WHERE TO MARKET.
When difficulty is experienced in procuring any of the articles mentioned in this book, the name of the nearest Agent can be obtained by sending a post card to the Maker. The following stock a selection of these goods:—
EDINBURGH, HEALTH FOODS DEPOT, 40 Hanover St. Health Foods and Specialties, including all "Wallace" Goods.
RICHARDS & Co., 73 N. Hanover Street.
GLASGOW, THE HEALTH FOOD SUPPLY Co., 363 New City Rd., 73 Dundas St., & 430 Argyle St. Wholesale, Retail, and Export Manufacturers and Dealers in every description of Vegetarian Health Foods.
THE "ARCADIAN" FOOD REFORM RESTAURANT AND HEALTH FOOD STORES, 132 St. Vincent Street.
CRANSTON'S TEA ROOMS, Ltd., 28 Buchanan Street and 43 Argyll Arcade.
ABERDEEN, JOHN WATT, 209 Union Street.
DUNDEE, J.P. CLEMENT & CO., 256-258 Hilltown.
J.F. CROAL, Crichton Street.
PEEBLES BROTHERS, Whitehall Crescent.
THOMAS ROGER & SON, Newport-on-Tay.
GREENOCK, CLYDESIDE FOOD STORES, 13-15 Charles St. With Branches at Helensburgh, Dunoon, Rothesay, Largs, and at 35 Causeyside, Paisley.
BIRMINGHAM, PITMAN STORES, 121-131 Aston Brook St.
R. WINTER, City Arcades and New Street.
BRISTOL, HEALTH FOOD STORES, St James', Barton.
LEEDS, "HEALTH" STORES, 124 Albion Street.
HEALTH FOOD STORES, 48 Woodhouse Lane.
MANCHESTER, VEGETARIAN STORES, 257 Deansgate.
MAPLETON'S NUT FOOD CO., Ltd., Paget Street, Rochdale Road.
WARDLE (LANCS.) MAPLETON'S NUT FOOD CO., Ltd. Pioneers and Inventors of Nut Cream Butters. List of 150 varieties of Nut Goods on application.
LIVERPOOL, CHAPMAN'S HEALTH FOODS DEPOT, Eberle Street.
LONDON, THE WALLACE BAKERY, 465 Battersea Park Road, S.W.
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HOVIS Builds Bones: Contains 1.62% mineral matter.
HOVIS is Pure: Contains no adulterants.
HOVIS is Digestive: Contains Cerealin, a valuable digestive ferment.
HOVIS is Pleasant: The large proportion of germ renders it sweet and nutty.
HOVIS is Uric-Acid-Free: Thus Best Brown Bread for Gouty Subjects.
Dr Gordon Stables says, in "Fresh Air Treatment for Consumption"—"The bread I use is Hovis; I am enthusiastic on it."
FOR HOME USE.
Hovis Flour can be obtained from most bakers. It makes delicious Scones, Pastry, Puddings, and gem Pan Rolls.
ALL PARTICULARS FROM
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* * * * * *
REFORM COOKERY BOOK.
UP-TO-DATE HEALTH COOKERY FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
OVER 300 RECIPES
NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION, COMPLETING 20,000.
"We could live without poets, we could live without books, But how in the world could we live without cooks."
PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION.
Still the Food Reform movement goes on and expresses itself in many ways. New developments and enterprises on the part of those engaged in the manufacture and distribution of pure foods are in evidence in all directions. Not only have a number of new "Reform" restaurants and depots been opened, but vegetarian dishes are now provided at many ordinary restaurants, while the general grocer is usually willing to stock the more important health foods.
Then the interest in, and relish for a non-flesh dietary has, during the past year, got a tremendous impetus from the splendid catering at the Exhibitions, both of Edinburgh and London. The restaurant in Edinburgh, under the auspices of the Vegetarian Society, gave a magnificent object lesson in the possibility of a dietary excluding fish, flesh, and fowl. The sixpenny dinners, as also the plain and "high" teas, were truly a marvel of excellence, daintiness, and economy, and the queue of the patient "waiters," sometimes 40 yards long, amply testified to their popularity.
One is glad also to see that "Health Foods" manufacturers are, one after another, putting into practice the principle that sound health-giving conditions are a prime essential in the production of what is pure and wholesome, and in removing from the grimy, congested city areas to the clean, fresh, vitalising atmosphere of the country, not only the consumers of these goods, but those who labour to produce them, derive real benefit.
The example of Messrs Mapleton in exchanging Manchester for Wardle, has been closely followed up by the International Health Association, who have removed from Birmingham to Watford, Herts.
J. O. M.
NEWPORT-ON-TAY, April 1909.
"Economy is not Having, but wisely spending." Ruskin.
"I for my part can affirm that those whom I have known to submit to this (the vegetarian) regimen have found its results to be restored or improved health, marked addition of strength, and the acquisition by the mind of a clearness, brightness, well-being, such as might follow the release from some secular, loathsome detestable dungeon.... All our justice, morality, and all our thoughts and feelings, derive from three or four primordial necessities, whereof the principal one is food. The least modification of one of these necessities would entail a marked change in our moral existence. Were the belief one day to become general that man could dispense with animal food, there would ensue not only a great economic revolution—for a bullock, to produce one pound of meat, consumes more than a hundred of provender—but a moral improvement as well."—Maurice Maeterlinck.
"Can anything be so elegant as to have few wants, and to serve them one's self, so to have somewhat left to give, instead of being always prompt to grab."—Emerson.
"Diet cures mair than physic."—Scotch Proverb.
"The first wealth is health."—Emerson.
"Of making books there is no end," and as this is no less true of cookery books than of those devoted to each and every other subject of human interest, one rather hesitates to add anything to the sum of domestic literature. But while every department of the culinary art has been elaborated ad nauseam, there is still considerable ignorance regarding some of the most elementary principles which underlie the food question, the relative values of food-stuffs, and the best methods of adapting these to the many and varied needs of the human frame. This is peculiarly evident in regard to a non-flesh diet. Of course one must not forget that there are not a few, even in this age, to whom the bare idea of contriving the daily dinner, without the aid of the time-honoured flesh-pots, would seem scarcely less impious than absurd, as if it threatened the very foundations of law and order. Still there is a large and ever increasing number whose watch word is progress and reform, who would be only too glad to be independent of the abattoir (I will not offend gentle ears with the coarse word slaughter-house), if they only knew how. In summertime, at least, when animal food petrifies so rapidly, many worried housekeepers, who have no prejudice against flesh-foods in general, would gladly welcome some acceptable substitute. The problem is how to achieve this, and it is with the view of helping to that solution that this book is written.
Now, as I said, while there is no lack of the stereotyped order of domestic literature, there seems to be a wide field over which to spread the knowledge of "Reform" dietary, and how to adapt it to the needs of different people, and varying conditions. And while protesting against all undue elaboration—for all true reform should simplify life rather than complicate it—we should do well to acquire the knowledge of how to prepare a repast to satisfy, if need be, the most exacting and fastidious.
Another need which I, as a Scotswoman, feel remains to be met, is a work to suit the tastes and ideals of Scottish people. Cosmopolitan as we now are, there are many to whom English ways are unfamiliar. Even the terms used are not always intelligible, as is found by a Scotswoman on going to live in England, and vice-versa. We could hardly expect that every London stoneware merchant would be able to suit the Scotch lass, who came in asking for a "muckle broon pig tae haud butter;" but even when English words are used, they may convey quite different ideas to Scottish and English minds. Indeed, several housewives have complained to me that all the vegetarian cookery books, so far as they can learn, are intended solely for English readers, so that we would hope to overcome this difficulty and yet suit English readers as well.
Before starting to the cookery book proper, I would point out some of the commonest errors into which would-be disciples of food reform so often fall, and which not unfrequently leads to their abandoning it altogether as a failure. Nothing is more common than to hear people say most emphatically that vegetarian diet is no good, for they "have tried it." We usually find upon enquiry, however, that the "fair trial" which they claim to have given, consisted of a haphazard and ill-advised course of meals, for a month, a week, or a few days intermittently, when a meat dinner was from some reason or other not available. One young lady whom I know, feels entitled to throw ridicule on the whole thing from the vantage-ground of one day's experience—nay, part of a day. It being very hot, she could not tackle roast beef at the early dinner, and resolved with grim heroism to be "vegetarian" for once. To avoid any very serious risks, however, she fortified herself as strongly as possible with the other unconsidered trifles—soup, sweets, curds and cream, strawberries, &c., but despite all her precautions, by tea-time the aching void became so alarming that the banished joint was recalled from exile, and being "so famished" she ate more than she would have done at dinner. Next day she was not feeling well, and now she and her friends are as unanimous in ascribing her indisposition to vegetarianism, as in declaring war to the knife—or with the knife against it evermore.
Now, there are certainly not many who would be so stupid or unreasonable as to denounce any course of action on the score of one spasmodic attempt, but there are not a few who are honestly desirous to follow out what they feel to be a better mode of living, who take it up in such a hasty, ill-advised way as to ensure failure. It is not enough merely to drop meat, and to conclude that as there is plenty food of some or any sort, all will be right, unless it has first been ascertained that it will contain the essential elements for a nourishing, well-balanced meal. It is not the quantity, however, which is so likely to be wrong as the proportions and combination of foods, for we may serve up abundance of good food, well cooked and perfectly appointed in every way, and yet fail to provide a satisfactory meal. I would seek to emphasise this fact, because it is so difficult to realise that we may consume a large amount of food, good in itself, and yet fail to benefit by it. If we suffer, we blame any departure from time-honoured orthodoxy, when, perhaps we ought to blame our wrong conception or working out of certain principles. It is never wise, therefore, to adopt the reform dietary too hastily, unless one is quite sure of having mastered the subject, at least in a broad general way; for if the health of the household suffers simultaneously with the change, we cannot hope but that this will be held responsible. Other people may have "all the ills that flesh is heir to" as often as they please. A vegetarian dare hardly sneeze without having every one down upon him with 'I told you so.' 'That's what comes of no meat.'
