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************************************************************************* ** Thesaurus-1911 ** ** Version 1.02 (supplemented: July 18, 1991) ** ************************************************************************* An electronic thesaurus derived from the version of Roget's Thesaurus published in 1911.

This core thesaurus is provided along with the unabridged Moby Thesaurus main corpus to frame the traditional concept divisions that may be useful if the licensee is considering converting the flat-file Moby Thesaurus to the concept/index scheme. Note that no index is herein provided — it is presumed that a subset of the 30,000 roots in Moby Thesaurus II will be used to generate the user's custom index.

Note that this version of Thesaurus-1911 has been supplemented with over 1,000 words not present in the original 1911 edition, but many modern words are still missing. About 1500 verbs (out of 6500) which can be found in an 80,000-word spell-checker are absent from this work. The deficiency of nouns is probably much worse, especially on technical topics. Of 40,000 unique words contained in the original text, 12,000 are not recognized by a spell-checker. Most of these are foreign words(primarily Latin), and many are obsolete. In this version, these words are marked as such by comments in square brackets. Although this version has been proof-read, there are doubtless numerous residual transcription errors, some of which may be obvious even without reference to the original text. We will be grateful if any of these are brought to our attention; the corrections will appear in subsequent versions.

In this file, comments which are not a proper part of the thesaurus itself are contained within arrow brackets thus: . Section headings, which are not an actual part of the thesaurus proper, are included between percent (%) markers. Occasional references to numbers starting with "@" are the embryonic beginnings of a reorganized version, mentioned below. A few comments are also included within curly brackets {}. ============================================

The following additional differences will be noted between this version and the original edition of the printed 1911 thesaurus: (1) the space-saving abbreviations in the original, using hyphens to represent common words, prefixes or suffixes, have been expanded into the full words or phrases. (2) the side-by-side format for words and their opposites has been abandoned. Words are listed in order of their entry number. (3) each main entry (1035 entries) has a pound sign "#" in front of the number to facilitate computerized search. (4) greek words and phrases are transliterated and included between brackets in the format . (5) where italics occurred in the original, italics are used in the Microsoft Word format file. In the plain ASCII file, this formatting is lost. (6) in the original book, words which were obsolete (in 1911) were marked with a dagger. In this version, those words are marked with a vertical bar (" "). Some of the words which were still current in 1911, but are no longer found in a current college-size dictionary (presently obsolete words), or which are no longer used in the specific indicated sense, have been marked with a bar followed by an exclamation point " !". However, this marking process has just commenced, and only a small portion of the words which are now obsolete have been thus marked. Most though not all of the foreign- language phrases are now obsolete. The "obsolete" notation [obs3] indicates that the previous word (or some word in the previous phrase) is not recognized by the word processor's spelling checker, and also is either NOT in a modern college-sized dictionary, or is noted there as being "ARCHAIC". (7) the approximate location of the bottom of each page in the original 1911 printed book is indicated by a comment of the form: . To search for a page, note that there are two spaces between the "p." and the page number. (8) This file contains only the main body of the thesaurus. Neither outline nor index are contained here.

========================================================================== THESAURUS OF ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES

CLASS I WORDS EXPRESSING ABSTRACT RELATIONS

SECTION I. EXISTENCE

1. BEING, IN THE ABSTRACT %

#1. Existence.— N. existence, being, entity, ens[Lat], esse[Lat], subsistence. reality, actuality; positiveness &c. adj.; fact, matter of fact, sober reality; truth &c. 494; actual existence. presence &c. (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c. 120. stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c. 515; no joke. center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital principle. [Science of existence], ontology. V. exist, be; have being &c. n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c. (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate. consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be constituted by. come into existence &c. n.; arise &c. (begin) 66; come forth &c. (appear) 446. become &c. (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c. 161. abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay. Adj. existing &c. v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c. n.; extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed. real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c. 494; substantial, substantive; self-existing, self-existent; essential. well-founded, well-grounded; unideal[obs3], unimagined; not potential &c. 2; authentic. Adv. actually &c. adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed; de facto, ipso facto. Phr. ens rationis[Lat]; ergo sum cogito: "thinkest thou existence doth depend on time?" [Lat][Byron].

#2. Inexistence.— N. inexistence[obs3]; nonexistence, nonsubsistence; nonentity, nil; negativeness &c. adj.; nullity; nihility[obs3], nihilism; tabula rasa[Lat], blank; abeyance; absence &c. 187; no such thing &c. 4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion. annihilation; extinction &c. (destruction) 162; extinguishment, extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration. V. not exist &c. 1; have no existence &c. 1; be null and void; cease to exist &c. 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c. adj.; die out; disappear &c. 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind; go, be no more; die &c. 360. annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c. 756; destroy &c. 162; take away; remove &c. (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate. Adj. inexistent[obs3], nonexistent &c. 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted; absent &c. 187,; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary. unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus[Lat]; unsubstantial &c. 4; vain. unborn, uncreated[obs3], unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade. perished, annihilated, &c. v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost, vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c. (dead) 360. fabulous, ideal &c. (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c. 514. Adv. negatively, virtually &c. adj. Phr. non ens[Lat].



% 2. BEING, IN THE CONCRETE %

#3. Substantiality. — N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being, thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence; creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff , substratum; matter &c. 316; corporeity[obs3], element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality, substantialness, vital part. [Totality of existences], world &c. 318; plenum. Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible &c. (material) 316; corporeal. Adv. substantially &c. adj.; bodily, essentially.



#4. Unsubstantiality. — N. unsubstantiality[obs3], insubstantiality; nothingness, nihility[obs3]; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing. nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never a one, ne'er a one[contr]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing whatever, nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c. (smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no importance, matter of no consequence. thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot voter; nominis umbra[Lat], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]. shadow; phantom &c.(fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (imagination) 515; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423[Lat]; " such stuff as dreams are made of " [Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c. 353; " baseless fabric of a vision " [Tempest]; mockery. hollowness, blank; void &c. (absence) 187. inanity, fool's paradise. V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c. 449. Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without foundation, having no foundation. visionary &c. (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c. 137; spectral &c. 980; dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery, illusory, insubstantial, unreal. vacant, vacuous; empty &c. 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow; nominal; null; inane. Phr. there's nothing in it; " an ocean of dreams without a sound" [Shelley].

% 3. FORMAL EXISTENCE

Internal conditions %

#5. Intrinsicality. N. intrinsicality[obs3], inbeing[obs3], inherence, inhesion[obs3]; subjectiveness; ego; egohood[obs3]; essence, noumenon; essentialness[obs3] &c. adj.; essential part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c. (importance) 642. principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis[obs3], diathesis[obs3]. habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition. endowment, capacity; capability &c. (power) 157. moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c. (speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c. (tendency) 176[obs3]; diagnostics. V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c. adj. Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical[obs3]; fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate, inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous[obs3], haematobious[obs3], syngenic[obs3]; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary, inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite ; connate, running in the blood; ingenerate[obs3], ingenite ; indigenous; in the grain &c. n.; bred in the bone, instinctive; inward, internal &c. 221; to the manner born; virtual. characteristic &c. (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable, incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed. Adv. intrinsically &c. adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect, practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly. Phr. " character is higher than intellect " [Emerson]; "come give us a taste of your quality " magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna [Lat][ Hamlet][Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Lat][Cicero]; " vital spark of heavenly flame " [Pope].

% External conditions %

#6. Extrinsicality.— N. extrinsicality[obs3], objectiveness, non ego; extraneousness &c. 57; accident; appearance, phenomenon &c. 448. Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical[obs3]; extraneous &c. (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious[obs3], adscititious[obs3]; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent, fortuitous. implanted, ingrafted[obs3]; inculcated, infused. outward, apparent &c. (external) 220. Adv. extrinsically &c. adj.



4. MODAL EXISTENCE

Absolute #7. State. — N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim, mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c. (appearance) 448, dilemma, pass, predicament. constitution, habitude, diathesis[obs3]; frame, fabric &c. 329; stamp, set, fit, mold, mould. mode, modality, schesis[obs3]; form &c. (shape) 240. tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style, character. V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state &c. n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass. Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic. Adv. conditionally &c. adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such being the case &c. 8. % Relative % #8. Circumstance. — N. circumstance, situation, phase, position, posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing, status. occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c. (event) 151. predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass, push; occurrence; turning point. bearings, how the land lies. surroundings, context, environment 229a[TE 232]; location 184. contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153, attribution 155. Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal; contingent, incidental; adventitious &c. (extrinsic) 6; limitative[obs3]. Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c. n., the circumstances, conditions &c. 7; thus, in such wise. accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of the circumstances; that being so, sith[obs3], since, seeing that. as matters stand; as things go, as times go. conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be so; depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in such a contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally, unless, without. according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may happen, as it may turn out,as it may be; as the case may be, as the wind blows; pro re nata[Lat]. Phr. " yet are my sins not those of circumstance " [Lytton].



SECTION II. RELATION

. 1. ABSOLUTE RELATION #9. Relation. — N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern,. cognation ; correlation &c. 12; analogy; similarity &c. 17; affinity, homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c. (nearness) 197; filiation &c. (consanguinity) 11[obs3]; interest; relevancy &c. 23; dependency, relationship, relative position. comparison &c. 464; ratio, proportion. link, tie, bond of union. V. be related &c. adj.; have a relation &c. n.; relate to, refer to; bear upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to, belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest. bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate, draw a parallel; link &c. 43. Adj. relative; correlative &c. 12; cognate; relating to &c. v.; relative to, in relation with, referable or referrible to[obs3]; belonging to &c. v.; appurtenant to, in common with. related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to; en rapport, in touch with. approximative[obs3], approximating; proportional, proportionate, proportionable; allusive, comparable. in the same category &c. 75; like &c. 17; relevant &c. (apt) 23; applicable, equiparant[obs3]. Adv. relatively &c. adj.; pertinently &c. 23. thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning &c. v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference to, with respect to,with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of, a propos of[Fr]; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas; for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of, on the score of; quoad hoc[Lat]; pro re nata[Lat]; under the head of &c. (class) 75 of; in the matter of, in re. Phr. " thereby hangs a tale " [Taming of the Shrew].

