock; 'Tis but the flapping of the sail, And not a rent made by the gale. In spite of rock and tempest's roar, In spite of false lights on the shore, Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea. Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee; Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, Our faith triumphant o'er our fears, Are all with thee,—are all with thee.

H. W. Longfellow.



LESSON V

"PRESS ON"

This is a speech, brief, but full of inspiration, and opening the way to all victory. The secret of Napoleon's career was this,—under all difficulties and discouragements, "Press on." It solves the problem of all heroes; it is the rule by which to weigh rightly all wonderful successes and triumphal marches to fortune and genius. It should be the motto of all, old and young, high and low, fortunate and unfortunate, so called.

"Press on." Never despair; never be discouraged, however stormy the heavens, however dark the way; however great the difficulties, and repeated the failures, "Press on."

If fortune hath played false with thee today, do thou play true for thyself to-morrow. If thy riches have taken wings and left thee, do not weep thy life away; but be up and doing, and retrieve the loss by new energies and action. If an unfortunate bargain has deranged thy business, do not fold thy arms, and give up all as lost; but stir thyself and work the more vigorously.

If those whom thou hast trusted have betrayed thee, do not be discouraged, do not idly weep, but "Press on." Find others: or, what is better, learn to live within thyself. Let the foolishness of yesterday make thee wise to-day.



LESSON VI

RESIGNATION

Rabbi Meir, the great teacher, sat one Sabbath day in the school of the holy law, and taught the people. The rabbi had two sons, who were youths of great promise and well instructed in the law. On that Sabbath day they both died.

Tenderly their mother bore them to an upper chamber, laid them on her bed, and spread a white sheet over their bodies.

In the evening Rabbi Meir came home. "Where are my sons," asked he, "that I may give them my blessing?"

"They are gone into the school of the law," was his wife's reply.

"I looked around me," said he, "and I did not see them."

She set before him a cup; he praised the Lord for the close of the Sabbath, drank, and then asked again, "Where are my sons, that they may also drink of the wine of blessing?"

"They cannot be far off," said his wife, as she placed food before him and begged him to eat.

When he had given thanks after the meal, she said, "Rabbi, allow me a question."

"Speak, my beloved," answered he.

"Some time ago," said she, "a certain one gave me jewels to keep for him, and now he asks them back. Shall I give him them?"

"My wife should not need to ask such a question," said Rabbi Meir. "Would you hesitate to give anyone back his own?"

"Oh, no," replied she, "but I did not like to give them back without your knowing beforehand." Then she led him to the upper chamber, stepped in, and took the covering off the bodies.

"Oh, my sons," sobbed the father, "my sons, my sons!" The mother turned herself away and wept.

Soon, however, his wife took him by the hand and said: "Rabbi, have you not taught me that we must not refuse to give back what was intrusted to us to keep? See, the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away: the name of the Lord be blessed."

And Rabbi Meir repeated the words, and said from the depths of his heart, "Amen."



LESSON VII

STATUE OF LIBERTY IN NEW YORK HARBOR

"Liberty," or Bartholdi's statue, was presented to the United States by the French people in 1885. It is the largest statue ever built. The great French sculptor Bartholdi made it after the likeness of his mother. Eight years were consumed in the construction of this gigantic image. Its size is really enormous. The height of the figure alone is fully one hundred and fifty feet. Forty persons can find standing room within the mighty head, which is fifteen feet in diameter. A six-foot man, standing upon the lower lip, can hardly reach the eyes of the colossal head. The index finger is eight feet long, and the nose is over three feet long. Yet the proportion of all the parts of the figure is so well preserved that the whole statue is in perfect harmony.

The materials of which the statue is composed are copper and steel. The immense torch which is held in the hand of the giantess is three hundred feet above tidewater.

The Colossus of Rhodes was a pigmy compared with this huge wonder.



LESSON VIII

INDEPENDENCE

Scholars, who are enjoying the priceless blessings of that liberty which cost our forefathers so much treasure and so much blood,—have you read the Declaration of Independence? If you have not, read it; if you have, read it again; study it; make its noble sentiments your own, and do not fail to grave deep in your memories these immortal lines:—

"We hold these truths to be self-evident; That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness."



SELECTION III

BE TRUE

Thou must be true thyself, If thou the truth wouldst teach; Thy soul must overflow, if thou Another's soul would'st reach; It needs the overflow of hearts To give the lips full speech.

Think truly, and thy thoughts Shall the world's famine feed; Speak truly, and each word of thine Shall be a fruitful seed; Live truly, and thy life shall be A great and noble creed.

Anonymous.



LESSON IX

NEWFOUNDLAND

Newfoundland is an island about the size of New York State. It belongs to England. The cod fisheries there are very extensive.

The people of Newfoundland are strong, healthy and industrious. They are law-abiding, and serious; crime is very rare among them. Their kindness and hospitality to strangers who visit the country are proverbial. Kindness to the poor and unfortunate is a marked feature in the character of the people. When business is poor they are ready to share their last morsel with those in distress.

The fishermen are the working classes of the country. During the height of the fishery season, and when fish are abundant, their labors are severe; but during winter they are for the most part in a condition of enforced idleness. Much of the work of curing the fish is done by women and girls, and their labors are often very heavy. When the fisheries are over, there are boats, nets, etc., to repair, stages to look after, and fuel to be cut in the woods and hauled over the snow.

If the fishery has been successful, then the fisherman has a balance coming to him after paying for his summer supplies, and is enabled to lay in a stock of provisions for the winter.

Winter is the season for enjoyment among the fishermen. This season for fireside enjoyments, home-born pleasures, is welcome. They have their simple social enjoyments of various kinds. Dancing is a favorite winter amusement among the fishermen and their families. Weddings are celebrated with great festivity.

Newfoundland is often regarded as the very paradise of sportsmen. Its countless lakes and ponds abound with trout of the finest description, and these bodies of water are the abodes of the wild goose, the wild duck, and other fresh-water fowl.

The pine forests are the home of numerous wild animals. The fox, the bear and the caribou furnish the highest prizes for the hunter.



SELECTION IV

BRING BACK MY FLOWERS

A child sat by a limpid stream, And gazed upon the tide beneath; Upon her cheek was joy's bright beam, And on her brow a blooming wreath. Her lap was filled with fragrant flowers, And, as the clear brook babbled by, She scattered down the rosy showers, With many a wild and joyous cry, And laughed to see the mingling tide Upon its onward progress glide.

And time flew on, and flower by flower Was cast upon the sunny stream; But when the shades of eve did lower, She woke up from her blissful dream. "Bring back my flowers!" she wildly cried; "Bring back the flowers I flung to thee!" But echo's voice alone replied, As danced the streamlet down the lea; And still, amid night's gloomy hours, In vain she cried, "Bring back my flowers!"

O maiden, who on time's swift stream Dost gayly see the moments flee, In this poor child's delusive dream An emblem may be found of thee. Each moment is a perfumed rose, Into thy hand by mercy given, That thou its fragrance might dispose And let its incense rise to heaven; Else when death's shadow o'er thee lowers, Thy heart will wail, "Bring back my flowers!"