A frequent mistake, then, is that of making a wrong selection of foods, or combining them unsuitably, or in faulty proportions. For example, rice, barley, pulses, &c., may be, and are, all excellent foods, but they are not always severally suitable under every possible condition. Rice is one of the best foods the earth produces, and probably more than half of the hardest work of the world is done on little else, but those who have been used to strong soups, roast beef, and plum pudding will take badly with a sudden change to rice soups, rice savoury, and rice pudding. For one thing, so convinced are we of the poorness of such food, that we should try to take far too much, and so have excess of starch. Pulse foods, again,—peas, beans, lentils—are exceedingly nutritious—far more so than they get credit for, and in their use it is most usual to heavily overload the system with excess of nitrogenous matter. One lady told me she understood one had to take enormous quantities of haricot beans, and she was quite beat to take four platefuls! 'I can never bear the sight of them since,' she added pathetically. Another—a gentleman—told me vegetarianism was 'no good for him, at any rate, for one week he swallowed "pailfuls of swill," and never felt satisfied!' While yet a third—no, it was his anxious wife on his behalf—complained that 'he could not take enough of "that food" to keep up his strength.' He had three platefuls of the thickest soup that could be contrived, something yclept "savoury"—though I cannot of course vouch for the accuracy of that definition—a substantial pudding, and fruit. He 'tried' to take two tumblers of milk, but despite his best endeavours could manage to compass only one! I sympathised heartily with the good lady's anxiety, and urged that they go back to their "morsel of meat" without delay, and dispense with the soup, the "savoury," the milk, and either the fruit or the pudding. In reply to her astonished look, I gravely assured her that it was evident vegetarianism would not do for them, and her look of relief made it clear that she never suspected the mental reservation, that the tiny bit of meat was invaluable if only to keep people from taking so much by way of compensation.
Another mistake to be guarded against, is that of reverting too suddenly to rather savourless insipid food. It is certainly true that as one perseveres in a non-flesh diet for a length of time, the relish for spices and condiments diminishes, and one begins to discern new, subtle, delicate flavours which are quite inappreciable when accustomed to highly seasoned foods. As one gives up these artificial accessories, which really serve to blunt the palate, rarer and more delicious flavours in the sweet natural taste come into evidence. But this takes time. There is a story told of some Londoners who went to visit at a country farm, where, among other good things, they were regaled with new-laid eggs. When the hostess pressed to know how they were enjoying the rural delicacies, they, wishing to be polite yet candid, said everything was very nice, but that the eggs had not "the flavour of London ones!"
It were thus hopeless to expect those who like even eggs with a "tang" to them, to take enthusiastically to a dish of tasteless hominy, or macaroni, but happily there is no need to serve one's apprenticeship in such heroic fashion. There is at command a practically unlimited variety of vegetarian dishes, savoury enough to tempt the most fastidious, and in which the absence of "carcase" may, if need be, defy detection. Not a very lofty aspiration certainly, but it may serve as a stepping-stone.
When the goodman, therefore, comes in expecting the usual spicy sausage, kidney stew, or roast pig, do not set before him a dish of mushy barley or sodden beans as an introduction to your new 'reform bill' of fare, or there may be remarks, no more lacking in flavour than London eggs. Talking of sausage, reminds me that one of the favourite arguments against vegetarian foods is that people like to know what they are eating. What profound faith these must have in that, to us cynical folks, 'bag of mystery,' the sausage! But then, perhaps, they do know that they are eating——!
Now, I fear most of the foregoing advice on how to "Reform" sounds rather like Punch's advice to those about to marry, so after so many "don'ts" we must find out how to do. And to that end I would seek rather to set forth general broad guiding principles instead of mere bald recipes. Of course a large number of the items—puddings, sweets, &c., and not a few soups, are the same as in ordinary fare, so that I will give most attention to savouries, entrees, and the like, which constitute the real difficulty.
As people get into more wholesome ways of living, the tendency is to have fewer courses and varieties at a meal, but just at first it may be as well to start on the basis of a three-course dinner. One or other of the dishes may be dispensed with now and then, and thus by degrees one might attain to that ideal of dainty simplicity from which this age of luxury and fuss and elaboration is so far removed.
"Now good digestion wait on appetite, And health on both."—Shakespeare.
The following directions will be found generally applicable, so that there will be no need to repeat the several details each time. Seasonings are not specified, as these are a matter of individual taste and circumstance. Some from considerations of health or otherwise are forbidden the use of salt. In such cases a little sugar will help to bring out the flavour of the vegetables, but unless all the members of the household are alike, it had best not be added before bringing to table. Where soup is to be strained, whole pepper, mace, &c., is much preferable to ground, both as being free from adulteration, and giving all the flavour without the grit. The water in which cauliflower, green peas, &c., have been boiled, should be added to the stock-pot, but as we are now recognising that all vegetables should be cooked as conservatively as possible—that is, by steaming, or in just as much water as they will absorb, so as not to waste the valuable salts and juices, there will not be much of such liquid in a "Reform" menage. A stock must therefore be made from fresh materials, but as those are comparatively inexpensive, we need not grudge having them of the freshest and best. Readers of Thackeray will remember the little dinner at Timmins, when the hired chef shed such consternation in the bosom of little Mrs Timmins by his outrageous demands for 'a leg of beef, a leg of veal, and a ham', on behalf of the stock-pot. But the 'Reform' housekeeper need be under no apprehension on that score, for she can have the choicest and most wholesome materials fresh from the garden to her pot-au-feu, at a trifling cost. Of course it is quite possible to be as extravagant with vegetarian foods as with the other, as when we demand forced unnatural products out of their season, when their unwholesomeness is matched only by their cost. No one who knows what sound, good food really is, will dream of using manure-fed tomatoes, mushrooms at 3s. per lb.; or stringy tough asparagus, at 5s. or 10s. a bunch, when seasonable products are to be had for a few pence.
The exact quantities are not always specified either, in the following recipes, as that too has to be determined by individual requirement, but as a general rule they will serve four to six persons. The amount of vegetables, &c., given, will be in proportion to 3 pints, i.e. 12 gills liquid. Serve all soups with croutons of toast or fried bread.
The best stock for white soups is made from small haricots. Take 1 lb. of these, pick and wash well, throwing away any that are defective, and if there is time soak ten or twelve hours in cold water; put on in clean saucepan—preferably earthenware or enamelled—along with the water in which soaked (if not soaked scald with boiling water, and put on with fresh boiling water), some of the coarser stalks of celery, one or two chopped Spanish onions, blade of mace, and a few white pepper-corns. If celery is out of season, a little celery seed does very well. Bring to boil, skim, and cook gently for at least two hours. Strain, and use as required.
For clear stock take all the ingredients mentioned above, also some carrot and turnip in good-sized pieces, some parsley, and mixed herbs as preferred, and about 1/2 lb. of hard peas, which should be soaked along with the haricots. Simmer very gently two to three hours. Great care must be taken in straining not to pulp through any of the vegetables or the stock will be muddy, or as we Scotch folks would say "drumlie." If not perfectly clear after straining, return to saucepan with some egg-shells or white of egg, bring to boil and strain again through jelly-bag. A cupful of tomatoes or a few German lentils are a great improvement to the flavour of this stock, but will of course colour it more or less.
Take 1/2 lb. brown beans, 1/2 lb. German lentils, 1/2 lb. onions, 1 large carrot, celery, &c. Pick over the beans and lentils, and scald for a minute or two in boiling water. This ensures their being perfectly clean, and free from any possible mustiness. Strain and put on with fresh boiling water some black and Jamaica pepper, blade mace, &c., and boil gently for an hour or longer. Shred the onion, carrot, and celery finely and fry a nice brown in a very little butter taking great care not to burn, and add to the soup. Allow all to boil for one hour longer, and strain. A few tomatoes sliced and fried along with, or instead of the carrot, or a cupful of tinned tomatoes would be a great improvement. This as it stands is a very fine
Clear Brown Soup,
but if a thicker, more substantial soup is wanted, rub through as much of the pulp as will give the required consistency. Return to saucepan, and add a little soaked tapioca, ground rice, cornflour, &c., as a liaison. Boil till that is clear, stirring well. Serve with croutons of toast or fried bread. This soup may be varied in many ways, as by adding some finely minced green onions, leeks, or chives either before or after straining and some parsley a few minutes before serving.
White Windsor Soup.
Take 4 breakfast cupfuls white stock or water, add 6 tablespoonfuls mashed potato and 1 oz fine sago. Stir till clear and add 1 breakfast cup milk and some minced parsley. Let come just to boiling point but no more. If water is used instead of stock some finely shred onion should be cooked without browning in a little butter and added to the soup when boiling. Rub through a sieve into hot tureen.
White Soubise Soup.
Melt in lined saucepan 2 oz. butter, and into that shred 1/2 lb. onions. Allow to sweat with lid on very gently so as not to brown for about half an hour. Add 1-1/2 pints white stock and about 6 ozs. scraps of bread any hard pieces will do, but no brown crust. Simmer very gently for about an hour, run through a sieve and return to saucepan with 1 pint milk. Bring slowly to boiling point and serve. To make
Brown Soubise Soup
toast the bread, brown the onions, and use brown stock.