#10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation. — N. irrelation[obs3], dissociation; misrelation[obs3]; inapplicability; inconnection[obs3]; multifariousness; disconnection &c. (disjunction) 44; inconsequence, independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c. (disagreement) 24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c. 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil ad rem[Lat]; intrusion &c. 24; non-pertinence. V. have no relation to &c. 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with &c. 9 , have no business with; not concern &c. 9; have no business there, have nothing to do with, intrude &c. 24. bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in head and shoulders. Adj. irrelative[obs3], irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent, unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular; extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic. not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c. 83. irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose; impertinent, inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes[Fr]; aside from the purpose,, away from the purpose,, foreign to the purpose, beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction, beside the point; misplaced &c. (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record. remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor there, quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant[obs3]. multifarious; discordant &c. 24. incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic. Adv. parenthetically &c. adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant[Fr], incidentally; irrespectively &c. adj.; without reference to, without regard to; in the abstract &c. 87; a se. #11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity. — N. consanguinity, relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c. (paternity) 166; filiation[obs3], affiliation; lineage, agnation[obs3], connection, alliance; family connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism. kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection; sibling, sib; next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin- german[obs3]; first cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice &c. removed; near relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one's own flesh and blood. family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood[obs3]. race, stock, generation; sept &c. 166; stirps, side; strain; breed, clan, tribe, nation. V. be related to &c. adj. claim relationship with &c. n. with. Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied, collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.



intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely related, distantly related, allied; german.

#12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation. — N. reciprocalness &c. adj[obs3].; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation, interdependence, interrelation, connection, link, association; interchange &c. 148; exchange, barter. reciprocator, reprocitist. V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c. 148; exchange; counterchange[obs3]. Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual[obs3], correlative, reciprocative, interrelated, closely related; alternate; interchangeable; interdependent; international; complemental, complementary. Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis[Lat]; vice versa; each other, one another; by turns &c. 148; reciprocally &c. adj. Phr. " happy in our mutual help " [Milton].

#13. Identity. — N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence; convertibility; equality &c. 27; selfness[obs3], self, oneself; identification. monotony, tautology &c. (repetition) 104. facsimile &c. (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c. (similar) 17[obs3]; ipsissima verba &c. (exactness) 494[Lat]; same; self, very , one and the same; very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only; in the flesh. V. be identical &c. adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge. treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize the identity of, . Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c. n. selfsame, one and the same, homoousian[obs3]. coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one; equivalent &c. (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum[Lat]; much the same, of a muchness[obs3]; unaltered. . Adv. identically &c. adj.; on all fours.

#14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety. N. contrariety, contrast, foil, antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c. (opposition) 708; clashing, repugnance. inversion &c. 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme. V. be contrary &c. adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo[Lat]. invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for end, turn upside down, turn inside out. contradict, contravene; antagonize &c. 708. Adj. contrary, contrarious[obs3], contrariant[obs3]; opposite, counter, dead against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted, antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent, contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c. 703. differing toto coelo[Lat]; diametrically opposite; diametrically opposed; as opposite as black and white, as opposite as light and darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as different as night and day; " Hyperion to a satyr"[ Hamlet]; quite the contrary, quite the reverse ;no such thing, just the other way, tout au contraire[Fr]. Adv. contrarily &c. adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c. (in compensation) 30. Phr. " all concord's born of contraries " [B. Jonson]. Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx].

#15 Difference. N. difference; variance, variation, variety; diversity, dissimilarity &c. 18; disagreement &c. 24; disparity &c. (inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration. modification, permutation, moods and tenses. nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c. 465; differentia. different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another pair of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other. V. be different &c. adj.; differ, vary, ablude , mismatch, contrast; divaricate; differ toto coelo[Lat], differ longo intervallo[It]. vary, modify &c. (change) 140. discriminate &c. 465. Adj. differing &c. v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified, various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c. 81[obs3]; daedal[obs3]. other, another, not the same; unequal &c. 28. unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive, characteristic, ; discriminative; distinguishing. incommensurable, incommensurate. Adv. differently &c. adj. Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.



% 2. CONTINUOUS RELATION %

#16. Uniformity. — N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness; consistency; connaturality[obs3], connaturalness[obs3]; homology; accordance; conformity &c. 82; agreement &c. 23; consonance, uniformness. regularity, constancy, even tenor,.routine; monotony. V. be uniform &c. adj.; accord with &c. 23; run through. become uniform &c. adj.; conform to &c. 82. render uniform, homogenize &c. adj.; assimilate, level, smooth, dress. Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous;of a piece[Fr], consistent, connatural[obs3]; monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged, undeviating, unvaried, unvarying. unsegmented. Adv. uniformly &c. adj.; uniformly with &c. (conformably) 82; in harmony with &c. (agreeing) 23. always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly, never otherwise; by clockwork. Phr. ab uno disce omnes[Lat].

#16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity. — N. diversity, irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c. 81; unconformity &c. 83; roughness &c. 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication, divergence. Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c. 256; multifarious; multiform &c. 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all kinds of. Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.

% 3. PARTIAL RELATION %

#17. Similarity. — N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude, semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c. 23; analogy, analogicalness[obs3]; correspondence, homoiousia[obs3], parity. connaturalness[obs3], connaturality[obs3]; brotherhood, family likeness. alliteration, rhyme, pun. repetition &c. 104; sameness &c. (identity) 13; uniformity &c. 16; isogamy[obs3]. analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate, twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter ego, chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum[Lat], Arcades ambo[obs3], birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne[Lat]; gens de meme famille[Fr]. parallel; simile; type &c. (metaphor) 521; image &c. (representation) 554; photograph; close resemblance, striking resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful resemblance. V. be similar &c. adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of, savor of,; approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate &c. 19; favor, span [U. S.]. render similar &c. adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near; connaturalize[obs3], make alike; rhyme, pun. Adj. similar; resembling &c. v.; like, alike; twin. analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece[Fr]; such as, so; homoiousian[obs3]. connatural[obs3], congener, allied to; akin to &c. (consanguineous) 1 1. approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of, in the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating, representing. exact &c. (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to life, the very image, the very picture of; for all the world like, comme deux gouttes d'eau[Fr]; as like as two peas in a pod, as like as it can stare; instar omnium[Lat], cast in the same mold, ridiculously like. Adv. as if, so to speak; as it were, as if it were; quasi, just as, veluti in speculum[Lat]. Phr. et sic de similibus[Lat]; tel maitre tel valet[Fr]; tel pere tel fils[Fr]; like master, like servant; like father, like son; the fruit doesn't fall far from the tree; a chip off the old block



#18. Dissimilarity. — N. dissimilarity, dissimilaritude[obs3]; unlikeness, diversity, disparity, dissemblance[obs3]; divergence, variation.; difference &c. 15; novelty, originality; creativeness; oogamy[obs3]. V. be unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (differ) 15; bear no resemblance to, differ toto coelo[Lat]. render unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (diversify) 140. Adj. dissimilar, unlike, disparate; divergent; of a different kind &c. (class) 75 unmatched, unique; new, novel; unprecedented &c. 83; original. nothing of the kind; no such thing, quite another thing; far from it, cast in a different mold, tertium quid[Lat], as like a dock as a daisy, "very like a whale " [Hamlet]; as different as chalk from cheese, as different as Macedon and Monmouth; lucus a non lucendo[Lat]. diversified &c. 16a. Adv. otherwise. Phr. diis aliter visum[Lat]; " no more like my father than I to Hercules" [Hamlet].

#19. Imitation. N. imitation; copying &c. v.; transcription; repetition, duplication, reduplication; quotation; reproduction; mimeograph, xerox, facsimile; reprint, offprint. mockery, mimicry; simulation, impersonation, personation; representation &c. 554; semblance; copy &c. 21; assimilation. paraphrase, parody, take-off, lampoon, caricature &c. 21. plagiarism; forgery, counterfeit &c. (falsehood) 544; celluloid. imitator, echo, cuckoo , parrot, ape, monkey, mocking bird, mime; copyist, copycat; plagiarist, pirate. V. imitate, copy, mirror, reflect, reproduce, repeat; do like, echo, reecho, catch; transcribe; match, parallel. mock, take off, mimic, ape, simulate, impersonate, personate; act &c. (drama) 599; represent &c. 554; counterfeit, parody, travesty, caricature, lampoon, burlesque. follow in the steps of, tread in the steps, follow in the footsteps of, follow in the wake of; take pattern by; follow suit, follow the example of; walk in the shoes of, take a leaf out of another's book, strike in with, follow suit; take after, model after; emulate. Adj. imitated &c. v.; mock, mimic; modelled after, molded on. paraphrastic; literal; imitative; secondhand; imitable; aping, apish, mimicking.

Adv. literally, to the letter, verbatim, literatim[Lat], sic, totidem verbis[Lat], word for word, mot a mot[Fr]; exactly, precisely.

Phr.like master like man; " like - but oh! how different! " [Wordsworth]; " genius borrows nobly " [Emerson]; " pursuing echoes calling 'mong the rocks " [A. Coles]; " quotation confesses inferiority " [Emerson]; "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery".

#20. Nonimitation. — N. no imitation; originality; creativeness. invention, creation. Adj. unimitated[obs3], uncopied[obs3]; unmatched, unparalleled; inimitable &c. 13; unique, original; creative, inventive, untranslated; exceptional, rare, sui generis uncommon[Lat], unexampled.

#20a. Variation. — N. variation; alteration &c. (change) 140. modification, moods and tenses; discrepance[obs3], discrepancy. divergency &c. 291[obs3]; deviation &c. 279; aberration; innovation. V. vary &c. (change) 140; deviate &c. 279; diverge &c. 291; alternate, swerve. Adj. varied &c. v.; modified; diversified &c. 16a.

#21. [Result of imitation.] Copy. — N. copy, facsimile, counterpart, effigies, effigy, form, likeness. image, picture, photo, xerox, similitude, semblance, ectype[obs3], photo offset, electrotype; imitation &c. 19; model, representation, adumbration, study; portrait &c. (representation) 554; resemblance. duplicate, reproduction; cast, tracing; reflex, reflexion[Brit], reflection; shadow, echo. transcript[copy into a non-visual form], transcription; recording, scan. chip off the old block; reprint, new printing; rechauffe[Fr]; apograph[obs3], fair copy. parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty, travestie[obs3], paraphrase. [copy with some differences] derivative, derivation, modification, expansion, extension, revision; second edition &c. (repetition) 104. servile copy, servile imitation; plagiarism, counterfeit, fake &c.(deception) 545; pasticcio[obs3]. Adj. faithful; lifelike &c. (similar) 17; close, conscientious. unoriginal, imitative, derivative.