Lucy Larcom.



LESSON X

THE USE OF TRIFLES

A certain painter once said he had become great in his art by never neglecting trifles. It would be well for all of us to follow that simple and easy rule. No man's house but would be more comfortable, and no family but would be more cheerful, if the value of trifles and the art of using them were better understood. Attention to trifles is the true art of economy.

We must, however, take care not to confound economy with parsimony. The former means a frugal and judicious use of things without waste, the latter a too close and sparing use of things needed. Now a person who understands the use of little things is economical; for instance. If you wipe a pen before you put it away it will last twice as long as if you do not.

Generally the habits we acquire in our youth we carry with us into old age; hence the necessity of proper training in childhood. A woman who attends to trifles and has habits of economy will not hastily throw away bits of cotton or worsted, nor will she waste soap by letting it lie in the water. She will keep an eye to the pins and matches, knowing that the less often such things are bought, the more is saved. She will not think it above her care to mend the clothes or darn the stockings, remembering that "a stitch in time saves nine."



LESSON XI

ROSA BONHEUR

Rosa Bonheur was born at Bordeaux, France, the daughter of a painter. Her father was her first teacher in art.

At an early age, when most children draw in an aimless way, her father guided his little girl's efforts with his own experienced hand. He taught her to study and sketch from nature instead of relying on copies.

As a child she cared nothing for dolls and toys, but loved animals dearly. Is it any wonder, then, that she took them for her subject when she began to paint?

In her childhood she had two dogs and a goat for pets, and later on kept a sheep in her Parisian apartment. Still later, when she had become a distinguished woman, her studio included a farmyard.

Her animal paintings are so real and life-like that a study of the faces of all the horses in that wonderful picture, "The Horse Fair," will reveal distinctly different expressions in each face.

Although most simple in her personal habits and in her life, Rosa Bonheur was the greatest woman artist that ever lived.

"The Horse Fair," Rosa Bonheur's most famous painting, was bought by an American gentleman and presented by him to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York.



LESSON XII

ALEXANDER AND THE ROBBER

Alexander—What! art thou that Thracian robber, of whose exploits I have heard so much?

Robber—I am a Thracian, and a soldier.

Alexander—A soldier!—a thief, a plunderer, an assassin, the pest of the country; but I must detest and punish thy crimes.

Robber—What have I done of which you can complain?

Alexander—Hast thou not set at defiance my authority, violated the public peace and passed thy life in injuring the persons and properties of thy fellow-subjects?

Robber—Alexander, I am your captive. I must hear what you please to say, and endure what you please to inflict. But my soul is unconquered; and if I reply at all to your reproaches, I will reply like a free man.

Alexander—Speak freely. Far be it from me to take advantage of my power, to silence those with whom I deign to converse.

Robber—I must, then, answer your question by another. How have you passed your life?

Alexander—Like a hero. Ask Fame, and she will tell you. Among the brave, the bravest; among sovereigns, the noblest; among conquerors, the mightiest.

Robber—And does not Fame speak of me too? Was there ever a bolder captain of a more valiant band? Was there ever—but I scorn to boast. You yourself know that I have not been easily subdued.

Alexander—Still, what are you but a robber,—a base, dishonest robber?

Robber—And what is a conqueror? Have not you too gone about the earth like an evil genius, plundering, killing without law, without justice, merely to gratify your thirst for dominion? What I have done in a single province with a hundred followers, you have done to whole nations with a hundred thousand. What; then, is the difference, but that you were born a king, and I a private man; you have been able to become a mightier robber than I.

Alexander—But if I have taken like a king, I have given like a king. If I have overthrown empires, I have founded greater. I have cherished arts, commerce, and philosophy.

Robber—I too have freely given to the poor what I took from the rich. I know, indeed, very little of the philosophy you speak of, but I believe neither you nor I shall ever atone to the world for the mischief we have done it.

Alexander—Leave me. Take off his chains, and use him well. Are we, then, so much alike? Alexander like a robber? Let me reflect.



LESSON XIII

THE AMERICAN INDIAN

Not many generations ago, where you now sit, surrounded with all that makes life happy, the rank thistle nodded in the wind, and the wild fox dug his hole unscared. Here lived and loved another race of beings. Beneath the same sun that rolls over your heads, the Indian hunter pursued the panting deer; he gazed on the same moon that smiles for you, and here too the Indian lover wooed his dusky mate.

Here the wigwam blaze beamed on the tender and helpless, the council fire glared on the wise and daring. Here they warred; and when the strife was over, here curled the smoke of peace.

Here, too, they worshiped; and from many a dark bosom went up a pure prayer to the Great Spirit. He had written His laws for them, not on tables of stone, but He had traced them on the tables of their hearts. The poor child of nature knew not the God of revelation, but the God of the Universe he acknowledged in everything around.

He beheld Him in the star that sunk in beauty behind his lonely dwelling; in the flower that swayed in the morning breeze; in the lofty trees as well as in the worm that crawled at his feet.

All this has passed away. Four hundred years have changed the face of this great continent, and this peculiar race has been well-nigh blotted out. Art has taken the place of simple nature, and civilization has been too strong for the savage tribes of the red man.

Here and there a few Indians remain; but these are merely the degraded offspring of this once noble race of men.



SELECTION XI

MY FATHERLAND

There is a land, of every land the pride, Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside, Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons imparadise the night. O land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth! The wandering mariner, whose eye explores The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, Views not a realm so bountiful and fair, Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air. In every clime, the magnet of his soul, Touched by remembrance, trembles to that pole; For, in this land of Heaven's peculiar race, The heritage of nature's noblest grace, There is a spot of earth supremely blest, A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest, Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside His sword and scepter, pageantry and pride, While, in his softened looks, benignly blend The sire, the son, the husband, brother, friend. Here woman reigns; the mother, daughter, wife, Strew with fresh flowers the narrow way of life; In the clear heaven of her delightful eye, An angel guard of love and graces lie; Around her knees domestic duties meet, And fireside pleasures gambol at her feet. "Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found?" Art thou a man?—a patriot?—look round; Oh, thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam, That land thy country, and that spot thy home.

James Montgomery.



LESSON XXIX

THE SUN

How far away from us is the sun? Are we to answer just as we think, or just as we know? On a fine summer day, when we can see him clearly, it looks as if a short trip in a balloon might take us to his throne in the sky, yet we know—because the astronomers tell us so—that he is more than ninety-one millions of miles distant from our earth.

Ninety-one millions of miles! It is not easy even to imagine this distance; but let us fancy ourselves in an express-train going sixty miles an hour without making a single stop. At that flying rate we could travel from the earth to the sun in one hundred and seventy-one years,—that is, if we had a road to run on and time to spare for the journey.

Arriving at the palace of the sun, we might then have some idea of his size. A learned Greek who lived more than two thousand years ago thought the sun about as large as the Peloponnesus; if he had lived in our country, he might have said, "About as large as Massachusetts."

As large as their peninsula! The other Greeks laughed at him for believing that the shining ball was so vast. How astonished they would have been—yes, and the wise man too—if they had been told that the brilliant lord of the day was more than a million times as large as the whole world!



