SANDERS' UNION FOURTH READER:
EMBRACING A FULL EXPOSITION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF RHETORICAL READING;
WITH NUMEROUS EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE,
BOTH IN PROSE AND POETRY, VARIOUS IN STYLE, AND CAREFULLY ADAPTED TO THE PURPOSES OF TEACHING IN SCHOOLS OF EVERY GRADE.
BY CHARLES W. SANDERS, A.M.
THIS FOURTH READER is designed to pass the pupil from the comparatively easy ground occupied by the THIRD to the more difficult course embraced in THE UNION FIFTH READER, which is next higher in the series. It is, therefore, carefully graded to this intermediate position.
In one sense, however, it is the most important in the set; since the great mass of pupils, in our common schools, are drawn away from scholastic pursuits long before the proper time for entering upon any course of reading more advanced than that which is here presented. This consideration has had its full weight in the preparation of the following pages.
Every exercise will be found to bear the impress of that special adaptation to the purposes of teaching, without which no book of this kind can fully perform the office which it assumes. The labor expended in this direction, though all unseen by the casual observer, has been neither light nor brief. It can be duly appreciated by none but the experienced teacher.
All words in the exercises, requiring explanation, have been arranged, as regular lessons in spelling and definition. In these definitions, however, it must be kept in mind, that no attempt has been made to give all the meanings of which a word is susceptible, but that only which it bears in the particular place in the exercise where it is found. There is a special educational advantage in thus leading the mind of the pupil definitely to fix upon the precise import of a word, in some particular use or application of it.
All proper names occurring in the text, and at all likely to embarrass the learner, have been explained in brief, comprehensive notes. These notes involve many matters, Geographical, Biographical, and Historical, which are not a little interesting in themselves, aside from the special purpose subserved by them in the present connection.
All this has been done, and more, in order to secure that kind of interest in the exercises which comes of reading what is clearly understood; and because no perfect reading is possible, where the reader himself fails to perceive the meaning of what he reads.
In the selection and adaptation of the pieces, the highest aim has been to make and to leave the best moral impression; and this, not by dull and formal teachings, but by the pleasanter, and, therefore, more powerful, means of incidental and unexpected suggestion. Admonition is then most likely to be heeded, when it comes through the channel of events and circumstances.
The direct and ostensible aim of the book, however, has been kept steadily in view; which is to furnish the best possible exercises for practice in Rhetorical reading. To this end, the greatest variety of style and sentiment has been sought. There is scarcely a tone or modulation, of which the human voice is capable, that finds not here some piece adapted precisely to its best expression. There is not an inflection, however delicate, not an emphasis, however slight, however strong, that does not here meet with something fitted well for its amplest illustration. No tenderness of pathos, no earnestness of thought, no play of wit, no burst of passion, is there, perhaps, of which the accomplished teacher of Elocution may not find the proper style of expression in these pages, and, consequently, the best examples for the illustration of his art.
The book, thus briefly described, is, therefore, given to the public with the same confidence that has hitherto inspired the author in similar efforts, and with the hope that it may reach even a higher measure of usefulness than that attained by any of its predecessors, in the long line of works which he has prepared for the use of schools.
NEW YORK, April, 1863.
PART FIRST. ELOCUTION.
ELEMENTARY SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS
SUBSTITUTES FOR THE VOWEL ELEMENTS
SUBSTITUTES FOR THE CONSONANT ELEMENTS
ERRORS IN ARTICULATION
COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS
EXAMPLES TO ILLUSTRATE INDISTINCT ARTICULATION
SECTION II—ACCENT AND EMPHASIS
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCENT
EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE EMPHASIS
EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS
EXAMPLES OF ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS
RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS
RULES FOR THE USE OF INFLECTIONS
PITCH OF VOICE
RULES FOR QUANTITY
RULES FOR QUALITY
NOTATION IN MODULATION
EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE IN MODULATION
SECTION V.—THE RHETORICAL PAUSE
1. TRUE HEROISM, Adapted. Osborne
2. YOU AND I, Charles Mackay
3. LIFE'S WORK
4. THE YOUNG CAPTIVES
5. MY MOTHER'S LAST KISS, Mrs. E. Oakes Smith
6. THE DEAD CHILD'S FORD, Mrs. E. Oakes Smith
7. LAME AND LAZY—A Fable
8. FAITHFULNESS IN LITTLE THINGS, Adapted, Eliza A. Chase
9. THE AMERICAN BOY
10. THE SAILOR BOY'S SONG
11. CHASE OF THE PET FAWN, Adapted. Miss Cooper
13. CARELESS WORDS
14. WEBSTER AND THE WOODCHUCK, Adapted. Boston Traveler
15. DO IT YOURSELF
16. BETTER LATE THAN NEVER
17. THE ADOPTED CHILD, Mrs. Hemans
18. THE OLD EAGLE TREE, Rev. John Todd
19. THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE, Elihu Burritt
20. NIGHT'S LESSONS, L.H. Sigourney
21. NATURE'S TEACHINGS, Chambers' Journal
22. SOWING AND HARVESTING, Anon.
23. A THRILLING INCIDENT, Adapted. Anon.
24. THE TRUTHFUL KING
25. WHEN SHALL I ANSWER, NO, J.N. McElligott
26. TO MASTER ROBERT AND JOHN, Davis
27. WHANG, THE MILLER, Goldsmith
28. CHIMNEY-SWALLOWS, Henry Ward Beecher
29. THE DOUBTING HEART, Adelaide Procter
30. THE COMING OF WINTER, T.B. Read
31. CHILD TIRED OF PLAY, N.P. Willis
32. THE RESCUE, By a Sea Captain
33. ROBERT BRUCE AND THE SCOTCH WOMAN
34. ROBERT BRUCE AND THE SPIDER, Bernard Barton
35. WEALTH AND FASHION
36. MY FIRST JACK-KNIFE
37. THE PINE-TREE SHILLINGS, Nathaniel Hawthorne
38. HIAWATHA'S HUNTING, Longfellow
39. DESPERATE ENCOUNTER WITH A PANTHER, Bk. of Adventures
40. THE POWER OF HABIT, John B. Gough
41. THE DRUNKARD'S DAUGHTER
42. THE TWO YOUNG TRAVELERS, Adapted. Merry's Museum
44. LABOR, Caroline F. Orne
45. THE AMBITIOUS APPRENTICE
46. SO WAS FRANKLIN, Anon.
47. NOW AND THEN, Jane Taylor
48. AN INGENIOUS STRATAGEM, Days of Washington
49. FRANCES SLOCUM, THE YOUNG CAPTIVE, B.J. Lossing
50. THE RAIN-DROPS, Delia Louise Colton
51. SMALL THINGS, F. Bennoch
52. MURDERER'S CREEK, James K. Paulding
53. NAPOLEON'S ARMY CROSSING THE ALPS, Adapted. Anon.
54. WHERE THERE'S A WILL THERE'S A WAY, Eliza Cook
55. "I CAN"
56. NOW, TO-DAY, Adelaide A. Procter
57. CAPTURE OF MAJOR ANDRE
58. BENEDICT ARNOLD
59. BEHIND TIME, Freeman Hunt
60. HOW HAPPY I'LL BE
61. THE SWORD OF BUNKER HILL, William R. Wallace
62. BIBLE LEGEND OF THE WISSAHIKON, Lippard
63. ADVICE TO THE YOUNG, E.H. Chapin
64. THE INTREPID YOUTH
65. THE FOUR MISFORTUNES, John G. Saxe
66. MRS. CREDULOUS AND THE FORTUNE-TELLER
67. FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITY—An Allegory
68. NOT TO MYSELF ALONE, S.W. Partridge
69. THE WORLD WOULD BE THE BETTER FOR IT, W.H. Cobb
70. SELECT PROVERBS OF SOLOMON, Bible
71. WINTER BEAUTY, Henry Ward Beecher
72. FROSTED TREES
73. THE MOUNTAINS OF LIFE, James G. Clark
74. IMAGINARY EVILS, Chas. Swain
75. SIR WALTER AND THE LION, A. Walchner
76. CHOICE EXTRACTS
I. WHAT REALLY BENEFITS US. II. GOD'S LOVE. III. LIFE-WORK. IV. HUMILITY. V. BENEFITS OF ADVERSITY. VI. OUR MOUNTAIN HOMES. VII. MAKE A BEGINNING. VIII. INFLUENCE. IX. PLEASURE IN ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE. X. WHAT IS FAME? XI. CULTIVATED INTELLECT. XII. GOD'S WORKS ATTEST HIS GREATNESS.
77. CAPTURE OF THE WHALE
78. LEAVES FROM AN AERONAUT, Willis Gaylord Clark
79. THE DAPPLE MARE, John G. Saxe
80. A LEAP FOR LIFE, George P. Morris
81. THE INDIAN BRIDE'S REVENGE, Adapted. L.M. Stowell
82. A MOTHER'S LOVE, Albert Barnes
83. THE LIFE-BOOK, Home Journal
84. ODE ON SOLITUDE, Pope
85. GETTING THE RIGHT START, J.G. Holland
86. THE PRESUMPTION OF YOUTH, Rollin
87. SONG OF THE AMERICAN EAGLE
88 THE ARMY OF REFORM, Sarah Jane Lippincott
89. LAST CRUISE OF THE MONITOR, Adapted. Grenville M. Weeks
90. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF WOMEN, Gail Hamilton
91. SCENE FROM WILLIAM TELL, J. Sheridan Knowles
92. THE RICH MAN AND THE POOR MAN, Khemnitzer
93. GRANDEUR OF THE OCEAN, Walter Colton
94. A BURIAL AT SEA, Walter Colton
95. THE TREASURES OF THE DEEP, Mrs. Hemans
96. THE BRIDGE OF SIGHS, Thomas Hood
97. A REQUIEM
98. VISIT TO MOUNT VERNON, A.C. Ritchie
99. LA FAYETTE, Charles Sprague
100. THE MYSTIC WEAVER, Rev. Dr. Harbaugh
101. WORK AWAY, Harpers' Magazine
102. QUEEN ISABELLA'S RESOLVE, Vinet
103. DISCOVERY OF THE NEW WORLD, Lamartine
104. THE RETURN OF COLUMBUS, Vinet
105. TWO HUNDRED YEARS AGO, Grenville Mellen
106. PRESS ON, Park Benjamin
107. THE THREE FORMS OF NATURE, From the French of Michelet
108. THE WHALE AND THE WHALER, From the French of Michelet
109. RIENZI'S ADDRESS TO THE ROMANS, Miss Mitford
110. SONG OF THE FORGE
111. CHOICE EXTRACTS
I. SWIFTNESS OF TIME. II. THE SHIP OF STATE. III. THE TRUE HERO. IV. HEART ESSENTIAL TO GENIUS. V. EDUCATION. VI. VANITY OF WEALTH. VII. CONSOLATION OF THE GOSPEL. VIII. THE LIGHT OF HOPE. IX. PAMPERING THE BODY AND STARVING THE SOUL.
