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Romano Lavo-Lil - Title: Romany Dictionary - Title: Gypsy Dictionary
by George Borrow
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THE ENGLISH GYPSY LANGUAGE



The Gypsies of England call their language, as the Gypsies of many other countries call theirs, Romany or Romanes, a word either derived from the Indian Ram or Rama, which signifies a husband, or from the town Rome, which took its name either from the Indian Ram, or from the Gaulic word, Rom, which is nearly tantamount to husband or man, for as the Indian Ram means a husband or man, so does the Gaulic Pom signify that which constitutes a man and enables him to become a husband.

Before entering on the subject of the English Gypsy, I may perhaps be expected to say something about the original Gypsy tongue. It is, however, very difficult to say with certainty anything on the subject. There can be no doubt that a veritable Gypsy tongue at one time existed, but that it at present exists there is great doubt indeed. The probability is that the Gypsy at present exists only in dialects more or less like the language originally spoken by the Gypsy or Zingaro race. Several dialects of the Gypsy are to be found which still preserve along with a considerable number of seemingly original words certain curious grammatical forms, quite distinct from those of any other speech. Others are little more than jargons, in which a certain number of Gypsy words are accommodated to the grammatical forms of the languages of particular countries. In the foremost class of the purer Gypsy dialects, I have no hesitation in placing those of Russia, Wallachia, Bulgaria, and Transylvania. They are so alike, that he who speaks one of them can make himself very well understood by those who speak any of the rest; from whence it may reasonably be inferred that none of them can differ much from the original Gypsy speech; so that when speaking of Gypsy language, any one of these may be taken as a standard. One of them—I shall not mention which—I have selected for that purpose, more from fancy than any particular reason.

The Gypsy language, then, or what with some qualification I may call such, may consist of some three thousand words, the greater part of which are decidedly of Indian origin, being connected with the Sanscrit or some other Indian dialect; the rest consist of words picked up by the Gypsies from various languages in their wanderings from the East. It has two genders, masculine and feminine; o represents the masculine and i the feminine: for example, boro rye, a great gentleman; bori rani, a great lady. There is properly no indefinite article: gajo or gorgio, a man or gentile; o gajo, the man. The noun has two numbers, the singular and the plural. It has various cases formed by postpositions, but has, strictly speaking, no genitive. It has prepositions as well as postpositions; sometimes the preposition is used with the noun and sometimes the postposition: for example, cad o gav, from the town; chungale mannochendar, evil men from, i.e. from evil men. The verb has no infinitive; in lieu thereof, the conjunction 'that' is placed before some person of some tense. 'I wish to go' is expressed in Gypsy by camov te jaw, literally, I wish that I go; thou wishest to go, caumes te jas, thou wishest that thou goest; caumen te jallan, they wish that they go. Necessity is expressed by the impersonal verb and the conjunction 'that': hom te jay, I must go; lit. I am that I go; shan te jallan, they are that they go; and so on. There are words to denote the numbers from one up to a thousand. For the number nine there are two words, nu and ennyo. Almost all the Gypsy numbers are decidedly connected with the Sanscrit.

After these observations on what may be called the best preserved kind of Gypsy, I proceed to a lower kind, that of England. The English Gypsy speech is very scanty, amounting probably to not more than fourteen hundred words, the greater part of which seem to be of Indian origin. The rest form a strange medley taken by the Gypsies from various Eastern and Western languages: some few are Arabic, many are Persian; some are Sclavo-Wallachian, others genuine Sclavonian. Here and there a Modern Greek or Hungarian word is discoverable; but in the whole English Gypsy tongue I have never noted but one French word—namely, tass or dass, by which some of the very old Gypsies occasionally call a cup.

Their vocabulary being so limited, the Gypsies have of course words of their own only for the most common objects and ideas; as soon as they wish to express something beyond these they must have recourse to English, and even to express some very common objects, ideas, and feelings, they are quite at a loss in their own tongue, and must either employ English words or very vague terms indeed. They have words for the sun and the moon, but they have no word for the stars, and when they wish to name them in Gypsy, they use a word answering to 'lights.' They have a word for a horse and for a mare, but they have no word for a colt, which in some other dialects of the Gypsy is called kuro; and to express a colt they make use of the words tawno gry, a little horse, which after all may mean a pony. They have words for black, white, and red, but none for the less positive colours—none for grey, green, and yellow. They have no definite word either for hare or rabbit; shoshoi, by which they generally designate a rabbit, signifies a hare as well, and kaun-engro, a word invented to distinguish a hare, and which signifies ear-fellow, is no more applicable to a hare than to a rabbit, as both have long ears. They have no certain word either for to-morrow or yesterday, collico signifying both indifferently. A remarkable coincidence must here be mentioned, as it serves to show how closely related are Sanscrit and Gypsy. Shoshoi and collico are nearly of the same sound as the Sanscrit sasa and kalya, and exactly of the same import; for as the Gypsy shoshoi signifies both hare and rabbit, and collico to-morrow as well as yesterday, so does the Sanscrit sasa signify both hare and rabbit, and kalya tomorrow as well as yesterday.

The poverty of their language in nouns the Gypsies endeavour to remedy by the frequent use of the word engro. This word affixed to a noun or verb turns it into something figurative, by which they designate, seldom very appropriately, some object for which they have no positive name. Engro properly means a fellow, and engri, which is the feminine or neuter modification, a thing. When the noun or verb terminates in a vowel, engro is turned into mengro, and engri into mengri. I have already shown how, by affixing engro to kaun, the Gypsies have invented a word to express a hare. In like manner, by affixing engro to pov, earth, they have coined a word for a potato, which they call pov-engro or pov-engri, earth-fellow or thing; and by adding engro to rukh, or mengro to rooko, they have really a very pretty figurative name for a squirrel, which they call rukh-engro or rooko-mengro, literally a fellow of the tree. Poggra-mengri, a breaking thing, and pea-mengri, a drinking thing, by which they express, respectively, a mill and a teapot, will serve as examples of the manner by which they turn verbs into substantives. This method of finding names for objects, for which there are properly no terms in Gypsy, might be carried to a great length—much farther, indeed, than the Gypsies are in the habit of carrying it: a slack-rope dancer might be termed bittitardranoshellokellimengro, or slightly- drawn-rope-dancing fellow; a drum, duicoshtcurenomengri, or a thing beaten by two sticks; a tambourine, angustrecurenimengri, or a thing beaten by the fingers; and a fife, muipudenimengri, or thing blown by the mouth. All these compound words, however, would be more or less indefinite, and far beyond the comprehension of the Gypsies in general.

The verbs are very few, and with two or three exceptions expressive only of that which springs from what is physical and bodily, totally unconnected with the mind, for which, indeed, the English Gypsy has no word; the term used for mind, zi—which is a modification of the Hungarian sziv—meaning heart. There are such verbs in this dialect as to eat, drink, walk, run, hear, see, live, die; but there are no such verbs as to hope, mean, hinder, prove, forbid, teaze, soothe. There is the verb apasavello, I believe; but that word, which is Wallachian, properly means being trusted, and was incorporated in the Gypsy language from the Gypsies obtaining goods on trust from the Wallachians, which they never intended to pay for. There is the verb for love, camova; but that word is expressive of physical desire, and is connected with the Sanscrit Cama, or Cupid. Here, however, the English must not triumph over the Gypsies, as their own verb 'love' is connected with a Sanscrit word signifying 'lust.' One pure and abstract metaphysical verb the English Gypsy must be allowed to possess—namely, penchava, I think, a word of illustrious origin, being derived from the Persian pendashtan.

The English Gypsies can count up to six, and have the numerals for ten and twenty, but with those for seven, eight, and nine, perhaps not three Gypsies in England are acquainted. When they wish to express those numerals in their own language, they have recourse to very uncouth and roundabout methods, saying for seven, dui trins ta yeck, two threes and one; for eight, dui stors, or two fours; and for nine, desh sore but yeck, or ten all but one. Yet at one time the English Gypsies possessed all the numerals as their Transylvanian, Wallachian, and Russian brethren still do; even within the last fifty years there were Gypsies who could count up to a hundred. These were tatchey Romany, real Gypsies, of the old sacred black race, who never slept in a house, never entered a church, and who, on their death- beds, used to threaten their children with a curse, provided they buried them in a churchyard. The two last of them rest, it is believed, some six feet deep beneath the moss of a wild, hilly heath,—called in Gypsy the Heviskey Tan, or place of holes; in English, Mousehold,—near an ancient city, which the Gentiles call Norwich, and the Romans the Chong Gav, or the town of the hill.

With respect to Grammar, the English Gypsy is perhaps in a worse condition than with respect to words. Attention is seldom paid to gender; boro rye and boro rawnie being said, though as rawnie is feminine, bori and not boro should be employed. The proper Gypsy plural terminations are retained in nouns, but in declension prepositions are generally substituted for postpositions, and those prepositions English. The proper way of conjugating verbs is seldom or never observed, and the English method is followed. They say, I dick, I see, instead of dico; I dick'd, I saw, instead of dikiom; if I had dick'd, instead of dikiomis. Some of the peculiar features of Gypsy grammar yet retained by the English Gypsies will be found noted in the Dictionary.

I have dwelt at some length on the deficiencies and shattered condition of the English Gypsy tongue; justice, however, compels me to say that it is far purer and less deficient than several of the continental Gypsy dialects. It preserves far more of original Gypsy peculiarities than the French, Italian, and Spanish dialects, and its words retain more of the original Gypsy form than the words of those three; moreover, however scanty it may be, it is far more copious than the French or the Italian Gypsy, though it must be owned that in respect to copiousness it is inferior to the Spanish Gypsy, which is probably the richest in words of all the Gypsy dialects in the world, having names for very many of the various beasts, birds, and creeping things, for most of the plants and fruits, for all the days of the week, and all the months in the year; whereas most other Gypsy dialects, the English amongst them, have names for only a few common animals and insects, for a few common fruits and natural productions, none for the months, and only a name for a single day—the Sabbath— which name is a modification of the Modern Greek [Greek text: ].

Though the English Gypsy is generally spoken with a considerable alloy of English words and English grammatical forms, enough of its proper words and features remain to form genuine Gypsy sentences, which shall be understood not only by the Gypsies of England, but by those of Russia, Hungary, Wallachia, and even of Turkey; for example:-

Kek man camov te jib bolli-mengreskoenaes, Man camov te jib weshenjugalogonaes.

I do not wish to live like a baptized person. {1} I wish to live like a dog of the wood. {2}

It is clear-sounding and melodious, and well adapted to the purposes of poetry. Let him who doubts peruse attentively the following lines:-

Coin si deya, coin se dado? Pukker mande drey Romanes, Ta mande pukkeravava tute.

Rossar-mescri minri deya! Wardo-mescro minro dado! Coin se dado, coin si deya? Mande's pukker'd tute drey Romanes; Knau pukker tute mande.

Petulengro minro dado, Purana minri deya! Tatchey Romany si men - Mande's pukker'd tute drey Romanes, Ta tute's pukker'd mande.

The first three lines of the above ballad are perhaps the oldest specimen of English Gypsy at present extant, and perhaps the purest. They are at least as old as the time of Elizabeth, and can pass among the Zigany in the heart of Russia for Ziganskie. The other lines are not so ancient. The piece is composed in a metre something like that of the ancient Sclavonian songs, and contains the questions which two strange Gypsies, who suddenly meet, put to each other, and the answers which they return.

In using the following Vocabulary the Continental manner of pronouncing certain vowels will have to be observed: thus ava must be pronounced like auva, according to the English style; ker like kare, miro like meero, zi like zee, and puro as if it were written pooro.



ROMANO LAVO-LIL—WORD-BOOK OF THE ROMANY

A

ABRI, ad. prep. Out, not within, abroad: soving abri, sleeping abroad, not in a house. Celtic, Aber (the mouth or outlet of a river).

Acai / Acoi, ad. Here.

Adje, v. n. To stay, stop. See Atch, az.

Adrey, prep. Into.

Ajaw, ad. So. Wallachian, Asha.

Aladge, a. Ashamed. Sans. Latch, laj.

Aley, ad. Down: soving aley, lying down; to kin aley, to buy off, ransom. Hun. Ala, alat.

Amande, pro. pers. dat. To me.

An, v. a. imp. Bring: an lis opre, bring it up.

Ana, v. a. Bring. Sans. Ani.

Ando, prep. In.

Anglo, prep. Before.

Apasavello, v. n. I believe.

Apopli, ad. Again. Spanish Gypsy, Apala (after). Wal. Apoi (then, afterwards).

Apre, ad. prep. Up: kair lis apre, do it up. Vid. Opre.

Aranya / Araunya, s. Lady. Hungarian Gypsy, Aranya. See Rawnie.

Artav / Artavello, v. a. To pardon, forgive. Wal. Ierta. Span. Gyp. Estomar.

Artapen, s. Pardon, forgiveness.

Artaros. Arthur.

Asa / Asau, ad. Also, likewise, too: meero pal asau, my brother also.

Asarlas, ad. At all, in no manner.

Asa. An affix used in forming the second person singular of the present tense; e.g. camasa, thou lovest.

Astis, a. Possible, it is possible: astis mangue, I can; astis lengue, they can.

Asha / Ashaw, ad. So: ashaw sorlo, so early. Wal. Asha. See Ajaw.

Atch, v. n. To stay, stop.

Atch opre. Keep up.