LESSON XXX

IVORY

How many articles are made of ivory! Here is a polished knife-handle, and there a strangely-carved paper-cutter. In the same shop may be found albums and prayer-books with ivory covers; and, not far away, penholders, curious toys, and parasol-handles, all made of the glossy white material.

Where ivory is abundant, chairs of state, and even thrones are made of it; and in Russia, in the palaces of the great, floors inlaid with ivory help to beautify the grand apartments. One African sultan has a whole fence of elephants' tusks around his royal residence; the residence itself is straw-roofed and barbarous enough, both in design and in structure. Yet imagine that ivory fence!

The elephants slain in Africa and India in the course of a year could not furnish half the ivory used in the great markets of the world during that time. Vienna, Paris, London and St. Petersburg keep the elephant-hunters busy, yet it is impossible for them to satisfy all the demands made upon them, and the ivory-diggers must be called upon to add to the supply.

Every spring, when the ice begins to thaw, new mines or deposits of fossil ivory—a perfect treasure of mammoths' tusks—are discovered in the marsh-lands of Eastern Siberia. There are no mammoths now—unless we call elephants by that name; yet their remains have been found upon both continents. In the year 1799, the perfect skeleton of one of these animals was found in an ice-bank near the mouth of a Siberian river. As the vast ice-field thawed, the remains of the huge animal came to light.

The traders who search for mammoths' tusks around the Arctic coasts of Asia make every effort to send off, each year, at least fifty thousand pounds of fossil ivory to the west along the great caravan road. So great is the demand, however, that this quantity, added to that sent by the elephant-hunters, is not large enough to make ivory cheap in trade or in manufacture.



SELECTION XII

WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE

Woodman, spare that tree! Touch not a single bough! In youth it sheltered me, And I'll protect it now. 'Twas my forefather's hand That placed it near his cot: There, woodman, let it stand; Thy ax shall harm it not.

That old familiar tree, Whose glory and renown Are spread o'er land and sea,— And wouldst thou hew it down? Woodman, forbear thy stroke! Cut not its earthbound ties! Oh, spare that aged oak, Now towering to the skies!

When but an idle boy I sought its grateful shade; In all their gushing joy, Here, too, my sisters played. My mother kissed me here, My father pressed my hand: Forgive this foolish tear, But let that old oak stand.

My heart-strings round thee cling, Close as thy bark, old friend; Here shall the wild bird sing, And still thy branches bend. Old tree, the storm still brave! And, woodman, leave the spot! While I've a hand to save, Thy ax shall harm it not.

George P. Morris.



LESSON XXXI

FLOWERS

He who cannot appreciate floral beauty is to be pitied, like any other man who is born imperfect. It is a misfortune not unlike blindness. But men who reject flowers as effeminate and unworthy of manhood reveal a positive coarseness.

Many persons lose all enjoyment of many flowers by indulging false associations. There are some who think that no weed can be of interest as a flower. But all flowers are weeds where they grow wild and in abundance; and somewhere our rarest flowers are somebody's commonest.

And generally there is a disposition to undervalue common flowers. There are few that will trouble themselves to examine minutely a blossom that they have often seen and neglected; and yet if they would question such flowers and commune with them, they would often be surprised to find extreme beauty where it had long been overlooked.

It is not impertinent to offer flowers to a stranger. The poorest child can proffer them to the richest. A hundred persons turned into a meadow full of flowers would be drawn together in a transient brotherhood.

It is affecting to see how serviceable flowers often are to the necessities of the poor. If they bring their little floral gift to you, it cannot but touch your heart to think that their grateful affection longed to express itself as much as yours.

You have books, or gems, or services that you can render as you will. The poor can give but little and can do but little. Were it not for flowers, they would be shut out from those exquisite pleasures which spring from such gifts. I never take one from a child, or from the poor, without thanking God, in their behalf, for flowers.



CHARACTERISTIC OF HEROISM

The characteristic of heroism is its persistency. All men have wandering impulses, fits and starts of generosity. But when you have chosen your part, abide by it, and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. The heroic cannot be the common, nor the common the heroic.

R. W. Emerson.



LESSON XVIII

BEHAVIOR

There is always a best way of doing everything, if it be to open a book. Manners are the happy ways of doing things. They form at last a rich varnish, with which the routine of life is washed, and its details adorned. Manners are very communicable; men catch them from each other.

The power of manners is incessant,—an element as unconcealable as fire. The nobility cannot in any country be disguised, and no more in a republic or a democracy than in a kingdom. No man can resist their influence. There are certain manners which are learned in good society, and if a person have them, he or she must be considered, and is everywhere welcome, though without beauty, or wealth, or genius. Give a boy address and accomplishments, and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortune wherever he goes.

Bad behavior the laws cannot reach. Society is infested with rude, restless, and frivolous persons who prey upon the rest. Bad manners are social inflictions which the magistrate cannot cure or defend you from, and which must be intrusted to the restraining force of custom. Familiar rules of behavior should be impressed on young people in their school-days.



LESSON XIX

ESSENCE OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

1. Congress must meet at least once a year.

(Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.)

2. One State cannot undo the acts of another.

3. Congress may admit any number of new States.

4. One State must respect the laws and legal decisions of another.

5. Every citizen is guaranteed a speedy trial by jury.

6. Congress cannot pass a law to punish a crime already committed.

7. Bills of revenue can originate only in the House of Representatives.

8. A person committing a crime in one State cannot find refuge in another.

9. The Constitution forbids excessive bail or cruel punishment.

10. Treaties with foreign countries are made by the President and ratified by the Senate.

11. Writing alone does not constitute treason against the United States. There must be an overt act.

12. An Act of Congress cannot become law over the vote of the President except by a two-thirds vote of both Houses.

13. The Territories each send one delegate to Congress, who has the right to debate, but not the right to vote.

14. An officer of the Government cannot accept any title of nobility, order or gift without the permission of Congress.

15. Only a natural-born citizen of the United States can become President or Vice-President of the United States.



SELECTION VIII

THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER

1. Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming; And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there: Oh, say, does that Star-Spangled Banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

2. On that shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected now shines in the stream: 'Tis the Star-Spangled Banner; oh, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

3. And where are the foes who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war, and the battle's confusion, A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave; And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

4. Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand Between their loved homes and the war's desolation. Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven-rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation! Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto, "In God is our trust"; And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Francis Scott Key.



USEFUL INFORMATION

To obtain a good knowledge of pronunciation, it is advisable for the reader to listen to the examples given by educated persons. We learn the pronunciation of words, to a great extent, by imitation. It must never be forgotten, however, that the dictionary alone can give us absolute certainty in doubtful cases.

"If the riches of the Indies," says Fenelon, "or the crowns of all the kingdoms of the world, were laid at my feet in exchange for my love for reading, I would despise them all."

That writer does the most good who gives his reader the greatest amount of knowledge and takes from him the least time. A tremendous thought may be packed into a small compass, and as solid as a cannon ball.

"Read much, but not many works," is the advice of a great writer.