#22. [Thing copied.] Prototype. — N. prototype, original, model, pattern, precedent, standard, ideal, reference, scantling, type; archetype, antitype[obs3]; protoplast, module, exemplar, example, ensample[obs3], paradigm; lay-figure. text, copy, design; fugleman[obs3], keynote. die, mold; matrix, last, plasm[obs3]; proplasm[obs3], protoplasm; mint; seal, punch, intaglio, negative; stamp. V. be an example, be a role model, set an example; set a copy. Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Disraeli]; exempla sunt odiosa[Lat].



% 4. GENERAL RELATION %

#23. Agreement. N. agreement; accord, accordance; unison, harmony; concord &c. 714; concordance, concert; understanding, mutual understanding. conformity &c. 82; conformance; uniformity &c. 16; consonance, consentaneousness[obs3], consistency; congruity, congruence; keeping; congeniality; correspondence, parallelism, apposition, union. fitness, aptness &c. adj.; relevancy; pertinence, pertinencey[obs3]; sortance ; case in point; aptitude, coaptation[obs3], propriety, applicability, admissibility, commensurability, compatibility; cognation &c. (relation) 9. adaption[obs3], adjustment, graduation, accommodation; reconciliation, reconcilement; assimilation. consent &c. (assent) 488; concurrence &c. 178; cooperation &c. 709. right man in the right place, very thing,; quite the thing, just the thing. V. be accordant &c. adj.; agree, accord, harmonize; correspond, tally, respond; meet, suit, fit, befit, do, adapt itself to; fall in with, chime in with, square with, quadrate with, consort with, comport with; dovetail, assimilate; fit like a glove, fit to a tittle, fit to a T; match &c. 17; become one; homologate[obs3]. consent &c. (assent) 488. render accordant &c. adj.; fit, suit, adapt, accommodate; graduate; adjust &c. (render, equal) 27; dress, regulate, readjust; accord, harmonize,. reconcile; fadge[obs3], dovetail, square. Adj. agreeing, suiting &c. v.; in accord, accordant, concordant, consonant, congruous, consentaneous[obs3], correspondent, congenial; coherent; becoming; harmonious reconcilable, conformable; in accordance with, in harmony with, in keeping with, in unison with, &c. n.; at one with, of one mind, of a piece[Fr]; consistent, compatible, proportionate; commensurate; on all fours. apt, apposite, pertinent, pat; to the point, to the purpose; happy, felicitous, germane, ad rem[Lat], in point, on point, directly on point, bearing upon, applicable, relevant, admissible. fit adapted, in loco, a propos[Fr], appropriate, seasonable, sortable, suitable, idoneous[obs3], deft; meet &c. (expedient) 646.

at home, in one's proper element. Adv. a propos of[Fr]; pertinently &c. adj. Phr. rem acu tetigisti[Lat][obs3]; if the shoe fits, wear it; the cap fits; auxilia humilia firma consensus facit [Lat][Syrus]; discers concordia [Lat][Ovid].



#24. Disagreement. — N. disagreement; discord, discordance; dissonance, dissidence, discrepancy; unconformity &c. 83; incongruity, incongruence[obs3]; discongruity[obs3], mesalliance; jarring &c. v.; dissension &c. 713; conflict &c. (opposition) 708; bickering, clashing, misunderstanding, wrangle. disparity, mismatch, disproportion; dissimilitude, inequality; disproportionateness &c. adj[obs3].; variance, divergence, repugnance. unfitness &c. adj.; inaptitude, impropriety; inapplicability &c. adj.; inconsistency, inconcinnity[obs3]; irrelevancy &c. (irrelation) 10[obs3]. misjoining[obs3], misjoinder[obs3]; syncretism[obs3], intrusion, interference; concordia discors[Lat]. fish out of water. V. disagree; clash, jar &c. (discord) 713; interfere, intrude, come amiss; not concern &c. 10; mismatch; humano capiti cervicem jungere equinam[Lat]. Adj. disagreeing &c. v.; discordant, discrepant; at variance, at war; hostile, antagonistic, repugnant, incompatible, irreconcilable, inconsistent with; unconformable, exceptional &c. 83; intrusive, incongruous; disproportionate, disproportionated[obs3]; inharmonious, unharmonious[obs3]; inconsonant, unconsonant[obs3]; divergent, repugnant to. inapt, unapt, inappropriate, improper; unsuited, unsuitable; inapplicable, not to the point; unfit, unfitting, unbefitting; unbecoming; illtimed, unseasonable, mal a propos[Fr], inadmissible; inapposite &c. (irrelevant) 10. uncongenial; ill-assorted, ill-sorted; mismatched, misjoined[obs3], misplaced, misclassified; unaccommodating, irreducible, incommensurable, uncommensurable[obs3]; unsympathetic. out of character, out of keeping, out of proportion, out of joint, out of tune, out of place, out of season, out of its element; at odds with, at variance with. Adv. in defiance, in contempt,in spite of; discordantly &c. adj.; a tort et a travers[obs3]. Phr. asinus ad lyram[Lat]. % SECTION III. QUANTITY

1. SIMPLE QUANTITY % #25. [Absolute quantity.] Quantity. — N. quantity, magnitude; size &c. (dimensions) 192; amplitude, magnitude, mass, amount, sum, quantum, measure, substance, strength, force. [Science of quantity.] mathematics, mathesis[obs3]. [Logic.] category, general conception, universal predicament. [Definite or finite quantity.] armful, handful, mouthful, spoonful, capful; stock, batch, lot, dose; yaffle[obs3]. V. quantify, measure, fix, estimate, determine, quantitate, enumerate. Adj. quantitative, some, any, aught, more or less, a few. Adv. to the tune of, all of, a full, the sum of, fully, exactly, precisely.



#26. [Relative quantity.] Degree. — N. degree, grade, extent, measure, amount, ratio, stint, standard, height, pitch; reach, amplitude, range, scope, caliber; gradation, shade; tenor, compass; sphere, station, rank, standing; rate, way, sort. point, mark, stage &c. (term) 71; intensity, strength &c. (greatness) 31. Adj. comparative; gradual, shading off; within the bounds &c. (limit) 233. Adv. by degrees, gradually, inasmuch, pro tanto[It]; however, howsoever; step by step, bit by bit, little by little, inch by inch, drop by drop; a little at a time, by inches, by slow degrees, by degrees, by little and little; in some degree, in some measure; to some extent; di grado in grado[Lat]. % 2. COMPARATIVE QUANTITY %

#27. [Sameness of quantity or degree.] Equality. — N. equality, parity, coextension[obs3], symmetry, balance, poise; evenness, monotony, level. equivalence; equipollence[obs3], equipoise, equilibrium, equiponderance[obs3]; par, quits, a wash; not a pin to choose; distinction without a difference, six of one and half a dozen of the other; tweedle dee and tweedle dum[Lat]; identity &c. 13; similarity &c. 17. equalization, equation; equilibration, co*ordination, adjustment, readjustment. drawn game, drawn battle; neck and neck race; tie, draw, standoff, dead heat. match, peer, compeer, equal, mate, fellow, brother; equivalent. V. be equal &c. adj.; equal, match,reach, keep pace with, run abreast; come to, amount to, come up to; be on a level with, lie on a level with; balance; cope with; come to the same thing. render equal &c. adj.; equalize level, dress, balance, equate, handicap, give points, spot points, handicap, trim, adjust, poise; fit, accommodate; adapt &c. (render accordant) 23; strike a balance; establish equality, restore equality, restore equilibrium; readjust; stretch on the bed of Procrustes. Adj. equal, even, level, monotonous, coequal, symmetrical, coordinate; on a par with, on a level with, on a footing with; up to the mark; equiparant[obs3]. equivalent, tantamount; indistinguishable; quits; homologous; synonymous &c. 522; resolvable into, convertible, much at one, as broad as long, neither more nor less.; much the same as, the same thing as, as good as; all one, all the same; equipollent, equiponderant[obs3], equiponderous[obs3], equibalanced[obs3]; equalized &c. v.; drawn; half and half; isochronal, isochronous isoperimetric[obs3], isoperimetrical[obs3]; isobath[Oceanography], isobathic[Oceanography]. Adv. equally &c. adj.; pari passu[Lat], ad eundum[Lat], caeteris paribus[Lat]; in equilibrio[Lat]; to all intents and purposes.

Phr. it comes to the same thing, it amounts to the same thing; what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.



#28. [Difference of quantity or degree.] Inequality. — N. inequality; disparity, imparity; odds; difference &c. 15; unevenness; inclination of the balance, partiality, bias, weight; shortcoming; casting weight, make- weight; superiority &c. 33; inferiority &c. 34; inequation[obs3]. V. be unequal &c. adj.; countervail; have the advantage, give the advantage; turn the scale; kick the beam; topple,topple over; overmatch &c. 33; not come up to &c. 34. Adj. unequal, uneven, disparate, partial; unbalanced, overbalanced; top-heavy, lopsided, biased, skewed; disquiparant[obs3]. Adv. haud passibus aequis [Latin][Vergil].



#29. Mean. — N. mean, average; median, mode; balance, medium, mediocrity, generality; golden mean &c. (mid-course) 628; middle &c. 68; compromise &c. 774; middle course, middle state; neutrality. mediocrity, least common denominator. V. split the difference; take the average &c. n.; reduce to a mean &c. n.; strike a balance, pair off. Adj. mean, intermediate; middle &c. 68; average; neutral. mediocre, middle-class; commonplace &c. (unimportant) 643. Adv. on an average, in the long run; taking one with another, taking all things together, taking it for all in all; communibus annis[Lat], in round numbers. Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat].