Atraish, a. part. Afraid. Sans. Tras (to fear), atrasit (frightened). See Traish.

Av, imperat. of Ava, to come: av abri, come out.

Ava, ad. Yes. Sans. Eva.

Ava, v. a. To come.

Avata acoi. Come thou here.

Avali, ad. Yes. Wal. Aieva (really).

Avava. An affix by which the future tense of a verb is formed, e.g. mor-avava, I will kill. See Vava.

Aukko, ad. Here.

Az, v. n. To stay.

B

BAL, s. Hair. Tibetian, Bal (wool). Sans. Bala (hair).

Baleneskoe, a. Hairy.

Balormengro. A hairy fellow; Hearne, the name of a Gypsy tribe.

Balanser, s. The coin called a sovereign.

Ballivas, s. Bacon. Span. Gyp. Baliba.

Bangalo, a. Devilish. See Beng, bengako.

Bango, a. Left, sinister, wrong, false: bango wast, the left hand; to saulohaul bango, like a plastra-mengro, to swear bodily like a Bow-street runner. Sans. Pangu (lame). Hun. Pang, pango (stiff, lazy, paralysed).

Bar, s. A stone, a stoneweight, a pound sterling. Span. Gyp. Bar. Hun. Gyp. Bar. Hindustani, Puthur. Wal. Piatre. Fr. Pierre. Gr. [Greek: ] (weight).

Bareskey, a. Stony.

Bark, s. Breast, woman's breast.

Bas / Base, s. Pound sterling. Wal. Pes (a weight, burden).

Bas-engro, s. A shepherd. Run. Bacso.

Bashadi, s. A fiddle.

Bata, s. A bee. Sans. Pata.

Bau, s. Fellow, comrade. See Baw.

Baul, s. Snail. See Bowle.

Baulo, s. Pig, swine. The proper meaning of this word is anything swollen, anything big or bulky. It is connected with the English bowle or bole, the trunk of a tree; also with bowl, boll, and belly; also with whale, the largest of fish, and wale, a tumour; also with the Welsh bol, a belly, and bala, a place of springs and eruptions. It is worthy of remark that the English word pig, besides denoting the same animal as baulo, is of the same original import, being clearly derived from the same root as big, that which is bulky, and the Turkish buyuk, great, huge, vast.

Baulie-mas, s. Pork, swine's flesh.

Bavano. Windy, broken-winded.

Bavol, s. Wind, air. Sans. Pavana. See Beval.

Bavol-engro, s. A wind-fellow; figurative name for a ghost.

Baw, bau, s. Fellow, comrade: probably the same as the English country-word baw, bor. Ger. Bauer. Av acoi, baw, Come here, fellow. Boer, in Wallachian, signifies a boyard or lord.

Beano, part. pass. Born.

Beano abri. Born out of doors, like a Gypsy or vagrant.

Bebee, s. Aunt. Rus. Baba (grandmother, old woman, hag); Baba Yaga, the female demon of the Steppes.

Beng / Bengui, s. Devil. Sans. Pangka (mud). According to the Hindu mythology, there is a hell of mud; the bengues of the Gypsies seem to be its tenants.

Bengako tan, s. Hell. Lit. place belonging to devils.

Bengeskoe potan. Devil's tinder, sulphur.

Bengeskoe / Benglo, a. Devilish.

Bengree, s. Waistcoat. Span. Gyp. Blani. Wal. (Blani fur).

Berro, bero, s. A ship, a hulk for convicts. Span. Gyp. Bero, las galeras, the galleys; presidio, convict garrison.

Ber-engro, s. A sailor.

Bero-rukh, s. A mast.

Bersh / Besh, s. A year. Sans. Varsha. He could cour drey his besh, he could fight in his time.

Bershor, pl. Years.

Besh, v. n. To sit: beshel, he sits.

Beshaley / Beshly, Gypsy name of the Stanley tribe.

Besh-engri, s. A chair. See Skammen.

Beti, a. Little, small.

Beval, s. Wind. See Bavol.

Bi, prep. Without: bi luvvu, without money.

Bicunyie, a. Alone, undone: meklis or mukalis bicunyie, let it alone.

Bikhin / Bin v. a. To sell. Hin. Bikna.

Bikhnipen, s. Sale.

Birk, s. Woman's breast. See Bark.

Bis, a. Twenty.

Bisheni, s. The ague.

Bitch / Bitcha, v. a. To send. Sans. Bis, bisa.

Bitched / Bitcheno, part. pass. Sent

Bitcheno pawdel. Sent across, transported.

Bitti, s. a. Small, piece, a little. This word is not true Gypsy.

Bloen / Blowing, A cant word, but of Gypsy origin, signifying a sister in debauchery, as Pal denotes a brother in villainy. It is the Plani and Beluni of the Spanish Gypsies, by whom sometimes Beluni is made to signify queen; e.g. Beluni de o tarpe (tem opre), the Queen of Heaven, the Virgin. Blower is used by Lord Byron, in his 'Don Juan.' Speaking of the highwayman whom the Don shoots in the vicinity of London, he says that he used to go to such-and-such places of public resort with—his blowen.

Bob, s. A bean. Wal. Bob: pl. bobbis, bobs.

Boccalo, a. Hungry: boccale pers, hungry bellies.

Bokht, s. Luck, fortune: kosko bokht, good luck. Sans. Bhagya. Pers. Bakht.

Bokra, s. A sheep. Hun. Birka.

Bokra-choring. Sheep-stealing.

Bokkar-engro, s. A shepherd: bokkar-engro drey, the dude, man in the moon.

Bokkari-gueri, s. Shepherdess.

Bokkeriskoe, a. Sheepish, belonging to a sheep: bokkeriskey pire, sheep's feet.

Bolla, v. a. To baptize.

Bonnek, s. Hold: lel bonnek, to take hold.

Booko, s. Liver. See Bucca.

Bolleskoe divvus. Christmas-day; query, baptismal day. Wal. Botez (baptism).

Bollimengreskoenaes. After the manner of a Christian.

Boogones, s. Smallpox, pimples. See Bugnior.

Bor, s. A hedge.

Boona, a. Good. Lat. Bonus. Wal. Boun.

Booty, s. Work.

Bori, a. fem. Big with child, enceinte.

Booty, v. a. To work, labour.

Boro, a. Great, big. Hin. Bura. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (heavy).

Borobeshemeskeguero, s. Judge, great-sitting-fellow.

Boro Gav. London, big city. See Lundra.

Boronashemeskrutan. Epsom race-course.

Bosh, s. Fiddle. Pers. [Persian: ] Bazee, baz (play, joke), whence the English cant word 'bosh.' See Bashadi.

Boshomengro, s. Fiddler.

Bosno / Boshno, s. A cock, male-bird. Sans. Puchchin. Wal. Bosh (testicle). Gaelic, Baois (libidinousness).

Boshta, s. A saddle.

Bostaris, s. A bastard.

Bovalo, a. Rich. Sans. Bala (strong).

Bowle, s. Snail. See Baul.

Brishen / Brisheno, s. Rain. Hun. Gyp. Breshino. Sans. Vrish. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Brisheneskey, a. Rainy: brisheneskey rarde, a rainy night; brisheneskey chiros, a time of rain. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Bucca, s. Liver. Sans. Bucca (heart). Wal. Phikat.

Bucca naflipen, s. Liver-complaint.

Buchee, s. Work, labour. See Butsi.

Buddigur, s. A shop. Span. Bodega.

Buddikur divvus, s. Shopping-day: Wednesday, Saturday.

Bugnes / Bugnior, s. pl. Smallpox, blisters. Gael. Boc (a pimple), bolg (a blister), bolgach (small-pox). Wal. Mougour (a bud). Fr. Bourgeon.

Buklo, a. Hungry: buklo tan, hungry spot, a common. Hun. Gyp. Buklo tan (a wilderness).

Bul, s. Rump, buttock.

Bungshoror / Bungyoror, s. pl. Corks.

Busnis / Busnior, s. pl. Spurs, prickles. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (pain, torment).

Buroder, ad. More: ad. ne buroder, no more.

Bute, a. ad. Much, very. Hin. But.

Butsi / Buty, s. Work, labour.

Butying. Working.

C

CAEN / Cane, v. n. To stink.

Caenipen / Canipen, s. A stench.

Caeninaflipen, s. Stinking sickness, the plague, gaol-fever. The old cant word Canihen, signifying the gaol-fever, is derived from this Gypsy term.

Candelo / Cannelo, a. Stinking: cannelo mas, stinking meat. Sans. Gandha (smell).

Callico / Collico, s. To-morrow, also yesterday: collico sorlo, to- morrow morning. Sans. Kalya. Hin. Kal (to-morrow, yesterday).

Cana, ad. Now: cana sig, now soon. See Kanau, knau.

Cam, s. The sun. Hin. Khan. Heb. Khama (the sun), kham (heat).

Cam. To wish, desire, love.

Cam / Camello / Camo, v. a. To love. Sans. Cama (love). Cupid; from which Sanscrit word the Latin Amor is derived.

Cambori / Cambri, a. Pregnant, big with child.

Camlo / Caumlo, Lovel, name of a Gypsy tribe. Lit. amiable. With this word the English "comely" is connected.

Camo-mescro, s. A lover; likewise the name Lovel.

Can, s. The sun.

Can, s. An ear. See Kaun.

Cana, ad. Now: cana sig, now soon. See Kanau.

Canafi / Canapli, Turnip.

Canairis. A Gypsy name.

Canior / Caunor, s. pl. Pease.

Canni. A hen. Span. Gyp. Cani. Hun. Gyp. Cackni. Gael. Cearc.

Cannis. Hens.

Cappi, s. Booty, gain, fortune: to lel cappi, to acquire booty, make a capital, a fortune.

Cas, s. Hay: cas-stiggur, haystack; cas kairing, hay-making.

Cas, s. Cheese. Lat. Caseus. This word is used by the pikers or tramps, as well as by the Gypsies. See Kael.

Catches / Catsau, s. pl. Scissors. Hun. Kasza. Wal. Kositsie (sickle). Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Rus. Kosa.

Cato, prep. To; more properly From. Hun. Gyp. Cado. Wal. Katre (towards).

Cavo, pron. dem. This.

Cavocoi. This here.

Cavocoiskoenoes. In this manner.

Caur, v. a. To filch, steal in an artful manner by bending down. Heb. [Hebrew: ] Cara, incurvavit se. Eng. Cower.

Cayes, s. Silk. Pers. [Persian:] Span. Gyp. Quequesa. Sans. Kauseya.

Chal, s. Lad, boy, son, fellow. Connected with this word is the Scottish Chiel, the Old English Childe, and the Russian Chelovik. See Romani chal.

Charo, s. Plate, dish.

Chavali, s.f. Girl, damsel.

Chavi, s.f. Child, girl, daughter.

Cham, s. Leather: chameskie rokunies, leather breeches. Sans. Charma (skin).

Chavo, s. m. Child, son: pl. chaves. Cheaus is an old French hunting term for the young ones of a fox.

Charos / Cheros, s. Heaven. Wal. Cher.

Chauvo, s. See Chavo.

Chaw, s. Grass.

Chawhoktamengro, s. Grasshopper. See Hokta.

Chee, a. No, none: chee butsi, no work. See Chi, chichi.

Chericlo, s. Bird. See Chiriclo.

Chiricleskey tan, s. Aviary, birdcage.

Chi, s.f. Child, daughter, girl: Romany chi, Gypsy girl.

Chi / Chichi / Chiti, s. Nothing.

Chin, v. a. To cut: chin lis tuley, cut it down. Sans. Chun (to cut off). Hin. Chink. Gaelic, Sgian (a knife).

Chin the cost. To cut the stick; to cut skewers for butchers and pegs for linen-lines, a grand employment of the Gypsy fellows in the neighbourhood of London.

China-mengri, s.f. A letter; a thing incised, marked, written in.

China-mengro, s. Hatchet. Lit. cutting-thing.

Chinipen, s. A cut.

Ching / Chingaro, v. a. To fight, quarrel.

Chinga-guero, s. A warrior.

Chingaripen, s. War, strife. Sans. Sangara.

Chingring, part. pres. Fighting, quarrelling.

Chik, s. Earth, dirt. Span. Gyp. Chique. Hin. Chikkar.

Chiklo, a. Dirty.

Chiriclo, s. m. Bird. Hin. Chiriya.

Chiricli, s.f. Hen-bird.

Chiros, s. Time. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Chiv / Chiva / Chuva, v. a. To cast, fling, throw, place, put: chiv lis tuley, fling it down; chiv oprey, put up. Rus. Kyio (to forge, cast iron). Sans. Kship.

Chiving tulipen prey the chokkars. Greasing the shoes.

Chofa, s.f. Petticoat.

Chohawni, s. Witch. See Chovahano.

Chohawno, s. Wizard.

Chok, s. Watch, watching.

Chok-engro, s. Watchman.

Chok, s. Shoe: chokkor, chokkors, shoes. Hun. Czoko (wooden shoe).

Choko-mengro. Shoemaker.

Choka, s. Coat.

Chokni / Chukni, s. Whip. Wal. Chokini (a strap, leather). Hun. Csakany (a mace, sledge hammer). Hun. Gyp. Chokano (a staff). Wal. Chokan, chokinel (a hammer).

Chukni wast, s. The whip-hand, the mastery.

Chollo, a. s. Whole.