Almond Milk Soup.
Wash well 1/4 lb. rice and put on to simmer slowly with 1-1/2 pints milk and water, a Spanish onion and 2 sticks of white celery. Blanch, chop up and pound well, or pass through a nut-mill 1/4 lb. almonds, and add to them by degrees another 1/2 pint milk. Put in saucepan along with some more milk and water to warm through, but do not boil. Remove the onion and celery from the rice (or if liked they may be cut small and left in), and strain the almonds through to that. See that it is quite hot before serving.
NOTE.—For this and other soups which are wanted specially light and nourishing, Mapleton's Almond Meal will be found exceedingly useful. It is ready for use, so that there is no trouble blanching, pounding, &c.
Put 1 lb. Brazil nuts in moderate oven for about 10 minutes, remove shells and brown skin—the latter will rub off easily if heated—and grate through a nut-mill. Simmer gently in white stock or water with celery, onions, &c., for 5 or 6 hours. Add some boiling milk, pass through a sieve and serve. A little chopped parsley may be added if liked.
Chop small a good-sized Spanish onion and sweat in 1 oz. butter for twenty minutes. Add 2 to 3 pints stock and 1 lb. chestnuts previously lightly roasted and peeled. Simmer gently for one hour or more, pass through a sieve and return to saucepan. Bring to boil, remove all scum, add a cupful boiling milk or half that quantity of cream, and serve without allowing to boil again.
Plain White Soup.
Into enamelled saucepan put 2 ozs. butter, and as it melts stir in 2 ozs. flour. Add very gradually a breakfast cup milk, and stir over a slow heat till quite smooth. Add 3 or 4 breakfast cupfuls white stock, bring slowly to boil and serve.
Prepare exactly as for Plain White Soup, but just before serving beat up the yokes of 2 or 3 eggs. Add to them a very little cold milk or cream, and then a little of the soup. Pass through strainer into hot tureen, strain through the rest of the soup, and mix thoroughly.
Take 1/2 lb. cooked parsnips or boil same quantity in salted water till tender, pass through a sieve and add to a quantity of Plain White Soup or Stock. Bring to boil, and if sweet taste is objected to add strained juice of half a lemon.
is made in exactly the same way as Parsnip Soup, substituting young white turnips or "Golden Balls" for the parsnips, and many people will prefer the flavour. A little finely chopped spring onion or chives and parsley would be an improvement to both soups. These—except the parsley—should be boiled separately and added just before serving.
A very fine soup is made thus:—Pare and boil 2 lbs. Jerusalem Artichokes in milk and water with a little salt till quite soft, then pass through a sieve or potato masher, and add to quantity required of Velvet Soup.
Put in soup pot some very plain stock, or water will do quite well. Add 1 lb. lentils, 1/2 lb. onions, small carrot, piece of turnip, and a stick or two of celery, all chopped small, also a teacupful tomatoes. Boil slowly for two hours, pass through a sieve and return to soup pot. Melt a dessert-spoonful butter and stir slowly into it twice as much flour, add gradually a gill of milk. When quite smooth add to soup and stir till it boils.
This is a very good soup and might be preferred by some without straining the vegetables. The lentils might be boiled separately and put through a sieve before adding.
The foregoing are all varieties of White Soup and these could be extended indefinitely; but as such variations will suggest themselves to everyone, it is not necessary to take up space here. I might just mention that a most delicious
can be made by adding a nice young cauliflower, all green removed, cut in tiny sprigs, and boiled separately to the quantity required of Plain White Soup. The water in which boiled should be added also.
White Haricot Soup
is made by substituting haricot or butter beans for the cauliflower. These should be slowly cooked till tender and passed through a sieve or masher.
For this use a large well-blanched head of celery. Either chop small when cooked, or pass through sieve before adding to White Soup.
Take a bunch tender asparagus. Set aside the tops. Blanch stalks in salted boiling water for a minute or two, then drain and simmer till tender in a little milk and water. Pulp through sieve and add to White Soup when boiling. Cook the tops separately in salted boiling water. Drain and add to soup in tureen. Tinned asparagus makes very good soup. It requires little or no cooking, only to be made quite hot. Pulp stalks and put in tops whole.
It is unnecessary to give every recipe in detail for these also, if a rich clear stock has been prepared according the directions, page 11. These of course may be varied according to taste or convenience, and all the ingredients specified are by no means indispensable. Some may be left out and others added as they are at hand or in season. When celery is not to be had celery seed or celery salt gives a good flavour. A hasty stock may be contrived at anytime with chopped onions, shred carrot, and some lentils—green or yellow or both. The vegetables should be lightly fried in a little butter, the lentils scalded or washed well, and all boiled together for an hour or even less with the required quantity of water. Strain without any pressure. Then a still more hasty stock can be had with any of the excellent "Extracts" which are on the market. Their flavour will be appreciated by all, and the fact that they are manufactured from pure, wholesome cereals—barley, chiefly, I believe—should go a long way to commend them to those who have no favour for the uric acid products of "Animal" Extracts.
Well, then, if a good, clear stock is prepared, all that is necessary to convert it into
Clear Soup a la Royale
is to prepare a savoury custard with two yolks and either a cup of stock, diluted "Extract," or milk. Steam in shallow, buttered tin, cut in small squares, diamonds, &c., and put in tureen along with the boiling stock.
Cut different vegetables—carrot, turnip, celery, &c., in thin strips about 1 inch long, boil in salted water, and add to boiling clear stock.
Spring Vegetable Soup.
Have an assortment of different young vegetables comprising as many distinct and bright colours as possible—green peas, French beans trimmed and cut diamond-wise, cauliflower in tiny sprigs, carrots, turnips, cooked beetroot stamped in fancy shapes or cut in small dice, and leeks, chives, or spring onions shred finely. Cook the vegetables separately, drain, and add while hot to boiling clear stock in tureen.
Most of the thick soups are so well-known that they need not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that they will gain both in purity and flavour by substituting vegetarian stock for that usually made by boiling meat, ham bones, and the like. Great care should be taken with such soups as lentil, split-pea, potato soup, &c., to avoid a coarse "mushy" consistency. This can be done by rubbing the peas, &c., through a sieve when cooked, and adding such vegetables as carrot, turnip, onions, &c., finely chopped, to the strained soup. Perhaps, however, I ought to give at least one typical recipe for
"Reform" Pea Soup,
and if nicely made it will be quite possible to allure some unsuspecting victims who have always declared they never could or would touch pea soup, into asking for another helping of "that delicious—ahem—what-do-you- call-it-soup."
Have ready a good-sized-soup pot with amount of water required boiling fast, and into this throw 1/2 lb. split-peas for every 2 pints water. The "Giant" variety is best as they are BO easily examined and cleaned. Rub in a coarse cloth to remove any possible dust or impurity. This is much better than washing or scalding, as the peas "go down" so much more quickly when put dry into the fast boiling water. Such a method will seem rather revolutionary to those who have been accustomed to soak peas over night, but a single trial is all that is needed to convince the most sceptical. Add 1/2 lb. onions, cut up-these may first be sweated for 10 minutes with a little butter in covered pan. Simmer gently but steadily 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Rub through a sieve and return to saucepan. When boiling add some turnip in tiny dice and some carrot in slices as thin as sixpence, also finely chopped spring onion, leeks or chives, according to season, and a little finely minced parsley five minutes before serving. Stock may of course be used for this soup, but is not at all necessary. With stock or even a little extract, a very good lentil or pea soup may be made at a few minutes' notice by thickening with
"Digestive" Pea Flour
or lentil flour, as the case may be. Such soups can be taken by those of weak digestion. No vegetables should be added in that case, or if so they should be strained out.
Chop up 2 apples and 1 Spanish onion and stir over the fire with 2 ozs. butter till quite brown, but not burnt. Add 1 oz. flour (and if wanted somewhat thickened, one or two spoonfuls "Digestive" lentil or pea flour), 1 teaspoonful curry powder, and a cupful of milk, previously mixed together. Stir till smooth and boil up, then add some good stock—brown would be best—and simmer for half an hour longer, removing the scum as it rises. Serve with boiled rice, handed round on a separate dish.
This soup is to be had in perfection in the summer months when young, tender vegetables are to be had in great variety and abundance. The more different kinds there are the better, but care must be taken to give each just the proper amount of cooking and no more, or the result will be that by the time certain things are done, others will be mushy and insipid. Bring to boil the necessary quantity of clear stock—water will do. Have ready a cupful each of carrots and turnips in tiny dice—the smaller ends of the carrots being in thin slices—a cauliflower in very small sprigs, one or two crisp, tender lettuces finely shred, cupful green peas, some French beans trimmed and cut small, a dozen or so of spring onions, 2 tablespoonfuls each of lentils and rice, and any other seasonable vegetable that is to be had. Add each in their turn to the boiling stock, the time required being determined by age and condition. If very young and fresh, the carrots will require only 30 to 40 minutes, the turnips and spring onions rather less, and the cauliflower less still. French beans require about 20 minutes, peas and lettuce 15 minutes, while the rice and lentils should have about half an hour. Much must be left to the discretion of the cook, but one point I would emphasise is, don't over-boil the vegetables. There seems to be an idea that a safe rule for vegetables is the more you cook them the better, but the fact is they lose in flavour and wholesomeness every five minutes after they are done. This is why "second day's" soup so often disagrees when the first has been all right. A few slices of tomato may be added. They should be fried in a little butter, cut small, and added shortly before serving, also some chopped parsley.