#30. Compensation. — N. compensation, equation; commutation; indemnification; compromise &c. 774 neutralization, nullification; counteraction &c. 179; reaction; measure for measure. retaliation &c. 718 equalization &c. 27; robbing Peter to pay Paul. set-off, offset; make-weight, casting-weight; counterpoise, ballast; indemnity, equivalent, quid pro,quo; bribe, hush money; amends &c. (atonement) 952; counterbalance, counterclaim; cross-debt, cross-demand. V. make compensation; compensate, compense[obs3]; indemnify; counteract, countervail, counterpoise; balance; outbalance[obs3], overbalance, counterbalance; set off; hedge, square, give and take; make up for, lee way; cover, fill up, neutralize, nullify; equalize &c. 27; make good; redeem &c. (atone) 952. Adj. compensating, compensatory; countervailing &c. v.; in the opposite scale; equivalent &c. (equal) 27. Adv. in return, in consideration; but, however, yet, still, notwithstanding; nevertheless, nathless[obs3], none the less; although, though; albeit, howbeit; mauger[obs3]; at all events, at any rate; be that as it may, for all that, even so, on the other, hand, at the same time, quoad minus[Lat], quand meme[Fr], however that may be; after all is said and done; taking one thing with another &c. (average) 29. Phr. " light is mingled with the gloom " [Whittier]; every dark cloud has a silver lining; primo avulso non deficit alter [Lat][obs3][Vergil]; saepe creat molles aspera spina rosas [Lat][Ovid]. % QUANTITY BY COMPARISON WITH A STANDARD % #31. Greatness. — N. greatness &c. adj.; magnitude; size &c. (dimensions) 192; multitude &c. (number) 102; immensity; enormity; infinity &c. 105; might, strength, intensity, fullness; importance &c. 642. great quantity, quantity, deal, power, sight, pot, volume, world; mass, heap &c. (assemblage) 72; stock &c. (store) 636; peck, bushel, load, cargo; cartload[obs3], wagonload, shipload; flood, spring tide; abundance &c. (sufficiency) 639. principal part, chief part, main part, greater part, major part, best part, essential part ; bulk, mass &c. (whole) 50. V. be great &c. adj.; run high, soar, tower, transcend; rise to a great height, carry to a great height; know no bounds; ascend, mount. enlarge &c. (increase) 35, (expand) 194. Adj. great; greater &c. 33; large, considerable, fair, above par; big, huge &c. (large in size) 192; Herculean, cyclopean; ample; abundant &c. (enough) 639 full, intense, strong, sound, passing, heavy, plenary, deep, high; signal, at its height, in the zenith. world-wide, widespread, far-famed, extensive; wholesale; many &c. 102. goodly, noble, precious, mighty; sad, grave, heavy, serious; far gone, arrant, downright; utter, uttermost; crass, gross, arch, profound, intense, consummate; rank, uninitiated, red-hot, desperate; glaring, flagrant, stark staring; thorough-paced, thoroughgoing; roaring, thumping; extraordinary.; important &c. 642; unsurpassed &c. (supreme) 33; complete &c. 52. august, grand, dignified, sublime, majestic &c. (repute) 873. vast, immense, enormous, extreme; inordinate, excessive, extravagant, exorbitant, outrageous, preposterous, unconscionable, swinging, monstrous, overgrown; towering, stupendous, prodigious, astonishing, incredible; marvelous &c. 870. unlimited &c. (infinite) 105; unapproachable, unutterable, indescribable, ineffable, unspeakable, inexpressible, beyond expression, fabulous. undiminished, unabated, unreduced[obs3], unrestricted. absolute, positive, stark, decided, unequivocal, essential, perfect, finished. remarkable, of mark, marked, pointed, veriest; noteworthy; renowned. Adv. truly &c. (truth) 494[in a positive degree]; decidedly, unequivocally, purely, absolutely, seriously, essentially, fundamentally, radically, downright, in all conscience; for the most part, in the main. [in a complete degree] entirely &c. (completely) 52; abundantly &c. (sufficiently) 639; widely, far and wide. [in a great or high degree] greatly &c. adj.; much, muckle[obs3], well, indeed, very, very much, a deal, no end of, most, not a little; pretty, pretty well; enough, in a great measure, richly; to a large extent, to a great extent, to a gigantic extent; on a large scale; so; never so, ever so; ever so dole; scrap, shred, tag, splinter, rag, much; by wholesale; mighty, powerfully; with a witness, ultra[Lat], in the extreme, extremely, exceedingly, intensely, exquisitely, acutely, indefinitely, immeasurably; beyond compare, beyond comparison, beyond measure, beyond all bounds; incalculably, infinitely. [in a supreme degree] preeminently, superlatively &c. (superiority) 33. [in a too great degree] immoderately, monstrously, preposterously, inordinately, exorbitantly, excessively, enormously, out of all proportion, with a vengeance. [in a marked degree] particularly, remarkably, singularly, curiously, uncommonly, unusually, peculiarly, notably, signally, strikingly, pointedly, mainly, chiefly; famously, egregiously, prominently, glaringly, emphatically, [Grl], strangely, wonderfully, amazingly, surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly, marvelously, awfully, stupendously. [in an exceptional degree] peculiarly &c. (unconformity) 83. [in a violent degree] furiously &c. (violence) 173; severely, desperately, tremendously, extravagantly, confoundedly, deucedly, devilishly, with a vengeance; a outrance[obs3], a toute outrance[Fr][obs3]. [in a painful degree] painfully, sadly, grossly, sorely, bitterly, piteously, grievously, miserably, cruelly, woefully, lamentably, shockingly, frightfully, dreadfully, fearfully, terribly, horribly. Phr. a maximis ad minima[Lat]; " greatness knows itself" [Henry IV]; " mightiest powers by deepest calms are fed " [B. Cornwall]; minimum decet libere cui multum licet [Lat][Seneca]; " some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them " [Twelfth Night].



<— to a limited degree should be broken out to a section near to qualification 469 —>

#32. Smallness. — N. smallness &c. adj.; littleness &c. (small size) 193; tenuity; paucity; fewness &c (small number) 103; meanness, insignificance (unimportance) 643; mediocrity, moderation. small quantity, modicum, trace, hint, minimum; vanishing point; material point, atom, particle, molecule, corpuscle, point, speck, dot, mote, jot, iota, ace; minutiae, details; look, thought, idea, soupcon, dab, dight[obs3], whit, tittle, shade, shadow; spark, scintilla, gleam; touch, cast; grain, scruple, granule, globule, minim, sup, sip, sop, spice, drop, droplet, sprinkling, dash, morceau[obs3], screed, smack, tinge, tincture; inch, patch, scantling, tatter, cantlet[obs3], flitter, gobbet[obs3], mite, bit, morsel, crumb, seed, fritter, shive[obs3]; snip, snippet; snick[obs3], snack, snatch, slip, scrag[obs3]; chip, chipping; shiver, sliver, driblet, clipping, paring, shaving, hair. nutshell; thimbleful, spoonful, handful, capful, mouthful; fragment; fraction &c. (part) 51; drop in the ocean. animalcule &c. 193. trifle &c. (unimportant thing) 643; mere nothing, next to nothing; hardly anything; just enough to swear by; the shadow of a shade. finiteness, finite quantity. V. be small &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell. diminish &c. (decrease) 36; (contract) 195. Adj. small, little; diminutive &c. (small in size) 193; minute; fine; inconsiderable, paltry &c. (unimportant) 643; faint &c. (weak) 160; slender, light, slight, scanty, scant, limited; meager &c. (insufficient) 640; sparing; few &c. 103; low, so-so, middling, tolerable, no great shakes; below par, under par, below the mark; at a low ebb; halfway; moderate, modest; tender, subtle. inappreciable, evanescent, infinitesimal, homeopathic, very small; atomic, corpuscular, microscopic, molecular, subatomic. mere, simple, sheer, stark, bare; near run. dull, petty, shallow, stolid, ungifted, unintelligent. Adv. to a small extent[in a small degree], on a small scale; a little bit, a wee bit; slightly &c. adj.; imperceptibly; miserably, wretchedly; insufficiently &c. 640; imperfectly; faintly &c. 160; passably, pretty well, well enough. [in a certain or limited degree] partially, in part; in a certain degree, to a certain degree; to a certain extent; comparatively; some, rather in some degree, in some measure; something, somewhat; simply, only, purely, merely; at least, at the least, at most, at the most; ever so little, as little as may be, tant soit peu[Fr], in ever so small a degree; thus far, pro tanto[It], within bounds, in a manner, after a fashion, so to speak. almost, nearly, well-nigh, short of, not quite, all but; near upon, close upon; peu s'en faut[Fr], near the mark; within an ace of, within an inch of; on the brink of; scarcely, hardly, barely, only just, no more than. about[in an uncertain degree], thereabouts, somewhere about, nearly, say; be the same, be little more or less. no ways[in no degree], no way, no wise; not at all, not in the least, not a bit, not a bit of it, not a whit, not a jot, not a shadow; in no wise, in no respect; by no means, by no manner of means; on no account, at no hand. Phr. dare pondus idonea fumo [Lat][Persius]; magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat][Terence]; " small sands the mountain, moments make the year " [Young].

%

QUANTITY BY COMPARISON WITH A SIMILAR OBJECT %

#33. Superiority. [Supremacy.] — N. superiority, majority; greatness &c. 31; advantage; pull; preponderance, preponderation; vantage ground, prevalence, partiality; personal superiority; nobility &c. (rank) 875; Triton among the minnows, primus inter pares[Lat], nulli secundus[Lat], captain; crackajack * [obs3][U. S.]. supremacy, preeminence; lead; maximum; record; [obs3], climax; culmination &c. (summit) 210; transcendence; ne plus ultra[Lat]; lion's share, Benjamin's mess; excess, surplus &c. (remainder) 40; (redundancy) 641. V. be superior &c. adj.; exceed, excel, transcend; outdo, outbalance[obs3], outweigh, outrank, outrival, out-Herod; pass, surpass, get ahead of; over-top, override, overpass, overbalance, overweigh, overmatch; top, o'ertop, cap, beat, cut out; beat hollow; outstrip &c. 303; eclipse, throw into the shade, take the shine out of, outshine, put one's nose out of joint; have the upper hand, have the whip hand of, have the advantage; turn the scale, kick the beam; play first fiddle &c. (importance) 642,; preponderate, predominate, prevail; precede, take precedence, come first; come to a head, culminate; beat &c. all others, bear the palm; break the record; take the cake * [U. S.]. become larger, render larger &c. (increase) 35, (expand) 194. Adj. superior, greater, major, higher; exceeding &c. v.;great &c. 31; distinguished, ultra[Lat]; vaulting; more than a match for. supreme, greatest, utmost, paramount, preeminent, foremost, crowning; first-rate &c. (important) 642, (excellent) 648; unrivaled peerless, matchless; none such, second to none, sans pareil[Fr]; unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled, unequalled, unapproached[obs3], unsurpassed; superlative, inimitable facile princeps[Lat], incomparable, sovereign, without parallel, nulli secundus[Lat], ne plus ultra[Lat]; beyond compare, beyond comparison; culminating &c. (topmost) 210; transcendent, transcendental;plus royaliste que le Roi[Fr], more catholic than the Pope increased &c. (added to) 35; enlarged &c. (expanded) 194. Adv. beyond, more, over; over the mark, above the mark; above par; upwards of, in advance of; over and above; at the top of the scale, at its height. [in a superior or supreme degree] eminently, egregiously, preeminently, surpassing, prominently, superlatively, supremely, above all, of all things, the most, to crown all, [Grl], par excellence, principally, especially, particularly, peculiarly, a fortiori, even, yea, still more.