112. WE ALL DO FADE AS A LEAF, Gail Hamilton
113. TEACHINGS OF NATURE, Pollok
114. PASSING UNDER THE ROD, Mary S.B. Dana
115. THE PETULANT MAN, Osborne
116. THE BRAHMIN AND THE ROGUES, Versified by J.N. McElligott
117. LIVING WITHIN OUR MEANS, S.W. Partridge
118. GRANDEUR OF THE UNIVERSE, O.M. Mitchel
119. "WHOM HAVE I IN HEAVEN BUT THEE?", Pamelia S. Vining
120. THE MEMORY OF WASHINGTON, Kossuth
121. THE LOST ONE'S LAMENT
EXPLANATION OF THE PAUSES.
. The Period is the longest pause—a full stop. It marks the end of a sentence, and shows the sense complete; as, The sky is blue'. Pause the time of counting six, and let the voice fall.
The Interrogation is used at the end of a question; as, Is the sky blue'? If the question can be answered by yes or no, the voice rises; if not, it falls; as, Where is your map';? Pause the time of counting six.
The Exclamation denotes wonder, surprise, pain, or joy; as, O'! what a sweet rose'! Pause the time of counting one, after a single word, and let the voice rise; but after a complete sentence, pause the time of counting six, and let the voice fall.
The Colon is a pause shorter than the Period; as, The sky is clear': the sun shines. Pause the time of counting four, and let the voice fall.
The Semicolon is a pause shorter than the Colon; as, The rose is fair'; but it soon fades. Pause the time of counting two, and let the voice fall. Sometimes the voice should rise, as the sense may require.
The Comma is the shortest pause; as, Jane goes to school', and learns to read. Pause the time of counting one, and keep the voice up.
The Dash denotes a sudden pause or change of subject; as, I saw him—but what a sight! When the dash is used after any other pause, the time of that pause is doubled.
* * * * *
EXPLANATION OF OTHER MARKS.
The Apostrophe has the form of the comma. It denotes the possessive case; as, John's book; also, that one or more letters have been left out of a word; as, lov'd for loved.
The Quotation includes a passage that is taken from some other author or speaker; as, John said: "See my kite."
The Parenthesis includes words not properly a part of the main sentence; as, I like these people (who would not?) very much. The words within the parenthesis should be read in a lower tone of voice.
The Brackets inclose words that serve to explain the preceding word or sentence; as, James [the truthful boy] went home.
The Caret shows where words are to be put in that have been omitted by mistake; as, Live ^in peace.
The Diaresis is placed over the latter of two vowels, to show that they belong to two distinct syllables; as, aerial.
The Hyphen is used to connect compound words; as, Well-doing; or the parts of a word separated at the end of a line.
The Index points to something special or remarkable; as, => Important News!
*** .... or ——
The Ellipsis shows that certain words or letters have been purposely omitted; as, K**g, k..g, or k—g, for king.
The Paragraph denotes the beginning of a new subject. It is chiefly used in the Bible; as, [Paragraph] The same day came to him, etc.
The Section is used to divide a book or chapter into parts; as, [Section]45.
* [Obelisk] [Double Dagger]
The Asterisk, the Obelisk, the Double Dagger, and sometimes other marks, [Footnote: For instance: the Section mark, [Section], and the Parallel, .] refer to notes in the margin.
APPLICATIONS OF THE MARKS USED IN WRITING.
LINE 1 My Young Friends', never tell a falsehood'; but always
2 speak the truth'; this is pleasing to your Maker.
3 Do you read His holy word—the Bible'? O! remem-
4 ber, that He has there said: "He that speaketh lies, shall
5 not escape: he shall perish."* Remember, too, that the
6 All-seeing God knows all that we say or do.
7 [Paragraph] Tho' wisdom's voice is seldom heard in k—g's
8 palaces,—there have been wise kings, (e.g. Solomon,) who
9 were lov'd and obey'd by their subjects.[Obelisk]
10 Here, [i.e. in the U.S.,] we can not boast of our kings,
11 princes, lords, &c.; yet we have had a PRESIDENT, who,
12 in true greatness, surpass'ed them all; viz., the great
13 WASHINGTON.—— [Index] Washington feared and hon-
14 ored God.
15 [S] Section, [/=] Double Dagger, and Parallel, are also used
16 for reference to the margin.
* * * * *
* Proverbs xix. 5 and 9. [Obelisk] 1 Kings.
Elocution is the art of delivering written or extemporaneous composition with force, propriety, and ease.
It deals, therefore, with words, not only as individuals, but as members of a sentence, and parts of a connected discourse: including every thing necessary to the just expression of the sense. Accordingly, it demands, in a special manner, attention to the following particulars; viz., ARTICULATION, ACCENT, EMPHASIS, INFLECTION, MODULATION, and PAUSES.
* * * * *
Articulation is the art of uttering distinctly and justly the letters and syllables constituting a word.
It deals, therefore, with the elements of words, just as elocution deals with the elements of sentences: the one securing the true enunciation of each letter, or combination of letters, the other giving to each word, or combination of words, such a delivery as best expresses the meaning of the author. It is the basis of all good reading, and should be carefully practiced by the learner.
ELEMENTARY SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.
1.—1 A as in Ape. 2.—2 A " Arm. 3.—3 A " All. 4.—4 A " At. 5.—5 A " Care. 6.—6 A " Ask. 7.—1 E " Eve. 8.—2 E " End. 9.—1 I " Ice. 10.—2 I " It. 11.—1 O " Old. 12.—2 O " Do. 13.—3 O " Ox. 14.—1 U " Use. 15.—2 U " Up. 16.—3 U " Pull. 17.—OI " Oil. 18.—OU " Out.
19.—B as in Bat. 20.—D " Dun. 21.—G " Gun. 22.—J " Jet. 23.—L " Let. 24.—M " Man. 25.—N " Not. 26.—R " Run. 27.—V " Vent. 28.—W " Went. 29.—Y " Yes. 30.—1 Z " Zeal. 31.—2 Z " Azure. 32.—NG " Sing. 33.—TH " Thy.
34.—F as in Fit. 35.—H " Hat. 36.—K " Kid. 36.—P " Pit. 38.—S " Sin. 39.—T " Top. 40.—CH " Chat. 41.—SH " Shun. 42.—TH " Thin. 43.—WH " When.
21: Soft G is equivalent to J; soft C to S, and hard C and Q to K. X is equivalent to K and S, as in box, or to G and Z as in exalt.
42: WH is pronounced as if the H preceded W, otherwise it would be pronounced W hen. R should be slightly trilled before a vowel. For further instructions, see Sanders and Merrill's Elementary and Elocutionary Chart.
SUBSTITUTES FOR THE VOWEL ELEMENTS.
For Long A.
ai as in sail. au " gauge. ay " lay. ea " great. ei " deign. ey " they.
For Flat A.
au as in daunt. ea " heart. ua " guard.
For Broad A.
au as in pause. aw " law. eo " George. oa " groat. o " horn. ou " sought.
For Short A.
ai as in plaid. ua " guaranty.
For Intermediate A.
ai as in hair. ea " bear. e " where. ei " their.
For Long E.
ea as in weak. ei " seize. eo " people. ey " key. ie " brief. i " pique.
For Short E.
a as in any. ai " said. ay " says. ea " dead. ei " heifer. eo " leopard. ie " friend. ue " guess. u " bury.
For Long I.
ai as in aisle. ei " sleight. ey " eye. ie " die. oi " choir. ui " guide. uy " buy. y " try.
For Short I.
e as in English. ee " been. ie " sieve. o " women. u " busy. ui " build. y " symbol.
For Long O.
au as in hautboy. eau " beau. eo " yeoman. ew " sew. oa " boat. oe " hoe. ou " soul. ow " flow.
For Long Slender O.
oe as in shoe. ou " soup.
For Short O.
a as in was. ou " hough. ow " knowledge.
For Long U.
eau as in beauty. eu " feud. ew " dew. ieu " adieu. ou " your. ue " cue. ui " suit.
For Short U.
e as in her. i " sir. oe " does. o " love. ou " young.
For Short Slender U.
o as in wolf. ou " would.
For the Diphthong OI.
oy as in joy.
For the Diphthong OU.
ow as in now.
There is no pure Triphthongal sound in the language. Buoy is equivalent to bwoy. U being a consonant.
SUBSTITUTES FOR THE CONSONANT ELEMENTS.
gh as in laugh. ph " sphere.
g " gem.
c " can. ch " chord. gh " hough. q " quit.
c " cent.
d " faced. phth " phthisic.
f " of. ph " Stephen.
i " valiant.
c " suffice. s " was. x " Xerxes.
s " treasure. z " azure. si " fusion. zi " glazier.
n " conch.
ce " ocean. ci " social. ch " chaise. si " pension. s " sure. ss " issue. ti " notion.
ti " fustian.
B, D, G, H, L, M, N, P, and R, have no substitutes.
The most common faults in ARTICULATION are
I. The suppression of a syllable; as,
cab'n for cab-in. cap'n " cap-tain. barr'l " bar-rel. ev'ry " ev-e-ry. hist'ry " his-to-ry reg'lar " reg-u-lar. sev'ral " sev-er-al. rhet'ric " rhet-o-ric. mem'ry " mem-o-ry. jub'lee " ju-bi-lee. trav'ler " trav-el-er. fam'ly " fam-i-ly. vent'late " ven-ti-late. des'late " des-o-late. prob'ble " prob-a-ble. par-tic'lar " par-tic-u-lar.