LESSON XX

THE ART OF OBSERVATION

The Indian trapper is a man of close observation, quick perception and prompt action. As he goes along, nothing escapes him. Often not another step is taken until some mystery that presents itself is fairly solved. He will stand for hours in succession to account for certain signs, and he may even spend days and weeks upon that same mystery until he solves it.

I rode once several hundred miles in the company of such an experienced trailer, and asked him many questions about his art. Near the bank of a small river in Dakota we crossed the track of a pony. The guide followed the track for some distance and then said: "It is a stray black horse, with a long bushy tail, nearly starved to death; it has a broken hoof on the left fore foot and goes very lame; he has passed here early this morning."

I could scarcely believe what was said, and asked for an explanation. The trailer replied: "It is a stray horse, because he did not go in a straight line; his tail is long, for he dragged it over the ground; in brushing against a bush he left some of his black hair; he is very hungry, because he nipped at the dry weeds which horses seldom eat; the break of his left fore foot can be seen in its track, and the slight impression of the one foot shows that he is lame. The tracks are as yet fresh, and that shows that he passed only this morning, when the earth was soft."

In this manner the whole story was accounted for, and late in the afternoon we really did come across a riderless horse of that description wandering aimlessly in the prairies.



SELECTION IX

THE SWORD OF BUNKER HILL

He lay upon his dying bed, His eye was growing dim, When, with a feeble voice, he called His weeping son to him: "Weep not, my boy," the veteran said, "I bow to Heaven's high will; But quickly from yon antlers bring The sword of Bunker Hill."

The sword was brought; the soldier's eye Lit with a sudden flame; And, as he grasped the ancient blade, He murmured Warren's name; Then said: "My boy, I leave you gold, But what is richer still, I leave you,—mark me, mark me, now,— The sword of Bunker Hill.

"'Twas on that dread immortal day, I dared the Britons' band; A captain raised his blade on me, I tore it from his hand; And while the glorious battle raged, It lightened Freedom's will; For, boy, the God of Freedom blessed The sword of Bunker Hill.

"Oh, keep this sword,"—his accents broke,— A smile—and he was dead; But his wrinkled hand still grasped the blade, Upon the dying bed. The son remains, the sword remains, Its glory growing still, And eighty millions bless the sire And sword of Bunker Hill.

William R. Wallace.

The battle of Bunker Hill was fought on the 17th of June, 1775, in Charlestown, Massachusetts. The Americans, after having twice repulsed double their number of the English, were compelled to retreat for want of ammunition. This was the first actual battle of the Revolutionary War.

NOTE:—Joseph Warren, a distinguished American general and patriot, born in Massachusetts in 1741, graduated at Harvard College in 1759. He was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill in 1775.



LESSON XXI

LETTERS

Notes of Invitation.

FORMAL NOTE.

March 8, 1909.

Mr. Joseph H. Curtis:—

The pupils of Class A, Public School No. — most cordially invite Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Curtis to attend the Closing Exercises to be held in the school on Thursday evening, March eleventh, at eight o'clock.

INFORMAL NOTE.

February 2, 1909.

My dear Mr. Curtis:—

May we have the pleasure of your company at dinner Tuesday evening, February ninth, at seven o'clock?

Sincerely yours,

CHARLES STORY.

406 Elm Street.

INFORMAL REPLY TO ABOVE INVITATION.

February 4, 1909.

My dear Mr. Story:—

I thank you for your kind invitation to dine with you Tuesday evening, but a previous business engagement makes it impossible for me to be present. I am very sorry.

Cordially yours,

HENRY CURTIS.

215 Cedar Street.

FORMAL NOTE.

Mr. and Mrs. George H. Baldwin request the pleasure of the company of Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Gray on Thursday evening, March fourth, at eight o'clock.

315 Madison Avenue.

FORMAL REPLY TO ABOVE INVITATION.

Mr. Henry S. Gray regrets that he is unable to accept the invitation of Mr. and Mrs. George H. Baldwin for Thursday evening, at eight o'clock.

506 Myrtle Avenue.

INFORMAL LETTER.

ROCHESTER, N. Y., March 1, 1909.

My dear Friend:—

I arrived here yesterday afternoon in the best of spirits. I am staying here at a nice, quiet hotel, and expect to remain here for the next few days. Rochester is so different from the great Metropolis. This morning I went to see the University and some other public buildings. I am delighted with my trip. From here I intend to proceed to Buffalo and to Niagara Falls. From there I shall write you a much longer letter.

Please give my kindest regards to all the family.

Cordially yours,

HENRY FIELD.



LESSON XXII

REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES

The rapid settlement and improvement of many parts of our country have been greatly aided by the invention of various kinds of machinery. The work of many hands can now be done by one machine, and thus a great saving of human labor is effected.

In former times, the crops of wheat and oats, rye and barley, were gathered with a sickle; the grain was thrashed with a flail; the grass in the meadows was cut with a scythe. But, now, all this is changed; on the great prairies of the West, the wheat, rye and oats are cut by the reaper, and with a steady hum the thrashing-machine does its work of cleaning the grain.

The scythe has given place to the mowing machine, and the sickle and flail have been laid away as relics of other times. Thus the machinery invented by the genius and skill of man, not only lightens the labor of the farmer, but it performs the work which formerly required the united effort of many men. Many foreign countries send to the United States for mowers and reapers, because it is here these machines have reached their highest perfection.



LESSON XXIII

ALI BABA

Ali Baba was a poor Persian wood carrier, who accidentally learned the magic words "Open Sesame," "Shut Sesame," by which he gained entrance into a vast cavern, in which forty thieves had stored their stolen treasures. He made himself rich by plundering these stores of wealth, and through the cunning of Morgiana, his female slave, Ali Baba succeeded in destroying the whole band of thieves. He then gave Morgiana her freedom and married her to his own son.



LESSON XXIV

BIRDS

In the United States there are a great many birds. Many of them live in the woods; others are found in the fields. Some are seen in the gardens, and a few are kept in our houses. The eagle builds her nest upon the highest rock, while the wren forms her snug and tiny nest in the way-side hedge. The swallow plasters her nest upon the gable of the house or under the eaves of the barn. Out in the wheat-field we hear the whistle of the quail. The noise of the ducks and geese comes to us from the pond. The birds of prey dart downward through the air. Everywhere we find the birds.

In autumn the migratory birds leave us, but they return in the spring. Even in March we hear the call of the robin. At the same time the bold and saucy blue-jay pays us his first visit. One hears the sweet songs of the birds from May until October. Some of them remain with us during the winter.

There are many things that birds can do. The swallows fly with the greatest ease. The ostrich runs rapidly. Swimming birds dive with much skill. The owl moves noiselessly through the night air. Birds of prey search out their victims with keen vision.

Nearly all birds build skillfully made nests with their bills and feet. Some make them out of straw, and the little birds usually line them with wool. The large birds of prey build theirs from small sticks and twigs. For the most part they hatch the eggs with the warmth of the body. Many birds are highly valued on account of their eggs, while others are prized for their flesh and feathers. Still others charm us with their songs.