Phr. " I shall not look upon his like again " [Hamlet]; deos fortioribus addesse [Lat][Tacitus].



#34. Inferiority. — N. inferiority, minority, subordinacy; shortcoming, deficiency; minimum; smallness &c. 32; imperfection; lower quality, lower worth. [personal inferiority] commonalty &c. 876. V. be inferior &c. adj.; fall short of, come short of; not pass, not come up to; want. become smaller, render smaller &c. (decrease) 36, (contract) 195; hide its diminished head, retire into the shade, yield the palm, play second fiddle, be upstaged, take a back seat. Adj. inferior, smaller; small &c. 32; minor, less, lesser, deficient, minus, lower, subordinate, secondary; secondrate &c. (imperfect) 651; sub, subaltern; thrown into the shade; weighed in the balance and found wanting; not fit to hold a candle to, can't hold a candle to. least, smallest &c. (see little, small &c. 193); lowest. diminished &c. (decreased) 36; reduced &c. (contracted) 195; unimportant &c. 643. Adv. less; under the mark, below the mark,below par; at the bottom of the scale, at a low ebb, at a disadvantage; short of, under.

% CHANGES IN QUANTITY %

#35. Increase. — N. increase, augmentation, enlargement, extension; dilatation &c. (expansion) 194; increment, accretion; accession &c. 37; development, growth; aggrandizement, aggravation; rise; ascent &c. 305; exaggeration exacerbation; spread &c. (dispersion) 73; flood tide; gain, produce, product, profit. V. increase, augment, add to, enlarge;. dilate &c. (expand) 194; grow, wax, get ahead. gain strength; advance; run up, shoot up; rise; ascend &c. 305; sprout &c. 194. aggrandize; raise, exalt; deepen, heighten; strengthen; intensify, enhance, magnify, redouble; aggravate, exaggerate; exasperate, exacerbate; add fuel to the flame, oleum addere camino[Lat], superadd &c. (add) 37[obs3]; spread &c. (disperse) 73. Adj. increased &c. v.; on the increase, undiminished; additional &c. (added) 37. Adv. crescendo. Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat][Vergil].

#36. Nonincrease, Decrease. N. decrease, diminution; lessening &c. v.; subtraction &c. 38; reduction, abatement, declension; shrinking &c. (contraction.) 195; coarctation ; abridgment &c. (shortening) 201; extenuation. subsidence, wane, ebb, decline; ebbing; descent &c. 306; decrement, reflux, depreciation; deterioration &c. 659; anticlimax; mitigation &c. (moderation) 174. V. decrease, diminish, lessen; abridge &c. (shorten) 201; shrink &c. (contract) 195; drop off, fall off, tail off; fall away, waste, wear; wane, ebb, decline; descend &c. 306; subside; melt away, die away; retire into the shade, hide its diminished head, fall to a low ebb, run low, languish, decay, crumble. bate, abate, dequantitate ; discount; depreciate; extenuate, lower, weaken, attenuate, fritter away; mitigate &c. (moderate) 174; dwarf, throw into the shade; reduce &c. 195; shorten &c. 201; subtract &c. 38. Adj. unincreased &c. (see increase &c.35)[obs3]; decreased &c. v.; decreasing &c. v.; on the wane &c. n. Phr. " a gilded halo hovering round decay " [Byron]; " fine by degrees and beautifully less " [Prior].



3. CONJUNCTIVE QUANTITY

#37. Addition. — N. addition, annexation, adjection[obs3]; junction &c. 43; superposition, superaddition, superjunction[obs3], superfetation; accession, reinforcement; increase &c. 35; increment, supplement; accompaniment &c. 88; interposition &c. 228; insertion &c. 300. V. add, annex, affix, superadd[obs3], subjoin, superpose; clap on, saddle on; tack to, append, tag; ingraft[obs3]; saddle with; sprinkle; introduce &c. (interpose) 228; insert &c. 300. become added, accrue; advene[obs3], supervene. reinforce, reenforce, restrengthen[obs3]; swell the ranks of; augment &c. 35. Adj. added &c. v.; additional; supplemental, supplementary; suppletory[obs3], subjunctive; adjectitious[obs3], adscititious[obs3], ascititious[obs3]; additive, extra, accessory. Adv. au reste[Fr], in addition, more, plus, extra; and, also, likewise, too, furthermore, further, item; and also, and eke; else, besides, to boot, et cetera; &c.; and so on, and so forth; into the bargain, cum multis aliis[Lat], over and above, moreover. with, withal; including, inclusive, as well as, not to mention, let alone; together with, along with, coupled with, in conjunction with; conjointly; jointly &c. 43. Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].



#38. Nonaddition. Subtraction. - N. subtraction, subduction !; deduction, retrenchment; removal, withdrawal; ablation, sublation[obs3]; abstraction &c. (taking) 789; garbling,, &c. v. mutilation, detruncation[obs3]; amputation; abscission, excision, recision; curtailment &c. 201; minuend, subtrahend; decrease &c. 36; abrasion. V. subduct, subtract; deduct, deduce; bate, retrench; remove, withdraw, take from, take away; detract. garble, mutilate, amputate, detruncate[obs3]; cut off, cut away, cut out; abscind[obs3], excise; pare, thin, prune, decimate; abrade, scrape, file; geld, castrate; eliminate. diminish &c. 36; curtail &c. (shorten) 201; deprive of &c. (take) 789; weaken. Adj. subtracted &c. v.; subtractive. Adv. in deduction &c. n.; less; short of; minus, without, except, except for, excepting, with the exception of, barring, save, exclusive of, save and except, with a reservation; not counting, if one doesn't count.



#39. [Thing added] Adjunct. — N. adjunct; addition, additament[obs3]; additum[Lat], affix, appelidage[obs3], annexe[obs3], annex; augment, augmentation; increment, reinforcement, supernumerary, accessory, item; garnish, sauce; accompaniment &c. 88; adjective, addendum; complement, supplement; continuation. rider, offshoot, episode, side issue, corollary; piece[Fr]; flap, lappet, skirt, embroidery, trappings, cortege; tail, suffix &c. (sequel) 65; wing. Adj. additional &c. 37. alate[obs3], alated[obs3]; winged. Adv. in addition &c. 37.

#40. [Thing remaining.] Remainder. — N. remainder, residue; remains, remanent, remnant, rest, relic; leavings, heeltap[obs3], odds and ends, cheesepairings[obs3], candle ends, orts[obs3]; residuum; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; refuse &c. (useless) 645; stubble, result, educt[obs3]; fag-end; ruins, wreck, skeleton., stump; alluvium. surplus, overplus[obs3], excess; balance, complement; superplus[obs3], surplusage[obs3]; superfluity &c.(redundancy) 641; survival, survivance[obs3]. V. remain,; be left &c. adj.; exceed, survive; leave.



Adj.remaining, left; left behind left over; residual, residuary; over, odd; unconsumed, sedimentary; surviving; net; exceeding, over and above; outlying, outstanding; cast off &c. 782; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641.

#40a. [Thing deducted.] Decrement. — N. decrement, discount, defect, loss, deduction; afterglow; eduction[obs3]; waste.



#41. [Forming a whole without coherence.] Mixture. N. mixture, admixture, commixture, commixtion[obs3]; commixion[obs3], intermixture, alloyage[obs3], matrimony; junction &c. 43; combination &c. 48; miscegenation. impregnation; infusion, diffusion suffusion, transfusion; infiltration; seasoning, sprinkling, interlarding; interpolation &c. 228 adulteration, sophistication. [Thing mixed] tinge, tincture, touch, dash, smack, sprinkling, spice, seasoning, infusion, soupcon. [Compound resulting from mixture] alloy, amalgam; brass, chowchow[obs3], pewter; magma, half-and-half, melange, tertium quid[Lat], miscellany, ambigu , medley, mess, hotchpot[obs3], pasticcio[obs3], patchwork, odds and ends, all sorts; jumble &c. (disorder) 59; salad, sauce, mash, omnium gatherum[Lat], gallimaufry, olla-podrida[obs3], olio, salmagundi, potpourri, Noah's ark, caldron texture, mingled yarn; mosaic &c. (variegation) 440.

half-blood, half-caste. mulatto; terceron[obs3], quarteron[obs3], quinteron &c.[obs3];.quadroon, octoroon; griffo[obs3], zambo[obs3]; cafuzo[obs3]; Eurasian; fustee[obs3], fustie[obs3]; griffe, ladino[obs3], marabou, mestee[obs3], mestizo, quintroon, sacatra zebrule[obs3][U. S.]; catalo[obs3]; cross, hybrid, mongrel.

V. mix; join &c. 43; combine &c. 48; commix, immix[obs3], intermix; mix up with, mingle; commingle, intermingle, bemingle[obs3]; shuffle &c. (derange) 61; pound together; hash up, stir up; knead, brew; impregnate with; interlard &c. (interpolate) 228; intertwine, interweave &c. 219; associate with; miscegenate[obs3]. be mixed &c.; get among, be entangled with. instill, imbue; infuse, suffuse, transfuse; infiltrate, dash, tinge, tincture, season, sprinkle, besprinkle, attemper[obs3], medicate, blend, cross; alloy, amalgamate, compound, adulterate, sophisticate, infect.

Adj. mixed &c. v.; implex[obs3], composite, half-and-half, linsey- woolsey, chowchow, hybrid, mongrel, heterogeneous; motley &c. (variegated) 440; miscellaneous, promiscuous, indiscriminate; miscible. Adv. among, amongst, amid, amidst; with; in the midst of, in the crowd.

#42. [Freedom from mixture.] Simpleness. — N. simpleness &c. adj.; purity, homogeneity. elimination; sifting &c. v.; purification &c. (cleanness) 652. V. render simple &c. adj.; simplify. sift, winnow, bolt, eliminate; exclude, get rid of; clear; purify &c. (clean) 652; disentangle &c. (disjoin) 44. Adj. simple, uniform, of a piece[Fr], homogeneous, single, pure, sheer, neat. unmixed, unmingled[obs3], unblended, uncombined, uncompounded; elementary, undecomposed; unadulterated, unsophisticated, unalloyed, untinged[obs3], unfortified, pur et simple[Fr]; incomplex[obs3]. free from, exempt from; exclusive. Adv. simple &c. adj. only.