II. The omission of any sound properly belonging to a word; as,
read-in for read-ing. swif-ly " swift-ly. com-mans " com-mands. wam-er " warm-er. um-ble " hum-ble. ap-py " hap-py. con-sis " con-sists. fa-t'l " fa-tal. pr'-tect " pro-tect. b'low " be-low. p'r-vade " per-vade. srink-in " shrink-ing. th'if-ty " thrif-ty. as-ter-is " as-ter-isk. gov-er-ment " gov-ern-ment. Feb-u-ary " Feb-ru-a-ry.
III. The substitution of one sound for another; as,
uf-ford for af-ford. wil-ler " wil-low. sock-it " sock-et. fear-luss " fear-less. cul-ter " cult-ure. prod-ux " prod-ucts. judg-munt " judg-ment. chil-drin " chil-dren. mod-ist " mod-est. up-prove " ap-prove. win-e-gar " vin-e-gar. sep-e-rate " sep-a-rate. temp-er-it " tem-per-ate. croc-er-dile " croc-o-dile. tub-ac-cur " to-bac-co. com-prum-ise " com-pro-mise.
IV. Produce the sounds denoted by the following combinations of consonants:—
Let the pupil first produce the sound of the letters, and then the word or words in which they occur. Be careful to give a clear and distinct enunciation to every letter.
1. Bd, as in rob'd; bdst, prob'dst; bl, bl and, able; bld, hum-bl'd; bldst, troubl'dst; blst, troubl'st; blz, crumbles; br, brand; bz, ribs.
2. Ch, as in church; cht, fetch'd.
3. Dj, as in edge; djd, hedg'd; dl, bridle; dld, riddl'd; dlst, handl'st; dlz, bundles; dn, hard'n; dr, drove; dth, width; dths, breadths; dz, odds.
4. Fl, as in flame; fld, rifl'd; flst, stifl'st; flx, rifles; fr, from; fs, quaffs, laughs; fst, laugh'st, quaff'st; ft, raft; fts, wafts; ftst, grft'st.
5. Gd, as in begg'd; gdst, bragg'dst; gl, glide; gld, struggl'd; gldst, haggl'dst; gist, strangl'st; glz, mingles; gr, grove; gst, begg'st; gz, figs.
6. Kl, as in uncle, ankle; kld, trickl'd; kldst, truckl'dst; klst, chuckl'st; klz, wrinkles; kn, black'n; knd, reck'n'd; kndst, reck'n'dst; knst, black'n'st; knz, reck'ns; kr, crank; ks, checks; kt, act.
7. Lb, as in bulb; lbd, bulb'd; lbs, bulbs; lch, filch; lcht, belch'd; ld, hold; ldst, fold'st; ldz, holds; lf, self; lfs, gulfs; lj, bulge; lk, elk; lks, silks; lkt, milk'd; lkts, mulcts; lm, elm; lmd, whelm'd; lmz, films; ln, fall'n; lp, help; lps, scalps; lpst, help'st; ls, false; lst, call'st; lt, melt; lth, health; lths, stealths; lts, colts; lv, delve; lvd, shelv'd; lvz, elves; lz, halls.
8. Md, as in doom'd; mf, triumph; mp, hemp; mpt, tempt; mpts, attempts; mst, entomb'st; mz, tombs.
9. Nch, as in bench; ncht, pinch'd; nd, and; ndst, end'st; ndz, ends; ng, sung; ngd, banged; ngth, length; ngz, songs; nj, range; njd, rang'd; nk, ink; nks, ranks; nkst, thank'st; nst, wine'd; nt, sent; nts, rents; ntst, went'st; nz, runs.
10. Pl, as in plume; pld, rippl'd; plst, rippl'st; plz, apples; pr, prince; ps, sips; pst, rapp'st; pt, ripp'd.
11. Rb, as in herb; rch, search; rcht, church'd; rbd, orbd; rbdst, barb'dst; rbst, disturb'st; rbz, orbs; rd, hard; rdst, heard'st; rdz, words; rf, turf; rft, scarfd; rg, burg; rgz, burgs; rj, dirge; rjd, urg'd; rk, ark; rks, arks; rkst, work'st; rkt, dirk'd; rktst, embark'dst; rl, girl; rld, world; rldst, hurld'st; rlst, whirl'st; rlz, hurls; rm, arm; rmd, arm'd; rmdst, harm'dst; rmst, arm'st; rmz, charms; rn, turn; rnd, turn'd; rndst, earn'dst; rnst, learn'st; rnz, urns; rp, carp; rps, harps; rpt, warp'd; rs, verse; rsh, harsh; rst, first; rsts, bursts; rt, dart; rth, earth; rths, births; rts, marts; rtst, dart'st; rv, curve; rvd, nerv'd; rvdst, curv'dst; rvst, swerv'st; rvz, nerves; rz, errs.
12. Sh, as in ship; sht, hush'd; sk, scan, skip; sks, tusks; skst, frisk'st; skt, risk'd; sl, slow; sld, nestl'd; slz, westles; sm, smile; sn, snag; sp, sport; sps, lisps; spt, clasp'd; st, stag; str, strike; sts, rests; sw, swing.
13. Th, as in thine, thin; thd, breath'd; thr, three; thst, breath'st; thw, thwack; thz, writhes; tl, title; tld, settl'd; tldst, settl'dst; tlst,settl'st; tlz, nettles; tr, truuk; ts, fits; tw, twirl.
14. Vd, as in curv'd; vdst, liv'dst; vl, driv'l; vld, grov'l'd; vldst, grov'l'dst; vlst, driv'l'st; un, driv'n; vst, liv'st; vz, lives.
15. Wh, as in when, where.
16. Zd, as in mus'd; zl, dazzle; zld, muzzl'd; zldst, dazzl'dst; zlst, dazzl'st; zlz, muzzles; zm, spasm; zmz, chasms; zn, ris'n; znd, reas'n'd; znz, pris'nz; zndst, impris'n'dst.
V. Avoid blending the termination of one word with the beginning of another, or suppressing the final letter or letters of one word, when the next word commences with a similar sound.
His small eyes instead of His small lies. She keeps pies " She keeps spies. His hour is up " His sour is sup. Dry the widow's tears " Dry the widow steers. Your eyes and ears " Your rise sand dears. He had two small eggs " He had two small legs. Bring some ice cream " Bring some mice scream. Let all men praise Him " Let tall men pray sim. He was killed in war " He was skilled in war. Water, air, and earth " Water rare rand dearth. Come and see me once more " Come mand see me one smore.
NOTE.—By an indistinct Articulation the sense of a passage is often liable to be perverted.
1. Will he attempt to conceal his acts? Will he attempt to conceal his sacks? 2. The man had oars to row her over. The man had doors to row her rover. 3. Can there be an aim more lofty? Can there be a name more lofty? 4. The judges ought to arrest the culprits. The judges sought to arrest the culprits. 5. His ire burned when she told him her age. His sire burned when she told him her rage. 6. He was awed at the works of labor and art. He was sawed at the works of labor an dart. 7. He was trained in the religion of his fathers. He was strained in the religion of his fathers.
1. Bravely o'er the boisterous billows, His gallant bark was borne. 2. Can craven cowards expect to conquer the country? 3. Click, click, goes the clock; clack, clack, goes the mill. 4. Did you desire to hear his dark and doleful dreams? 5. "Firm-paced and slow, a horrid front they form, Still as the breeze; but dreadful as the storm." 6. The flaming fire flashed fearfully in his face. 7. The glassy glaciers gleamed in glowing light. 8. How high his honors heaved his haughty head! 9. He drew long, legible lines along the lovely landscape. 10. Masses of immense magnitude move majestically through the vast empire of the solar system. 11. Round the rough and rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran. 12. The stripling stranger strayed straight toward the struggling stream. 13. She uttered a sharp, shrill shriek, and then shrunk from the shriveled form that slumbered in the shroud. 14. For fear of offending the frightful fugitive, the vile vagabond ventured to vilify the venerable veteran. 15. Amidst the mists, with angry boasts, He thrusts his fists against the posts, And still insists he sees the ghosts. 16. Peter Prangle, the prickly prangly pear picker, picked three pecks of prickly prangly pears, from the prangly pear trees, on the pleasant prairies. 17. Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; now, if Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb, see that thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust not three thousand thistles through the thick of thy thumb. Success to the successful thistle sifter. 18. We travel sea and soil; we pry, we prowl; We progress, and we prog from pole to pole.
ACCENT AND EMPHASIS.
ACCENT and EMPHASIS both indicate some special stress of voice.
Accent is that stress of voice by which one syllable of a word is made more prominent than others; EMPHASIS is that stress of voice by which one or more words of a sentence are distinguished above the rest.
The accented syllable is sometimes designated thus: ('); as, com-mand'-ment.
NOTE I.—Words of more than two syllables generally have two or more of them accented.
The more forcible stress of voice, is called the Primary Accent; and the less forcible, the Secondary Accent.
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCENT.
In the following examples the Primary Accent is designated by double accentual marks, thus:
Ed''-u-cate', ed'-u-ca''-tion, mul''-ti-ply', mul'-ti-pli-ca''-tion, sat''-is-fy', sat'-is-fac''-tion, com'-pre-hend'', com'-pre-hen''-sion, rec'-om-mend'', rec'-om-mend-a''-tion, mo''-ment-a'-ry, com-mun''-ni-cate', com'-pli-ment''-al, in-dem'-ni-fi-ca''-tion, ex'-tem-po-ra''-ne-ous, coun'-ter-rev'-o-lu''-tion-a-ry.
NOTE II.—The change of accent on the same word often changes its meaning.
col'-league, a partner. col-league', to unite with. con'-duct, behavior. con-duct', to lead. des'-cant, a song or tune. des-cant', to comment. ob'-ject, ultimate purpose. ob-ject', to oppose. in'-ter-dict, a prohibition. in-ter-dict', to forbid. o'ver-throw, ruin; defeat. o-ver-throw', to throw down.