Chomany, s. Something. Span. Gyp. Cormuni (some); chimoni (anything). Wal. Chineba (some one). For every chomany there's a lav in Romany: there's a name in Gypsy for everything.

Chong, s. Knee. Hun. Czomb. Sans. Chanu. Lat. Genu.

Chongor, pl. Knees.

Choom / Choomava, v. a. To kiss. Sans. Chumb. Choomande, kiss me. Span. Gyp. Chupendi (a kiss), a corruption of Choomande.

Choomia, s. A kiss.

Choomo-mengro, one of the tribe Boswell.

Choon, s. Moon. Hun. Gyp. Chemut. Sans. Chandra.

Choot, s. Vinegar. See Chute.

Chore, v. a. To steal. Sans. Chur.

Chore, s. Thief. Hin. Chor.

Chories, pl. Thieves.

Chor-dudee-mengri, s. [Greek: ] (thieves' lantern, dark lantern).

Choredo, a. Poor, poverty stricken. Sans. Daridra.

Choredi, fem. of Choredo.

Choriness, s. Poverty.

Choro, a. Poor. Span. Gyp. Chororo. Hin. Shor.

Chovahan, v. a. To bewitch.

Chovahani / Chowian, s.f. Witch.

Chovahano, s. Wizard.

Choveno, a. Poor, needy, starved. Perhaps derived from the Russian Tchernoe (black, dirty, wretched); or from the Hungarian Csunya (hateful, frightful); whence the Chungalo of the Hungarian, and also of the Spanish Gypsies.

Choveni, fem. of Choveno.

Choveno ker, s. Workhouse, poorhouse.

Chukkal, s. Dog. Span. Gyp. Chuquel. Sans. Kukkura. Basque, Chacurra. See Juggal.

Chumba, s. Bank, hill. Russ. Xolm (a hill).

Chungarava / Chungra, v. a. To spit. Wal. Ckouina. Hun. Gyp. Chudel (he spits).

Churi, s. Knife. Sans. Chhuri. Hin. Churi.

Churi-mengro, s. Knife-grinder, cutler.

Churo-mengro, s. A soldier, swordsman.

Chute, s. Vinegar. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Otset.

Chute-pavi, s. Cyder; perhaps a crab-apple. Lit. vinegar-apple.

Chuvvenhan, s. Witch. See Chovahani.

Cinerella. Female Gypsy name.

Cocal, s. Bone. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Cocalor, pl. Bones.

Coco / Cocodus, s. Uncle. Hin. Caucau.

Cocoro / Cocoros, a. pro. Alone, self: tu cocoro, thyself.

Coin, pro. interrog. Who? Hin. Kaun.

Collor, s. pl. Shillings: dui collor a crookos, two shillings a week. In Spanish Germania or cant, two ochavos, or farthings, are called: dui cales.

Comorrus, s. A room, hall. Hun. Kamara. Hin. Cumra. Ger. Kammer.

Cong, congl, v. a. To comb.

Congli / Congro, s.f. A comb. Sans. Kanagata.

Congri, s.f. A church.

Coor / Coorava, v. a. To fight. Irish, Comhrac [courac]. Welsh, Curaw (to beat).

Coorapen, s. Fight, a beating: I shall lel a curapen, I shall get a beating.

Cooroboshno, s. A fighting cock.

Cooromengro, s. Fighter, boxer, soldier.

Coppur, s. Blanket. Rus. Kover (a carpet). Wal. Kovor, id.

Corauni / Corooni, s. A crown: mekrauliskie corauni, royal crown. Wal. Coroan.

Cori, s. Thorn. Membrum virile. Span. Carajo [caraco]. Gascon, Quirogau.

Coro / Coru, s. Pot, pitcher, cup: coru levinor, cup of ale; boro coro, a quart. Span. Gyp. Coro. Hin. Ghara.

Coro-mengro, s. Potter.

Coro-mengreskey tem. Staffordshire.

Corredo, a. Blind. Span. Gyp. Corroro. Pers. [Persian:] Wal. Kior (one-eyed).

Cosht / Cost, s. Stick. Sans. Kashtha.

Cost-engres, s. pl. Branch-fellows, people of the New Forest, Stanleys.

Coshtno, a. Wooden.

Covar / Covo, s. Thing: covars, things; covar-bikhning-vardo, a caravan in which goods are carried about for sale.

Crafni, s. Button. Ger. Knopf.

Crafni-mengro, s. Buttonmaker.

Creeor, s. pl. Ants, pismires. Span. Gyp. Ocrianse (the ant), quiria (ant).

Cricni / Crookey / Crookauros / Crookos, s. Week. See Curco.

Cuesni, s. Basket. See Cushnee.

Culvato (Gypsy name). Claude.

Curaken, s. Fighting. See Coorapen.

Curepen, s. Trouble, affliction: curepenis, afflictions.

Curkey / Curko, s. Week, Sunday. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Curlo, s. Throat. Pers. [Persian: ] Chin his curlo, cut his throat.

Curlo-mengri, s. A ruff, likewise a pillow; anything belonging to the throat or neck.

Cushnee / Cushni / Cusnee, s. Basket. Wal. Koshnitse.

Cuttor, s. A piece, a guinea-piece: dui cuttor, two guineas; will you lel a cuttor, will you take a bit? sore in cuttors, all in rags.

D

DAD, s. Father. Welsh, Tad. Wal. Tat. Rus. Gyp. Dad.

Dado, s. Father. Rus. Gyp. Dado.

Dand, s. Tooth. Sans. Danta.

Danior, pl. Teeth.

Dand, v. a. To bite.

Daya / Dieya, s. Mother, properly nurse. Sans. Dhayas (fostering). Pers. [Persian: ] Daya. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]. Rus. Gyp. Daia. Wal. Doika.

Deav, v. a. Give. Sans. Da. Wal. Da.

Del. He gives.

Del-engro, s. A kicking-horse.

Del-oprey, v. a. To read.

Denne, ad. Than.

Der. An affix, by which the comparative is formed; e.g. Wafodu, bad: wafoduder than dovor, worse than they.

Desch, a. Ten. Sans. Dasan. Wal. Zetche.

Desh ta yeck. Eleven.

Desh ta dui. Twelve.

Desh ta trin. Thirteen.

Desh ta store. Fourteen.

Desh ta pansch. Fifteen.

Desh ta sho. Sixteen.

Desh ta eft. Seventeen.

Deshko. Eighteen (?): deshko hori, eighteenpence; properly, Desh ta octo hori.

Devel, s. God. Sans. Deva. Lith. Dewas. Lat. Deus. See Dibble, Dovvel, Dubbel.

Develeskoe, s. Holy, divine. Sans. Deva.

Deyed, pret. of Deav. He gave.

Dibble, s. God. See Devel.

Dic / Dico, v. n. To look: dic tuley, look down; dicking misto, looking well. Sans. Iksh (to see, look). Gaelic, Dearcam (to see); dearc (eye).

Dickimengro, s. Overlooker, overseer.

Dicking hev, s. A window, seeing-hole.

Die, s. Mother. Rus. Gyp. Die. See Daya.

Dikkipen, s. Look, image. Sans. Driksha (aspect). Welsh, Drych (aspect).

Diklo, s. Cloth, sheet, shift.

Dinnelo, s. A fool, one possessed by the devil. Wal. Diniele (of the devil); louat diniele (possessed by the devil).

Dinneleskoe, a. Foolish.

Dinneleskoenoes. Like a fool.

Dinnelipenes, s. pl. Follies, nonsense.

Diverous. A Gypsy name.

Diviou, a. Mad: jawing diviou, going mad. Sans. Deva (a god, a fool).

Diviou-ker, s. Madhouse.

Diviou kokkodus Artaros. Mad Uncle Arthur.

Divvus, s. Day. Sans. Divasa.

Divveskoe / Divvuskoe, a. Daily: divvuskoe morro, daily bread.

Diximengro, s. Overseer. See Dickimengro.

Dook, v. a. To hurt, bewitch: dook the gry, bewitch the horse. Wal. Deokira (to fascinate, bewitch). See Duke, dukker.

Dooriya / Dooya, s. Sea. Pers. [Persian: ] Irish, Deire (the deep). Welsh, Dwr (water). Old Irish, Dobhar.

Dooriya durril, s. Currant, plum. Lit. Sea-berry.

Dooriya durrileskie guyi, s. Plum pudding.

Dori, s. Thread, lace: kaulo dori, black lace. Hin. Dora.

Dosch / Dosh, s. Evil, harm: kek dosh, no harm. Sans. Dush (bad).

Dosta, s. Enough. Wal. Destoul. Rus. Dostaet (it is sufficient). See Dusta.

Dou, imp. Give: dou mande, give me. See Deav.

Dou dass. Cup and saucer. See Dui das.

Dovo, pro. dem. That: dovo si, that's it.

Dovor. Those, they: wafoduder than dovor, worse than they.

Dov-odoy / Dovoy-oduvva, ad. Yonder.

Dov-odoyskoenaes. In that manner.

Doovel, s. God. See Duvvel.

Drab / Drav, s. Medicine, poison. Pers. [Persian: ] Daru. Wal. Otrav.

Drab-engro / Drav-engro, s. A pothecary, poison-monger.

Drab, v. a. To poison. Wal. Otribi.

Drey, prep. In.

Dubble, s. God: my dearie Dubbleskey, for my dear God's sake.

Dude, s. The moon.

Dudee, s. A light, a star. Sans. Dyuti.

Dude-bar, s. Diamond, light-stone.

Drom, s. Road. Wal. Drom. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Drom-luring, s. Highway robbery.

Dui, a. Two.

Duito, s. Second.

Duito divvus, s. Tuesday. Lit. Second day.

Dui das / Dui tas, s. Cup and saucer.

Duke, v. a. To hurt, bewitch. Sans. Duhkha (pain). Heb. Dui (languor, deadly faintness).

Dukker, v. a. To bewitch, tell fortunes. Wal. Deokiea (to fascinate, enchant).

Dukker drey my vast. Tell my fortune by my hand.

Dukkering, s. Fortune-telling. Wal. Deokiere (fascination). Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (fortune).

Dukkipen, s. Fortune-telling.

Dukker, v. n. To ache: my sherro dukkers, my head aches. See Duke, dukker.

Dum / Dumo, s. Black. Pers. [Persian: ] (tail).

Dur, ad. Far. Sans. Dur. Pers. [Persian: ]

Dur-dicki mengri, s. Telescope. Lit. far-seeing-thing.

Durro, ad. Far.

Durro-der, ad. Farther.

Durriken, s. Fortune-telling.

Durril, s. Any kind of berry, a gooseberry in particular.

Durrilau / Durilyor, pl. Berries.

Durrileskie guyi, s. Gooseberry pudding.

Dusta, a. s. Enough, plenty: dusta foky, plenty of people. See Dosta.

Duvvel, s. God.

E

EANGE, s. Itch.

Ebyok, s. The sea. Sans. Aapa (water). Wal. Ape.

Eft, a. Seven. Few of the English Gypsies are acquainted with this word; consequently, the generality, when they wish to express the number seven, without being understood by the Gorgios or Gentiles, say Dui trins ta yeck, two threes and one.

En. A kind of genitive particle used in compound words, being placed between a noun and the particle 'gro' or 'guero,' which signifies a possessor, or that which governs a thing or has to do with it: e.g. lav-en-gro, a linguist or man of words, lit. word-of-fellow; wesh-en- gro, a forester, or one who governs the wood; gurush-en-gre, things costing a groat, lit. groat-of-things.

Engri. A neuter affix, composed of the particles 'en' and 'gro,' much used in the formation of figurative terms for things for which there are no positive names in English Gypsy: for example, yag- engri, a fire-thing, which denotes a gun; poggra-mengri, a breaking- thing or mill; 'engri' is changed into 'mengri' when the preceding word terminates in a vowel.

Engro. A masculine affix, used in the formation of figurative names; for example, kaun-engro, an ear-fellow, or creature with ears, serving to denote a hare; ruk-engro, or ruko-mengro, a tree-fellow, denoting a squirrel; it is also occasionally used in names for inanimate objects, as pov-engro, an earth-thing or potato. See Guero.

Escunyo, s. A wooden skewer, a pin. Span. Gyp. Chingabar (a pin).

Escunyes, pl. Skewers.

Escunye-mengro, s. A maker of skewers.

Eskoe, fem. Eskie. A particle which affixed to a noun turns it into an adjective: e.g. Duvel, God; duveleskoe, divine. It seems to be derived from the Wal. Esk, Easkie.

Eskey. An affix or postposition, signifying, for the sake of: e.g. Mi-dubble-eskey, for God's sake.

Ever-komi, ad. Evermore.

F

FAKE, v. a. To work, in a dishonest sense; to steal, pick pockets.

Fakement, s. A robbery, any kind of work: a pretty fakement that, a pretty piece of work. A scoundrel—you ratfelo fakement, you precious scoundrel; a man of any kind—he's no bad fakement after all; a girl, St. Paul's Cathedral—what a rinkeny fakement, what a pretty girl, what a noble church.

Fashono, a. False, fashioned, made up. Wal. Fatche (to make); fatze (face, surface).

Fashono wangustis. Pretended gold rings, made in reality of brass or copper.

Fashono wangust engre. Makers of false rings.

Fenella. A female Gypsy name.

Ferreder, a. Better, more. Gaelic, Feairde.

Feter, ad. Better. Pers. [Persian: ] Span. Gyp. Feter.

Figis, s. Fig.

Figis-rookh, s. Fig-tree.