#43. Junction. N. junction; joining &c. v.; joinder[Law], union connection, conjunction, conjugation; annexion[obs3], annexation, annexment[obs3]; astriction[obs3], attachment, compagination[obs3], vincture[obs3], ligation, alligation[obs3]; accouplement[obs3]; marriage &c. (wedlock,) 903; infibulation[obs3], inosculation[obs3], symphysis[Anat], anastomosis, confluence, communication, concatenation; meeting, reunion; assemblage &c. 72. coition, copulation;sex, sexual congress,sexual conjunction, sexual intercourse, love-making. joint, joining, juncture, pivot, hinge, articulation, commissure[obs3], seam, gore, gusset, suture, stitch; link &c. 45; miter mortise. closeness, tightness, &c. adj.; coherence &c. 46; combination &c. 48. annexationist. V. join, unite; conjoin, connect; associate; put together, lay together, clap together, hang together, lump together, hold together, piece together[Fr], tack together, fix together, bind up together together; embody, reembody[obs3]; roll into one. attach, fix, affix, saddle on, fasten, bind, secure, clinch, twist, make fast &c. adj.; tie, pinion, string, strap, sew, lace, tat, stitch, tack, knit, button, buckle, hitch, lash, truss, bandage, braid, splice, swathe, gird, tether, moor, picket, harness, chain; fetter &c. (restrain) 751; lock, latch, belay, brace, hook, grapple, leash, couple, accouple[obs3], link, yoke, bracket; marry &c. (wed) 903; bridge over, span. braze; pin, nail, bolt, hasp, clasp, clamp, crimp, screw, rivet; impact, solder, set; weld together, fuse together; wedge, rabbet, mortise, miter, jam, dovetail, enchase[obs3]; graft, ingraft[obs3], inosculate[obs3]; entwine, intwine[obs3]; interlink, interlace, intertwine, intertwist[obs3], interweave; entangle; twine round, belay; tighten; trice up, screw up. be joined &c.; hang together, hold together; cohere &c. 46. Adj. joined &c. v.; joint; conjoint, conjunct; corporate, compact; hand in hand. firm, fast, close, tight, taut, taught, secure, set, intervolved ; inseparable, indissoluble, insecable[obs3], severable. Adv. jointly &c. adj.; in conjunction with &c. (in addition to) 37; fast, firmly, &c. adj.; intimately. Phr. tria juncta in uno[Lat].



#44. Disjunction. N. disjunction, disconnection, disunity, disunion, disassociation, disengagement; discontinuity &c. 70; abjunction[obs3]; cataclasm[obs3]; inconnection[obs3]; abstraction, abstractedness; isolation; insularity, insulation; oasis; island; separateness &c. adj.; severalty; disjecta membra[Lat]; dispersion &c. 73; apportionment &c. 786. separation; parting &c. v.; circumcision; detachment, segregation; divorce, sejunction , seposition , diduction[obs3], diremption[obs3], discerption[obs3]; elision; caesura, break, fracture, division, subdivision, rupture; compartition ; dismemberment, dislocation; luxation[obs3]; severance, disseverance; scission; rescission, abscission; laceration, dilaceration[obs3]; disruption, abruption[obs3]; avulsion[obs3], divulsion[obs3]; section, resection, cleavage; fission; partibility[obs3], separability.

fissure, breach, rent, split, rift, crack, slit, incision. dissection anatomy; decomposition &c. 49; cutting instrument &c (sharpness) 253; buzzsaw, circular saw, rip saw. separatist. V. be disjoined &c.; come off, fall off, come to pieces, fall to pieces; peel off; get loose. disjoin, disconnect, disengage, disunite, dissociate, dispair[obs3]; divorce, part, dispart[obs3], detach, separate, cut off, rescind, segregate; set apart, keep apart; insulate,, isolate; throw out of gear; cut adrift; loose; unloose, undo, unbind, unchain, unlock &c. (fix) 43, unpack, unravel; disentangle; set free &c. (liberate) 750. sunder, divide, subdivide, sever, dissever, abscind[obs3]; circumcise; cut; incide , incise; saw, snip, nib, nip, cleave, rive, rend, slit, split, splinter, chip, crack, snap, break, tear, burst; rend &c. rend asunder, rend in twain; wrench, rupture, shatter, shiver, cranch[obs3], crunch, craunch[obs3], chop; cut up, rip up; hack, hew, slash; whittle; haggle, hackle, discind , lacerate, scamble[obs3], mangle, gash, hash, slice. cut up, carve, dissect, anatomize; dislimb[obs3]; take to pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces, tear to pieces; tear to tatters, tear piecemeal, tear limb from limb; divellicate[obs3]; skin &c. 226; disintegrate, dismember, disbranch[obs3], disband; disperse &c. 73; dislocate, disjoint; break up; mince; comminute &c. (pulverize) 330; apportion &c. 786. part, part company; separate, leave. Adj. disjoined &c. v.; discontinuous &c. 70; multipartite[obs3], abstract; disjunctive; secant; isolated &c. v.; insular, separate, disparate, discrete, apart, asunder, far between, loose, free; unattached, unannexed, unassociated, unconnected; distinct; adrift; straggling; rift, reft[obs3]. [capable of being cut] scissile[Chem], divisible, discerptible[obs3], partible, separable. Adv. separately &c. adj.; one by one, severally, apart; adrift, asunder, in twain; in the abstract, abstractedly.

#45. [Connecting medium.] Connection. N. vinculum, link; connective, connection; junction &c. 43; bond of union, copula, hyphen, intermedium[obs3]; bracket; bridge, stepping-stone, isthmus. bond, tendon, tendril; fiber; cord, cordage; riband, ribbon, rope, guy, cable, line, halser , hawser, painter, moorings, wire, chain; string &c. (filament) 205. fastener, fastening, tie; ligament, ligature; strap; tackle, rigging; standing rigging, running rigging; traces, harness; yoke; band ribband, bandage; brace, roller, fillet; inkle[obs3]; with, withe, withy; thong, braid; girder, tiebeam; girth, girdle, cestus[obs3], garter, halter, noose, lasso, surcingle, knot, running knot; cabestro [obs3][U. S.], cinch [U. S.], lariat, legadero[obs3], oxreim[obs3]; suspenders.



pin, corking pin, nail, brad, tack, skewer, staple, corrugated fastener; clamp, U-clamp, C-clamp; cramp, cramp iron; ratchet, detent, larigo[obs3], pawl; terret[obs3], treenail, screw, button, buckle; clasp, hasp, hinge, hank, catch, latch, bolt, latchet[obs3], tag; tooth; hook, hook and eye; lock, holdfast[obs3], padlock, rivet; anchor, grappling iron, trennel[obs3], stake, post. cement, glue, gum, paste, size, wafer, solder, lute, putty, birdlime, mortar, stucco, plaster, grout; viscum[obs3]. shackle, rein &c. (means of restraint) 752; prop &c. (support) 215. V. bridge over, span; connect &c. 43; hang &c. 214.



#46. Coherence. — N. coherence, adherence, adhesion, adhesiveness; concretion accretion; conglutination, agglutination, agglomeration; aggregation; consolidation, set, cementation; sticking, soldering &c. v.; connection; dependence. tenacity, toughness; stickiness &c. 352; inseparability, inseparableness; bur, remora. conglomerate, concrete &c. (density) 321. V. cohere, adhere, stick, cling, cleave, hold, take hold of, hold fast, close with, clasp, hug; grow together, hang together; twine round &c. (join) 43. stick like a leech, stick like wax; stick close; cling like ivy, cling like a bur; adhere like a remora, adhere like Dejanira's shirt. glue; agglutinate, conglutinate[obs3]; cement, lute, paste, gum; solder, weld; cake, consolidate &c. (solidify) 321; agglomerate. Adj. cohesive, adhesive, adhering, cohering &c. v.; tenacious, tough; sticky &c. 352. united, unseparated, unsessile[obs3], inseparable, inextricable, infrangible[obs3]; compact &c. (dense) 321.

#47. [Want of adhesion, nonadhesion, immiscibility.] Incoherence. - N. nonadhesion[obs3]; immiscibility; incoherence; looseness &c. adj.; laxity; relaxation; loosening &c. v.; freedom; disjunction &c. 44; rope of sand. V. make loose &c. adj.; loosen, slacken, relax; unglue &c. 46; detach &c. (disjoin) 44. Adj. nonadhesive, immiscible; incoherent, detached, loose, baggy, slack, lax, relaxed, flapping, streaming; disheveled; segregated, like grains of sand unconsolidated &c. 231, uncombined &c. 48; noncohesive[obs3].



#48. Combination. — N. combination; mixture &c. 41; junction &c. 43; union, unification, synthesis, incorporation, amalgamation, embodiment, coalescence, crasis[obs3], fusion, blending, absorption, centralization. alloy, compound, amalgam, composition, tertium quid[Lat]; resultant, impregnation. V. combine, unite, incorporate, amalgamate, embody, absorb, reembody[obs3], blend, merge, fuse, melt into one, consolidate, coalesce, centralize, impregnate; put together, lump together; cement a union, marry. Adj. combined &c. v.; impregnated with, ingrained; imbued inoculated.

#49. Decomposition. — N. decomposition, analysis, dissection, resolution, catalysis, dissolution; corruption &c. (uncleanness) 653; dispersion &c. 73; disjunction &c. 44; disintegration. V. decompose, decompound; analyze, disembody, dissolve; resolve into its elements, separate into its elements; electrolyze[Chem]; dissect, decentralize, break up; disperse &c. 73; unravel &c. (unroll) 313; crumble into dust. Adj. decomposed &c. v.; catalytic, analytical; resolvent, separative, solvent.



4. CONCRETE QUANTITY

#50. Whole. [Principal part.] N. whole, totality, integrity; totalness &c. adj[obs3].; entirety, ensemble, collectiveness[obs3]; unity &c. 87; completeness &c. 52; indivisibility, indiscerptibility[obs3]; integration, embodiment; integer. all, the whole, total, aggregate, one and all, gross amount, sum, sum total, tout ensemble, length and breadth of, Alpha and Omega, " be all and end all "; complex, complexus [obs3]; lock stock and barrel. bulk, mass, lump, tissue, staple, body, compages[obs3]; trunk, torso, bole, hull, hulk, skeleton greater part, major part, best part, principal part, main part; essential part &c. (importance). 642; lion's share, Benjamin's mess; the long and the short; nearly, all, almost all. V. form a whole, constitute a whole; integrate, embody, amass; aggregate &c. (assemble) 72; amount to, come to. Adj. whole, total, integral, entire; complete &c. 52; one, individual. unbroken, intact, uncut, undivided, unsevered[obs3], unclipped[obs3], uncropped, unshorn; seamless; undiminished; undemolished, undissolved, undestroyed, unbruised. indivisible, indissoluble, indissolvable[obs3], indiscerptible[obs3]. wholesale, sweeping; comprehensive. Adv. wholly, altogether; totally &c. (completely) 52; entirely, all, all in all, as a whole, wholesale, in a body, collectively, all put together; in the aggregate, in the lump, in the mass, in the gross, in the main, in the long run; en masse, as a body, on the whole, bodily !, en bloc, in extenso[Lat], throughout, every inch; substantially. Phr. tout bien ou rien[Fr].