NOTE III.—Emphatic words are often printed in Italics. When, however, different degrees of emphasis are to be denoted, the higher degrees are designated by the use of Capitals, LARGER or SMALLER, according to the degree of intensity.
1. Our motto shall be, our country, OUR WHOLE COUNTRY, and NOTHING BUT OUR COUNTRY.
2. Thou Child of Joy! SHOUT round me: let me HEAR thy shouts, thou happy Shepherd Boy!
3. Freedom calls you! quick, be ready, Think of what your sires have done; Onward, ONWARD! strong and steady, Drive the tyrant to his den; ON, and let the watchword be, Country, HOME, and LIBERTY.
NOTE IV.—Emphasis, as before intimated, varies in degrees of intensity.
EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE EMPHASIS.
1. He shook the fragment of his blade, And shouted: "VICTORY! Charge, Chester, CHARGE! On, Stanley, ON!"
2. A month! O, for a single WEEK! I as not for years', though an AGE were too little for the much I have to do.
3. Now for the FIGHT! now for the CANNON PEAL! ONWARD! through blood, and toil, and cloud, and fire! Glorious—the SHOUT, the SHOCK, the CRASH of STEEL, The VOLLEY'S ROLL, the ROCKET'S BLAZING SPIRE!
4. Hear, O HEAVENS! and give ear, O EARTH!
NOTE V.—Emphasis sometimes changes the seat of accent from its ordinary position.
There is a difference between pos'sibility and prob'ability. And behold, the angels of God as'cending and de'scending on it. For this corruptible must put on in'corruption, and this mortal must put on im'mortality. Does his conduct deserve ap'probation or rep'robation?
NOTE VI.—There are two kinds of Emphasis:—Absolute and Antithetic. ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS is used to designate the important words of a sentence, without any direct reference to other words.
EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS.
1. Oh, speak to passion's raging tide, Speak and say: "PEACE, BE STILL!"
2. The UNION, it MUST and SHALL BE PRESERVED!
3. HUSH! breathe it not aloud, The wild winds must not hear it! Yet, again, I tell thee—WE ARE FREE! KNOWLES.
4. When my country shall take her place among the nations of the earth, THEN and not TILL then, let my epitaph be written. EMMETT.
5. If you are MEN, follow ME! STRIKE DOWN yon guard, and gain the mountain passes.
6. OH! shame on us, countrymen, SHAME on us ALL, If we CRINGE to so dastard a race.
7. This doctrine never was received; it NEVER CAN, by any POSSIBILITY, BE RECEIVED; and, if admitted at ALL, it must be by THE TOTAL SUBVERSION OF LIBERTY!
8. Are you Christians, and, by upholding duelists, will you deluge the land with blood, and fill it with widows and orphans. BEECHER.
9. LIBERTY and UNION, NOW and FOREVER, ONE and INSEPARABLE. WEBSTER.
10. Treason! cried the speaker; treason, TREASON, TREASON, reechoed from every part of the house.
11. The war is inevitable,—and LET IT COME! I repeat it, Sir,—LET IT COME! PATRICK HENRY.
12. Be we men, And suffer such dishonor? MEN, and wash not The stain away in BLOOD? MISS MITFORD.
13. O SACRED FORMS! how proud you look! How high you lift your heads into the sky! How huge you are! how mighty and how free! KNOWLES.
14. I shall know but one country. The ends I aim at, shall be "My COUNTRY'S, my GOD'S, and TRUTH'S." WEBSTER.
NOTE VII.—ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS is that which is founded on the contrast of one word or clause with another.
EXAMPLES OF ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS.
1. The faults of others should always remind us of our own.
2. He desired to protect his friend, not to injure him.
3. But yesterday, the word of Caesar might Have stood against the world; now lies he there, And none so poor to do him reverence. SHAKESPEARE.
4. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches. BIBLE.
5. We can do nothing against the truth; but for the truth. BIBLE.
6. He that is slow to anger, is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city. BIBLE.
NOTE VIII.—The following examples contain two or more sets of Antitheses.
1. Just men are only free, the rest are slaves.
2. Beauty is like the flower of spring; virtue is like the stars of heaven.
3. Truth crushed to earth shall rise again, The eternal years of God are hers; But error, wounded, writhes in pain, And dies amid her worshipers. BRYANT.
4. A false balance is abomination to the Lord; but a just weight is his delight. BIBLE.
5. A friend can not be known in prosperity; and an enemy can not be hidden in adversity.
6. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment: INDEPENDENCE NOW, and INDEPENDENCE FOREVER. WEBSTER.
7. We live in deeds, not years,—in thoughts, not breaths,—in feelings, not in figures on a dial. We should count time by heart throbs. He most lives, who THINKS THE MOST,—FEELS THE NOBLEST,—ACTS THE BEST.
8. You have done the mischief, and I bear the blame.
9. The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation; the fool when he gains that of others.
10. We must hold them as we hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war,—in peace, friends. JEFFERSON.
NOTE IX.—The sense of a passage is varied by changing the place of the emphasis.
1. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but Charles has.
2. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he has heard from him.
3. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he saw yours.
4. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he has seen his sister.
5. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he saw him yesterday.
REMARK.—To determine the emphatic words of a sentence, as well as the degree and kind of emphasis to be employed, the reader must be governed wholly by the sentiment to be expressed. The idea is sometimes entertained that emphasis consists merely in loudness of tone. But it should be borne in mind that the most intense emphasis may often be effectively expressed, even by a whisper.
INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice, made in reading or speaking; as; Will you go to New [Transcriber's Note: Two missing lines in printing, page 25 in original.] or to [Transcriber's Note: Remainder of paragraph is missing.]
All the various sounds of the human voice may be comprehended under the general appellation of tones. The principal modifications of these tones are the MONOTONE, the RISING INFLECTION, the FALLING INFLECTION, and the CIRCUMFLEX.
The Horizontal Line (—) denotes the Monotone. The Rising Slide (/) denotes the Rising Inflection. The Falling Slide () denotes the Falling Inflection. The Curve (\_/) denotes the Circumflex.
The MONOTONE is that sameness of sound, which arises from repeating the several words or syllables of a passage in one and the same general tone.
REMARK.—The Monotone is employed with admirable effect in the delivery of a passage that is solemn or sublime.
1. O thou that rollest above, round as the shield of my fathers: whence are thy beams, O sun, thy everlasting light? OSSIAN.
2. 'Tis midnight's holy hour, and silence now Is brooding, like a gentle spirit, o'er The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the winds The bells' deep tones are swelling; 'tis the knell Of the departed year. PRENTICE.
3. God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise.
4. Before Him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at His feet. He stood and measured the earth: He beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow: His ways are everlasting. BIBLE.
5. The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handy work. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. ID.
6. How brief is life! how passing brief! How brief its joys and cares! It seems to be in league with time, And leaves us unawares.
7. The thunder rolls: be hushed the prostrate world, While cloud to cloud returns the solemn hymn. THOMSON.
REMARK.—The inappropriate use of the monotone,—a fault into which young people naturally fall,—is a very grave and obstinate error. It is always tedious, and often even ridiculous. It should be studiously avoided.
The RISING INFLECTION is an upward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as,
s? n/ o/ s/ s/ e/ Are you prepared to recite your l/
The FALLING INFLECTION is a downward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as,
d o i
What are you g?
In the falling inflection, the voice should not sink below the general pitch; but in the rising inflection, it is raised above it.
The two inflections may be illustrated by the following diagrams:
1. i m y, p p l/
t/ u u n/ d d e/ e e d/
u/ r/ l l Did he act p/ or y? He acted y.
y, w w l/ i i g/ l l n/ l l i/ i i l/
l/ g g i/ l l Did they go w/ or y? They went y.
3. r, e/ h/ g/ i/ If the flight of Dryden is h/ Pope continues longer on the
r, e/ t/ h/ w g/ i i/
r/ g. If the blaze of Dryden's fire is b/ the heat of Pope's is
more regular and .
4. Is honor's lofty soul forever fled'? Is virtue lost'? Is martial ardor dead'? Is there no heart where worth and valor dwell'? No patriot WALLACE'? No undaunted TELL'? Yes', Freedom, yes'! thy sons, a noble band, Around thy banner, firm, exulting stand'.
REMARK.—The same degree of inflection is not, at all times, used, or indicated by the notation. The due degree to be employed, depends on the nature of what is to be expressed. For example; if a person, under great excitement, asks another:
t? s e n r a Are you in e the degree of inflection would be much greater,
t? s e n r a than if he playfully asks: Are you in e The former inflection may be called intensive, the latter, common.
RULES FOR THE USE OF INFLECTIONS.
Direct questions, or those which may be answered by yes or no, usually take the rising inflection; but their answers, generally, the falling.
1. Will you meet me at the depot'? Yes'; or, I will'.
2. Did you intend to visit Boston'? No'; or, I did not'.
3. Can you explain this difficult sentence'? Yes'; I can.
4. Are they willing to remain at home'? They are'.
5. Is this a time for imbecility and inaction'? By no means'.
6. King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets'? I know that thou believest'.
7. Were the tribes of this country, when first discovered, making any progress in arts and civilization'? By no means'.
8. To purchase heaven has gold the power'? Can gold remove the mortal hour'? In life, can love be bought with gold'? Are friendship's pleasures to be sold'? No'; all that's worth a wish, a thought, Fair virtue gives unbribed, unbought.
9. What would content you'? Talents'? No'. Enterprise'? No'. Courage'? No'. Reputation'? No'. Virtue'? No'. The man whom you would select, should possess not one, but all of these'.
NOTE I.—When the direct question becomes an appeal, and the reply to it is anticipated, it takes the intense falling inflection.
1. Is' he not a bold and eloquent speaker'?
2. Can' such inconsistent measures be adopted'?
3. Did' you ever hear of such cruel barbarities'?
4. Is this reason'? Is' it law'? Is it humanity'?
5. Was' not the gentleman's argument conclusive'?
Indirect questions, or those which can not be answered by yes or no, usually take the falling inflection, and their answers the same.