Filisen, s. Country-seat.

Fino, a. Fine. This word is not pure Gypsy: fino covar, a fine thing.

Floure, s. Flower; a female Gypsy name.

Fordel, v. a. Forgive; generally used for Artav, or Artavello, q.v., and composed of the English 'for' and the Gypsy 'del.'

Fordias / Fordios, part. pass. Forgiven.

Foros, s. City. See Vauros.

Ful, s. Dung: ful-vardo, muck cart.

Fuzyanri, s. Fern. Hun. Fuz (willow), facska (a shrub), fuszar (a stem).

G

GAD, s. A shirt: pauno gad, a clean shirt.

Gare, v. n., v. a. To take care, beware; to hide, conceal. Sans. Ghar, to cover.

Garridan. You hid: luvvu sor garridan, the money which you hid.

Garrivava, v. a. I hide or shall hide, take care: to gare his nangipen, to hide his nakedness.

Gav, s. A town, village. Pers. [Persian: ]

Gav-engro, s. A constable, village officer, beadle, citizen.

Gillie, s. A song. Sans. Kheli.

Gillies. Songs. Sometimes used to denote newspapers; because these last serve, as songs did in the old time, to give the world information of remarkable events, such as battles, murders, and robberies.

Gilyava. I sing, or shall sing. Hin. Guywuya. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Gin, v. a. To count, reckon. Sans. Gan. Hin. Ginna.

Ginnipen, s. A reckoning.

Giv, s. Wheat. Sans. Yava (barley). See Jobis.

Giv-engro, s. Wheat-fellow, figurative name for farmer.

Giv-engro ker, s. Farmhouse.

Giv-engro puv, s. Farm.

Godli, s. A warrant, perhaps hue and cry. See Gudlie. Span. Gyp. Gola (order).

Gono, s. A sack. Hin. Gon.

Gorgio, s. A Gentile, a person who is not a Gypsy; one who lives in a house and not in a tent. It is a modification of the Persian word [Persian: ] Cojia, which signifies a gentleman, a doctor, a merchant, etc. Span. Gyp. Gacho.

Gorgiken rat. Of Gentile blood.

Gorgie, s. A female Gentile or Englishwoman.

Gorgikonaes, ad. After the manner of the Gentiles.

Gooee, s. Pudding. See Guyi.

Gran, s. A barn: I sov'd yeck rarde drey a gran, I slept one night within a barn (Gypsy song).

Gran-wuddur, s. A barn door.

Gran-wuddur-chiriclo. Barn-door fowl.

Grasni / Grasnakkur, s. Mare, outrageous woman: what a grasni shan tu, what a mare you are! Grasnakkur is sometimes applied to the mayor of a town.

Grestur / Gristur, s. A horse. Span. Gyp. Gras, graste.

Gry, s. A horse. Sans. Kharu. Hin. Ghora. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, Greadh.

Gry-choring, s. Horse-stealing.

Gry-engro, s. Horse-dealer.

Gry-nashing. Horse-racing.

Gudlee / Godli, s. Cry, noise, shout. Hin. Ghooloo. Irish, Gul. Rus. Gyl=gool (shout); Golos (voice).

Grommena / Grovena / Grubbena, s. and v. Thunder, to thunder. Sans. Garjana. Rus. Groin (thunder). Heb. Ream, raemah. Gaelic, Gairm (a cry).

Gudlo, a., s. Sweet; honey, sugar.

Gudlo-pishen, s. Honey-insect, bee. See Bata.

Gue. An affix, by which the dative case is formed: e.g. Man, I; mangue, to me.

Guero, s. A person, fellow, that which governs, operates. Sans. Kara (a maker). Pers. [Persian: ] Welsh, Gwr (a man). In the Spanish cant language, Guro signifies an alguazil, a kind of civil officer. See Engro.

Gueri, s.f. Female person, virgin: Mideveleskey gueri Mary, Holy Virgin Mary.

Gush / Gurush / Gurushi, a. Groat: gurushengri, a groat's worth.

Guveni, s. Cow. Sans. Go.

Guveni-bugnior, s. Cow-pox.

Guveno, s. A bull. Sans. Gavaya. Gaelic, Gavuin, gowain (year-old calf).

Guyi, s. Pudding, black pudding. Hin. Gulgul. Span. Gyp. Golli.

Guyi-mengreskie tan, s. Yorkshire. Lit. pudding-eaters' country; in allusion to the puddings for which Yorkshire is celebrated.

H

Ha / Haw, v. a. To eat.

Habben, s. Food, victuals.

Hal, v. a. To eat: mande can't hal lis, I can't eat it. Sans. Gala.

Hanlo, s. A landlord, innkeeper. Span. Gyp. Anglano.

Hatch, v. a. To burn, light a fire.

Hatchipen, s. A burning.

Hatch, v. n. To stay, stop. See Adje, atch, az.

Hatchi-witchu, s. A hedgehog. This is a compound word from the Wal. Aritche, a hedgehog, and the Persian Besha, a wood, and signifies properly the prickly thing of the wood. In Spanish Gypsy, one of the words for a pig or hog is Eriche, evidently the Wallachian Aritche, a hedgehog.

Hekta, s. Haste: kair hekta, make haste; likewise a leap. See Hokta. Sans. Hat'ha (to leap).

Heres / Heris, s. pl. Legs. Span. Gyp. Jerias. Coshtni herri (a wooden leg).

Hetavava, v. a. To slay, beat, hit, carry off, plunder: if I can lel bonnek of tute hetavava tute, if I can lay hold of you I will slay you. Heb. Khataf (rapuit). Sans. Hat'ha (to ill-use, rapere).

Hev, s. Hole: pawnugo hev, a water hole, a well; hev, a window; hevior, windows. Sans. Avata.

Heviskey, a. Full of holes: heviskey tan, a place full of holes.

Hin, s. Dirt, ordure. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Gounoiou. Irish, Gaineamh (sand).

Hin, v. a. To void ordure. Sans. Hanna. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Hindity-mengre / Hindity-mescre, s. pl. Irish. Dirty, sordid fellows.

Hoffeno, s. A liar.

Hok-hornie-mush, s. A policeman. Partly a cant word.

Hokka, v. n. To lie, tell a falsehood: hokka tute mande, if you tell me a falsehood.

Hokkano, s. A lie. Sans. Kuhana (hypocrisy).

Hokta, v. a. To leap, jump. See Hekta.

Hokta-mengro, s. Leaper, jumper.

Hoofa, s. A cap.

Hor / Horo, s. A penny. Span. Gyp. Corio an ochavo (or farthing).

Horry, s. pl. Pence: shohorry, showhawry, sixpence.

Horsworth, s. Pennyworth.

Horkipen, s. Copper. Hun. Gyp. Harko.

Huffeno, s. A liar. See Hoffeno.

Hukni, s. Ringing the changes, the fraudulent changing of one thing for another.

I

I, pro. She, it.

I. A feminine and neuter termination: e.g. Yag engri, a fire-thing or gun; coin si, who is she? so si, what is it?

Inna / Inner, prep. In, within: inner Lundra, in London. Span. Gyp. Enre.

Iouzia, s. A flower.

Is, conj. If; it is affixed to the verb—e.g. Dikiomis, if I had seen.

Iv, s. Snow. Hun. Gyp. Yiv. Span. Gyp. Give.

Iv-engri / Ivi-mengri, s. Snow-thing, snowball.

Iuziou, a. Clean. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (sound, healthy). See Roujio.

J

JAL. To go, walk, journey. This verb is allied to various words in different languages signifying movement, course or journey: —to the Sanscrit Il, ila, to go; to the Russian Gulliat, to stroll, to walk about; to the Turkish Iel, a journey; to the Jol of the Norse, and the Yule of the Anglo-Saxons, terms applied to Christmas-tide, but which properly mean the circular journey which the sun has completed at that season: for what are Jol and Yule but the Ygul of the Hebrews? who call the zodiac 'Ygul ha mazaluth,' or the circle of the signs. It is, moreover, related to the German Jahr and the English Year, radically the same words as Jol, Yule, and Ygul, and of the same meaning—namely, the circle travelled by the sun through the signs.

Ja, v. imp. Go thou!

Jal amande. I shall go.

Jal te booty. Go to work.

Jalno / Java / Jaw, v.a. I go. Sans. Chara.

Jas, jasa. Thou goest: tute is jasing, thou art going.

Jal, 3rd pers. pres. He goes.

Jalla, f. She goes.

Jalno ando pawni, v. a. I swim. Lit. I go in water.

Jaw, ad. So: jaw si, so it is. See Ajaw, asa, asha.

Jib, s. Tongue. Sans. Jihva.

Jib, v. n. To live, to exist. Sans. Jiv. Rus. Jit. Lithuanian, Gywenu.

Jibben, s. Life, livelihood. Sans. Jivata (life), Jivika (livelihood). Rus. Jivot, Tchivot.

Jivvel, v. n. He lives: kai jivvel o, where does he live?

Jin / Jinava, v. n. To know. Sans. Jna.

Jinnepen, s. Wisdom, knowledge. Sans. Jnapti (understanding).

Jinney-mengro, s. A knowing fellow, a deep card, a Grecian, a wise man, a philosopher.

Jinney-mengreskey rokrapenes. Sayings of the wise: the tatcho drom to be a jinney-mengro is to dick and rig in zi, the true way to be a wise man is to see and bear in mind.

Jongar, v. n. To awake. Sans. Jagri. Hin. Jugana.

Jobis, s. Oats. Sans. Java (barley). Wal. Obia. See Giv.

Joddakaye, s. Apron; anything tied round the middle or hips. Sans. Kata (the hip, the loins), Kataka (a girdle).

Ju, s. A louse. Sans. Yuka.

Juvalo, a. Lousy.

Juvior, s. pl. Lice.

Juggal / Jukkal, s. Dog. Sans. Srigala (jackal).

Jukkalor. Dogs.

Jukkaelsti cosht, s. Dog-wood; a hard wood used for making skewers.

Juva / Juvali, Woman, wife.

Juvli, s. Girl. See Chavali.

K

KAEL, s. Cheese.

Kaes, s. Cheese.

Kah / Kai, ad. Where: kai tiro ker, where's your house? kai si the churi, where is the knife? Sans. Kva.

Kair, v. a. To do. Sans. Kri, to do; kara (doing).

Kair misto. To make well, cure, comfort.

Kairipen, s. Work, labour. Sans. Karman.

Kakkaratchi, s. Magpie; properly a raven. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Kanau / Knau, ad. Now.

Karring. Crying out, hawking goods. Span. Gyp. Acarar (to call). See Koring.

Kaulo, a. Black. Sans. Kala. Arab. [Arabic: ]

Kaulo chiriclo, s. A blackbird.

Kaulo cori, s. A blackthorn.

Kaulo durril, s. Blackberry.

Kaulo Gav, s. Black-town, Birmingham.

Kaulo guero, s. A black, negro.

Kaulo guereskey tem, s. Negroland, Africa.

Kaulo-mengro, s. A blacksmith.

Kaulo ratti. Black blood, Gypsy blood: kaulo ratti adrey leste, he has Gypsy blood in his veins.

Kaun, s. An ear. Sans. Karna.

Kaun-engro, s. An ear-fellow, thing with long ears; a figurative name for a hare.

Ke, prep. Unto. Likewise a postposition—e.g. lenke, to them.

Keir / Ker, s. A house. Sans. Griha.

Ker / Kerey / Ken, ad. Home, homeward: java keri, I will go home.

Keir-poggring. House-breaking.

Keir-rakli, s. A housemaid.

Kek, ad. a. No, none, not: kek tatcho, it is not true.

Kekkeno, a. None, not any: kekkeni pawni, no water.

Kekkeno mushe's poov, s. No man's land; a common.

Kekkauvi, s.f. Kettle. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Kekkauviskey saster, s. Kettle-iron; the hook by which the kettle is suspended over the fire.

Kekko, ad. No, it is not, not it, not he.

Kekkomi. No more. See Komi, Ever-komi.

Kek-cushti. Of no use; no good. See Koshto.

Kem, s. The sun. See Cam.

Ken. A particle affixed in English Gypsy to the name of a place terminating in a vowel, in order to form a genitive; e.g. Eliken bori congri, the great church of Ely. See En.

Ken, s. A house, properly a nest. Heb. [Hebrew: ] Kin.

Kenyor, s. pl. Ears. See Kaun.

Ker / Kerava v. a. To do; make: kair yag, make a fire. Sans. Kri. Pers. [Perisan: ] Gaelic, Ceaird (a trade), ceard (a tinker). Lat. Cerdo (a smith). English, Char, chare (to work by the day).

Kerdo. He did.

Kedast, 2nd pers. pret. Thou didst.

Kedo, part. pass. Done.

Kerri-mengro, s. Workman.

Kerrimus, s. Doing, deed: mi-Doovel's kerrimus, the Lord's doing. Sans. Karman (work).

Kerrit, p. pass. Cooked, boiled. Anglo-Indian word, Curried. Fr. Cuire. Gaelic, Greidh (to cook victuals).

Kettaney, ad. Together. Wal. Ketziba (many). See Kisi.

Kidda, v. a. To pluck.

Kil, v. a. To dance, play. Hin. Kelna. Sans. Kshvel.

Killi-mengro, s. A dancer, player.

Kil, s. Butter.

Kin, v. a. To buy: kinning and bikkning, buying and selling. Heb. Kana (he bought).