#51. Part. — N. part, portion; dose; item, particular; aught, any; division, ward; subdivision, section; chapter, clause, count, paragraph, verse; article, passage; sector, segment; fraction, fragment; cantle, frustum; detachment, parcel. piece[Fr], lump, bit cut, cutting; chip, chunk, collop[obs3], slice, scale; lamina &c. 204; small part; morsel, particle &c. (smallness) 32; installment, dividend; share &c. (allotment) 786. debris, odds and ends, oddments, detritus; excerpta[obs3]; member, limb, lobe, lobule, arm, wing, scion, branch, bough, joint, link, offshoot, ramification, twig, bush, spray, sprig; runner; leaf, leaflet; stump; component part &c. 56; sarmentum[obs3]. compartment; department &c. (class) 75; county &c. (region) 181. V. part, divide, break &c. (disjoin) 44; partition &c. (apportion) 786. Adj. fractional, fragmentary; sectional, aliquot; divided &c. v.; in compartments, multifid[obs3]; disconnected; partial. Adv. partly, in part, partially; piecemeal, part by part; by by installments,by snatches, by inches, by driblets; bit by bit, inch by inch, foot by foot, drop by drop; in detail, in lots.



#52. Completeness. N. completeness &c. adj.; completion &c. 729; integration; allness[obs3]. entirety; perfection &c. 650; solidity, solidarity; unity; all; ne plus ultra[Lat], ideal, limit. complement, supplement, make-weight; filling, up &c. v. impletion[obs3]; saturation, saturity ; high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide; fill, load, bumper, bellyful[obs3]; brimmer[obs3]; sufficiency &c. 639. V. be complete &c. adj.; come to a head. render complete &c. adj.; complete &c. (accomplish) 729; fill, charge, load, replenish; make up, make good; piece out[Fr], eke out; supply deficiencies; fill up, fill in, fill to the brim, fill the measure of; saturate. go the whole hog, go the whole length; go all lengths. Adj. complete, entire; whole &c. 50; perfect &c. 650; full, good, absolute, thorough, plenary; solid, undivided; with all its parts; all- sided. exhaustive, radical, sweeping, thorough-going; dead. regular, consummate, unmitigated, sheer, unqualified, unconditional, free; abundant &c. (sufficient) 639. brimming; brimful, topful, topfull; chock full, choke full; as full as an egg is of meat, as full as a vetch; saturated, crammed; replete &c. (redundant) 641; fraught, laden; full-laden, full-fraught, full-charged; heavy laden. completing &c. v.; supplemental, supplementary; ascititious[obs3]. Adv. completely &c. adj.; altogether, outright, wholly, totally, in toto, quite; all out; over head and ears; effectually, for good and all, nicely, fully, through thick and thin, head and shoulders; neck and heel, neck and crop; in all respects, in every respect; at all points, out and out, to all intents and purposes; toto coelo[Lat]; utterly; clean, clean as a whistle; to the full, to the utmost, to the backbone; hollow, stark; heart and soul, root and branch, down to the ground. to the top of one's bent, as far as possible, a outrance[obs3]. throughout; from first to last, from beginning to end, from end to end, from one end to the other, from Dan to Beersheba, from head to foot, from top to toe, from top to bottom, de fond en comble[Fr]; a fond, a capite ad calcem [Lat], ab ovo usque ad mala[Lat], fore and aft; every, whit, every inch; cap-a-pie, to the end of the chapter; up to the brim, up to the ears, up to the eyes; as . . . as can be. on all accounts;,sous tous les rapports[Fr]; with a vengeance, with a witness. Phr. falsus in uno falsus in omnibus [Latin: false in one thing, false in everything]; omnem movere lapidem[Lat]; una scopa nuova spazza bene [Italian].

#53. Incompleteness. — N. incompleteness &c. adj.; deficiency, short measure; shortcoming &c. 304; insufficiency &c. 640; imperfection &c. 651; immaturity &c. (nonpreparation) 674; half measures. [part wanting] defect, deficit, defalcation, omission; caret; shortage; interval &c. 198; break &c. (discontinuity) 70; noncompletion &c. 730; missing link. missing piece, missing part, gap, hole, lacuna. V. be incomplete &c. adj.; fall short of &c. 304; lack &c. (be insufficient) 640; neglect &c. 460. Adj. incomplete; imperfect &c. 651; unfinished; uncompleted &c. (see complete &c. 729); defective, deficient, wanting, lacking, failing; in default, in arrear[obs3]; short of; hollow, meager, lame, halfand-half, perfunctory, sketchy; crude &c. (unprepared) 674. mutilated, garbled, docked, lopped, truncated. in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding. Adv. incompletely &c. adj.; by halves. Phr. caetera desunt[Lat]; caret.



#54. Composition. — N. composition, constitution, crasis[obs3]; combination &c. 48; inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception; embodiment; formation. V. be composed of, be made of, be formed of, be made up of; consist of, be resolved into. include &c. (in a class) 76; contain, hold, comprehend, take in, admit, embrace, embody; involve, implicate; drag into. compose, constitute, form, make; make up, fill up, build up; enter into the composition of &c. (be a component) 56. Adj. containing, constituting &c.v.

#55. Exclusion. — N. exclusion, nonadmission, omission, exception, rejection, repudiation; exile &c. (seclusion) 893; noninclusion[obs3], preclusion, prohibition. separation, segregation, seposition[obs3], elimination, expulsion; cofferdam. V. be excluded from &c. exclude, bar; leave out, shut out, bar out; reject, repudiate, blackball; lay apart, put apart, set apart, lay aside, put aside; relegate, segregate; throw overboard; strike off, strike out; neglect &c. 460; banish &c. (seclude) 893; separate.&c. (disjoin) 44. pass over, omit; garble; eliminate, weed, winnow. Adj. excluding &c. v.; exclusive. excluded &c. v.; unrecounted[obs3], not included in; inadmissible. Adv. exclusive of, barring; except; with the exception of; save; bating.

#56. Component. — N. component; component part, integral part, integrant part[obs3]; element, constituent, ingredient, leaven; part and parcel; contents; appurtenance; feature; member &c. (part) 51; personnel. V. enter into, enter into the composition of; be a component &c. n; be part of, form part of &c. 51 ; merge in, be merged in; be implicated in; share in &c. (participate) 778; belong to, appertain to; combine, inhere in, unite. form, make, constitute, compose. Adj. forming &c. v. inclusive.

#57. Extraneousness. — N. extraneousness &c. adj.; extrinsicality &c. 6[obs3]; exteriority &c. 220[obs3]; alienage[obs3], alienism. foreign body, foreign substance, foreign element; alien, stranger, intruder, interloper, foreigner, novus homo[Lat], newcomer, immigrant, emigrant; creole, Africander[obs3]; outsider; Dago*, wop, mick, polak, greaser, slant, Easterner [U.S.], Dutchman, tenderfoot. Adj. extraneous, foreign, alien, ulterior; tramontane, ultramontane. excluded &c. 55; inadmissible; exceptional. Adv. in foreign parts, in foreign lands; abroad, beyond seas; over sea on one's travels.



SECTION IV. ORDER

1. ORDER

#58. Order. — N. order, regularity, uniformity, symmetry, lucidus ordo[Lat]; music of the spheres. gradation, progression; series &c. (continuity) 69. subordination; course, even tenor, routine; method, disposition, arrangement, array, system, economy, discipline orderliness &c. adj. rank, place &c. (term) 71. V. be in order, become in order &c. adj.; form, fall in, draw up; arrange itself, range itself, place itself; fall into one's place, take one's place, take one's rank; rally round. adjust, methodize, regulate, systematize. Adj. orderly, regular; in order,in trim, in apple-pie order, in its proper place; neat, tidy, en regle[Fr], well regulated, correct, methodical, uniform, symmetrical, shipshape, businesslike, systematic; unconfused &c. (see confuse &c. 61); arranged &c. 60. Adv. in order; methodically &c. adj.; in -turn, - its turn; step by step; by regular -steps, -gradations, -stages, -intervals; seriatim, systematically, by clockwork, gradatim[Lat]; at stated periods &c. (periodically) 138. Phr. natura non facit saltum[Lat]; "order is heaven's first law" [Pope]; "order from disorder sprung" [Paradise Lost]; ordo est parium dispariumque rerum sua loca tribuens dispositio [Lat][St. Augustine].

<— here we should break up 59 into disorder (randomness), and complexity. These are two different concepts. Note that simplicity, (entry 849) refers to affections or appearance, not internal complexity. We also need a corresponding entry for conceptual or organizational simplicity. —>

#59. [Absence, or want of Order, &c.] Disorder. — N. disorder; derangement &c. 61; irregularity; anomaly &c. (unconformity) 83; anarchy, anarchism; want of method; untidiness &c. adj.; disunion; discord &c. 24. confusion; confusedness &c. adj.; mishmash, mix; disarray, jumble, huddle, litter, lumber; cahotage[obs3]; farrago; mess, mash, muddle, muss [U. S.], hash, hodgepodge; hotch-potch[obs3], hotch-pot[obs3]; imbroglio, chaos, omnium gatherum[Lat], medley; mere mixture &c. 41; fortuitous concourse of atoms, disjecta membra[Lat], rudis indigestaque moles [Lat][Ovid]. complexity &c. 59a. turmoil; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; to-do, trouble, pudder[obs3], pother, row, rumble, disturbance, hubbub, convulsion, tumult, uproar, revolution, riot, rumpus, stour[obs3], scramble, brawl, fracas, rhubarb [baseball], fight, free-for-all, row, ruction, rumpus, embroilment, melee, spill and pelt, rough and tumble; whirlwind &c. 349; bear garden, Babel, Saturnalia, donnybrook, Donnybrook Fair, confusion worse confounded, most admired disorder, concordia discors[Lat]; Bedlam, all hell broke loose; bull in a china shop; all the fat in the fire, diable a' quatre[Fr], Devil to pay; pretty kettle of fish; pretty piece of work[Fr], pretty piece of business[Fr]. [legal terms] disorderly person; disorderly persons offence; misdemeanor. [moral disorder] slattern, slut (libertine) 962. V. be disorderly &c. adj.; ferment, play at cross-purposes. put out of order; derange &c. 61; ravel &c. 219; ruffle, rumple. Adj. disorderly, orderless; out of order, out of place, out of gear; irregular, desultory; anomalous &c. (unconformable) 83; acephalous[obs3], deranged; aimless; disorganized; straggling; unmethodical, immethodical[obs3]; unsymmetric[obs3], unsystematic; untidy, slovenly; dislocated; out of sorts; promiscuous, indiscriminate; chaotic, anarchical; unarranged &c. (see arrange &c. 60)[obs3]; confused; deranged &c. 61; topsy-turvy &c. (inverted) 218; shapeless &c. 241; disjointed, out of joint. troublous[obs3]; riotous &c. (violent) 173. complex &c. 59a. Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits, by fits and snatches, by fits and starts; pellmell; higgledy-piggledy; helter-skelter, harum-scarum; in a ferment; at sixes and sevens, at cross-purposes; upside down &c. 218. Phr. the cart before the horse; <gr/hysteron proteron/gr>[Grk][Grk]; chaos is come again; "the wreck of matter and the crush of worlds " [Addison].