1. How far did you travel yesterday'? Forty miles'.
2. Which of you brought this beautiful bouquet'? Julia'.
3. Where do you intend to spend the summer'? At Saratoga'.
4. When will Charles graduate at college'? Next year'.
5. What is one of the most delightful emotions of the heart'? Gratitude'.
NOTE I.—When the indirect question is one asking a repetition of what was not, at first, understood, it takes the rising inflection.
1. When do you expect to return? Next week. When_ did you say'? Next week.
2. Where did you say William had gone'? To New York.
NOTE II.—Answers to questions, whether direct or indirect, when expressive of indifference, take the rising inflection, or the circumflex.
1. Did you admire his discourse? Not much'.
2. Which way shall we walk? I am not particular'.
3. Can Henry go with us? If he chooses'.
4. What color do you prefer? I have no particular choice'.
NOTE III.—In some instances, direct questions become indirect by a change of the inflection from the rising to the falling.
1. Will you come to-morrow' or next day'? Yes.
2. Will you come to-morrow,' or next day'? I will come to-morrow.
REMARK.—The first question asks if the person addressed will come within the two days, and may be answered by yes or no; but the second asks on which of the two days he will come, and it can not be thus answered.
When questions are connected by the conjunction or, the first requires the rising, and the second, the falling inflection.
1. Does he study for amusement', or improvement'?
2. Was he esteemed for his wealth', or for his wisdom'?
3. Sink' or swim', live' or die', survive' or perish', I give my hand and heart to this vote. WEBSTER.
4. Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath-days', or to do evil'? to save life', or to kill'?
5. Was it an act of moral courage', or cowardice', for Cato to fall on his sword'?
RULE IV. Antithetic terms or clauses usually take opposite inflections; generally, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling inflection.
1. If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores' but to diminish his desires'.
2. They have mouths',—but they speak not': Eyes have they',—but they see not': They have ears',—but they hear not': Noses have they',—but they smell not': They have hands',—but they handle not': Feet have they',—but they walk not'. BIBLE.
NOTE I.—When one of the antithetic clauses is a negative, and the other an affirmative, generally the negative has the rising, and the affirmative the falling inflection.
1. I said an elder soldier' not a better'.
2. His acts deserve punishment' rather than commiseration'.
3. This is no time for a tribunal of justice', but for showing mercy'; not for accusation', but for philanthropy'; not for trial', but for pardon'; not for sentence and execution', but for compassion and kindness'.
RULE V. The Pause of Suspension, denoting that the sense is incomplete, usually has the rising inflection.
1. Although the fig tree shall not blossom', neither shall fruit be in the vine'; the labor of the olive shall fail', and the fields shall yield no meat'; the flocks shall be cut off from the fold', and there shall be no herd in the stalls'; yet will I rejoice in the Lord', I will joy in the God of my salvation'. BIBLE.
NOTE I.—The ordinary direct address, not accompanied with strong emphasis, takes the rising inflection, on the principle of the pause of suspension.
1. Men', brethren', and fathers', hear ye my defense which I make now unto you. BIBLE.
2. Ye living flowers', that skirt the eternal frost'! Ye wild goats', sporting round the eagle's nest'! Ye eagles', playmates of the mountain storm'! Ye lightnings', the dread arrows of the clouds'! Ye signs' and wonders' of the elements'! Utter forth GOD', and fill the hills with praise'! COLERIDGE.
NOTE II.—In some instances of a pause of suspension, the sense requires an intense falling inflection.
1. The prodigal, if he does not become a pauper', will, at least, have but little to bestow on others.
REMARK.—If the rising inflection is given on pauper, the sense would be perverted, and the passage made to mean, that, in order to be able to bestow on others, it is necessary that he should become a pauper.
RULE VI. Expressions of tenderness, as of grief, or kindness, commonly incline the voice to the rising inflection.
1. Mother',—I leave thy dwelling'; Oh! shall it be forever'? With grief my heart is swelling', From thee',—from thee',—to sever'.
2. O my son Absalom'! my son', my son Absalom'! Would God I had died for thee', Absalom', my son', my son'! BIBLE.
RULE VII. The Penultimate Pause, or the last but one, of a passage, is usually preceded by the rising inflection.
1. Diligence', industry', and proper improvement of time', are material duties of the young'.
2. These through faith subdued kingdoms', wrought righteous-ness', obtained promises', stopped the mouths of lions', quenched the violence of fire', escaped the edge of the sword', out of weakness were made strong', waxed valiant in fight', turned to flight the armies of the aliens'.
REMARK.—The rising inflection is employed at the penultimate pause in order to promote variety, since the voice generally falls at the end of a sentence.
RULE VIII. Expressions of strong emotion, as of anger or surprise, and also the language of authority and reproach, are expressed with the falling inflection.
1. On YOU', and on your CHILDREN', be the peril of the innocent blood which shall be shed this day'.
2. What a piece of workmanship is MAN'! How noble in REASON'! How infinite in FACULTIES'!
3. O FOOLS'! and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have written concerning me'! BIBLE.
4. HENCE', HOME', you idle creatures', GET YOU HOME', YOU BLOCKS', YOU STONES', YOU WORSE THAN USELESS THINGS'!
5. Avaunt'! and quit my sight'! let the earth hide thee'! Thy bones are marrowless'; thou hast no speculation in thine eyes which thou dost glare' with. SHAKSPEARE.
6. Slave, do thy office'! Strike', as I struck the foe'! Strike', as I would have struck the tyrants'! Strike deep as my curse'! Strike', and but once'! ID.
RULE IX. An emphatic succession of particulars, and emphatic repetition, require the falling inflection.
1. Beware' what earth calls happiness; BEWARE' All joys but joys that never can expire'.
2. A great mind', a great heart', a great orator', a great career', have been consigned to history'. BUTLER.
REMARK.—The stress of voice on each successive particular, or repetition, should gradually be increased as the subject advances.
The CIRCUMFLEX is a union of the two inflections on the same word, beginning either with the falling and ending with the rising, or with the rising and ending with the falling; as, If he goes to I shall go to .
The circumflex is mainly employed in the language of irony, and in expressing ideas implying some condition, either expressed or understood.
1. You, a beardless youth, pretend to teach a British general.
2. What! shear a wolf? a prowling wolf?
3. My father's trade? ah, really, that's too bad! My father's trade? Why, blockhead, are you mad? My father, sir, did never stoop so low,— He was a gentleman, I'd have you know.
4. What! confer a crown on the author of the public calamities?
5. But you are very wise men, and deeply learned in the truth; we are weak, contemptible, mean persons.
6. They pretend they come to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from error.
7. But youth, it seems, is not my only crime; I have been accused of acting a theatrical part.
8. And this man has become a god and Cassius a wretched creature.
MODULATION implies those variations of the voice, heard in reading or speaking, which are prompted by the feelings and emotions that the subject inspires.
EXPRESSIVE OF COURAGE AND CHIVALROUS EXCITEMENT.
FULL .- Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more, TONE '- Or close the wall up with our English dead! MIDDLE .- In peace, there's nothing so becomes a man, TONE '- As modest stillness and humility; .- But when the blast of war blows in our ears, SHORT Then imitate the action of the tiger; AND + Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood, QUICK '- Disguise fair nature with hard-favored rage. .- On, ON, you noblest English, HIGH Whose blood is fetched from fathers of war-proof! AND + Fathers, that, like so many Alexanders, LOUD Have, in these parts, from morn till even fought, '- And sheathed their swords for lack of argument. QUICK .- I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips, AND Straining upon the start. The game's afoot; VERY + Follow your spirits, and, upon this charge, LOUD '- CRY HEAVEN FOR HARRY! ENGLAND! AND ST. GEORGE!
REMARK.—To read the foregoing example in one dull, monotonous tone of voice, without regard to the sentiment expressed, would render the passage extremely insipid and lifeless. But by a proper modulation of the voice, it infuses into the mind of the reader or hearer the most animating and exciting emotions.
The voice is modulated in three different ways. First, it is varied in PITCH; that is, from high to low tones, and the reverse. Secondly, it is varied in QUANTITY, or in loudness or volume of sound. Thirdly, it is varied in QUALITY, or in the kind of sound expressed.
PITCH OF VOICE.
Pitch of voice has reference to its degree of elevation.
Every person, in reading or speaking, assumes a certain pitch, which may be either high or low, according to circumstances, and which has a governing influence on the variations of the voice, above and below it. This degree of elevation is usually called the KEY NOTE.
As an exercise in varying the voice in pitch, the practice of uttering a sentence on the several degrees of elevation, as represented in the following scale, will be found beneficial. First, utter the musical syllables, then the vowel sound, and lastly, the proposed sentence,—ascending and descending.
————-8.—do—#—e-in-me.—-Virtue alone survives.—— 7. si # i in die. Virtue alone survives. ———-6.—la—#—o-in-do.—-Virtue alone survives.——— 5. sol # o in no. Virtue alone survives. ——-4.—fa—#—a-in-at.—-Virtue alone survives.———— 3. mi # a-in ate. Virtue alone survives. —-2.—re—#—a-in-far.—Virtue alone survives.————— 1. do # a in all. Virtue alone survives
Although the voice is capable of as many variations in speaking, as are marked on the musical scale, yet for all the purposes of ordinary elocution, it will be sufficiently exact if we make but three degrees of variation, viz., the Low, the Middle, and the High.
1. THE LOW PITCH is that which falls below the usual speaking key, and is employed in expressing emotions of sublimity, awe, and reverence.
Silence, how dead! darkness, how profound! Nor eye, nor list'ning ear, an object finds; Creation sleeps. 'Tis as the general pulse Of life stood still, and Nature made a pause.— An awful pause! prophetic of her end. YOUNG.
2. THE MIDDLE PITCH is that usually employed in common conversation, and in expressing unimpassioned thought and moderate emotion.
1. It was early in a summer morning, when the air was cool, the earth moist, the whole face of the creation fresh and gay, that I lately walked in a beautiful flower garden, and, at once, regaled the senses and indulged the fancy. HERVEY.
2. "I love to live," said a prattling boy, As he gayly played with his new-bought toy, And a merry laugh went echoing forth, From a bosom filled with joyous mirth.
3. THE HIGH PITCH is that which rises above the usual speaking key, and is used in expressing joyous and elevated feelings.