LESSON XXV

SLEEP

Of all the wonderful things about us, sleep is one of the most wonderful. How it comes, why it comes, how it does its kind, helpful work, not even the wisest people are able to tell. We do not have much trouble in seeking it, it comes to us of itself. It takes us in its kindly arms, quiets and comforts us, repairs and refreshes us, and turns us out in the morning quite like new people.

Sleep is necessary to life and health. We crave it as urgently as we do food or drink. In our waking hours, rest is obtained only at short intervals; the muscles, the nerves, and the brain are in full activity. Repair goes on every moment, whether we are awake or asleep; but during the waking hours the waste of the tissues is far ahead of the repair, while during sleep the repair exceeds the waste. Hence a need of rest which at regular intervals causes all parts of the bodily machinery to be run at their lowest rate. In other words, we are put to sleep.

Sleep is more or less sound, according to circumstances. Fatigue, if not too great, aids it; idleness lessens it. Anxious thought, and pain, and even anticipated pleasure, may keep us awake. Hence we should not go to bed with the brain excited or too active. We should read some pleasant book, laugh, talk, sing, or take a brisk walk, or otherwise rest the brain for half an hour before going to bed.

The best time for sleep is during the silence and darkness of night. People who have to work nights, and to sleep during the day, have a strained and wearied look.

The amount of sleep needed depends upon the temperament of each individual. Some require little sleep, while others need a great deal.

Eight hours of sleep for an adult, and from ten to twelve hours for children and old people is about the average amount required.

Some of the greatest men in history are known to have been light sleepers. Most of the world's great workers took a goodly amount of sleep, however. Sir Walter Scott, the great writer, took eight hours of sleep, and so did the famous philosopher Emanuel Kant. Children need more sleep than grown people. They should retire early and sleep until they awake in the morning.

When fairly awake we should get up. Dozing is unhealthful, especially for young people.

"Early to bed and early to rise, Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."



LESSON XXVI

CURIOUS BIRDS' NESTS

Among the most curious nests are those made by the birds called weavers. These feathered workmen serve no apprenticeship; their trade comes to them by nature; and how well they work at it! But then you must admit that Nature is a skillful teacher and birds are apt scholars.

The Baltimore oriole is a weaver, and it makes its nest out of bark, fine grass, moss, and wool, strengthening it, when circumstances permit, with pieces of string or horse-hair. This nest, pouch-shaped, and open at the top, is fastened to the branch of a tree, and sometimes is interwoven with the twigs of a waving bough. The threads of grass and long fibers of moss are woven together, in and out, as if by machinery; and it seems hard to believe that the little birds can do such work without help.

The tailor-bird of India makes a still more curious nest: it actually sews, using its long, slender bill as a needle. Birds that fly, birds that run, birds that swim, and birds that sing are by no means rare; but birds that sew, seem like the wonderful birds in the fairy-tales. Yet they really exist, and make their odd nests with great care and skill. They pick out a leaf large enough for their nest, and pierce rows of holes along the edges with their sharp bill; then, with the fibers of a plant or long threads of grass, they sew the leaf up into a bag. Sometimes it is necessary to sew two leaves together, that the space within may be large enough.

This kind of sewing resembles shoemakers' or saddlers' work; but, the leaf being like fine cloth and not like leather, perhaps the name "tailor-bird" is the most appropriate for the little worker. The bag is lined with soft, downy material, and in this the tiny eggs are laid—tiny indeed, for the tailor-bird is no larger than the hummingbird. The weight of the little creature does not even draw down the nest, and the leaf in which the eggs or young birds are hidden looks like the other leaves on the trees; so that there is nothing to attract the attention of the forest robbers.

Another bird, called the Indian sparrow, makes her nest of grass-woven cloth and shaped like a bottle. The neck of the bottle hangs downward, and the bird enters from below. This structure, swinging from a high tree, over a river, is safe from the visits of mischievous animals.

Is it any wonder, then, that birds and their nests have always been a source of delight to thinking man?

With no tools but their tiny feet and sharp little bills, these feathered songsters build their habitat, more cunningly and artfully than any artisan could hope to do even after a long apprenticeship.



SELECTION X

THE HUNTERS

In the bright October morning Savoy's Duke had left his bride. From the Castle, past the drawbridge, Flowed the hunters' merry tide.

Steeds are neighing, gallants glittering Gay, her smiling lord to greet, From her splendid chamber casement Smiles the Duchess Marguerite.

From Vienna by the Danube Here she came, a bride, in spring, Now the autumn crisps the forest; Hunters gather, bugles ring.

Hark! the game's on foot; they scatter; Down the forest riding lone, Furious, single horsemen gallop. Hark! a shout—a crash—a groan!

Pale and breathless, came the hunters; On the turf, dead lies the boar, But the Duke lies stretched beside him, Senseless, weltering in his gore.

In the dull October evening, Down the leaf-strewn forest road, To the Castle, past the drawbridge, Came the hunters with their load.

In the hall, with torches blazing, Ladies waiting round her seat, Clothed in smiles, beneath the dais Sat the Duchess Marguerite.

Hark! below the gates unbarring, Tramp of men and quick commands. "'Tis my lord come back from hunting," And the Duchess claps her hands.

Slow and tired, came the hunters; Stopped in darkness in the court.— "Ho! this way, ye laggard hunters. To the hall! What sport, what sport?"

Slow they entered with their Master; In the hall they laid him down; On his coat were leaves and blood-stains, On his brow an angry frown.

Dead her princely, youthful husband Lay before his youthful wife; Bloody 'neath the flaring torches: And the sight froze all her life.

In Vienna by the Danube Kings hold revel, gallants meet; Gay of old amid the gayest Was the Duchess Marguerite.

In Vienna by the Danube Feast and dance her youth beguiled. Till that hour she never sorrowed; But from then she never smiled.

Matthew Arnold.



WISE SAYINGS

A room hung with pictures is a room hung with thoughts.

A fig for your bill of fare. Show me your bill of company.

Let us raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair.

No evil can befall a good man, either in life or death.

It is well to think well; it is divine to act well.

They are never alone who are accompanied with noble, true thoughts.

We find in life exactly what we put into it.

Too much rest is rust.

Order is heaven's first law.

The difference between one boy and another is not so much in talent as in energy.



LESSON XXVII

BUSINESS QUALIFICATIONS

Attention, application, accuracy, method, punctuality and dispatch are the principal qualities required for the efficient conduct of business of any sort. It is the precept of every day's experience that steady attention to matters of detail lies at the root of human progress, and that diligence, above all, is the mother of what is erroneously called "good luck."

A French statesman, being asked how he contrived to accomplish so much work, and at the same time attend to his social duties, replied, "I do it simply by never postponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day." It was said of an unsuccessful public man that he used to reverse this process, his maxim being, "never to transact to-day what could be postponed till to-morrow."

But bear in mind this: there may be success in life without success in business. The merchant who failed, but who afterward recovered his fortune, and then spent it in paying his creditors their demands in full, principal and interest, thus leaving himself a poor man, had a glorious success: while he who failed, paid his creditors ten cents only on a dollar, and afterward rode in his carriage and occupied a magnificent mansion, was sorrowfully looked on by angels and by honest men as lamentably unsuccessful.