This also may be very good. All the vegetables will require much longer cooking. Some will not be available, but in their place will be celery, parsnips, Brussels sprouts, leeks, &c. Dried green peas, soaked for 12 hours, can be used, or a good canned variety, and I may say that many delicious vegetables are now to be had in tins, or, better still, in glass jars.
For this wash well a cupful good fresh pot barley, bring to boil in plenty of water, pour that off and put on with clean cold water. Simmer for 2 hours and then add a selection of vegetables given for Hotch-Potch.
or Leek Soup (maigre) is an excellent winter soup. Take a dozen or more crisp fat leeks—flabby, tough ones are no use—trim away all coarse pieces, chop up the tender green quite small and simmer in covered pan with a little butter. Add to quantity required of either white stock or plain white soup, which should be boiling. Shred down the white of the leeks, fry in a little more butter, and add twenty minutes later. Cook till quite tender. If stock is used, some well-washed rice should be added about 30 minutes before serving. If white soup is prepared, it is best to cook the leeks thoroughly before adding, then merely bring to boil and serve.
Green Pea Soup.
This is a delicious summer soup. Have a clear stock made with fresh green vegetables, such as lettuce, green onions, spinach, bunch parsley, sprig mint, &c., the shells wiped clean and about half of the peas—about 2 lbs. will be needed—reserving the finest. Rub through a sieve, return to saucepan and bring to boil. Add remainder of peas, boil 15 minutes, and pour into tureen over an ounce or so of butter. Some may prefer cream in place of butter, in which case add just before serving, and do not allow to boil up.
Mock Hare Soup.
Prepare a rich well-flavoured brown stock, rubbing through the greater part of the German lentils, &c., to make it of a thick creamy consistency. The flavour will be best if such vegetables as carrot and onion are sliced and fried brown before boiling. Toast two tablespoonfuls oatmeal and one of flour to a light brown, mix with it a teaspoonful ground Jamaica pepper and smooth with a little cold water. Add to the boiling soup and stir till it boils up again. Mushroom ketchup, a few fried mushrooms, some piquant sauce, "Extract," &c., &c., may be added or not at discretion.
German Lentil Soup.
Scald 1/2 lb. German lentils for a minute in boiling water, drain and put on with quantity of boiling water required. Fry some onions, celery, and tomatoes—if to be had—in a little butter till brown, and add. Simmer about 2 hours, and rub through a sieve. Add a little ground rice, cornflour, &c., to keep the pulp from settling to the bottom. A little milk or cream or ketchup may be added if liked.
Butter Peas Soup.
Cook butter peas as for stew, [Footnote: See page 35. [Butter Peas or "Midget" Butter Bean, below]] pulp through a sieve and add to quantity of liquid required, which may be white stock or milk and water, and should be boiling. Add a small white cauliflower, cut in tiny sprigs (or any tender fresh vegetables cut small and parboiled separately). Simmer till cauliflower is just cooked, add some chopped parsley, and serve.
Mock Turtle Soup.
Prepare a quantity of strong, clear, highly-flavoured stock of a greenish-brown colour. The colour can be obtained by boiling some winter greens or spinach along with the other things. A few chopped gherkins, capers, or chillies will give the required piquancy. Have 4 ozs. tapioca soaked overnight, add to the boiling stock and cook gently till perfectly clear. Some small quenelles may be poached separately and put in tureen.
When this soup is well made it is a general favourite, but it must be well made, for it is impossible to appreciate the greasy, yellow, dish-water-looking liquid which is sometimes served in that name.
Put in a saucepan 2 ozs. butter, and into that shred finely 1/2 or 1 lb. onions. Add half or more of a tin of tomatoes or about 1 lb. fresh ones sliced, and a cup of water or stock. Simmer very gently for an hour and rub through a wire sieve, pressing with the back of a wooden spoon to get all the pulp through. Everything should go through except the skin and seeds. Return to clean saucepan with stock or water, and two tablespoonfuls of tapioca, previously soaked for at least an hour. Stir till it boils and is quite clear. This soup may be varied in many ways, as by substituting for the tapioca, crushed vermicelli, ground rice, cornflour, &c. Some chopped spring onions, chives or leeks, added after straining are a great improvement, also chopped parsley, while many people like the addition of milk or cream.
"We live not upon what we eat, but upon what we digest."
We come now to consider the middle courses of dinner in which lies the crux of the difficulty to the aspirant who wishes to contrive such without recourse to the flesh-pots. This is where, too, we must find the answer to those half-curious wholly sceptical folks who ask us, "Whatever do you have for dinner?" Most of them will grant that we may get a few decent soups, though no doubt they retain a sneaking conviction that at best these are "unco wersh," and puddings or sweets are almost exclusively vegetarian. But how to compensate for that little bit of chicken, ox, or pig—no one now-a-days owns to taking much meat!—is beyond the utmost efforts of their imagination. Of course we can't have everything. When a "reformed" friend of mine was asserting that we could have no end of delicacies, one lady triumphantly remarked "Anyhow, you can't have a leg of mutton." That is true, but then we must remember that it's not polite to speak of "legs," especially with young ladies learning cooking. Liver or kidneys are not particularly nice things to speak about either, and I am sure if we reflected on what their place is in the economy of the body, we should think them still less nice to eat.
But joking apart, there is a growing tendency to get as far away as we can from their origin in the serving of meat dishes. The old-time huge joints, trussed hares, whole sucking pigs, &c., are fast vanishing from our tables, and the smart chef exerts himself to produce as many recherche and mysterious little made dishes as possible. Not a few of these are quite innocent of meat, indeed, that is the complaint urged against them by those who believe that in flesh only can we have proper sustenance. But little research is needed, however, to show that apart from flesh foods there are immense and only partially developed resources in the shape of cereals, pulses, nuts, &c., and, it is to these that we must look for our staple solid foods. In a small work like this it is impossible to do much more than indicate the lines upon which to go, but I shall try to give as many typical dishes as I can, and to suggest, rather than detail, variations and adaptations.
We must first study very briefly the various food elements, and learn the most wholesome and suitable combination of these. In an ordinary three-course dinner we must arrange to have a savoury that will fitly follow the soup and precede the sweets. Thus, if we have a light, clear, or white soup, we shall want a fairly substantial savoury, and if the soup has been rather satisfying it must be followed by a lighter course.
The lightest savouries are prepared mostly from starch foods, as rice, macaroni, &c., while for the richer and more substantial we have recourse to peas, beans, lentils, and nuts.
The first set of savouries given are of the lighter description, and are well suited to take the place of the fish course at dinner.
Fillets of Mock Sole.
Bring to boil 1/2 pint milk and stir in 2 ozs. ground rice or 3 ozs. flaked rice. Add 1 oz. butter, teaspoonful grated onion, and a pinch of mace. Add also three large tablespoonfuls of potato which has been put through a masher or sieve, mix, and let all cook for 10 to 20 minutes. As the mixture should be fairly stiff this can best be done in a steamer or double boiler. When removed from the fire add 1 egg and 1 yolk well beaten. Mix thoroughly and turn out on flat dish not quite 1/2 inch thick, and allow to get quite cold. Divide into fillet-shaped pieces, brush over with white of egg beaten up, toss in fine bread crumbs and fry in deep smoking-hot fat. Drain, and serve very hot, garnished with thin half or quarter slices of lemon, and hand round Dutch sauce in tureen.
Fillets of Artichoke.
Boil some Jerusalem Artichokes till tender, but not too soft, cut in neat slices, and egg, crumb, and fry as above.
Salsify, Scorzonera, &c., may be done in same way. Serve with Dutch or tomato sauce. A variety is made by simply boiling or steaming in milk and water. Drain, and serve with parsley or other sauce poured over.
Get a good-sized head of well-blanched celery, trim and cut in small pieces, put in salted boiling water for a few minutes, then drain. Into a stewpan, or much better a steamer or double boiler, put 1/2 oz. butter, and into that shred a very small Spanish onion or a few heads of spring onion or shallots. Add the drained celery, one or two spoonfuls milk, salt, white pepper, and pinch mace. Allow to cook till quite tender then pour over a slice of bread free from crust and crumbled down. If the bread is not moist enough add a little hot milk. Allow to stand for a time, then drain away any superfluous moisture. The difficulty is to get this dry enough, and that is why a double saucepan is much better than an open pan, in which it is scarcely possible to cook dry enough without burning. Make a sauce with 1/2 oz. butter, 1/2 oz. flour, and 1/2 gill milk, and when it thickens add the panada, celery, &c. Stir over gentle heat till the mixture is quite smooth and leaves the sides of the pan. Remove from the fire and mix in one or two beaten eggs. Turn out to cool, shape into fritters, and fry as mock sole.
are made same as above, with cauliflower in place of celery.
Note.—The eggs in this and mock sole may be left out, though they are an improvement and help to bind the mixture together. Variety can be obtained by varying the seasonings, adding a little lemon juice or Tarragon vinegar, &c., either to the mixture or to the sauce.
Boil 2 ozs. short cut macaroni in salted boiling water, and drain. Put 3 dessertspoonfuls flour in a basin, smooth with a little cold milk, and pour a breakfast-cupful boiling milk over it, stirring vigorously all the time. Add one or two spoonfuls of cream—or a little fresh dairy butter or nut butter beat to a cream—2 beaten eggs, teaspoonful minced parsley, same of grated onion, the macaroni, a large cup bread crumbs, seasoning of pepper, salt, &c. Mix very well. Put in buttered pie-dish and bake 30 to 40 minutes in brisk oven. Turn out and serve with brown or tomato sauce. Some grated cheese may be added if liked.