Higher, higher, EVER HIGHER,— Let the watchword be "ASPIRE!" Noble Christian youth; Whatsoe'er be God's behest, Try to do that duty best, In the strength of Truth. M.F. TUPPER.
QUANTITY is two-fold;—consisting in FULLNESS or VOLUME of sound, as soft or loud; and in TIME, as slow or quick. The former has reference to STRESS; the latter, to MOVEMENT.
The degrees of variation in quantity are numerous, varying from a slight, soft whisper to a vehement shout. But for all practical purposes, they may be considered as three, the same as in pitch;—the soft, the middle, and the loud.
For exercise in quantity, let the pupil read any sentence, as,
"Beauty is a fading flower,"
first in a slight, soft tone, and then repeat it, gradually increasing in quantity to the full extent of the voice. Also, let him read it first very slowly, and then repeat it, gradually increasing the movement. In doing this, he should be careful not to vary the pitch.
In like manner, let him repeat any vowel sound, or all of them, and also inversely. Thus:
[Transcriber's Note: The illustration is a row of the letter "O," increasing in size across the page, followed by a row of the letter "O" decreasing in size. The presumed intent is to convey loudness.]
REMARK.—Quantity is often mistaken for Pitch. But it should be borne in mind that quantity has reference to loudness or volume of sound, and pitch to the elevation or depression of a tone. The difference may be distinguished by the slight and heavy strokes on a bell;—both of which produce sounds alike in pitch; but they differ in quantity or loudness, in proportion as the strokes are light or heavy.
RULES FOR QUANTITY.
1. SOFT, OR SUBDUED TONES, are those which range from a whisper to a complete vocality, and are used to express fear, caution, secrecy, solemnity, and all tender emotions.
1. We watched her breathing through the night, Her breathing soft and low, As in her breast the wave of life Kept heaving to and fro. HOOD.
2. Softly, peacefully, Lay her to rest; Place the turf lightly, On her young breast. D.E. GOODMAN.
3. The loud wind dwindled to a whisper low, And sighed for pity as it answered,—"No."
2. A MIDDLE TONE, or medium loudness of voice, is employed in reading narrative, descriptive, or didactic sentences.
I love my country's pine-clad hills, Her thousand bright and gushing rills, Her sunshine and her storms; Her rough and rugged rocks that rear Their hoary heads high in the air, In wild fantastic forms.
3. A LOUD TONE, or fullness and stress of voice, is used in expressing violent passions and vehement emotions.
1. STAND! the ground's your own, my braves,— Will ye give it up to slaves? Will ye look for greener graves? Hope ye mercy still? What's the mercy despots feel? Hear it in that battle-peal,— Read it on yon bristling steel, Ask it—ye who will! PIERPONT.
2. "HOLD!" Tyranny cries; but their resolute breath Sends back the reply: "INDEPENDENCE or DEATH!"
QUALITY has reference to the kind of sound uttered.
Two sounds may be alike in quantity and pitch, yet differ in quality. The sounds produced on the clarinet and flute may agree in pitch and quantity, yet be unlike in quality. The same is true in regard to the tones of the voice of two individuals. This difference is occasioned mainly by the different positions of the vocal organs.
The qualities of voice mostly used in reading or speaking, and which should receive the highest degree of culture, are the Pure Tone, the Orotund, the Aspirated, and the Guttural.
RULES FOR QUALITY.
1. THE PURE TONE is a clear, smooth, sonorous flow of sound, usually accompanied with the middle pitch of voice, and is adapted to express emotions of joy, cheerfulness, love, and tranquillity.
Hail! beauteous stranger of the wood, Attendant on the spring, Now heaven repairs thy vernal seat, And woods thy welcome sing.
2. THE OROTUND is a full, deep, round, and pure tone of voice, peculiarly adapted in expressing sublime and pathetic emotions.
It thunders! Sons of dust, in reverence bow! Ancient of Days! Thou speakest from above: Almighty! trembling, like a timid child, I hear thy awful voice. Alarmed—afraid— I see the flashes of thy lightning wild, And in the very grave would hide my head.
3. THE ASPIRATED TONE of voice is not a pure, vocal sound, but rather a forcible breathing utterance, and is used to express amazement, fear, terror, anger, revenge, remorse, and fervent emotions.
Oh, coward conscience, how dost thou affright me! The lights burn blue. It is now dead midnight; Cold, fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.
4. THE GUTTURAL QUALITY is a deep, aspirated tone of voice, used to express aversion, hatred, loathing, and contempt.
Tell me I hate the bowl? HATE is a feeble word: I loathe, ABHOR, my very soul With strong disgust is stirred, Whene'er I see, or hear, or tell, Of the dark beverage of hell.
NOTATION IN MODULATION.
(o) high. (oo) high and loud. ([o]) low. ([oo]) low and loud. (=) quick. ('') short and quick. (sl.) slow. (p.) soft. (pp.) very soft. (f.) loud. (ff.) very loud. (pl.) plaintive. () decrease.
EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE IN MODULATION.
(p.) Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows; (f.) But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, The hoarse rough verse should like the torrent roar.
(sl.) When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw, The line, too, labors, and the words move slow: (=) Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain, Flies o'er the unbending corn, and skims along the main. POPE.
(o=) Go ring the bells and fire the guns, And fling the starry banner out; (ff.) Shout "FREEDOM" till your lisping ones Give back the cradle shout. WHITTIER.
(pl.) "And now, farewell! 'Tis hard to give thee up, With death so like a gentle slumber on thee!— And thy dark sin!—oh! I could drink the cup If from this woe its bitterness had won thee. May God have called thee, like a wanderer, home, My lost boy, Absalom!" WILLIS.
(sl.) The sun hath set in folded clouds,— Its twilight rays are gone, (o) And, gathered in the shades of night, The storm is rolling on. (pl.) Alas! how ill that bursting storm (>) The fainting spirit braves, (p.) When they,—the lovely and the lost,— (pl.) Are gone to early graves!
(o) On! onward still! o'er the land he sweeps, (>) With wreck, and ruin, and rush, and roar, Nor stops to look back On his dreary track ('') But speeds to the spoils before. MISS J.H. LEWIS.
From every battle-field of the revolution—from Lexington and Bunker Hill—from Saratoga and Yorktown—from the fields of Entaw—from the cane-brakes that sheltered the men of Marion—the repeated, long-prolonged echoes came up—(f.) "THE UNION: IT MUST BE PRESERVED" (<) From every valley in our land—from every cabin on the pleasant mountain sides—from the ships at our wharves—from the tents of the hunter in our westernmost prairies—from the living minds of the living millions of American freemen—from the thickly coming glories of futurity—the shout went up, like the sound of many waters, (ff.) "THE UNION: IT MUST BE PRESERVED." BANCROFT.
(p.) Hark! (sl.) Along the vales and mountains of the earth ([o]) There is a deep, portentous murmuring, (=) Like the swift rush of subterranean streams, Or like the mingled sounds of earth and air, When the fierce tempest, with sonorous wing, Heaves his deep folds upon the rushing winds, (<) And hurries onward, with his night of clouds, Against the eternal mountains. 'Tis the voice Of infant FREEDOM,—and her stirring call Is heard and answered in a thousand tones (<) From every hill-top of her western home; And lo! it breaks across old Ocean's flood,— (oo) And "FREEDOM! FREEDOM!" is the answering shout Of nations, starting from the spell of years. G.D. PRENTICE.
(<) The thunders hushed,— The trembling lightning fled away in fear,— (p.) The foam-capt surges sunk to quiet rest,— The raging winds grew still,— (pp.) There was a calm. (o,o,) "Quick! Man the boat!" (=) Away they spring The stranger ship to aid, (f.) And loud their hailing voices ring, As rapid speed they made.
(p) Hush! lightly tread! still tranquilly she sleeps; I've watched, suspending e'en my breath, in fear To break the heavenly spell. (pp.) Move silently. Can it be? Matter immortal? and shall spirit die? Above the nobler, shall less nobler rise? (<) Shall man alone, for whom all else revives, No resurrection know? (o<) Shall man alone, Imperial man! be sown in barren ground, Less privileged than grain, on which he feeds? YOUNG.
(=) Away! away to the mountain's brow, Where the trees are gently waving; ('') Away! away to the vale below, Where the streams are gently laving.
An hour passed on;—the Turk awoke;— That bright dream was his last;— He woke—to hear his sentry's shriek, (oo) "To ARMS! they come! (ff.) THE GREEK! THE GREEK!" (pl.) He woke to die, midst flame and smoke, And shout, and groan, and sabre stroke, And death shots falling thick and fast As lightnings from the mountain cloud; And heard, with voice as trumpet loud, Bozzaris cheer his band;— (oo) "Strike—till the last armed foe expires! Strike—for your altars and your fires! Strike—for the green graves of your sires! God, and your native land!" HALLECK.
He said, and on the rampart hights arrayed His trusty warriors, few, but undismayed; (sl) Firm paced and slow, a horrid front they form, (pp) Still as the breeze, ([oo]) but dreadful as the storm! (p.) Low, murmuring sounds along their banners fly, (ff.) REVENGE, or DEATH!—the watchword and reply; (oo) Then pealed the notes, omnipotent to charm, (f.) And the loud tocsin tolled their last alarm! CAMPBELL.
([o]') His speech was at first low toned and slow. Sometimes his voice would deepen, ([oo]) like the sound of distant thunder; and anon, ('') his flashes of wit and enthusiasm would light up the anxious faces of his hearers, (<) like the far-off lightning of a coming storm.
(>) Receding now, the dying numbers ring (p.) Fainter and fainter, down the rugged dell: (pp.) And now 'tis silent all—enchantress, fare thee well.
(=) Oh, joy to the world! the hour is come, When the nations to freedom awake, When the royalists stand agape and dumb, And monarchs with terror shake! Over the walls of majesty, "Upharsin" is writ in words of fire, And the eyes of the bondmen, wherever they be, Are lit with their wild desire. (<) Soon, soon shall the thrones that blot the world, Like the Orleans, into the dust be hurl'd, And the world roll on, like a hurricane's breath, Till the farthest nation hears what it saith.— (ff.) "ARISE! ARISE! BE FREE!" T.B. READ.