True success in life is success in building up a pure, honest, energetic character—in so shaping our habits, our thoughts, and our aspirations as to best qualify us for a higher life.



LESSON XXVIII

ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES OF STATES

Ala. Alabama, Mont. Montana, Alaska. Alaska, Nebr. Nebraska, Ariz. Arizona, Nev. Nevada, Ark. Arkansas (sa), N. H. New Hampshire, Cal. California, N. J. New Jersey, Colo. Colorado, N. Mex. New Mexico, Conn. Connecticut, N. Y. New York, Del. Delaware, N. C. North Carolina, Fla. Florida, N. Dak. North Dakota, Ga. Georgia, O. Ohio, Idaho. Idaho, Okla. Oklahoma, Ill. Illinois (noi), Ore. Oregon, Ind. Indiana, Pa. Pennsylvania, Ind. T. Indian Ter., R. I. Rhode Island, Ia. Iowa, S. C. South Carolina, Kans. Kansas, S. Dak. South Dakota, Ky. Kentucky, Tenn. Tennessee, La. Louisiana, Tex. Texas, Me. Maine, Utah. Utah, Md. Maryland (mer) Vt. Vermont, Mass. Massachusetts Va. Virginia, Mich. Michigan, Wash. Washington, Minn. Minnesota, W. Va. West Virginia, Miss. Mississippi, Wis. Wisconsin, Mo. Missouri, Wyo. Wyoming.

*The words Utah, Idaho and Alaska are not abbreviated.



SELECTION XI

MY FATHERLAND

There is a land, of every land the pride, Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside, Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons imparadise the night. O land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth! The wandering mariner, whose eye explores The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, Views not a realm so bountiful and fair, Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air. In every clime, the magnet of his soul, Touched by remembrance, trembles to that pole; For, in this land of Heaven's peculiar race, The heritage of nature's noblest grace, There is a spot of earth supremely blest, A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest, Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside His sword and scepter, pageantry and pride, While, in his softened looks, benignly blend The sire, the son, the husband, brother, friend. Here woman reigns; the mother, daughter, wife, Strew with fresh flowers the narrow way of life; In the clear heaven of her delightful eye, An angel guard of love and graces lie; Around her knees domestic duties meet, And fireside pleasures gambol at her feet. "Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found?" Art thou a man?—a patriot?—look round; Oh, thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam, That land thy country, and that spot thy home.

James Montgomery.



LESSON XXIX

THE SUN

How far away from us is the sun? Are we to answer just as we think, or just as we know? On a fine summer day, when we can see him clearly, it looks as if a short trip in a balloon might take us to his throne in the sky, yet we know—because the astronomers tell us so—that he is more than ninety-one millions of miles distant from our earth.

Ninety-one millions of miles! It is not easy even to imagine this distance; but let us fancy ourselves in an express-train going sixty miles an hour without making a single stop. At that flying rate we could travel from the earth to the sun in one hundred and seventy-one years,—that is, if we had a road to run on and time to spare for the journey.

Arriving at the palace of the sun, we might then have some idea of his size. A learned Greek who lived more than two thousand years ago thought the sun about as large as the Peloponnesus; if he had lived in our country, he might have said, "About as large as Massachusetts."

As large as their peninsula! The other Greeks laughed at him for believing that the shining ball was so vast. How astonished they would have been—yes, and the wise man too—if they had been told that the brilliant lord of the day was more than a million times as large as the whole world!



LESSON XXX

IVORY

How many articles are made of ivory! Here is a polished knife-handle, and there a strangely-carved paper-cutter. In the same shop may be found albums and prayer-books with ivory covers; and, not far away, penholders, curious toys, and parasol-handles, all made of the glossy white material.

Where ivory is abundant, chairs of state, and even thrones are made of it; and in Russia, in the palaces of the great, floors inlaid with ivory help to beautify the grand apartments. One African sultan has a whole fence of elephants' tusks around his royal residence; the residence itself is straw-roofed and barbarous enough, both in design and in structure. Yet imagine that ivory fence!

The elephants slain in Africa and India in the course of a year could not furnish half the ivory used in the great markets of the world during that time. Vienna, Paris, London and St. Petersburg keep the elephant-hunters busy, yet it is impossible for them to satisfy all the demands made upon them, and the ivory-diggers must be called upon to add to the supply.

Every spring, when the ice begins to thaw, new mines or deposits of fossil ivory—a perfect treasure of mammoths' tusks—are discovered in the marsh-lands of Eastern Siberia. There are no mammoths now—unless we call elephants by that name; yet their remains have been found upon both continents. In the year 1799, the perfect skeleton of one of these animals was found in an ice-bank near the mouth of a Siberian river. As the vast ice-field thawed, the remains of the huge animal came to light.

The traders who search for mammoths' tusks around the Arctic coasts of Asia make every effort to send off, each year, at least fifty thousand pounds of fossil ivory to the west along the great caravan road. So great is the demand, however, that this quantity, added to that sent by the elephant-hunters, is not large enough to make ivory cheap in trade or in manufacture.



SELECTION XII

WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE

Woodman, spare that tree! Touch not a single bough! In youth it sheltered me, And I'll protect it now. 'Twas my forefather's hand That placed it near his cot: There, woodman, let it stand; Thy ax shall harm it not.

That old familiar tree, Whose glory and renown Are spread o'er land and sea,— And wouldst thou hew it down? Woodman, forbear thy stroke! Cut not its earthbound ties! Oh, spare that aged oak, Now towering to the skies!

When but an idle boy I sought its grateful shade; In all their gushing joy, Here, too, my sisters played. My mother kissed me here, My father pressed my hand: Forgive this foolish tear, But let that old oak stand.

My heart-strings round thee cling, Close as thy bark, old friend; Here shall the wild bird sing, And still thy branches bend. Old tree, the storm still brave! And, woodman, leave the spot! While I've a hand to save, Thy ax shall harm it not.

George P. Morris.



LESSON XXXI

FLOWERS

He who cannot appreciate floral beauty is to be pitied, like any other man who is born imperfect. It is a misfortune not unlike blindness. But men who reject flowers as effeminate and unworthy of manhood reveal a positive coarseness.

Many persons lose all enjoyment of many flowers by indulging false associations. There are some who think that no weed can be of interest as a flower. But all flowers are weeds where they grow wild and in abundance; and somewhere our rarest flowers are somebody's commonest.

And generally there is a disposition to undervalue common flowers. There are few that will trouble themselves to examine minutely a blossom that they have often seen and neglected; and yet if they would question such flowers and commune with them, they would often be surprised to find extreme beauty where it had long been overlooked.

It is not impertinent to offer flowers to a stranger. The poorest child can proffer them to the richest. A hundred persons turned into a meadow full of flowers would be drawn together in a transient brotherhood.

It is affecting to see how serviceable flowers often are to the necessities of the poor. If they bring their little floral gift to you, it cannot but touch your heart to think that their grateful affection longed to express itself as much as yours.