Boil 3 or 4 ozs. macaroni in salted water for 15 minutes. Drain, and stew or steam till very tender along with some shred onion and tomatoes previously fried together, without browning, in 1 oz. butter. If too dry add a very little milk. When quite tender mix in enough bread crumbs to make a rather stiff consistency, also 1 or 2 ozs. grated cheese. Mix well over the fire. Add a beaten egg, pinch mace, and any other seasoning. Mix well again, turn out to cool, form into pear-shaped cutlets, egg, crumb, and fry in usual way.
Macaroni Egg Cutlets
are made by adding 2 finely chopped hard boiled eggs to the above mixture. Add when macaroni is cooked, along with crumbs, raw egg, seasoning, &c.
Celery Egg Cutlets
are made by adding the hard-boiled eggs to the mixture for celery fritters. Both of these are specially delicious, and this forms an excellent way of using up cold cooked stuff—savoury rice, vermicelli, &c.—so that one can have a dainty savoury with very little trouble. This is of no little importance in an age when so many demands are made upon the time and energy of the average housewife, and one would do well to study while preparing any dish requiring a good deal of care and labour, to have sufficient over to make a fricassee of some sort for another time.
Rice and Lentil Mould
comes in very handy in this way. Put 1 oz. butter in saucepan and shred into it very finely a large Spanish onion or an equal quantity white of small onions or leeks. Cover, and allow to sweat over gentle heat for 10 minutes. Some finely shred white celery along with the onions is a welcome addition, but is not indispensable. Pick and wash well 1/4 lb. yellow lentils and bring to boil in water to cover. Do the same with 3 ozs. rice. The lentils and rice may be boiled together, but are nicer done separately. Add to onion, &c., in saucepan, along with seasoning to taste of curry powder, &c. Some tomato pulp or chutney is very good. Mix lightly so as not to make it pasty. Remove from fire, add a beaten egg, and press into a plain buttered mould. Tie down with buttered paper and steam for one hour. Turn out and serve with tomato sauce. It may also be garnished with slices of hard-boiled egg, beetroot, fried tomatoes, &c.
A very good kedgeree is made with much the same ingredients as above. The lentils may be left out, and chopped tomato or carrot flaked (on one of those threesome graters is best) and fried along with the onion, may be used instead. The rice must be boiled as for curry and made very dry. Boil 2 or 3 eggs hard, chop finely, and mix with the other ingredients in saucepan. Make all very hot, and serve piled up on hot dish with any suitable garnish and curry or tomato sauce. A spoonful finely chopped parsley would be an improvement to both this and rice mould. Fried parley and thin slices of lemon make a suitable garnish for this and similar dishes, while parsley fried in fat at a low temperature, 200 degrees, crushed and sprinkled over a mould, cutlets, &c., both looks and tastes good. Any kedgeree that is left over will make excellent cutlets for breakfast, &c.
is made by using cooked macaroni instead of rice in recipe for rice mould.
Boil 6 ozs. long pipe macaroni—in as long pieces as convenient—in salted boiling water 20 to 25 minutes, and drain. Have a plain mould—a small enamel pudding basin is best—butter it well, and line closely round it with the macaroni. Fill in with any savoury mixture, such as lentils, tomatoes, mushrooms, celery, carrots, &c. Put more strips of macaroni or a slice of buttered bread on the top. Cover with buttered paper and steam 1-1/2 hours. Turn out and serve with sauce. Garnish suitably, cooked tomatoes, &c.
Boil 4 ozs. macaroni and drain. Butter a pie-dish and put in half the macaroni. Scald 4 or 5 tomatoes in boiling water for a few minutes, when the skin will come off easily. Boil 2 eggs hard and slice. Have 2 ozs. cheese grated, and sprinkle half of it over the macaroni, then put half of the eggs and half the tomatoes. Season with salt, pepper, and a little grated onion (I keep an old grater for the purpose). Take 8 or 10 medium-sized flap mushrooms, if to be had, clean and trim, removing the stalks. Add a layer of them, and repeat as before, but put the mushrooms before the tomatoes. Cover the top thickly with bread-crumbs. Make a stock with the trimmings of mushrooms and tomatoes. Put dessertspoonful butter in saucepan, stir in half teaspoon flour, same of made mustard, and perhaps a little ketchup. Add the stock—there should be about a teacupful—stir till it boils, and pour equally over the pie. Dot over with bits of butter, and bake one hour in fairly brisk oven.
In case this pie may be voted rather elaborate by some, I may say that it is excellent with several of the items left out. The eggs, mushrooms, cheese—any one of these, or all three may be dispensed with, and what may be lost in richness and flavour will be compensated in delicacy and digestibility. Any of this pie that is left over may be made into cutlets, so that one can have a second dish with little extra trouble.
NOTE.—When fresh tomatoes are not to be had tinned ones will do.
Tomato and Rice Pie.
Wash well a teacupful good rice—Patna is best for this dish as it does not become so pulpy as the Carolina—and put on with cold water to cover and a little salt. Allow to cook slowly till it has absorbed all the water. Add a little more if too dry, but do not stir. Peel 1 lb. tomatoes, cut in 1/2 inch slices and put a layer in buttered pie-dish. Put in the rice—or as much of it as wanted—sprinkle with curry and seasoning to taste. Put rest of tomatoes on top, more seasoning, and layer of bread-crumbs. Put plenty of butter on top and bake 3/4 hour.
Note.—Tinned tomatoes may be used when fresh ones are not at hand. Any of the dishes with tomatoes, rice, &c., may have grated cheese or hard-boiled eggs added at discretion, and in this way the several dishes may be varied and adapted to suit different tastes and requirements.
Casserole of Rice.
Wash well 6 ozs. whole rice and drain. Melt in saucepan 2 ozs. butter or 1-1/2 ozs. Nut Butter. Put in rice with as much white stock or water as will cover it, a little salt, pinch mace if liked, and allow to simmer very slowly or steam in double boiler till quite soft. Stir well, and if too stiff add a little more water, but it must not be 'sloppy.' Beat well till quite smooth and set aside to cool. Butter plain mould and line with rice nearly an inch thick. Fill in with any savoury materials, such as tomatoes, mushrooms, onions, celery, fried slices of carrot, lentils, &c. An hour before dinner cover with buttered paper and steam. Turn out on hot dish, cut a round off the top, and either serve as it is with garnish and sauce, or brush over with beaten egg, sprinkle with fine crumbs, and brown in brisk oven.
Put 2 teacupfuls crumbs in basin and pour boiling water or milk over. Let soak for a little, then press out as much moisture as possible. Add dessertspoonful grated onion, teaspoonful chopped parsley, pinch herbs or mace, salt, white pepper, 1/2 teaspoonful "Extract," and some mushroom ketchup. Mix all well, and add a beaten egg to bind. If too stiff add a little milk, stock, or gravy. Put in flat well-buttered baking-tin, and bake for about an hour, basting occasionally with butter or vegetable fat. Serve with fried tomatoes or any suitable sauce.
This is exceedingly good if nicely made and served. Clean 1/2 lb. white crisp celery and cut small. Simmer in enamel pan or steam with as little milk as possible till tender, then boil rapidly to reduce the liquid. Rub through a sieve and set aside to cool. Beat 1 oz. fresh butter to a cream and add yolks of 2 eggs, one at a time, beating well in, also barely 1 oz. grated cheese and seasoning to taste. Mix well. Beat whites of 3 eggs quite stiff and mix in very lightly. Butter souffle tin and tie band of buttered paper round, to come 2 inches above the rim. Fill in mixture—not more than three-fourths full, and steam very gently in barely an inch of water for 1 hour. Turn out on very hot dish and serve immediately, or slip off paper band and pin hot napkin round. If allowed to stand any time it will be quite flat before serving. A rather daintier if more troublesome way is to fill small souffle cases three-fourths full with the above mixture. Sprinkle a little grated Parmesan cheese and celery, salt on the top, and bake in hot oven 10 minutes. Arrange tastefully on hot napkin.
NOTE.—Very dainty souffle cases are now to be had in white fluted fire-proof china. These can come straight to table without any trouble of swathing with napkins, paper collars, and the like.
is another delicacy well suited to a special occasion. Prepare and cook celery as for souffle, drain and rub through sieve. Have enamelled or earthenware saucepan on the table, rub the bottom with a little butter, and break in 2 large eggs or 3 small ones. Season with white pepper, celery salt, lemon juice, mace, &c., and beat slightly. Take 1/2 gill cream and same of milk, drained from the celery, and add to eggs, &c. Place over a slow fire, or better still, a gas stove turned low, and stir till the mixture thickens, but it must not boil, then add the celery and mix. Have one large timbale mould or 8 to 10 small ones well buttered, fill in with the cream, cover with buttered paper, and steam very gently till set—30 minutes if large mould—10 minutes if small ones. If a large one turn out and fill in centre with tomatoes, mushrooms, &c. If small ones arrange round ashet with baked tomatoes, spinach, green peas, &c., in the centre of the dish.
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is prepared in the same way, putting tender cooked asparagus in place of the celery.
Celery or Asparagus Quenelle
is made much in the same way. To every teacupful celery or asparagus pulp allow 2 cupfuls fine white bread crumbs. Beat up two or three eggs, add, and mix well. Steam in large or small moulds, or divide into spoonfuls, shape round, and poach in boiling water, stock, or milk. Serve with cooked tomatoes or sauce, or they may be put in tureen with clear or white soup.