Kin aley. To ransom, redeem, buy off.

Kinnipen, s. A purchase.

Kinnipen-divvus, s. Purchasing-day, Saturday.

Kindo, a. Wet.

Kipsi, s. Basket. Span. Gyp. Quicia.

Kinyo. Tired. Span. Gyp. Quinao.

Kisaiya. A female Gypsy name.

Kisi, ad. How much, to what degree: kisi puro shan tu, how old are you? Wal. Kitze. Span. Gyp. Quichi. Sans. Kati (how many?)

Kisseh / Kissi, s. A purse. Sans. Kosa. Pers. [Persian: ]

Kistur, v. a. To ride. Wal. Keleri.

Kistri-mengro / Kistro-mengro, s. Rider, horseman.

Kitchema, s. Public-house, inn. Hun. Korcsma. Wal. Keirtchumie.

Kitchema-mengro, s. Innkeeper.

Klism / Klisn, s. A key. Rus. Cliotche. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (shutting up).

Klism-engri, s. A lock. Lit. key-thing.

Klism-hev, s. A keyhole.

Klop, s. A gate, seemingly a cant word; perhaps a bell. Wal. Klopot.

Kokkodus. Uncle: kokkodus Artaros, Uncle Arthur.

Komi, adv. More: ever-komi, evermore.

Koosho, a. Good: kooshi gillie, a good song. Sans. Kusala.

Kora / Kore, v. a. To riot. Wal. Kiorei (to cry out, bawl, make a tumult). Heb. Kara (he convoked, cried out).

Koring, part. pres. Rioting. Heb. Kirivah (proclamation).

Kora-mengro, s. A rioter.

Kore, v. a. To hawk goods about, to cry out, to proclaim.

Koring lil, s. Hawking-licence.

Koring chiriclo, s. The cuckoo.

Koshto, a. Good. Pers. [Persian: ]

Koshtipen, s. Goodness, advantage, profit: kek koshtipen in dukkering knau, it is of no use to tell fortunes now.

Kosko, a. Good.

Koskipen, s. Goodness.

Krallis, s. King. Rus. Korol. Hun. Kiraly. Wal. Kraiu.

Kushto, a. Good: kushto si for mangui, I am content.

L

LA, pro. pers. Her; accusative of 'i' or ' yoi,' she.

Laki, pro. poss. Her: laki die, her mother.

Lasa / Lasar, With her; instrumental case of 'i.'

Later. From her; ablative of 'i.'

Lati. Genitive of 'i'; frequently used as the accusative—e.g. cams tu lati, do you love her?

Lang / Lango, a. Lame. Sans. Lang. Pers. [Persian: ] Lenk.

Lashi / Lasho, Louis. Hungarian, Lajos, Lazlo. Scotch, Lesley.

Latch, v. a. To find. Wal. Aphla.

Lav, s. Word. Sans. Lapa (to speak). Eng. Lip.

Lavior, pl. Words.

Lav-chingaripen, s. Dispute, word-war.

Lav-engro, s. Word-master, linguist.

Len, pro. pers. pl. To them: se len, there is to them, the have.

Lendar, ablative. From them.

Lende / Lunde, gen. and acc. Of them, them.

Lensar. With them.

Lengue, pro. poss. Their: lengue tan, their tent.

Les, pro. pers. To him; dative of 'yo,' he: pawno stadj se les, he has a white hat.

Lescro, pro. poss. His, belonging to him: lescro prala, his brother.

Leste. Of him, likewise him; genitive and accusative of 'yo.'

Lester. From him.

Leste's. His: leste's wast, his hand; properly, lescro wast.

Lesti. Her or it: pukker zi te lesti, tell her your mind; he can't rokkra lesti, he can't speak it.

Leav / Ley, v. a. To take. Wal. Loua.

Lel. He takes.

Lel cappi. Get booty, profit, capital.

Lennor, s. Summer, spring.

Levinor, s. Ale; drinks in which there is wormwood. Heb. Laenah (wormwood). Irish, Lion (ale).

Levinor-ker, s. Alehouse.

Levinor-engri. Hop. Lit. ale-thing.

Levinor-engriken tem. Kent. Lit. hop-country.

Li, pron. It: dovo se li, that's it.

Lidan, v. a. You took; 2nd pers. pret. of Ley.

Lil, s. Book; a letter or pass. Hun. Level. Sans. Likh (to write). Hindustani, Likhan (to write).

Lillai, s. Summer. Hun. Gyp. Nilei.

Linnow, part. pass. Taken, apprehended.

Lis, pro. dat. To it: adrey lis, in it.

Lollo / Lullo, a. Red. Pers. [Persian: ] Lal.

Lolle bengres, s. pl. Red waistcoats, Bow Street runners.

Lollo matcho, s. Red herring. Lit. red fish.

Lolli plaishta, s. A red cloak.

Lolli, s. A farthing.

Lon / Lun, s. Salt. Sans. Lavana. Hin. Lon.

Lou, pro. It: oprey-lou, upon it. Wal. Lou.

Loure, v. a. To steal. See Luripen.

Lubbeny, s. Harlot. Rus. Liabodieitza (adultress), liobodeinoe (adulterous). Sans. Lubha (to inflame with lust, to desire). The English word Love is derived from this Sanscrit root.

Lubbenipen, s. Harlotry.

Lubbenified. Become a harlot.

Lundra. London. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Luripen, s. Robbery, a booty. Lit. a seizure. Wal. Luare (seizure, capture), Louarea Parizouloui (the capture of Paris).

Lutherum, s. Sleep, repose, slumber.

Luvvo, s. Money, currency. Rus. Lovok (convenient, handy, quick, agile). In Spanish Gypsy, a real (small coin) is called Quelati, a thing which dances, from Quelar, to dance.

Luvvo-mengro, s. Money-changer, banker.

Luvvo-mengro-ker, s. Banker's house, bank.

M

Ma, ad. Not; only used before the imperative: ma muk, let not. Sans. Ma. Pers. [Persian: ]

Maas, s. Sans. Mansa Mans. Rus. Maso. See Mas.

Maas-engro / Maaso-mengro, s. Butcher.

Mailla, s. Ass, donkey. Wal. Megaroul. Sans. Baluya.

Mailla and posh. Ass and foal.

Malleco, a. False.

Maluno / Maloney, s. Lightning. Rus. Molniya.

Mam, s. Mother. Wal. Moume. Welsh, Mam. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, Muime (a nurse).

Man, pron. pers. I; very seldom used. Hin. Muen.

Mande, pron. pers. oblique of Man; generally used instead of the nominative Man.

Mander. Ablative of Man, from me: ja mander, go from me.

Mande's. My. Mande's wast, my hand; used improperly for miro.

Mangue. Dative of Man, to me; sometimes used instead of the nominative.

Mansa. With me.

Mang, v. a. To beg. Hin. Mangna. Sans. Marg.

Mango-mengro, s. A beggar.

Mangipen, s. The trade of begging. Sans. Margana (begging).

Manricley, s. A cake. Span. Gyp. Manricli.

Manush, s. Man. Sans. Manasha. Span. Gyp. Manus. See Monish.

Manushi, s. Woman, wife. Sans. Manushi.

Maricli, s. A cake. See Maricley.

Mash, s. Umbrella. A cant word.

Matcho, s. A fish. Sans. Matsya. Hin. Muchee.

Matcheneskoe Gav. Yarmouth. Lit. the fishy town.

Matcheneskoe guero, s. A fisherman.

Matchka, s.f. A cat. Hun. Macska.

Matchko, s. m. A he-cat.

Mattipen, s. Drunkenness. Sans. Matta (to be intoxicated). Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (intoxication). Welsh, Meddwy (to intoxicate).

Matto, a. Drunk, intoxicated. Welsh, Meddw.

Matto-mengro, s. Drunkard.

Mea, s. Mile: dui mear, two miles. Wal. Mie.

Mea-bar, s. Milestone.

Medisin, s. Measure, bushel. Sans. Mana.

Mek, v. n. Leave, let: meklis, leave off, hold your tongue, have done. Sans. Moksh.

Men, pr. We; pl. of Man.

Men, s. Neck. Gaelic, Muineal. Welsh, Mwng. Mandchou, Meifen.

Men-pangushi, s. Neckcloth. See Pangushi.

Mengro. A word much used in composition. See Engro and Mescro.

Mensalli, s. A table. Wal. Masi.

Mer / Merava, v. n. To die. Sans. Mri.

Merricley, s. A cake. See Manricley.

Merripen, s. Death. Sans. Mara.

Merripen, s. Life, according to the Gypsies, though one feels inclined to suppose that the real signification of the word is Death; it may, however, be connected with the Gaulic or Irish word Mairam, to endure, continue, live long: Gura' fada mhaireadh tu! may you long endure, long life to you! In Spanish Gypsy Merinao signifies an immortal.

Mescro. A particle which, affixed to a verb, forms a substantive masculine:- e.g. Camo, I love; camo-mescro, a lover. Nash, to run; nashi-mescro, a runner. It is equivalent to Mengro, q.v.

Messalli, s. A table. Wal. Masi.

Mestipen, s. Life, livelihood, living, fortune, luck, goodness. Span. Gyp. Mestipen, bestipen. Wal. Viatsie.

Mi, pron. I, my.

Mi cocoro, pron. poss. I myself, I alone.

Mi dearie Dubbeleskey. For my dear God's sake.

Mi develeskie gueri, s.f. A holy female.

Mi develeskie gueri Mary. Holy Virgin Mary.

Mi develeskoe Baval Engro. Holy Ghost.

Mi dubbelungo, a. Divine.

Mi duvvelungo divvus, s. Christmas Day.

Millior, s. Miles; panj millior, five miles.

Minge / Mintch, s. Pudendum muliebre.

Miro, pron. poss. My, mine.

Miri, pron. poss. f. My, mine.

Misto / Mistos, ad. Well.

Misto dusta. Very well.

Mistos amande. I am glad.

Mitch, s. See Minge.

Mizella. Female Gypsy name.

Mokkado, a. Unclean to eat. Wal. Mourdar (dirty).

Monish, s. Man. See Manush.

Mol, s. Wine. See Mul.

Mollauvis, s. Pewter.

Moomli, s. Candle, taper. See Mumli.

Moomli-mengro, s. Candlestick, lantern.

Moar, v. a. To grind. See Morro.

More / Morava, v. a. To kill, slay. Sans. Mri. Wal. Omori.

Moreno, part. pass. Killed, slain.

More, v. a. To shave, shear. Hun. Gyp. Murinow.

Mormusti, s.f. Midwife. Wal. Maimoutsi. Rus. Mameichka (nurse).

Moro, pron. poss. Our: moro dad, our father.

Morro, s. Bread. Lit. that which is ground. See Moar. Span. Gyp. Manro. Hun. Gyp. Manro, also Gheum: sin gheum manro, gheum is manro (bread). Rus. Gyp. Morroshka (a loaf).

Morro-mengro, s. A baker.

Mort, s. Woman, concubine; a cant word.

Mosco / Moshko, A fly. Lat. Musca. Wal. Mouskie. Span. Gyp. Moscabis (fly-blown, stung with love, picado, enamorado).

Moskey, s. A spy: to jal a moskeying, to go out spying. Fr. Mouchard.

Mufta, s.f. Box, chest. See Muktar.

Mui, s. Face, mouth: lollo leste mui, his face is red. Sans. Mukha (face, mouth). Fr. Mot (a word). Provenzal, Mo.

Muk, v. n. To leave, let. See Mek.

Mukkalis becunye. Let it be.

Muktar / Mukto, s. Box, chest.

Mul, s. Wine. Pers. Mul.

Mul divvus. Christmas Day. Lit. wine day.

Mul-engris, s. pl. Grapes: mul-engri tan, vineyard.

Mulleni muktar, s. Coffin. Lit. dead-chest.

Mullodustie mukto. Id.

Mulleno hev, s. Grave.

Mulleno ker, s. Sepulchre, cemetery.

Mullo, s., a. Dead man, dead.

Mullo mas, s. Dead meat; flesh of an animal not slain, but which died alone.

Mumli, s.f. Candle.

Mumli-mescro, s. Chandler.

Munjee, s. A blow on the mouth, seemingly a cant word. Hin. Munh, mouth. Ger. Mund.

Murces / Mursior, s. pl. Arms. Span. Gyp. Murciales.

Muscro, s. Constable. See Muskerro.

Mush, s. Man. Rus. Mouge. Finnish, Mies. Tibetian, Mi. Lat. Mas (a male).

Mushi, s. Woman.

Mushipen, s. A little man, a lad. Toulousian, Massip (a young man), massipo (a young woman).

Muskerro, s. Constable.

Muskerriskoe cost, s. Constable's staff.

Mutra, s. Urine.

Mutrava, v. a. To void urine. Sans. Mutra.

Mutra-mengri, s. Tea.

Mutzi, s. Skin. Span. Gyp. Morchas.

Mutzior, s. pl. Skins.

N

NA, ad. Not.

Naflipen, s. Sickness. Span. Gyp. Nasallipen. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Naflo, a. Sick.

Nai. Properly Na hi, there is not: nai men chior, we have no girls.

Naior, s. pl. Nails of the fingers or toes. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Nangipen, s. Nakedness.

Nango, a. Naked.

Narilla / Narrila, A female Gypsy name.

Nash, v. a. To run. Span. Gyp. Najar.

Nashimescro, s. Runner, racer.

Nashimescro-tan, s. Race-course.