You have books, or gems, or services that you can render as you will. The poor can give but little and can do but little. Were it not for flowers, they would be shut out from those exquisite pleasures which spring from such gifts. I never take one from a child, or from the poor, without thanking God, in their behalf, for flowers.



LESSON XXXII

THE MOSQUITO

Mosquitoes are found in many parts of the world where there are pools of water. They swarm along the rivers of the sunny south and by the lakes of the far north. The life of one of these troublesome little fellows is well worth some attention.

Did you ever hear about the little boats that they build? They lay their eggs on the water, in which the sun's warmth hatches them out. The insect leaves the water a full-fledged mosquito ready to annoy man and beast with its sting.

The eyes of this insect are remarkable. They are so large that they cover the larger part of the head. Its feelers are very delicate, and look as if they were made of the finest feathers. Its wings are very pretty, and with them it makes a humming noise.

The organ, which the female mosquito alone employs on her victims, is called a trunk, or proboscis. This trunk is a tube, inside of which is a bundle of stings with very sharp points. When she settles on your face or hands, she pierces the skin, extracts some blood, and at the same time injects a little poison; this produces the feeling which proves so annoying.



LESSON XXXIII

SELF-RELIANCE

Of all the elements of success none is more vital than self-reliance,—a determination to be one's own helper, and not to look to others for support. It is the secret of all individual growth and vigor, the master-key that unlocks all difficulties in every profession or calling. "Help yourself, and Heaven will help you," should be the motto of every man who would make himself useful in the world. He who begins with crutches will generally end with crutches. Help from within always strengthens, but help from without invariably enfeebles.

It is said that a lobster, when left high and dry among the rocks, has not instinct and energy enough to work his way back to the sea, but waits for the sea to come to him. If it does not come, he remains where he is and dies, although the slightest effort would enable him to reach the waves. The world is full of human lobsters,—men stranded on the rocks of business, who, instead of putting forth their energy, are waiting for some grand billow of good fortune to set them afloat.

There are many young men, who, instead of carrying their own burdens, are always dreaming of some Hercules, in the shape of a rich uncle, or some other benevolent relative, coming to give them a "lift." In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, pecuniary help to a beginner is not a blessing, but a calamity. Under the appearance of aiding, it weakens its victims, and keeps them in perpetual slavery and degradation.

Let every young man have faith in himself, and take an earnest hold of life, scorning all props and buttresses, all crutches and life-preservers. Instead of wielding the rusted swords of valorous forefathers, let him forge his own weapons; and, mindful of the Providence over him, let him fight his own battles with his own good lance.



SELECTION XIII

PRAYER IN BATTLE

Father, I call to Thee. Roaring enshrouds me, the din of the battle, Round me like lightning the leaping shots rattle. Leader of battles, I call to Thee. Father, Thou lead me.

Father, Thou lead me. Lead me to victory, lead me to death; Lord, at Thy pleasure I offer my breath. Lord, as Thou wilt, so lead me. God, I acknowledge Thee.

God, I acknowledge Thee. So when the thunders of battle are breaking, As when the leaves of the autumn are shaking, Fountain of grace, I acknowledge Thee. Father, Thou bless me.

Father, Thou bless me. Into Thine hand I my being resign; Thou didst bestow it—to take it be Thine. Living and dying, O bless me. Father, I honor Thee.

Father, I honor Thee. Not for earth's riches unsheath we the sword; 'Tis our hearts we protect; 'tis Thy temples, O Lord; So railing or conquering, I honor Thee. To Thee, God, I yield me.

To thee, God, I yield me. Round me when death's fiery tempest is rushing, When from my veins the red currents are gushing, To Thee, O my God, do I yield me. Father, I call to Thee.

Theo. Koerner.



LESSON XXXIV

FRANKLIN'S TOAST

Long after Washington's judicious and intrepid conduct in respect to the French and English had made his name familiar to all Europe, Dr. Franklin chanced to dine with the English and French ambassadors, when the following toasts were given:—

The British ambassador, rising, said: "England,—the sun whose bright beams enlighten and fertilize the remotest corners of the earth."

The French ambassador, glowing with national pride, but too polite to dispute the previous toast, said: "France,—the moon whose mild, steady, and cheering rays are the delight of all nations, consoling them in darkness, and making their dreariness beautiful."

Dr. Franklin then arose, and, with his usual dignified simplicity, said: "George Washington,—the Joshua who commanded the sun and moon to stand still, and they obeyed him."



LESSON XXXV

HUMANITY REWARDED

Joseph the Second, Emperor of Germany, once received a petition in favor of a poor old officer, with a family of ten children, who was reduced to the utmost poverty.

After making inquiries respecting the man, and satisfying himself of his worth, the Emperor determined to judge of his necessities by personal observation.

Accordingly he went alone to the house of the officer, whom he found seated at table, with eleven children around him, dining upon vegetables of his own planting.

The Emperor, who was disguised as a private citizen, after some general conversation with the officer, said: "I heard you had ten children, but I see here eleven."

"This," replied the officer, pointing to one, "is a poor orphan, whom I found at my door. I have endeavored to obtain for him the assistance of persons who could better afford to provide for him, but have not been able to succeed; and of course, I could do no better than share my little portion with him."

The Emperor, admiring the generous humanity of the poor man, immediately made himself known to him, and said, "I desire that all these children may be my pensioners, and that you will continue to give them examples of virtue and honor.

"I grant you one hundred florins per annum. for each, and also, an addition of two hundred florins to your pension. Go tomorrow to my treasurer, where you will receive the first quarter's payment, together with a lieutenant's commission for your eldest son. Henceforth I will be the father of all the family."



LESSON XXXVI

WORK PROCLAIMS A WORKMAN

A certain baron had an only son, who was not only a comfort to his father, but a blessing to all who lived on his father's land. Once, when the young man was away from home, a gentleman called to see his father, and using the name of God irreverently, the good old baron reproved him.

"Are you not afraid," said he, "of offending the great Being who reigns above, by thus using His name in vain?" The gentleman said he neither feared nor believed in a being he could not see.

The next morning the baron showed the gentleman a beautiful painting that adorned his hall. The gentleman admired the picture very much, and, when told by the baron that his son painted it, said: "Your son is an excellent painter."

The baron then took his visitor into the garden, and showed him many beautiful flowers, arranged in the most perfect order. "Who has the direction of this garden?" said the gentleman. "My son," said the baron. "Indeed," said the gentleman; "I begin to think he is something uncommon."

The baron then took him into the village, and showed him a small, neat cottage, where his son had established a school, in which a hundred orphans were fed and taught at his expense. "What a happy man you are," said the gentleman, "to have so good a son!"

"How do you know that I have so good a son?" replied the baron. "Because I have seen his works," said the gentleman, "and I know he must be talented and good." "But you have never seen him," said the baron. "I have seen what he has done, and am disposed to love him, without having seen him," said the gentleman.

"Can you see anything from that window?" asked the baron. "The landscape is beautiful," said the gentleman; "the golden sun, the mighty river, the vast forest, are admirable. How lovely, and pleasant and cheerful, every object appears!"