Many toothsome variants of the foregoing recipes will suggest themselves as one goes along, so that it is needless to detail each at length. Thus, fritters, moulds, quenelles, &c., may be varied at pleasure by substituting cauliflower, the white of spring onions or leeks, &c., for the celery or other ingredients mentioned. By the way, we do not appreciate the food value of leeks as much as we ought. A dozen or so of the thickest
Leeks Stewed or Steamed
in milk or stock, and served with the liquor made into a white sauce, is a dish as delicious as it is wholesome and blood-purifying.
Needless to say, everything should be the best of its kind and absolutely fresh. To ensure this we should make a point of using as far as possible those which are in season at the time, as however well preserved they may be, vegetables, especially the finer sorts, lose in flavour and wholesomeness every hour between the garden and pot.
We come now to the more substantial savouries which form the staple part of the ordinary family dinner. These, along with soup and pudding, will furnish an excellent three-course meal, and where time—or appetite—is limited, as in the rush to and from school or business, two sources will be found ample.
German Lentil Stew.
Among the various pulse foods, of which there are fifty or sixty different kinds, though only some half-dozen are at all well-known, German lentils are one of the most valuable. In this country they are but little used, but they only need be known to be heartily appreciated. As far as my experience goes, every one who has once sampled them is loud in their praises. Even in those households where meat is used they might come as a change and variety, and help to solve the problem of that typical, much-to-be-pitied housekeeper who so pathetically wished there might be "a new animal" discovered!
Well, "to return to our"—ahem—lentils. These German or Prussian lentils are quite different from the ordinary yellow kind. They are green or olive coloured, much larger, and of a flat tabloid shape. They are exceedingly savoury, and—if that is any recommendation—so "meaty" in flavour that it is almost impossible to convince people that they are quite innocent in that respect. They are usually sold at about double the price of yellow lentils, and even then are very cheap; but this is a fancy price, charged because of their being a novelty, and I may say that I get the very finest quality, perfectly clean and free from grit, at the extremely low price of 2d. per lb.
To make a stew, which is the basis of a number of other dishes, take 1/2 lb. German lentils and scald for a minute or two in boiling water to make sure that they are thoroughly clean. Drain, and put in good-sized saucepan with plenty of fresh boiling water, and allow to simmer very gently for an hour. In another stewpan melt 1 oz. butter, and into that shred very finely two or three onions. Cover, and cook 10 to 15 minutes to bring out the flavour. They may brown or not as preferred, but there must not be the least suspicion of burning. Turn the lentils into this pan, add some chopped celery if at hand—it is very good without, but to my taste most dishes are improved by celery—and allow to simmer an hour longer. See that there is plenty of water—there should be a rich brown gravy. Add seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, Jamaica pepper, parsley, &c. A few tomatoes may be added, or carrots, turnips, &c. A few ozs. macaroni, par-boiled in salted boiling water and added an hour or less before, will make one of the many pleasing varieties of this dish. Serve like a mince, garnished with sippets of toast or fried bread, or toasted Triscuits.
Line a pudding basin with suet paste [Footnote: See pastry.], and fill in with lentils cooked as above, and tomatoes, or any vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, cauliflower, beetroot, &c., to keep the mixture from being too heavy, for whatever may be thought to the contrary, there is a much larger proportion of solid nutriment to the bulk in pulse foods than in the "too, too solid flesh" which we esteem so highly. And, at the risk of wearying readers with reiteration, I must say again that herein lies the danger. Quite a number of people have told me that they would like such foods, but they could not take enough to keep up their strength, and were reproachfully incredulous when, ignoring the gentle insinuation as to other people's capacity, I told them the great difficulty was to take little enough! But we must finish the pot-pie. Put a thin round of paste on the top. Wet the edges and press together, tie down with greased paper, and steam 2 to 3 hours. Turn out and send to table with suitable hot garnish.
The same paste may be made into little balls or flat cakes and put to cook with lentil stew, but great care must be taken to see that there is plenty gravy, and that they cook very gently, for if they "catch" ever so slightly they are spoiled. All danger of this can be avoided by steaming in a basin or jar instead of cooking in open pan.
Take about 2 teacupfuls cooked German lentils—not too moist. Put in a basin and add a cupful fine bread crumbs, and a cupful cold boiled rice or about half as much mashed potatoes. Add any extra seasoning—a little ketchup, Worcester sauce, Marmite or Carnos Extract, &c.—also a spoonful of melted butter. Mix well with a fork and bind with one or two beaten eggs, reserving a little for brushing. Shape into a brick or oval, and press together as firmly as possible. Brush over with beaten egg, put in buttered tin, and bake for half-an-hour. Or it may be put in saucepan with 1 oz. butter or Nut Butter that has been made very hot. Cover and braize for 10 minutes. Turn and cook for another 10 minutes. Add a little flour and seasoning to the butter, and then a cupful boiling water, stock, or diluted "Extract," and allow to simmer a little longer. Serve with garnish of beetroot or tomatoes.
This can also be made into a delicious
Bake or braize as above. Remove to the ashet on which it is to be served. Allow to get quite cold, then glaze. [Footnote: See Glaze.]
are made of the same ingredients as savoury brick. Pound well in a basin, so as to have all the materials nicely blended, or put in a saucepan over gentle heat, and mash well with a wooden spoon. See that the seasoning is right. Some chopped tomatoes and mushrooms are an improvement, also some grated onion, ketchup, and "Extract." These should be put in saucepan with a little butter until lightly cooked, then the lentils, &c., should be added, the whole well mixed and turned out to cool. When quite cold, flour the hands and form into small sausages. Brush over with beaten egg and fry, or put on greased baking tin and bake till a crisp brown. They may need a little basting, or to be turned over to brown equally.
The filling for
is compounded exactly as above, but should be rather moister, and have more butter added to prevent their being too dry. Have quantity required of rough puff pastry. [Footnote: See Pastry.] Roll out and divide into 9 or 10 4-inch squares. Put a little sausage meat in centre, wet the edges and fold over. Press the edges lightly together with pastry cutter, if you have one, brush all over with beaten egg except the edges. Place on oven plate and put at once in hot oven. Bake 20 to 30 minutes. They may be served either hot or cold, but are best hot. They can easily be re-heated in oven at any time.
may have the same filling put in plain short crust, or raised pie-crust, rolled very thin and cut in oval or diamond shapes. Fold over, and turn up the under edge all round. Brush over with egg and bake—if raised pie crust—in rather a slower oven.
Roll out rough puff or short crust very thin, stamp out into rounds, put a little of the mince on one, wet edges and put another on top, press very firmly together, brush over with egg and fry in deep, smoking-hot fat.
Take an ordinary pie-dish, such as used for steak pie. Have one or two large Spanish onions half-cooked, remove the centres, and put in pie-dish. This will serve both to keep up the paste and to hold gravy. Fill up the dish with partially stewed German lentils, and either sliced tomatoes or pieces of carrot and turnip first fried in a little butter. There should also be plenty of chopped onions put in the bottom of the dish, which should be buttered. Fill nearly up with well-seasoned stock, "Extract," gravy, or water, cover with rough puff paste, and bake for an hour or longer, according to size. There should be a hole in top of pastry, covered with an ornament, which could be lifted off, and some more gravy put in with a funnel. Serve very hot. If to be used cold, a little soaked tapioca should be cooked with it, or some vegetable gelatine might be dissolved in the gravy.
By way of variety, a few force-meat balls may be put in; also mushrooms when in season.
is made much the same as above, substituting Butter Beans or Giant Haricots for the German lentils. They should be soaked all night and nearly cooked before using. Put in a layer of beans, sprinkle in a little tapioca, then put a layer of sliced tomatoes and repeat. Fried beetroot may be used instead of tomatoes, and crushed vermicelli or bread crumbs instead of tapioca.
Haricot Raised Pie,
which is very good to eat cold for pic-nic luncheon, &c., is made as follows:—Soak 1/2 lb. large beans all night, when the skins should come off easily, and put to stew or steam with butter, shred onions, and a very little stock or water till soft, but not broken down. Set aside to cool. Prepare a raised pie case [Footnote: See Pastry.], put in half the beans, a layer of sliced tomatoes, and a layer of hard-boiled eggs. Repeat. Put on lid, which should have hole in centre, and bake in a good, steady oven for an hour. Meanwhile, have some strips of vegetable gelatine soaking, pour off the water, and bring to boil in a cupful well-seasoned stock, "Extract," gravy, &c. Stir till gelatine is dissolved, and when the pie is removed from the oven, pour this in. When cold this should be a firm jelly, and the pie will cut in slices. If tomato or aspic jelly is prepared, some of that would save trouble. Melt and pour in.
There are many other toothsome ways of serving haricot and butter beans. In every case they should first be well washed, soaked, and three-parts cooked with stock or water, butter, onions, and seasoning.
Savoury Haricot Pie.
This is made without paste. Put a layer of beans in buttered pie-dish, then pieces of carrot and turnip—previously par-boiled—to fill up the dish. Pour in a little gravy. Cover with a good white sauce, well seasoned with made mustard, chopped parsley, &c., and coat thickly with bread crumbs. Dot over with bits of butter, and bake 30 or 40 minutes.
Many variations will suggest themselves—cauliflower, parsnips, vegetable marrow, sliced tomatoes, beetroot, &c., instead of the other vegetables. Or the same ingredients as in the first haricot pie might be used, with the crumbs instead of pastry.