Nash, v. a. To lose, destroy, to hang. Sans. Nasa. Span. Gyp. Najabar (to lose). Sans. Nakha (to destroy). Eng. Nacker (a killer of old horses).

Nashado, part. pret. Lost, destroyed, hung.

Nashimescro, s. Hangman.

Nashko, part. pass. Hung: nashko pre rukh, hung on a tree.

Nasho, part. pass. Hung.

Nastis, a. Impossible. See Astis.

Nav, s. Name. Hun. Nev.

Naval, s. Thread. Span. Gyp. Nafre.

Naes / Nes, postpos. According to, after the manner of: gorgikonaes, after the manner of the Gentiles; Romano-chalugo-naes, after the manner of the Gypsies.

Ne, ad. No, not: ne burroder, no more; ne riddo, not dressed.

Nevo, a. New.

Nevi, a. fem. New: nevi tud from the guveni, new milk from the cow.

Nevey Rukhies. The New Forest. Lit. new trees.

Nevi Wesh. The New Forest.

Nick, v. a. To take away, steal. Span. Gyp. Nicabar.

Nick the cost. To steal sticks for skewers and linen-pegs.

Nogo, s. Own, one's own; nogo dad, one's own father; nogo tan, one's own country.

Nok, s. Nose. Hin. Nakh.

Nok-engro, s. A glandered horse. Lit. a nose-fellow.

Nokkipen, s. Snuff.

O

O, art. def. The.

O, pron. He.

Odoi, ad. There. Hun. Ott, oda.

Oduvvu, pron. dem. That. Span. Gyp. Odoba.

Olevas / Olivas / Olivor, s. pl. Stockings. Span. Gyp. Olibias. Wal. Chorapul.

Opral / Opre / Oprey, prep. Upon, above. Wal. Pre, asoupra.

Or. A plural termination; for example, Shock, a cabbage, pl. shock- or. It is perhaps derived from Ouri, the plural termination of Wallachian neuter nouns ending in 'e.'

Ora, s.f. A watch. Hun. Ora.

Ora, s. An hour: so si ora, what's o'clock?

Orlenda. Gypsy female name. Rus. Orlitza (female eagle).

Os. A common termination of Gypsy nouns. It is frequently appended by the Gypsies to English nouns in order to disguise them.

Owli, ad. Yes. See Avali.

P

PA, prep. By: pa mui, by mouth. Rus. Po.

Padlo, ad. Across: padlo pawnie, across the water, transported.

Pahamengro, s. Turnip.

Pailloes, s. Filberts.

Pal, s. Brother.

Pal of the bor. Brother of the hedge, hedgehog.

Palal, prep. ad. Behind, after, back again: av palal, come back, come again: palal the welgorus, after the fair. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (again). Rus. Opiat (id.).

Pali, ad. Again, back.

Pand, v. a. To bind. Sans. Bandh.

Pandipen, s. Pinfold, prison, pound.

Pandlo, part. pass. Bound, imprisoned, pounded.

Pand opre, v. a. To bind up.

Pandlo-mengro, s. Tollgate, thing that's shut.

Pangushi, s.f. Handkerchief.

Pani, s. Water. See Pawni.

Panishey shock, s. Watercress. Lit. water-cabbage. See Shok.

Panj, a. Five. See Pansch.

Pani-mengro, s. Sailor, waterman.

Panni-mengri, s. Garden.

Panno, s. Cloth. Lat. Pannus. Wal. Penzie.

Pansch, s. Five. Hin. Panch.

Pappins / Pappior, s. pl. Ducks. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Paracrow, v. a. To thank: paracrow tute, I thank you.

Parava / Parra, v. a. To change, exchange. See Porra.

Parriken, s. Trust, credit. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (trusted goods).

Parno, a. White. See Pauno.

Pas, s. Half. See Posh.

Pasherro, s. Halfpenny; pl. pasherie. Pers. [Persian: ] Pasheez (a farthing).

Pas-more, v. a. Half-kill.

Patch, s. Shame. Span. Gyp. Pachi, modesty, virginity. Sans. Putcha.

Patnies, s. pl. Ducks.

Patrin, s. A Gypsy trail; handfuls of leaves or grass cast by the Gypsies on the road, to denote to those behind the way which they have taken.

Pattin, s. A leaf. Span. Gyp. Patia. Sans. Patra.

Pattinor. Leaves.

Paub / Paubi, s. An apple. Hung. Gyp. Paboy.

Paub tan, s. Orchard.

Pauno, a. White. Sans. Pandu. Gaelic, Ban.

Pauno gad. Clean shirt.

Pauno sherro. Grey head, white head.

Pauno, s. Flour. Lit. what is white. The Latin 'panis' seems to be connected with this word.

Pauno-mengro, s. A miller, white fellow.

Pauno-mui, s. Pale face; generally applied to a vain, foolish girl, who prefers the company of the pallid Gentiles to that of the dark Romans.

Pauvi, s. An apple.

Pauvi-pani, s. Cyder, apple-water.

Pawdel, ad. Across, over: pawdel puve and pawni, across land and water; pawdel the chumba, over the hill.

Pawnee / Pawni, s. Water. Sans. Paniya. Hin. Panie. Eng. Pond. See Pani.

Pawnugo, a. Watery: pawnugo hev, water-hole, well.

Pazorrhus, part. pass. Indebted. See Pizarris.

Peava, v. a. To drink. Sans. Pa.

Pea-mengri, s. Tea-pot. Wal. Bea. Lit. drinking thing.

Peeapen, s. Health: ako's your peeapen! here's your health!

Pea-mengro, s. Drunkard.

Pedloer, s. Nuts; prop. Acorns. Pers. Peleed.

Peerdie, s. Female tramper.

Peerdo, s. Male tramper.

Pek'd / Pekt, part. pass. Roasted. Span. Gyp. Peco. Sans. Paka (cooking). Pers. Pekhtan. Rus. Petsch (oven).

Pele, s. pl. Testicles. Sans. P'hala.

Pelengo gry / Pelengro gry, s. Stone-horse.

Pen, a particle affixed to an adjective or a verb when some property or quality, affection or action is to be expressed, the termination of the first word being occasionally slightly modified: for example, Kosko, good, koskipen, goodness; Tatcho, true, tatchipen, truth; Camo, I love, camipen, love; Chingar, to fight, chingaripen, war. It is of much the same service in expressing what is abstract and ideal as Engro, Mescro, and Engri are in expressing what is living and tangible. It is sometimes used as a diminutive, e.g. Mushipen, a little fellow.

Pen, s. Sister.

Pen / Penav, v. a. To say, speak. Wal. Spoune.

Penchava, v. n. To think. Pers. Pendashten. Sans. Vi-cit.

Penliois, s. Nuts. See Pedloer.

Per, s. Belly.

Per, v. n. To fall. Span. Gyp. Petrar. Sans. Pat.

Per tuley. To fall down.

Perdo, a. Full. Sans. Purva, to fill.

Pes / Pessa, v. a. To pay. Span. Gyp. Plaserar. Rus. Platit. Wal. Pleti. Hun. Fizetni.

Pes apopli. To repay.

Petul, s. A horse-shoe. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Potkoavie. Heb. Bedel (tin).

Petul-engro, s. Horseshoe-maker, smith, tinker; the name of a Gypsy tribe.

Pi, v. a. To drink. Sans. Piva (drinking). See Peava.

Pias, s. Fun. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (to play).

Pikkis / Pikkaris, s. pl. Breasts. See Birk, bark. Wal. Piept.

Pikko, s. Shoulder.

Pios, part. pass. Drunken. Only employed when a health is drunk: e.g. aukko tu pios adrey Romanes, your health is drunk in Romany.

Pire, s. pl. Feet.

Pire, s. pl. Trampers.

Pire-gueros, s. pl. Travellers, trampers. Lit. foot-fellows.

Pireni, s.f. Sweetheart.

Pireno, s. m. Sweetheart.

Piro, v. a. To walk: pirel, he walks.

Piro-mengro, s. Walker.

Pirry, s. Pot, boiler. This is a west-country Gypsy word. Span. Gyp. Piri. Sans. Pithara, patra.

Pishen, s. Flea, any kind of insect: guldo pishen, honey-insect, bee, honey.

Pivli, s. A widow.

Pivlo, s. A widower.

Pivley-gueri, s. A widowed female.

Pivley-guero, s. A widowed fellow.

Pivley-raunie, s. A widow lady.

Piya-mengro, s. Drunkard. See Pea-mengro.

Pizarris / Pizaurus, part. pass. Trusted, credited, in debt. Sans. Vishvas (to trust). Wal. Se bizoui (to trust, to credit). Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (he who has been credited). Span. Gyp. Bisarar (to owe), bisauras (debts), pista (an account).

Pizarri-mengro, s. A trusted person, a debtor.

Plakta, s. Sheet: bero-rukiskie plakta, a ship's sail.

Plashta, s. Cloak: lolli plashta, red cloak. Span. Gyp. Plata. Plakta and plashta are probably both derived from the Wallachian postat, a sheet.

Plastra, v. a. To run.

Plastra lesti. Run it; run for your life.

Plastra-mengro, s. a. A Bow Street runner, a pursuer. In Spanish Gypsy, Plastani means a company which pursues robbers.

Poggado, part. pass. Broken.

Poggado bavol-engro, s. Broken-winded horse.

Poggado habben, s. Broken victuals.

Poggra, v. a. To break. Wal. Pokni.

Poggra-mengri, s. A mill. Lit. a breaking thing.

Poknies, s. Justice of the peace. Rus. Pokoio (to pacify).

Pokiniskoe ker, s. House of a justice of the peace.

Pooshed / Poosheno, part. pass. Buried: mulo ta poosheno, dead and buried.

Por, s. Feather. Pers. Par. Sans. Parna.

Por-engro, s. Pen-master, penman, one able to write.

Por-engri-pen, s. Penmanship, writing.

Porior, s. pl. Feathers.

Pordo, a. Heavy. Wal. Povarie (a weight). Lat. Pondus.

Porra, v. a. To exchange.

Posh, s. Half.

Posherro / Poshoro, s. Halfpenny.

Possey-mengri, s. Pitchfork; improperly used for any fork. The literal meaning is a straw-thing; a thing used for the removal of straw. See Pus.

Potan, s. Tinder. Wal. Postabh (sheet, cloth). Sans. Pata (cloth).

Poov / Pov, s. Earth, ground. Sans. Bhu.

Poov, v. To poov a gry, to put a horse in a field at night.

Pov-engro, s. An earth thing, potato.

Pov-engreskoe, a. Belonging to the potato.

Povengreskoe gav. Potato town—Norwich.

Povengreskoe tem. Potato country—Norfolk.

Povo-guero, s. Mole, earth-fellow.

Praio, a. Upper: praio tem, upper country, heaven. Span. Gyp. Tarpe (heaven). See Opre.

Prala, s. Brother.

Pude, v. a. To blow.

Pude-mengri, s. Blowing thing, bellows.

Pudge, s. Bridge. Wal. Pod, podoul. Pers. Pul. Sans. Pali.

Pukker, v. a. To tell, declare, answer, say, speak. Span. Gyp. Pucanar (to proclaim). Hin. Pukar, pukarnar.

Pur, s. Belly. See Per.

Pureno, a. Ancient, old: pureno foky, the old people. Sans. Purvya (ancient).

Puro, a. Old. Sans. Pura.

Puro dad, s. Grandfather.

Purrum, s. Leek, onion. Lat. Porrum.

Purrum / Purrun, n. pr. Lee, or Leek; the name of a numerous Gypsy tribe in the neighbourhood of London. Wal. Pur (onion). Lat. Porrum. Sans. Purana (ancient).

Pus, s. Straw. Sans. Busa, chaff.

Putch, v. a. To ask. Hin. Puchhna.

Putsi, s. Purse, pocket. Sans. Puta, pocket. Wal. Pountsi. Old cant, Boung.

Putsi-lil, s. Pocket-book.

Puvvo, s. Earth, ground. See Poov.

Puvvesti churi, s. a. Plough.

R

RAIA, s. Gentleman, lord. See Rye.

Rak, v. n. To beware, take care; rak tute, take care of yourself. Sans. Raksh (to guard, preserve).

Rakli, s.f. Girl.

Raklo, s. Boy, lad.

Ran, s. Rod: ranior, rods. Sans. Ratha (cane, ratan).

Rarde, s. Night. Sans. Ratri.

Rardiskey, a. Nightly.

Rardiskey kair poggring, s. Housebreaking by night, burglary.

Rashengro, s. Clergyman.

Rashi, s. Clergyman, priest. Sans. Rishi (holy person).

Rashieskey rokkring tan, s. Pulpit.

Ratcheta, s. A goose, duck. See Retsa.

Ratti, s. Blood. Sans. Rudhira.

Ratniken chiriclo, s. Nightingale.

Rawnie, s. Lady.

Rawniskie dicking gueri, s. Lady-like looking woman.

Rawniskie tatti naflipen, s. The lady's fever, maladie de France.

Retza, s. Duck. Wal. Rierzoiou. See Rossar-mescro. Hun. Recze.

Reyna. A female Gypsy name.

Riddo, part. pass. Dressed. Span. Gyp. Vriardao.

Rig / Riggur / Riggurava, v. a. To bear, carry, bring.

Rig in zi. To remember, bear in mind.

Rig to zi. To bring to mind.

Rinkeno, a. Handsome.