"How happens it," said the baron, "that you could see such proof of my son's existence, in the imperfect work of his hands, and yet you can see no proof of the existence of a Creator, in the wonders and beauties which are now before you? Let me never hear you say again that you believe not in the existence of God, unless you would have me think that you have lost the use of your reason."



LESSON XXXVII

REPUBLICS

The name Republic is written upon the oldest monuments of mankind. It has been connected in all ages with the noble and the great in art and letters.

It might be asked, what land has ever felt the influence of liberty, that has not flourished like the spring? With regard to ourselves, we can truly say that we live under a form of government the equal of which the world has never seen. Is it, then, nothing to be free? How many nations in the history of the world have proved themselves worthy of being so?

Were all men as enlightened, as brave and as self-respecting as they ought to be, would they suffer themselves to be insulted by any other form of government than a republic? Can anything be more striking or more sublime, than the idea of a republic like ours; which spreads over a territory far more extensive than that of the ancient Roman empire?

And upon what is this great and glorious combination of states, so admirably united, really founded? It is founded upon the maxims of common sense and reason, without military despotism or monarchical domination of any kind. The people simply govern themselves, and the government is of the people, by the people and for the people.



FREEDOM OF THOUGHT

We must have an end of all persecution of ideas.

I condemn the government of France and Prussia when they oppress the Jesuits.

I condemn the government of Russia when it oppresses the Jews.

I affirm that to persecute ideas is like persecuting light, air, electricity, or the magnetic fluid.

Ideas escape all persecution. When repressed they explode like powder.



LESSON XXXVIII

FALSE NOTIONS OF LIBERTY

People talk of liberty as if it meant the liberty of doing what a man likes. The only liberty that a man should ask for is the privilege of removing all restrictions that prevent his doing what he ought to do.

I call that man free who is able to rule himself. I call him free who has his flesh in subjection to his spirit; who fears doing wrong, but who fears nothing else.

I call that man free who has learned that liberty consists in obedience to the power and to the will and to the law that his higher soul approves. He is not free because he does what he likes, but he is free because he does what he ought.

Some people think there is no liberty in obedience. I tell you there is no liberty except in loyal obedience. Did you ever see a mother kept at home, a kind of prisoner, by her sick child, obeying its every wish and caprice? Will you call that mother a slave? Or is this obedience the obedience of slavery? I call it the obedience of the highest liberty—the liberty of love.

We hear in these days a great deal respecting rights: the rights of private judgment, the rights of labor, the rights, of property, and the rights of man.

I cannot see anything manly in the struggle between rich and poor; the one striving to take as much, and the other to keep as much, as he can. The cry of "My rights, your duties," we should change to something nobler. If we can say "My duties, your rights," we shall learn what real liberty is.



LESSON XXXIX

THE VOICE

A good voice has a charm in speech as in song. The voice, like the face, betrays the nature and disposition, and soon indicates what is the range of the speaker's mind.

Many people have no ear for music; but everyone has an ear for skillful reading. Every one of us has at some time been the victim of a cunning voice, and perhaps been repelled once for all by a harsh, mechanical speaker.

The voice, indeed, is a delicate index of the state of mind.

What character, what infinite variety, belongs to the voice! Sometimes it is a flute, sometimes a trip-hammer; what a range of force! In moments of clearer thought or deeper sympathy, the voice will attain a music and penetration which surprise the speaker as much as the hearer.



LESSON XL

THE INTREPID YOUTH

It was a calm, sunny day in the year 1750; the scene a piece of forest land in the north of Virginia, near a noble stream of water. Implements for surveying were lying about, and several men composed a party engaged in laying out the wild lands of the country.

These persons had apparently just finished their dinner. Apart from the group walked a young man of a tall and compact frame. He moved with the elastic tread of one accustomed to constant exercise in the open air. His countenance wore a look of decision and manliness not usually found in one so young.

Suddenly there was a shriek, then another, and several in rapid succession. The voice was that of a woman, and seemed to proceed from the other side of a dense thicket. At the first scream, the youth turned his head in the direction of the sound. When it was repeated, he pushed aside the undergrowth and, quickening his footsteps, he soon dashed into an open space on the bank of the stream, where stood a rude log cabin.

It was but the work of a moment for the young man to make his way through the crowd and confront the woman. The instant her eye fell on him, she exclaimed: "Oh, sir, you will do something for me. Make them release me, for the love of God. My boy, my poor boy is drowning, and they will not let me go." "It would be madness; she will jump into the river," said one, "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment."

The youth scarcely waited for these words, for he recollected the child, a fine little boy of four years old, who was a favorite with all who knew him. He had been accustomed to play in the little inclosure before the cabin, but the gate having been left open, he had stolen out, reached the edge of the bank, and was in the act of looking over, when his mother saw him.

The shriek she uttered only hastened the catastrophe she feared; for the child lost its balance, and fell into the stream. Scream now followed scream in rapid succession, as the agonized mother rushed to the bank.

One glance at the situation was enough. To take off his coat and plunge in after the drowning child were but the actions of a moment.

On went the youth and child; and it was miraculous how each escaped being dashed to pieces against the rocks. Twice the boy went out of sight, and a suppressed shriek escaped the mother's lips; but twice he reappeared, and with great anxiety she followed his progress, as his tiny form was hurried onward with the current.

The youth now appeared to redouble his exertions, for they were approaching the most dangerous part of the river. The rush of the waters at this spot was tremendous, and no one ventured to approach, even in a canoe, lest he should be dashed in pieces. What, then, would be the youth's fate, unless he soon overtook the child? He urged his way through the foaming current with desperate strength.

Three times he was on the point of grasping the child, when the waters whirled the prize from him. The third effort was made above the fall; and when it failed, the mother groaned, fully expecting the youth to give up his task. But no; he only pressed forward the more eagerly.

And now, like an arrow from the bow, pursuer and pursued shot to the brink of the precipice. An instant they hung there, distinctly visible amid the foaming waters. Every brain grew dizzy at the sight. But a shout of exultation burst from the spectators, when they saw the boy held aloft by the right arm of the young hero. And thus he brought the child back to the distracted mother.

With a most fervent blessing, she thanked the young man for his heroic deed. And was this blessing heard? Most assuredly; for the self-sacrificing spirit which characterized the life of this youth was none other than that of George Washington, the First President of the United States.



LESSON XLI

AUTUMN

September has come. The fierce heat of summer is gone. Men are at work in the fields cutting down the yellow grain, and binding it up into sheaves. The fields of corn stand in thick ranks, heavy with ears.

The boughs of the orchard hang low with the red and golden fruit. Laughing boys are picking up the purple plums and the red-cheeked peaches that have fallen in the high grass. Large, rich melons are on the garden vines, and sweet grapes hang in clusters by the wall.

The larks with their black and yellow breasts stand watching you on the close-mown meadow. As you come near, they spring up, fly a little distance, and light again. The robins, that long ago left the gardens, feed in flocks upon the red berries of the sumac, and the soft-eyed pigeons are with them to claim their share. The lazy blackbirds follow the cows and pick up crickets and other insects.

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