Half pound soaked beans boiled till tender in one pint water, with butter and sliced onions. Drain, but keep the liquor. Slice some carrots and turnips thin, fry lightly, and then simmer in the liquor for half-an-hour. Put a little butter in stewpan, slice and cook two onions in that, with the lid on, stir in a tablespoonful flour, and add the haricots, vegetables, and the liquor. Simmer gently till all are quite cooked, and serve. Some tomatoes or a little extract may be added, and it can be varied in many other ways.
Take nearly a teacupful of haricots pulped through a sieve, and add to this 2 ozs. bread crumbs. Same of mashed potatoes; a shallot finely minced, or a spoonful of grated onion. Beat up an egg and add, reserving a little. Mix thoroughly, and form into marbles. Coat with the egg, toss in fine crumbs, and fry in smoking-hot fat till golden brown in colour.
can be made with the same mixture as for marbles. Some chopped tomatoes, beetroot, or mushrooms may be added. If the mixture is too moist add a few more crumbs; if too dry add a little ketchup, milk, tomato juice, &c. Form into sausage-shaped pieces or small flat cakes. Dip into frying batter, and drop into smoking-hot fat. When a golden brown lift out, and drain on absorbent paper. Serve them, as also the golden marbles, on sippets of toast or fried bread with tomato or parsley sauce.
Haricot Croquettes or Cutlets
are of course made with any of these mixtures. Shape into cutlets, egg, crumb, and fry in the usual way.
There are an immense number more dishes which can be made with pulse foods, for which I have not space here. There are also a number of new varieties of pulses being put upon the market, which can be used with advantage to vary the bill of fare and enlarge its scope.
Giant Split Peas
are especially good, and might be used in any of the foregoing recipes in place of haricots. One advantage is that they do not require soaking. If scalded with boiling water, drained, and put to cook in fresh boiling water, they will be quite soft in little over an hour.
The best quality of butter beans also need no soaking. After scalding for a few minutes the skins come off quite easily. There is also a new variety called
Butter Peas, or "Midget" Butter Beans,
which I can heartily recommend. In appearance they resemble the small haricots, but are much finer and boil down very quickly. They make a very rich white soup, and may, of course, be used for any of the savouries for which recipes are given. Scald with boiling water (or they may merely be rubbed in a clean coarse cloth), plunge into more boiling water—the quantity proportioned to the purpose for which intended, soups, stews, &c.—and simmer till just tender, but not broken down.
Though they can be made up in a host of ways they are perhaps nicest as a simple stew. When just cooked—and great care must be taken not to overcook, for much of the substance, as well as the delicacy of flavour, is lost if we do—have a saucepan with some shred onions, sweated till tender, but not in the least coloured, in a little butter. Stir in a spoonful of flour, and when smooth a gill of milk, or the stock from the butter peas. Stir till it thickens and add the peas themselves, and any extra seasoning required. See that all is quite hot, and serve garnished with sippets of toast.
also furnish us with unlimited possibilities for new dishes. They are as yet rather difficult to procure, but need only to be known to become very popular. They somewhat resemble German lentils, but are much browner and smaller. Being so small, extra trouble must be taken to see that they are clean and free from grit. They can be used in place of German lentils for any of the soups or savouries for which recipes are given. They cook very quickly, and care must be taken with them also not to waste any of their goodness up the chimney.
Make the sausages the same as in previous recipe, only using brown lentils instead of German lentils. Put in a buttered pie-dish and pour over the following
Beat up one or two eggs. Add 3 tablespoonfuls flour, and by degrees two gills milk, also seasoning of grated onion, chopped parsley, white pepper, "Extract," &c. While
Fresh Green Peas or Beans
are to be had, one need not be confined to the dried pulses. Cook the peas, broad beans, or French beans, as directed in "Vegetables." Serve with poached or buttered eggs, fried or baked tomatoes, &c.
One might go on ad infinitum to suggest further combinations and variations of the different pulse foods, but these must be left to suggest themselves, for I must now pass on to another class of foods.
We are only beginning very slowly to recognise the valuable properties of nuts and their possibilities in the cuisine. Indeed, there is a rather deep-rooted prejudice against them as food, people having been so long accustomed to regard them as an unconsidered trifle to accompany the wine after a big dinner, and as in this connection they usually call up visions of dyspepsia, many people regard the idea of their bulking at all largely in a meal with undisguised horror. I remember a lady saying to me that she was quite sure a meal composed to any extent of nuts would kill her, for if she took even one walnut after dinner it gave her such pain. That rather reminds one of the story of a half-witted fellow who used to go about the country doing odd jobs, and asking in return a meal and a shake-down of straw or hay.
He always expressed astonishment at folks being able to sleep on feather beds, his aversion being founded on the fact that he had one night lain down on the hard ground with a single feather under him. "An' if I had sic a sarkfu' o' sair banes wi ae feather," he argued, "what like maun it be wi' a hale bed?"
Well, I can assure readers that whatever may be the troubles of a solitary nut in an oasis of good things, it is very different when nuts are taken alone or in a suitable and simple combination. Most of our digestive troubles are due to an excess of proteid matter, which clogs up the system, and either lodges in the body in the shape of some morbid secretion, or tries to force its way out in an abnormal way, as by the skin. Now, nuts are very rich in proteid, or flesh-forming matter, and it stands to reason, that if we superimpose them on an already full, or overfull, meal, the result is surfeit, and however wholesome or digestible this excess matter may be in itself, it may, and usually does, work harm in more or less obvious ways.
But curiously enough, this does not always work out with mathematical directness. Most things in the physical, as in the metaphysical, world work out as Ruskin says "not mathematically, but chemically." Though this may seem a far-fetched simile in connection with our dinner, it is a true one. To get back to our nuts. If after a meal of several courses, rich in quality and variety, highly-spiced and flavoured, and perhaps interspersed with little piquant relishes, serving to whet the appetite for the next course, one takes only a very few nuts, or an apple, or a banana, the probability is that "these last" will give the most direct trouble. The gastric juices may be already exhausted, and the nuts, therefore, lie a hard undigested mass on the stomach; or the apple digesting very quickly, and being ready to leave the stomach some hours before its other contents, but having to bide their time, ferments and gives off objectionable gases. Thus, the innocent fruit gets the blame, and the fish, game, or meat go free. Another way in which fruits may prove indigestible, through no fault of their own, is because of the unsuitable combination in which they are eaten. Most nuts, with the exception of chestnuts, which are largely composed of starch, consist almost entirely of fat, which, unless it meets with an alkali to dissolve it, is digested with great difficulty. The uric acid in flesh tends to harden this fat, and so retards digestion.
The medical faculty now recognise the nutritive properties of nuts, as also their wholesomeness and freedom from all toxic elements, and at all sanatoria for the treatment of rheumatic and gouty affections a nut and fruit diet is the established regime. We need not, however, go to an expensive sanatorium to enjoy this food, but may cure, or better, prevent these diseases in our own homes.
They are, I believe, best in their natural state, along with fresh fruits, salads, and the like, but there are also many dainty dishes, in the composition of which they may be used with advantage.
Mock Chicken Cutlets
only require to be known to be appreciated. Grate 1/4 lb. shelled walnuts—this is best and easiest done by running through a nut-mill, but these are not expensive, as they may be had from 1s. 6d.—or Brazil nuts, and add to them two teacupfuls bread crumbs, mix in 1/2 oz. butter, spoonful onion juice, and a little mace, white pepper, salt or celery salt. Melt 1/2 oz. butter in saucepan. Mix in a teaspoonful flour, and add by degrees a gill of milk. When it thickens add the other ingredients. Mix well over the fire. Remove and stir in a beaten egg and teaspoonful lemon juice. Mix all thoroughly and turn out to cool. Form into cutlets, egg, crumb, and fry. Serve with bread sauce or tomato sauce.
Take 2 ozs. shelled Brazil nuts and rub off the brown skin. If they are put in slow oven for 10 minutes, both shell and skin will come off easily. Flake in a nut-mill or pound quite smooth. Add the yolk of hard boiled egg, a teaspoonful ground almonds, or almond meal, and make into a paste. Then add some grated onion, a tablespoonful baked or mashed potato, the same of bread crumbs, and seasoning to taste. Mix well, and add the yolks of two eggs beaten up, and after mixing thoroughly, stir in lightly the two whites beaten quite stiff, butter a shallow tin or soup-plate, and pour in the mixture. Cover and bake gently, till set—about an hour. When cool, cut into neat shapes, egg, crumb, and fry. The same mixture will also make a delicious
Add another white of egg stiffly beaten, and steam gently for 30 minutes.
Add another two tablespoonfuls bread crumbs, and leave out the potato; use three eggs, but beat yolks and whites together. Butter one large or a number of small moulds, fill with the mixture, and steam gently for 20 to 40 minutes, according to size; turn out, and serve, if large, with slices of tomatoes baked or fried, arranged round. If small ones, have tomatoes piled up in centre and quenelles placed round.
A number of other savouries, in which nuts form a part, can be made by substituting grated walnuts, Brazil nuts, almonds, almond meal, Barcelonas, &c., for peas, beans, lentils, &c., in the previous recipes. As they are highly nutritive and concentrated, they must be used sparingly, however, along with plenty of bread crumbs, rice, and the like. There is no need to detail these, but I will give one to show what I mean.