Rivipen, s. Dress. Lit. linen clothes, women's dress. Wal. Ruphe. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (a tailor). In Spanish Gypsy clothes are called Goneles, from the Wallachian Khainele.

Rodra, v. a. To search, seek.

Roi, s. Spoon.

Rokra, v. a. To talk, speak. Rus. Rek (he said). Lat. Loquor.

Rokrenchericlo, s. Parrot, magpie.

Rokrenguero, s. A lawyer, talker. Gaelic, Racaire (a chatterer).

Rokrengueriskey gav. Talking fellows' town—Norwich.

Rokunyes, s. Trousers, breeches. Hun. Gyp. Roklia (gown). Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (cloth).

Rom, s. A husband. Sans. Rama (a husband), Rama (an incarnation of Vishnu), Rum (to sport, fondle). Lat. Roma (City of Rama). Gaelic, Rom (organ of manhood). Eng. Ram (aries, male sheep). Heb. Ream (monoceros, unicorn).

Rommado, part. pass. s. Married, husband.

Romm'd, part. pass. Married.

Romano Chal / Romany Chal, A Gypsy fellow, Gypsy lad. See Chal.

Romani chi. Gypsy lass, female Gypsy.

Romanes / Romany, Gypsy language.

Romaneskoenaes. After the Gypsy fashion. Wal. Roumainesk (Roumainean, Wallachian.)

Romano Rye / Romany Rye, Gypsy gentleman.

Romipen, s. Marriage.

Rook / Rukh, s. Tree. Sans. Vriksha. Hun. Gyp. Rukh. Span. Gyp. Erucal (an olive-tree).

Rookeskey cost. Branch of a tree.

Rooko-mengro, s. Squirrel. Lit. tree-fellow.

Roshto, a. Angry. Wal. Resti (to be angry).

Rossar-mescro, s. Gypsy name of the tribe Heron, or Herne. Lit. duck-fellow.

Roujiou, a. Clean. See Iuziou.

Rove, v. n. To weep. Sans. Rud.

Rup, s. Silver. Sans. Raupya. Hin. Rupee.

Rupenoe, a. Silver: rupenoe pea-mengri, silver tea-pots.

Ruslipen, s. Strength.

Ruslo, a. Strong. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (roborabo). Rus. Rosluy (great, huge of stature). Hun. Ero (strength), eros (strong).

Rye, s. A lord, gentleman. Sans. Raj, Raya.

Ryeskoe, a. Gentlemanly.

Ryeskoe dicking guero. Gentlemanly looking man.

Ryoriskey rokkaring keir, s. The House of Commons. Lit. the gentlemen's talking house.

S

SACKI. Name of a Gypsy man.

Sainyor, s. Pins. Span. Gyp. Chingabar (a pin).

Sal, v. n. To laugh; properly, he laughs. Span. Gyp. Asaselarse. Sans. Has.

Salla. She laughs.

Salivaris, s.f. Bridle. See Sollibari.

Sap / Sarp, s. Snake, serpent. Wal. Sharpele. Span. Gyp. Chaplesca.

Sappors, s. pl. Snakes.

Sap drey chaw. A snake in the grass: sap drey bor, a snake in the hedge.

Sapnis, s. Soap. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Sipoun.

Sar, postpos., prepos. With: mensar, with us; sar amande, with me.

Sar, conjunct. As.

Sar, ad. How.

Sar shin, How are you? Sar shin, meero rye? Sar shin, meeri rawnie? How are you, sir? How are you, madam?

Sas. If it were. See Is.

Sas, s. Nest. See Tass.

Sarla, s. Evening: koshti sarla, good evening. See Tasarla. Wal. Seara. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Saster, s. Iron.

Saster-mengri, s. A piece of iron worn above the knee by the skewer- makers whilst engaged in whittling.

Saster-mengro, s. Ironmonger.

Sasters, sastris. Nails: chokkiskey sastris, shoe-nails.

Sau, adv. How.

Sau kisi. How much?

Saulohaul / Sovlehaul, v. a. To swear.

Saulohaul bango. To swear falsely.

Sauloholomus, s. Oath. Span. Gyp. Solaja (a curse). Arab. [Arabic: ] Salat (prayer). Lat. Solemnis. Fr. Serment. Wal. Jourirnint (oath).

Savo, pron. Who, that, which.

Saw, v. n. I laugh. Sawschan tu, you laugh.

Scamp. Name of a small Gypsy tribe. Sans. Kshump (to go).

Scourdilla, s.f. Platter. Lat. Scutella.

Scunyes / Scunyor, s. pl. Pins, skewers. See Escunyes.

Se, 3rd pers. sing. pres. Is, there is: kosko guero se, he is a good fellow; se les, there is to him, he has.

Shab, v. a. Cut away, run hard, escape. Hun. Szabni. This word is chiefly used by the tobair coves, or vagrants.

Shan. You are, they are. See Shin.

Shauvo, v. To get with child. See Shuvvli.

Shehaury. Sixpence. See Shohaury.

Shello, s. Rope. Span. Gyp. Jele.

Shello-hokta-mengro, s. Rope-dancer.

Sher-engro, s. A head-man, leader of a Gypsy tribe.

Sher-engri, s. A halter.

Shero, s. A head. Pers. [Persian: ]

Sherro's kairipen, s. Learning, head-work.

Sheshu, s. Hare, rabbit. See Shoshoi.

Sherrafo, a. Religious, converted. Arab. Sherif.

Shilleno / Shillero / Shillo, a. Cold: shillo chik, cold ground.

Shillipen, s. Cold.

Shin. Thou art: sar shin, how art thou?

Sho, s. Thing.

Sho, a. Six.

Shohaury, s. Sixpence.

Shok, s. Cabbage: shockor, cabbages. Span. Gyp. Chaja.

Shom, v. 1st pers. pres. I am. Used in the pure Roman tongue to express necessity: e.g. shom te jav, I must go. Lat. Sum. Hun. Gyp. Hom.

Shoob, s. Gown. Rus. Shoob. See Shubbo.

Shoon, v. n. To hear. Pers. Shiniden. Sans. Sru.

Shoonaben, s. Hearing, audience. To lel shoonaben of the covar, to take hearing of the matter.

Shoshoi, s. A hare or rabbit, but generally used by the Gypsies for the latter. Sans. Sasa (a hare or rabbit). Hun. Gyp. Shoshoi.

Shubbo, s. A gown. Rus. Shoob. Wal. Djoube.

Shubley patnies, s. pl. Geese.

Shun. A female Gypsy name.

Shuvvali, a. Enceinte, with child.

Si, 3rd pers. sing. pres. It is, she is: tatchipen si, it is truth; coin si rawnie, who is the lady? sossi your nav, what is your name?

Sicovar, ad. Evermore, eternally. Hun. Gyp. Sekovar.

Si covar ajaw. So it is.

Sig, ad. Quick, soon: cana sig, now soon. Span. Gyp. Singo. Hun. Sieto.

Sig, s. Haste.

Sikker, v. a. To show: sikker-mengri, a show.

Simen, s. a. Equal, alike. Sans. Samana.

Simen. We are, it is we. Wal. Semeina (to resemble).

Simmeno, s. Broth. See Zimmen.

Simmer, v. a. Pledge, pawn.

Simmery-mengre, s. pl. Pawnbrokers.

Sis. Thou art: misto sis riddo, thou art well dressed.

Siva, v. a. To sew. Sans. Siv.

Siva-mengri, s. A needle, sewing-thing.

Siva-mengri, s. Sempstress.

Siva-mengro, s. Tailor.

Skammen, s. Chair. Wal. Skaun. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Skammen-engro, s. Chair-maker.

Skraunior, s. pl. Boots.

Slom / Slum, v. a. Follow, trace, track. Rus. Sliedovat.

Smentini, s. Cream. Wal. Zmentenie. Rus. Smetana.

So, pron. rel. Which, what: so se tute's kairing, what are you doing?

Sollibari, s. Bridle. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Sonakey / Sonneco, s. Gold. Sans. Svarna.

Sore / Soro, a. All, every. Sans. Sarva.

Sorlo, a. Early. Arab. [Arabic:] Sohr, Sahr (morning, day-break). Wal. Zorile.

Soro-ruslo, a. Almighty. Dad soro-ruslo, Father Almighty.

Se se? Who is it?

So si? What is it? So si ora, what's o'clock?

Soskey, ad. Wherefore, for what.

Sovaharri, s. Carpet, blanket.

Sove, v. n. To sleep. Hun. Gyp. Sovella (he sleeps). Span. Gyp. Sobelar (to sleep). Danish, Sove (to sleep).

Sove tuley. To lie down.

Sovie, s. Needle. See Su.

Soving aley. Lying down to sleep.

Spikor, s. pl. Skewers. Wal. Spik.

Spinyor, s. pl. Carrots.

Spinyor, s. pl. Pins. Span. Gyp. Chingabar (a pin).

Stadj, s. Hat.

Stanya / Stanye, s. A stable. Hun. Sanya. Wal. Staula, steinie (sheepfold).

Stanya-mengro, s. Groom, stable-fellow.

Stardo, part. pass. Imprisoned.

Staripen, s. Prison.

Staro-mengro, s. Prisoner.

Stannyi / Staunyo, s. A deer.

Stiggur, s. Gate, turnpike. Old cant, Giger (a door).

Stiggur-engro, s. Turnpike-keeper.

Stor, a. Four.

Storey, s. Prisoner.

Stuggur, s. A stack.

Su, s. Needle. Hun. Tu.

Subie / Subye, s. Needle: subye ta naval, needle and thread.

Sueti, s. People. Lithuanian, Swetas.

Sungella, v. It stinks.

Sutta / Suttur / Suta, s. Sleep. Sans. Subta (asleep). Hin. Sutta (sleeping). Lat. Sopitus.

Suttur-gillie, s. Sleep-song, lullaby.

Swegler / Swingle, s. Pipe.

Syeira. A female Gypsy name.

T

Ta, conj. And.

Talleno, a. Woollen: talleno chofa, woollen or flannel petticoat.

Tan, s. Place, tent. Hun. Tanya.

Tard / Tardra, v. a. To raise, build, pull, draw: the kair is tardrad opre, the house is built; tard the chaw opre, pull up the grass. Hin. Torna (to pluck). Wal. Tratze. Gaelic, Tarruinn.

Tardra-mengre. Hop-pickers.

Tas, s. Cup, nest of a bird. See Dui tas, doo das.

Tasarla / Tasorlo, s. To-morrow. Lit. to-early. See Sorlo.

Tasarla, s. The evening. This word must not be confounded with the one which precedes it; the present is derived from the Wallachian Seari (evening), whilst the other is from the Arabic Sohr, Sahar (morning).

Tassa-mengri, s. A frying-pan. See Tattra-mengri.

Tatchipen, s. Truth. Sans. Satyata.

Tatcho, a. True. Sans. Sat.

Tatti-pani / Tatti-pauni, s. Brandy. Lit. hot water.

Tatti-pen, s. Heat.

Tatto, a. Hot, warm. Sans. Tapta. Tap (to be hot). Gaelic, Teth.

Tatto yeck, s. A hot un, or hot one; a stinging blow given in some very sensitive part.

Tattra-mengri, s. A frying-pan.

Tawno m. / Tawnie f., a. Little, small, tiny. Sans. Tarana (young). Wal. Tienir (young). Lat. Tener. Span. Gyp. Chinoro.

Tawnie yecks, s. pl. Little ones, grandchildren.

Te, prep. To: te lesti, to her; this word is not properly Gypsy.

Te, conjunct. That: te jinnen, that they may know, an optative word; O beng te poggar his men, may the devil break his neck. Wal. Ci.

Tel, v. a. imp. Hold: tel te jib, hold your tongue.

Tem, s. Country.

Temeskoe, a. Belonging to a country.

Temno, a. Dark. Rus. Temnoy. Sans. Tama (darkness).

Ten, s. See Tan.

Tikno, s. A child. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Tikno, a. Small, little. Span. Gyp. Chinoro. Lat. Tener.

Tippoty, a. Malicious, spiteful: tippoty drey mande, bearing malice against me.

Tiro, pron. Thine.

Tobbar, s. The Road; a Rapparee word. Boro-tobbarkillipen (the Game of High Toby—highway robbery). Irish, Tobar (a source, fountain).

Tornapo. Name of a Gypsy man.

Tororo, s. A poor fellow, a beggar, a tramp. Sans. Daridra.

Tove, v. a. To wash: tovipen, washing. Sans. Dhav.

Toving divvus, s. Washing day, Monday.

Traish, v. a. To frighten, terrify: it traishes mande, it frightens me.

Trihool, s. Cross: Mi doveleskoe trihool, holy cross. Span. Gyp. Trijul. Hin. Trisool.

Trin, a. Three.

Tringrosh / Tringurushee, Shilling. Lit. three groats.

Tringurushengre, s. pl. Things costing a shilling.

Tringush, s. Shilling.

Trito, a. Third. Sans. Tritiya.

Truffeni. Female Gypsy name: Truffeni Kaumlo, Jack Wardomescres dieyas nav—Truffeni Lovel, the name of John Cooper's mother. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Truppior, s. pl. Stays.

Trupo, s. Body. Wal. Troup. Rus. Trup

Trushni, s. Faggot.

Trusno, a. Thirsty, dry. Sans. Trishnaj.

Tu, pron. Thou: shoon tu, dieya! do thou hear, mother!