#59a. Complexity — N. complexity; complexness &c. adj.; complexus[obs3]; complication, implication; intricacy, intrication[obs3]; perplexity; network, labyrinth; wilderness, jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil &c. (convolution) 248; sleave[obs3], tangled skein, knot, Gordian knot, wheels within wheels; kink, gnarl, knarl[obs3]; webwork[obs3]. [complexity if a task or action] difficulty &c. 704. V. complexify[obs3], complicate. Adj. gnarled, knarled[obs3]. complex, complexed; intricate, complicated, perplexed, involved, raveled, entangled, knotted, tangled, inextricable; irreducible.



#60. [Reduction to Order.] Arrangement. — N. arrangement; plan &c. 626; preparation &c. 673; disposal, disposition; collocation, allocation; distribution; sorting &c. v.; assortment, allotment, apportionment, taxis, taxonomy, syntaxis[obs3], graduation, organization; grouping; tabulation. analysis, classification, clustering, division, digestion. [Result of arrangement] digest; synopsis &c. (compendium) 596; syntagma[Gram], table, atlas; file, database; register. &c. (record) 551; organism, architecture. [Instrument for sorting] sieve, riddle, screen, sorter. V. reduce to order, bring into order; introduce order into; rally. arrange, dispose, place, form; put in order, set in order, place in order; set out, collocate, pack, marshal, range, size, rank, group, parcel out, allot, distribute, deal; cast the parts, assign the parts; dispose of, assign places to; assort, sort; sift, riddle; put to rights, set to rights, put into shape, put in trim, put in array; apportion. class, classify; divide; file, string together, thread; register &c. (record) 551; catalogue, tabulate, index, graduate, digest, grade. methodize, regulate, systematize, coordinate, organize, settle, fix. unravel, disentangle, ravel, card; disembroil[obs3]; feaze[obs3]. Adj. arranged &c. v.; embattled, in battle array; cut and dried; methodical, orderly, regular, systematic. Phr. "In vast cumbrous array" [Churchill].

#61. [Subversion of Order; bringing into disorder.] Derangement. — N. derangement &c. v.; disorder &c. 59; evection[obs3], discomposure, disturbance; disorganization, deorganization[obs3]; dislocation; perturbation, interruption; shuffling &c. v.; inversion &c. 218; corrugation &c. (fold) 258; involvement. interchange &c. 148. V. derange; disarrange, misarrange[obs3]; displace, misplace; mislay, discompose, disorder; deorganize[obs3], discombobulate, disorganize; embroil, unsettle, disturb, confuse, trouble, perturb, jumble, tumble; shuffle, randomize; huddle, muddle, toss, hustle, fumble, riot; bring into disorder, put into disorder, throw into disorder &c. 59; muss [U.S.]; break the ranks, disconcert, convulse; break in upon. unhinge, dislocate, put out of joint, throw out of gear. turn topsy-turvy &c. (invert) 218; bedevil; complicate, involve, perplex, confound; imbrangle[obs3], embrangle[obs3], tangle, entangle, ravel, tousle, towzle[obs3], dishevel, ruffle; rumple &c. (fold) 258. litter, scatter; mix &c. 41. rearrange &c. 148. Adj. deranged &c. v.; syncretic, syncretistic[obs3]; mussy, messy; flaky; random, unordered [U.S.].

2. CONSECUTIVE ORDER

#62. Precedence. — N. precedence; coming before &c. v.; the lead, le pas; superiority &c. 33; importance &c. 642; antecedence, antecedency[obs3]; anteriority &c. (front) 234[obs3]; precursor &c. 64; priority &c. 116; precession &c. 280; anteposition[obs3]; epacme[obs3]; preference. V. precede; come before, come first; head, lead, take the lead; lead the way, lead the dance; be in the vanguard; introduce, usher in; have the pas; set the fashion &c. (influence) 175; open the ball; take precedence, have precedence; have the start &c. (get before) 280. place before; prefix; premise, prelude, preface. Adj. preceding &c. v.; precedent, antecedent; anterior; prior &c. 116; before; former; foregoing; beforementioned[obs3], abovementioned[obs3], aforementioned; aforesaid, said; precursory, precursive[obs3]; prevenient[obs3], preliminary, prefatory, introductory; prelusive, prelusory; proemial[obs3], preparatory. Adv. before; in advance &c. (precession) 280. Phr. seniores priores[Lat]; prior tempore prior jure[Lat].

#63. Sequence. — N. sequence, coming after; going after &c. (following) 281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c. 117. continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme[obs3]. secondariness[obs3]; subordinancy &c. (inferiority) 34[obs3]. afterbirth, afterburden[obs3]; placenta, secundines[Med]. V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into the shoes of; alternate. place after, suffix, append. Adj. succeeding &c.v.; sequent[obs3]; subsequent, consequent, sequacious[obs3], proximate, next; consecutive &c. (continuity) 69; alternate, amoebean[obs3]. latter; posterior &c. 117. Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c. (rear) 235.



#64. Precursor. N. precursor, antecedent, precedent, predecessor; forerunner, vancourier[obs3], avant-coureur[Fr], pioneer, prodrome , prodromos[obs3], prodromus[obs3], outrider; leader, bellwether; herald, harbinger; foreboding; dawn; avant-courier, avant-garde, bellmare[obs3], forelooper[obs3], foreloper[obs3], stalking-horse, voorlooper[Afrikaans], voortrekker[Afrikaans]. prelude, preamble, preface, prologue, foreword, avant-propos[Fr], protasis[obs3], proemium[obs3], prolusion[obs3], proem, prolepsis[Gram], prolegomena, prefix, introduction; heading, frontispiece, groundwork; preparation &c. 673; overture, exordium[Lat], symphony; premises. prefigurement &c. 511; omen &c. 512. Adj. precursory; prelusive, prelusory, preludious[obs3]; proemial[obs3], introductory, prefatory, prodromous[obs3], inaugural, preliminary; precedent &c. (prior) 116. Phr. "a precedent embalms a principle" [Disraeli].

#65. Sequel. — N. sequel, suffix, successor; tail, queue, train, wake, trail, rear; retinue, suite; appendix, postscript; epilogue; peroration; codicil; continuation, sequela[obs3]; appendage; tail piece[Fr], heelpiece[obs3]; tag, more last words; colophon. aftercome[obs3], aftergrowth[obs3], afterpart[obs3], afterpiece[obs3], aftercourse[obs3], afterthought, aftergame[obs3]; arriere pensee[Fr], second thoughts; outgrowth.

#66. Beginning.— N. beginning, commencement, opening, outset, incipience, inception, inchoation[obs3]; introduction &c. (precursor) 64; alpha, initial; inauguration, debut, le premier pas, embarcation[Fr], rising of the curtain; maiden speech; outbreak, onset, brunt; initiative, move, first move; narrow end of the wedge, thin end of the wedge; fresh start, new departure. origin &c. (cause) 153; source, rise; bud, germ &c. 153; egg, rudiment; genesis, primogenesis[obs3], birth, nativity, cradle, infancy; start, inception, creation, starting point &c. 293; dawn &c. (morning) 125; evolution. title-page; head, heading; van &c. (front) 234; caption, fatihah[obs3]. entrance, entry; inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch, portal, portico, propylon[obs3], door; gate, gateway; postern, wicket, threshold, vestibule; propylaeum[obs3]; skirts, border &c. (edge) 231. first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first sight. rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABCE. V. begin, start, commence; conceive, open, dawn, set in, take its rise, enter upon, enter; set out &c. (depart) 293; embark in; incept[obs3]. [transitive] initiate, launch, inaugurate. [intransitive] inchoate, rise, arise, originate. usher in; lead off, lead the way; take the lead, take the initiative; head; stand at the head, stand first, stand for; lay the foundations &c. (prepare) 673; found &c. (cause) 153; set up, set on foot, agoing[obs3], set abroach[obs3], set the ball in motion; apply the match to a train; broach; open up, open the door to. [intransitive] get underway, set about, get to work, set to work, set to; make a beginning, make a start. handsel; take the first step, lay the first stone, cut the first turf; break ground, break the ice, break cover; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; open fire, open the ball; ventilate, air; undertake &c. 676. come into existence, come into the world; make one's debut, take birth; burst forth, break out; spring up, spring forth, crop up, pop up, appear, materialize. begin at the beginning, begin ab ovo[Lat]. begin again, begin de novo; start afresh, make a fresh start, take it from the top, shuffle the cards, reshuffle the cards, resume, recommence. Adj. beginning &c. v.; initial, initiatory, initiative; inceptive, introductory, incipient; proemial[obs3], inaugural; inchoate, inchoative[obs3]; embryonic, rudimental; primogenial[obs3]; primeval, primitive, primordial &c. (old) 124; aboriginal; natal, nascent. first, foremost, leading; maiden. begun &c. v.; just begun &c. v. Adv. at the beginning, in the beginning, &c. n.; first, in the first place, imprimis[Lat], first and foremost; in limine[Lat]; in the bud, in embryo, in its infancy; from the beginning, from its birth; ab initio[Lat], ab ovo[Lat], ab incunabilis[Lat], ab origine[Lat]. Phr. let's get going! let's get this show on the road! up and at 'em! aller Anfang ist schwer [Ger]; dimidium facti qui coepit habet [Lat][Cicero]; omnium rerum principia parva sunt [Lat][Cicero].

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