Run 4 ozs. shelled walnuts through the nut-mill—this will give about a teacupful. Have some whole rice boiled as for curry, and put a layer of that in buttered pudding dish. Put half of the grated nuts evenly on the top, then a layer of tomatoes seasoned with grated onion, parsley, salt, pepper, pinch mace, ketchup, &c. Repeat. Cover thickly with bread crumbs, pour some melted butter over and bake till a nice brown. If rather dry, pour some tomato sauce, diluted extract, gravy, &c., over. Serve with tomato or other sauce.
The same ingredients may be put in a buttered mould and steamed, or the whole may be mixed together, a beaten egg added, then made into one large or a number of small rolls, place in baking tin, put some butter on the top and bake, basting and turning now and then.
Prepared Nut Meats.
Of late years since the food value of nuts has been recognised, the attention of specialists has been turned in their direction with very practical results. Quite a number of excellent "Nut Meats" are now upon the market, and each year adds to their variety, so that one's storeroom can be supplied in a way that was impossible only a few years ago. For a cold luncheon dish Mapleton's Fibrose, Almond Nut Meat, and
Savoury Nut Meat
Are very good. The latter is put up in air-tight glass dishes. Tomatoes or any vegetable may be served with it. Then Meatose, Nut-Meatose, Vejola, Nutvego, &c., are all excellent. The
Is specially fine. These "Meats" are all ready for use, and may be made up in any of the ordinary recipes for Stews, Pies, Sausage Rolls, &c. One dish which most people would like is
Curried Nut Meat.
Melt 1 oz. butter in stewpan, and into that put a tablespoonful finely shred or grated onion, a few slices of tart apple or a little rhubarb, and, if possible, some tomatoes—fresh ones peeled and sliced are best, but the tinned ones will do very well. Stir in a dessert-spoonful flour and curry powder to taste, and pour on boiling water, stock, or gravy as required. Slice the nut meat and lay it in. Cover, and cook gently for about half an hour. Serve with plain boiled rice.
I have not space to give further recipes, but would just add a word of caution—use very sparingly. They are highly concentrated and nutritious foods, and a large quantity is not only unnecessary, but harmful.
In addition to above, there are the products of the International Health Association, "the pioneer manufacturers of health foods," who have within the past year removed their works into the country (Stanborough Park, Watford, Herts). Then Messrs Winter, Birmingham, "Pitman," Birmingham, and Messrs Chapman, Liverpool, have a number of excellent nut meats, fuller reference and recipes for which will be found in the chapter on "Health Food Specialties" at end of book.
Many excellent cheese dishes, such as macaroni cheese, &c., are to be found in the category of every household, so it will be needless to detail those which are most generally known. Cheese is highly nutritious, and not indigestible for those in ordinary health, if taken in moderation and combined with other lighter and bulkier foods. Cheese with rice, bread crumbs, macaroni, tomatoes, &c., is exceedingly good. It should be used very sparingly, or not at all, in dishes which contain pulse, nuts, or eggs. It should always be grated so that it can be mixed thoroughly with the other ingredients.
Rice and Cheese.
Half teacupful rice, 2 ozs. grated cheese, one egg. Wash rice and put on with cold water to barely cover, and pinch salt. When that is absorbed, add milk enough to swell and cook the rice thoroughly without making it sloppy. Remove from the fire and stir in the cheese, seasoning of salt, pepper, or made mustard, pinch cayenne, and the egg beaten up. Turn into buttered baking dish and bake gently till set and of a pale brown—cheese dishes must never be done in too hasty an oven, as they acquire an unpleasant flavour if in the least burnt. Turn out on hot ashet, and serve garnished with slices of hard-boiled egg or fried tomatoes.
Cheese and Semolina.
Four ozs. cheese, breakfast cup milk, 1 oz. semolina, 2 eggs. Bring milk to boil and stir in semolina. Cook till it thickens; remove from fire and stir in the cheese, pinch cayenne, and yolks of eggs beaten up, beat up whites stiffly, and mix in lightly. Turn into buttered pudding-dish and bake gently till ready—about half-an-hour. This mixture, and the previous one, may also be steamed for about 40 minutes. Serve with fried tomatoes or tomato sauce.
I may say here that tomatoes go very well with cheese in almost any form. A nice variety of rice and cheese can be contrived as follows:—Put half of the cooked rice in pudding dish, put breakfastcupful tomatoes in saucepan with a little butter, the cheese and seasoning, and just stir over the fire till quite mixed. Put half over the rice, then the rest of the rice, and the other half of the tomato mixture. Coat thickly with crumbs, put some butter on top, and bake.
Two tablespoonfuls grated cheese, 2 eggs, 1-1/2 gills milk. Beat yolks of eggs and mix in cheese, milk, pepper, salt, pinch cayenne, and, lastly, the whites beaten quite stiff. Make souffle tin very hot, pour in mixture, and bake in quick oven till set—15 to 20 minutes. Serve very hot.
This is a favourite savoury in many non-vegetarian households. There are numerous different recipes, which will doubtless be well known, but the following is quite new and original. Prepare some slices of buttered toast or fried bread, take about 1 lb. fresh tomatoes or a large cupful tinned ones drained from the liquor, put in saucepan with a little butter and grated onion, and stew gently till the tomatoes are pulped. If at all stringy, put through a sieve. Add 2 ozs. grated cheese, seasoning to taste, and stir over gentle heat till quite thick. Spread a layer of this mixture on each slice of toast and pile on the top of each other. Reserve a little of the mixture and to it add some tomato juice or milk, mushroom ketchup, or diluted extract. Make very hot and pour right over, sprinkle with chopped parsley, and garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs—or these might have the whites chopped up and the yolks grated over the top. Serve very hot. A very tasteful effect is made by having the slices of toast, which may be round, oblong, &c., graduating pyramid-wise from a large one at the bottom to a small one at the top.
Cheese Straws (1).
Rub 2 ozs. butter into 4 ozs. flour. Add 2 ozs. grated cheese, a little mustard and cayenne, and make into a stiff paste, with the yolks of 2 eggs or one whole egg beaten up. Roll out thin, cut into straws, lift on to baking sheet carefully with a knife, placing them a little apart, and bake a pale brown—about 10 minutes in moderate oven. Another way is to break off small bits of the paste and roll into thin pipes on a floured board. Savoury
are made by cutting above paste, rolled very thin, into oblong or diamond shapes, with pastry cutter. Bake in same way. Serve either hot or cold. Spread with a little Marmite and savoury tomato mixture, or sandwich this between two biscuits.
Cheese Straws (2).
Two ozs. cheese, same of batter, flour and fine white crumbs. Add seasoning, and make into paste with one egg, roll out, stamp out a few rings, make the rest into straws, bake and put a bundle of straws into each ring.
Parmesan Puff Pie.
Prepare some cheese pastry, as for "Straws No. 1," and with it line a round shallow tin or tart ring. Common short or puff pastry will do, but the cheese pastry is nicer. Fill in with rice or crusts to keep in place. Bake rather briskly, and remove from the tin. Fill in with the following mixture:—In a saucepan melt 1 oz. butter, and into that stir 1 oz. flour and 1 oz. flaked or ground rice. Add gradually a teacupful milk, and when it thickens, 2 ozs. grated cheese and seasoning, cayenne, and made mustard. Pour into pastry case. Sprinkle a few browned crumbs or shredded wheat biscuit crumbs on the top. Dot over with bits of butter, and bake in moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Put a little more grated cheese on the top and serve very hot.
Small Cheese Tartlets
can be made by dividing same ingredients into a number of small cases or patty tins. Ten minutes should be long enough to bake. Another very good filling for these or the previous puff pie is the mixture given in recipe for Scotch woodcock, while a novel and delicious
could be made with either of these mixtures, with perhaps a rather more liberal supply of cheese and made mustard spread between slices of hot buttered toast.
is made with somewhat similar filling, but is best with fresh tomatoes. Remove skin and seeds from 1/2 lb. firm, ripe tomatoes, and cut small; grate 4 ozs. rich, well-flavoured Cheddar cheese. Add to tomatoes in basin with teaspoonful made mustard, yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs, large spoonful mushroom ketchup, a little extract, and a very little curry powder or paste. Pound all together with back of a wooden spoon till quite smooth. Serve in scallop shells, garnished with the white of egg.
These cheese tartlets, mock crab, patties, &c., can be most acceptably varied by using
Shredded Wheat Biscuits
in place of pastry cases or scallop shells. Use any of the cheese mixtures given for Scotch woodcock, mock crab, &c. With a sharp-pointed knife split the biscuit open and place in buttered tin, with a bit of butter on the top of each, in hot oven till crisp and brown. Remove to hot dish, fill in each biscuit with the mixture made very hot, and pile up more on the top.
Stamp out 6 or 8 rounds of bread, dip quickly in milk, gravy, or diluted extract, and drain—on no account allow to soak. Brush over with egg, toss in fine crumbs and fry. Drain and keep very hot. Prepare a cheese and tomato mixture same as for "Scotch Woodcock," and while in saucepan add 1 or 2 hard-boiled eggs—the white chopped in small dice or tiny strips. Mix lightly over the fire and pile up on centre of each round. Serve on hot napkin, garnished with fried parsley. These patties may also be made with shredded wheat biscuits.
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It is to be hoped the shade of Burns will forbear to haunt those who have the temerity to appropriate the sacred name of Haggis for anything innocent of the time-honoured liver and lights which were the sine qua non of the great chieftain. But in Burns' time people were not haunted by the horrors of trichinae, measly affections, &c., &c. (one must not be too brutally plain spoken, even in what they are avoiding), as we are now, so perhaps this practical age may risk the shade rather than the substance.