Tud, s. Milk. Sans. Duh (to milk).

Tudlo gueri. Milkmaid.

Tug, a. Sad, afflicted.

Tugnipen, s. Affliction.

Tugnis amande. Woe is me; I am sad.

Tugno, a. Sad, mournful.

Tule / Tuley, prep. Below, under: tuley the bor, under the hedge. Slavonian, doly.

Tulipen, s. Fat, grease.

Tulo, a. Fat.

Tute, pron. Accusative of Tu; generally used instead of the nominative.

Tuv, s. Smoke, tobacco.

Tuvalo / Tuvvalo, a. Smoky. Span. Gyp. Chibalo (a cigar).

V

VANGUS, s. Finger. Sans. Angula.

Vangustri, s. Ring. Sans. Angulika, anguri. See Wangustri.

Vaneshu, s. Nothing. From the Wallachian Ba nitchi, not at all.

Var, s. Flour: var-engro, a miller. See Waro.

Vardo, s. Cart. See Wardo.

Vassavo / Vassavy, a. Bad, evil.

Vast, s. Hand.

Vava. An affix, by which the future of a verb is formed, as Heta- vava. It seems to be the Wallachian Wa-fi, he shall or will be.

Vellin, s. A bottle.

Vauros, s. A city. Hun. Varos. Sans. Puri. Hin. Poor. Wal. Orash.

Venor / Vennor, Bowels, entrails. See Wendror,

W

WAFO, a. Another. Sans. Apara.

Wafo divvus, s. Yesterday. Lit. the other day.

Wafo tem. Another country, foreign land.

Wafo temeskoe mush, s. A foreigner, another countryman.

Wafo tem-engre. Foreigners.

Wafodu / Wafudo, a. Bad, evil.

Wafoduder. Worse: wafoduder than dovor, worse than they.

Wafodu-pen, s. Wickedness.

Wafodu guero, s. The Evil One, Satan.

Wafodu tan, s. Hell, bad place.

Wangar, s. Coals, charcoal. Sans. Angara. See Wongar.

Wangustri, s. Ring.

Warda, v. To guard, take care: warda tu coccorus, take care of yourself.

Wardo, s. Cart. Sans. Pattra.

Wardo-mescro, s. Carter, cartwright, cooper, name of a Gypsy tribe.

Waro, s. Flour.

Waro-mescro, s. Miller.

Wast, s. Hand. See Vast. Wastrors, hands. Gaelic, Bas (the palm of the hand).

Weggaulus / Welgorus / Welgaulus, s. A fair. Wal. Bieltchiou.

Wel, v. a. He comes; from Ava. Sometimes used imperatively; e.g. Wel adrey, come in.

Welling pali. Coming back, returning from transportation.

Wen, s. Winter.

Wendror, s. pl. Bowels, inside. Wal. Pentetche. Lat. Venter.

Wentzelow. Name of a Gypsy man.

Werriga, s. Chain. Rus. Veriga. Wal. Verigie (bolt).

Wesh, s. Forest, wood. Pers. [Persian: ]

Wesh-engro, s. Woodman, gamekeeper.

Weshen-juggal, s. Fox. Lit. dog of the wood.

Woddrus / Wuddrus, s. Bed. Hun. Gyp. Patos. Wal. Pat. The Spanish Gypsies retain the pure Indian word Charipe.

Wongar, s. Coal. Also a term for money; probably because Coal in the cant language signifies money. See Wangar.

Wongar-camming mush, s. A miser. Lit. one who loves coal.

Wuddur, s. Door. Span. Gyp. Burda. Wal. Poartie.

Wuddur-mescro, s. Doorkeeper.

Wust, v. a. To cast, throw.

Wusto-mengro, s. Wrestler, hurler.

Y

YACK, s. Eye. Sans. Akshi. Germ. Auge. Rus. Oko. Lithuanian, Akis. Lat. Oculus.

Yackor. Eyes.

Yag, s. Fire. Sans. Agni. Rus. Ogon. Lithuanian, Ugnis. Lat. Ignis. Irish, An (water, fire).

Yag-engri, s. Gun, fire-thing.

Yag- engro / Yago-mengro, s. Gamekeeper, sportsman, fireman.

Yag-kairepenes, s. Fireworks.

Yag-vardo, s. Fire-car, railroad carriage.

Yarb, s. Herb.

Yarb-tan, s. Garden.

Yeck, a. One. Sans. Eka. Hin. Yak.

Yeckoro, a. Only: yeckoro chavo, only son.

Yeckorus, ad. Once.

Yo, pron. He.

Yoi, pron. She. Sometimes used for La or Las, her; e.g. Mande putch'd yoi, I asked she, her.

Yokki, a. Clever, expert: a yokki juva, a yokki woman—a female expert at filching, ringing the changes, telling fortunes, and other Gypsy arts. Sans. Yoga (artifice, plan), Yuj (to combine, put together, plan).

Yora, s. Hour. See Ora.

Yoro, s. An egg. Wal. Ou.

Z

ZI, s. The heart, mind. Hun. Sziv. Sans. Dhi.

Zimmen, s. Broth. Wal. Zmenteni (cream).

Zoomi, s. f. Broth, soup. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Zamie (juice).

Zingaro. A Gypsy, a person of mixed blood, one who springs from various races, a made-up person. Sans. Sangkara, compositus (made- up).



RHYMED LIST OF GYPSY VERBS



To dick and jin, To bikn and kin; To pee and hal, And av and jal; To kair and poggra, Shoon and rokra; To caur and chore, Heta and cour, Moar and more, To drab and dook, And nash on rook; To pek and tove, And sove and rove, And nash on poove; To tardra oprey, And chiv aley; To pes and gin, To mang and chin, To pootch and pukker, Hok and dukker; To besh and kel, To del and lel, And jib to tel; Bitch, atch, and hatch, Roddra and latch; To gool and saul, And sollohaul; To pand and wustra, Hokta and plastra, Busna and kistur, Maila and grista; To an and riggur; To pen and sikker, Porra and simmer, Chungra and chingra, Pude and grommena, Grovena, gruvena; To dand and choom, Chauva and rom, Rok and gare, Jib and mer With camova, And paracrova, Apasavello And mekello, And kitsi wasror, Sore are lavior, For kairing chomany, In jib of Romany.



BETIE ROKRAPENES—LITTLE SAYINGS



If foky kek jins bute, Ma sal at lende; For sore mush jins chomany That tute kek jins.

Whatever ignorance men may show, From none disdainful turn; For every one doth something know Which you have yet to learn.



BETIE ROKRAPENES



So must I ker, daiya, to ker tute mistos? It is my Dovvel's kerrimus, and we can't help asarlus. Mi Dovvel opral, dick tuley opre mande. If I could lel bonnek tute, het-avava tute. Misto kedast tute. Dovey si fino covar, ratfelo jukkal, sas miro.

The plastra-mengro sollohaul'd bango. Me camava jaw drey the Nevi Wesh to dick the purey Bare-mescrey. You jin feter dovey oduvu. Will you pes for a coro levinor? Ma pi kekomi. Ma rokra kekomi. Bori shil se mande. Tatto tu coccori, pen. Kekkeno pawni dov odoi. Sore simensar si men.

Tatto ratti se len. Wafudu lavior you do pen, miry deary Dovvel. Kair pias to kair the gorgies sal. Nai men chior. So se drey lis? Misto sis riddo. Muk man av abri. Ma kair jaw. Si covar ajaw. An men posseymengri. Colliko sorlo me deavlis. Pukker zi te lesti. Soving lasa. Tatto si can. Mande kinyo, nastis jalno durroder. Ma muk de gorgey jinnen sore lidan dovvu luvvu so garridan. Dui trins ta yeck ta pas. Pes apopli. Chiv'd his vast adrey tiro putsi. Penchavo chavo savo shan tu.

I'd sooner shoon his rokrapen than shoon Lally gil a gillie. Kekkeno jinava mande ne burreder denne chavo. Aukko tu pios adrey Romanes.

LITTLE SAYINGS

What must I do, mother, to make you well? It is my God's doing, and we can't help at all.

My God above, look down upon me! If I could get hold of you, I would slay you. Thou hast done well. That is a fine thing, you bloody dog, if it were mine. The Bow-street runner swore falsely. I will go into the New Forest to see the old Stanleys. You know better than that. Will you pay for a pot of ale? Don't drink any more. Do not speak any more. I have a great cold. Warm thyself, sister. There is no water there. We are all relations: all who are with us are ourselves. They have hot blood. Evil words you do speak, O my dear God. Make fun, to make the Gentiles laugh. I have no girls. What is in it? Thou art well dressed. Let me come out. Don't do so. The thing is so: so it is. Bring me a fork. To-morrow morning I will give it. Tell her your mind. Sleeping with her. The sun is hot. I am tired, I can go no farther. Don't let the Gentiles know all the money you took which you hid. Seven pound ten. Pay again. Put his hand into your pocket. The boy is thinking who you are.

I would rather hear him speak than hear Lally sing. I know no more than a child. Here's your health in Romany!



COTORRES OF MI-DIBBLE'S LIL CHIV'D ADREY ROMANES PIECES OF SCRIPTURE CAST INTO ROMANY



THE FIRST DAY—Genesis i. 1, 2, 3, 4

Drey the sherripen Midibble kair'd the temoprey ta the puv; Ta the puv was chungalo, ta chichi was adrey lis; Ta temnopen was oprey the mui of the boro put. Ta Midibble's bavol-engri besh'd oprey the panior; Ta Midibble penn'd: Mook there be dute! ta there was dute. Ta Midibble dick'd that the doot was koosho-koshko. Ta Midibble chinn'd enrey the dute ta the temnopen; Ta Midibble kor'd the dute divvus, ta the temnopen kor'd yo rarde; Ta the sarla, ta the sorlo were yeckto divvus.

THE FIFTH DAY—Genesis i. 20, 21, 22, 23

Then Midibble penn'd; Mook sore the panior Chinn tairie jibbing engris bute dosta, Ta prey puv be bute dosta chiricles To vol adrey the rek of the tarpe.

Then Midibble kair'd the borie baulo-matches, Ta sore covar that has jibbing zi adreylis, The bute, bute tairie covars drey the panior Sore yeck drey its genos kair'd Midibble,

The chiricles that vol adrey the tarpe Sore yeck drey its genos kair'd he lende: Then Midibble dick'd that sore was koosho-koshko, And he chiv'd his koshto rokrapen opreylen:

Penn'd Midibble: Dey ye frute ever-komi, Ever-komi be burreder your nummer, Per with covars the panior ta durior, Ta prey puv be burreder the chiricles!

Then was sarla ta sorlo panschto divvus.

THE CREATION OF MAN—Genesis i. 27, 28

Then Mi-dibble kair'd Manoo drey his dikkipen, Drey Mi-dibble's dikkipen kair'd he leste; Mush and mushi kair'd Dibble lende And he chiv'd his koshto rokrapen opreylen:

Penn'd Mi-dibble: Dey ye frute ever-komi, Ever-komi be burreder your nummer; Per with chauves and chiyor the puvo And oprey sore the puvo be krallior,

Oprey the dooiya and its matches, And oprey the chiricles of the tarpe, And oprey soro covar that's jibbing And peers prey the mui of the puvo.

THE LORD'S PRAYER

Meery dearie Dad, sauvo jivves drey the tem oprey, be sharrafo teero nav, te awel teero tem, be kedo sore so caumes oprey ye poov, sar kairdios drey the tem oprey. Dey man to divvus meery divvuskey morro; ta for-dey mande mande's pizzaripenes, sar mande fordeava wafor mushes lende's pizzaripenes; ma mook te petrav drey kek tentacionos, but lel mande abri from sore wafodupen; for teero se o tem, Mi-dibble, teero o ruslopen, ta yi corauni knaw ta ever-komi. Si covar ajaw.

THE APOSTLES' CREED

Apasavello drey Mi-dovel; Dad sore-ruslo savo kerdo o praio tem, ta cav acoi tuley: ta drey lescro yekkero Chauvo Jesus Christus moro erray, beano of wendror of Mi-develeskey Geiry Mary; was curredo by the wast of Poknish Pontius Pilatos; was nash'd oprey ye Trihool; was mored, and chived adrey ye puve; jall'd tuley ye temno drom ke wafudo tan, bengeskoe starriben; ta prey ye trito divvus jall'd yo oprey ke koshto tan, Mi-dovels ker; beshel yo knaw odoy prey Mi-dovels tatcho wast, Dad sore-ruslo; cad odoy avellava to lel shoonapen oprey jibben and merripen; Apasavello drey Mi-dibbleskey Ducos; drey the Bori Mi- develesky Bollisky Congri; that sore tatcho fokey shall jib in mestepen kettaney; that Mi-dibble will fordel sore wafudopenes; that soror mulor will jongor, and there will be kek merripen asarlus. Si covar ajaw. Avali.

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN THE GYPSY DIALECT OF TRANSYLVANIA

Miro gulo Devel, savo hal ote ando Cheros, te avel swuntunos tiro nav; te avel catari tiro tem; te keren saro so cames oppo puv, sar ando Cheros. De man sekhonus miro diveskoe manro, ta ierta mangue saro so na he plaskerava tuke, sar me ierstavava wafo manuschengue saro so na plaskerelen mangue. Ma muk te petrow ando chungalo camoben; tama lel man abri saro doschdar. Weika tiro sin o tem, tiri yi potea, tiri yi proslava akana ta sekovar.

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