(p.[o]) Tread softly—bow the head,— In reverent silence bow,— No passing bell doth toll,— (pl.) Yet an immortal soul Is passing now. MRS. SOUTHEY.
(o[f].) SPEAK OUT, my friends; would you exchange it for the DEMON'S DRINK, (ff.) ALCOHOL? A shout, like the roar of a tempest, answered, (oo) NO!
(oo) The combat deepens! (ff.) ON! YE BRAVE! (=) Who rush to GLORY, (p.) or the GRAVE! (ff.) WAVE, Munich, all thy banners WAVE! And CHARGE with all thy CHIVALRY! (pl.) Ah! few shall part where many meet! The snow shall be their winding sheet, And every turf beneath their feet (sl.[o]) Shall be a soldier's sepulcher! CAMPBELL.
(sl.) At length, o'er Columbus slow consciousness breaks, (oo) "LAND! LAND!" cry the sailors; (ff.) "LAND! LAND!"—he awakes,— ('') He runs,—yes! behold it! it blesseth his sight! THE LAND! O, dear spectacle! transport! delight!
THE RHETORICAL PAUSE.
RHETORICAL PAUSES are those which are frequently required by the voice in reading and speaking, although the construction of the passage admits of no grammatical point.
These pauses should be as manifest to the ear, as those which are indicated by the comma, semicolon, or other grammatical points, though not commonly denoted by any visible sign. In the following examples they are denoted thus, ( ).
1. In slumbers of midnight the sailor-boy lay, His hammock swung loose at the sport of the wind; But watch-worn and weary, his cares flew away, And visions of happiness danced o'er his mind. DIMOND.
2. There is a land, of every land the pride, Beloved of heaven o'er all the world beside; Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons imparadise the night. O, thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam, That land thy country, and that spot thy home!
This pause is generally made before or after the utterance of some important word or clause on which it is especially desired to fix the attention. In such cases it is usually denoted by the use of the dash (—).
1. God said—"Let there be light!"
2. All dead and silent was the earth, In deepest night it lay; The Eternal spoke creation's word, And called to being—Day!
No definite rule can be given with reference to the length of the rhetorical, or grammatical pause. The correct taste of the reader or speaker must determine it. For the voice should sometimes be suspended much longer at the same pause in one situation than in another; as in the two following
Pause a moment. I heard a footstep. Listen now. I heard it again; but it is going from us. It sounds fainter,—still fainter. It is gone.
John, be quick. Get some water. Throw the powder overboard. "It can not be reached." Jump into the boat, then. Shove off. There goes the powder. Thank Heaven. We are safe.
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REMARKS TO TEACHERS.
It is of the utmost importance, in order to secure an easy and elegant style in reading, to refer the pupil often to the more important principles involved in a just elocution. To this end, it will be found very advantageous, occasionally to review the rules and directions given in the preceding pages, and thus early accustom him to apply them in the subsequent reading lessons. For a wider range of examples and illustrations, it is only necessary to refer to the numerous and various exercises which form the body of this book. They have been selected, in many cases, with a special view to this object.
HER' O ISM, bravery; courage. MA LI'' CIOUS, ill disposed; resentful. AM BI'' TION, eager desire. SAR CAS' TIC, severe; cutting. DE RIS' ION, ridicule. CON FER' RED, bestowed. RES' CU ED, saved; preserved. DIS AS' TER, calamity. IN CLIN' ED, disposed. SYM' PA THY, fellow-feeling. TEN' DER ED, offered. A POL' O GY, excuse.
1. I shall never forget a lesson which I received when quite a young lad, while attending an Academy. Among my schoolmates were Hartly and Vincent. They were both older than myself, and Vincent was looked up to, as a sort of leader in matters of opinion, and in directing our sports.
2. He was not, at heart, a malicious boy; but he had a foolish ambition of being thought witty and sarcastic; and he made himself feared by a habit of turning things into ridicule. He seemed to be constantly looking out for something to occur, which he could turn into derision.
3. Hartly was a new scholar, and little was known of him among the boys. One morning as we were on our way to school, he was seen driving a cow along the road toward the pasture. A group of boys, among whom was Vincent, met him as he was passing.
4. "Now," said Vincent, "let us have a little sport with our country rustic." So saying, he exclaimed: "Halloo, Jonathan! [Footnote: A title frequently applied to the Yankees by the English.] what is the price of milk? What do you feed her on? What will you take for all the gold on her horns? Boys, if you want to see the latest Paris style, look at those boots!"
5. Hartly waved his hand at us with a pleasant smile, and, driving the cow to the field, took down the bars of a rail-fence, saw her safely in the pasture, and then, putting up the bars, came and entered the school with the rest of us. After school, in the afternoon, he let out the cow, and drove her away, none of us knew where. Every day, for two or three weeks, he went through the same task.
6. The boys who attended the Academy, were nearly all the sons of wealthy parents, and some of them were foolish enough to look down, with a sort of disdain, upon a scholar who had to drive a cow to pasture; and the sneers and jeers of Vincent were often repeated.
7. One day, he refused to sit next to Hartly in school, on a pretense that he did not like the odor of the barn. Sometimes he would inquire of Hartly after the cow's health, pronouncing the word "ke-ow," after the manner of some people.
8. Hartly bore all these silly attempts to wound his feelings and annoy him, with the utmost good nature. He never once returned an angry look or word. One time, Vincent said: "Hartly, I suppose your father intends to make a milkman of you."
9. "Why not?" said Hartly. "Oh, nothing," said Vincent; "only do not leave much water in the cans after rinsing them—that's all!" The boys laughed, and Hartly, not in the least mortified, replied: "Never fear; if I ever rise to be a milkman, I will give good measure and good milk too."
10. A few days after this conversation, there was a public exhibition, at which a number of ladies and gentlemen from the city, was present. Prizes were awarded by the Principal of the Academy, and Hartly and Vincent each received one; for, in respect to scholarship, they were about equal.
11. After the prizes were distributed, the Principal remarked that there was one prize, consisting of a medal, which was rarely awarded, not so much on account of its great value, as because the instances are rare that merit it. It is THE PRIZE FOR HEROISM. The last boy on whom it was conferred, was Master Manners, who, three years ago, rescued the blind girl from drowning.
12. The Principal then said, "With the permission of the company, I will relate a short story. Not long since, some boys were flying a kite in the street, just as a poor boy on horseback rode by, on his way to mill. The horse took fright, and threw the boy, injuring him so badly that he was carried home, and confined for some weeks to his bed.
13. "None of the boys who had caused the disaster, followed to learn the fate of the wounded boy. There was one, however, who witnessed the accident from a distance, and went to render what service he could. He soon learned that the wounded boy was the grandson of a poor widow, whose only support consisted in selling the milk of a fine cow, of which she was the owner.
14. "Alas! what could she now do? She was old and lame, and her grandson, on whom she depended to drive the cow to pasture, was now sick and helpless. 'Never mind, good woman,' said the boy, 'I can drive your cow.' With thanks, the poor widow accepted his offer.
15. "But the boy's kindness did not stop here. Money was wanted to purchase medicine. 'I have money that my mother sent me to buy a pair of boots,' said the boy; 'but I can do without them for the present.'
16. "'Oh, no!' said the old lady, 'I can not consent to that; but here is a pair of cowhide boots that I bought for Henry, who can not wear them. If you will buy them, giving me what they cost, I can get along very well.' The boy bought the boots, clumsy as they were, and has worn them up to this time.
17. "When the other boys of the Academy saw this scholar driving a cow to the pasture, he was assailed with laughter and ridicule. His thick cowhide boots, in particular, were made matters of mirth. But he kept on cheerfully and bravely, day after day, driving the widow's cow to the pasture, and wearing his thick boots, contented in the thought that he was doing right, not caring for all the jeers and sneers that could be uttered.
18. "He never undertook to explain why he drove the cow; for he was not inclined to display his charitable motives, and besides, in heart, he had no sympathy with the false pride that looks with ridicule on any useful employment. It was by mere accident that his course of conduct and self-denial, was yesterday discovered by his teacher.
19. "And now, ladies and gentlemen, I appeal to you. Was there not true heroism in this boy's conduct? Nay, Master Hartly, do not steal out of sight behind the blackboard! You were not ashamed of ridicule—you must not shun praise. Come forth, come forth, Master Edward James Hartly, and let us see your honest face!"
20. As Hartly, with blushing cheeks, made his appearance, the whole company greeted him with a round of applause for his heroic conduct. The ladies stood upon benches, and waved their handkerchiefs. The old men clapped their hands, and wiped the moisture from the corners of their eyes. Those clumsy boots on Hartly's feet seemed prouder ornaments, than a crown would have been on his head. The medal was bestowed on him, amid the applause of the whole company.
21. Vincent was heartily ashamed of his ill-natured sneers, and, after the school was dismissed, he went, with tears in his eyes, and tendered his hand to Hartly, making a handsome apology for his past ill manners. "Think no more about it," said Hartly; "let us all go and have a ramble in the woods, before we break up for vacation." The boys, one and all, followed Vincent's example, and then, with shouts and huzzas, they all set forth into the woods—a happy, cheerful group.
QUESTIONS.—1. In what way did Vincent try to make derision of Hartly? 2. How did Hartly receive it? 3. For what did Hartly receive a prize from his teacher? 4. How did the spectators manifest their approbation of Hartly's conduct?
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A VERT' ED, turned aside. RE PENT' ANT, contrite; sorrowful. SIN CERE', honest; true-hearted. SE VERE', harsh; rigid TAUNTS, scoffs; insults. PLATE, dishes of gold or silverware. DE SERT', forsake; abandon. FAIL' URE, want of success. SID' ING, taking part. TYR' AN NY, oppression; cruelty.
YOU AND I.
1. Who would scorn his humble fellow For the coat he wears? For the poverty he suffers? For his daily cares? Who would pass him in the foot-way With averted eye? Would you, brother'? No',—you would not. If you would,—not I.
2. Who, when vice or crime repentant, With a grief sincere, Asked for pardon, would refuse it, More than heaven severe? Who, to erring woman's sorrow, Would with taunts reply? Would you, brother'! No',—you would not. If you would,—not I.
3. Would you say that Vice is Virtue In a hall of state'? Or, that rogues are not dishonest If they dine off plate'? Who would say Success and Merit Ne'er part company? Would you, brother'? No',—you would not. If you would,—not I.
4. Who would give a cause his efforts When the cause is strong; But desert it on its failure, Whether right or wrong'? Ever siding with the upmost, Letting downmost lie? Would you, brother'? No',—you would not. If you would,—not I.
5. Who would lend his arm to strengthen Warfare with the right'? Who would give his pen to blacken Freedom's page of light'? Who would lend his tongue to utter Praise of tyranny? Would you, brother'? No',—you would not. If you would,—not I.
QUESTIONS.—1. What rule for the rising and falling inflections, first verse? See page 28. 2. Repeat the rule. 3. What rule for the falling inflections, fifth verse? See page 29. 4. Repeat the rule. What is the meaning of the suffix en, in the words strengthen, blacken? See SANDERS and McELLIGOTT'S ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH WORDS, p. 132, Ex. 174.
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WAR' FARE, conflict; struggle. CLUTCH ES, paws; firm grasp. DO MIN' ION, rule; sway. PIN' ION, wing; as of a bird. PRE' CIOUS, costly; valuable. SCOFF' ER, scorner. VA' RI ED, changing; different. WAVES, moves to and fro. PRO PHET' IC, (ph like f.) foretelling. DE SPISE', scorn; disdain. GOAL, the mark that bounds a race. BECK' ON, motion; invite with the hand.
1. Life is onward: use it With a forward aim; Toil is heavenly: choose it, And its warfare claim. Look not to another To perform your will; Let not your own brother Keep your warm hand still.
2. Life is onward: never Look upon the past; It would hold you ever In its clutches fast. Now is your dominion; Weave it as you please; Bid not the soul's pinion To a bed of ease.
3. Life is onward: try it, Ere the day is lost; It hath virtue: buy it, At whatever cost. If the World should offer Every precious gem, Look not at the scoffer, Change it not for them.
4. Life is onward: heed it, In each varied dress; Your own act can speed it On to happiness. His bright pinion o'er you Time waves not in vain, If Hope chant before you Her prophetic strain.
5. Life is onward: prize it, In sunshine and in storm; Oh! do not despise it In its humblest form. Hope and Joy together, Standing at the goal, Through life's darkest weather Beckon on the soul.
QUESTIONS.—1. What do it and them refer to, third verse, last line? 2. Repeat the word sunshine several times in quick succession.
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AC CUS' TOM ED, used; habituated. PLAN TA' TIONS, settlements. PRO TEC' TION, safety; defense. RE PROACH' FUL, reproving. CAP' TUR ED, taken prisoners. DE CID' ED, concluded. COR O NET, little crown. SA LUT' ED, greeted. MON' ARCH, sovereign; ruler. CON CEAL' ED, hid; secreted. RE STOR' ED, brought back. VI' O LENCE, outrage; wrong. RE BUK' ED, reproved. LEAGUE, compact; alliance. TER' RI BLE, fearful; dreadful. AT TEND' ANT, waiter; servant.
THE YOUNG CAPTIVES.
1. Many years ago, dining the early settlements in New England, the children were accustomed to gather large quantities of nuts, which grew in great abundance in the forests that surrounded their little plantations.
2. In one of these nut-gatherings, a little boy and girl, the one eight and the other four years of age, whose mother was dead, became separated from their companions. On their way home, they came across some wild grapes, and were busily engaged in gathering them, till the last rays of the setting sun were fading away.
3. Suddenly they were seized by two Indians. The boy struggled violently, and his little sister cried to him for protection; but in vain. The Indians soon bore them far beyond the bounds of the settlement. Night was far advanced before they halted. Then they kindled a fire, and offered the children some food.
4. The heart of the boy swelled high with grief and anger, and he refused to eat. But the poor little girl took some parched corn from the hand of the Indian who held her on his knee. He smiled as he saw her eat the kernels, and look up in his face with a wondering, yet reproachful eye. Then they lay down to sleep in the dark forest, each with an arm over his little captive.
5. Great was the alarm in the colony when these children did not return. Every spot was searched, where it was thought possible they might have lost their way. But when, at length, their little basket was found, overturned in a tangled thicket, they came to the conclusion that they must have been captured by the Indians.
6. It was decided that before any warlike measures were adopted, the father should go peacefully to the Indian king, and demand his children. At the earliest dawn of morning he departed with his companions. They met a friendly Indian pursuing the chase, who consented to be their guide.
7. They traveled through rude paths, until the day drew near a close. Then, approaching a circle of native dwellings, in the midst of which was a tent, they saw a man of lofty form, with a coronet of feathers upon his brow, and surrounded by warriors. The guide saluted him as his monarch, and the bereaved father, bowing down, thus addressed him:
8. "King of the red men, thou seest a father in pursuit of his lost children. He has heard that your people will not harm the stranger in distress. So he trusts himself fearlessly among you. The king of our own native land, who should have protected us, became our foe. We fled from our dear homes—from the graves of our fathers.
9. "The ocean wave brought us to this New World. We are a peaceful race, pure from the blood of all men. We seek to take the hand of our red brethren. Of my own kindred, none inhabit this wilderness, save two little buds, from a broken, buried stem.
10. "Last night, sorrow entered into my soul, because I found them not. Knowest thou, O king, if thy people have taken my children'? Knowest thou where they have concealed them'? Cause them, I pray thee, to be restored to my arms. So shall the Great Spirit bless thy own tender plants, and lift up thy heart when it weigheth heavily on they bosom."
11. The Indian monarch, fixing on him a piercing glance, said: "Knowest thou me'? Look in my eyes'! Look'! Answer me'! Are they the eyes of a stranger'!" The bereaved father replied that he had no recollection of having ever before seen his countenance.
12. "Thus it is with the white man. He is dim-eyed. He looketh on the garments more than on the soul. Where your plows turn up the earth, oft have I stood watching your toil. There was no coronet on my brow. But I was king. And you knew it not.
13. "I looked upon your people. I saw neither pride nor violence. I went an enemy, but returned a friend. I said to my warriors, 'Do these men no harm. They do not hate Indians.' Then our white-haired prophet of the Great Spirit rebuked me. He bade me make no league with the pale faces, lest angry words should be spoken of me, among the shades of our buried kings.
14. "Yet, again, I went where thy brethren have reared their dwellings. Yes; I entered thy house. And thou knowest not this brow'? I could tell thine at midnight, if but a single star trembled through the clouds. My ear would know thy voice, though the storm was abroad with all its thunders.
15. "I have said that I was king. Yet I came to thee hungry, and thou gavest me bread. My head was wet with the tempest. Thou badest me lie down on thy couch, and thy son, for whom thou mournest, covered me.
16. "I was sad in spirit, and thy little daughter, whom thou seekest with tears, sat on my knee. She smiled when I told her how the beaver buildeth his house in the forest. My heart was comforted, for I saw that she did not hate Indians.
17. "Turn not on me such a terrible eye. I am no stealer of babes. I have reproved the people who took thy children. I have sheltered them for thee. Not a hair of their head is hurt. Thinkest thou that the red man can forget kindness'? They are sleeping in my tent. Had I but a single blanket, it should have been their bed. Take them, and return unto thy people."
18. He waved his hand to an attendant, and, in a moment, the two children were in the arms of their father. The white men were kindly sheltered for that night, and, the next day, they bore the children to their home, and the people rejoiced at their safe return.
QUESTIONS.—1. By whom wore those children taken captive? 2. Who went in search of them? 3. What did he say to the king of the tribe? 4. What reply did the Indian monarch make? 5. Were the children restored to their father? 6. What is meant by the New World, 9th paragraph? 7. What by two little buds, from a broken, buried stem, same paragraph?
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IM' AGE. form; likeness. ELAPS' ED, glided away. WAY' WARD NESS, perverseness. SHUD' DER ING, chilling tremor. PAS' SION ATE, easily excited to anger. MAS' TER Y, rule; sway. HEAD' STRONG, stubborn; obstinate. UN DER WENT', experienced. AF FEC' TION, love; attachment. THRESH' OLD, entrance. ANX I' E TY, care; solicitude. PER PET' U AL, continual.
MY MOTHER'S LAST KISS.
MRS. E. OAKES SMITH.
1. I was but five years old when my mother died; but her image is as fresh in my mind, now that twenty years have elapsed, as it was at the time of her death. I remember her, as a pale, gentle being, with a sweet smile, and a voice soft and cheerful when she praised me; and when I had erred, (for I was a wild, thoughtless child,) there was a mild and tender earnestness in her reproofs, that always went to my little heart.
2. Methinks I can now see her large, blue eyes moist with sorrow, because of my childish waywardness, and hear her repeat: "My child, how can you grieve me so?" She had, for a long time, been pale and feeble, and sometimes there would come a bright spot on her cheek, which made her look so lovely, I thought she must be well. But then she spoke of dying, and pressed me to her bosom, and told me to be good when she was gone, and to love my father, and be kind to him; for he would have no one else to love.
3. I recollect she was ill all day, and my little hobbyhorse and whip were laid aside, and I tried to be very quiet. I did not see her for the whole day, and it seemed very long. At night, they told me my mother was too sick to kiss me, as she always had done before I went to bed, and I must go without it. But I could not. I stole into the room, and placing my lips close to hers, whispered: "Mother, dear mother, won't you kiss me?"
4. Her lips were very cold, and when she put her hand upon my cheek, and laid my head on her bosom, I felt a cold shuddering pass all through me. My father carried me from the room; but he could not speak. After they put me in bed, I lay a long while thinking; I feared my mother would, indeed, die; for her cheek felt cold, as my little sister's did when she died, and they carried her little body away where I never saw it again. But I soon fell asleep.
5. In the morning I rushed to my mother's room, with a strange dread of evil to come upon me. It was just as I feared. A white linen covered her straight, cold form. I removed it from her face: her eyes were closed, and her cheeks were hard and cold. But my mother's dear, dear smile was there, or my heart would have broken.
6. In an instant, all the little faults, for which she had so often reproved me, rushed upon my mind. I longed to tell her how good I would always be, if she would but stay with me. I longed to tell her how, in all time to come, her words would be a law to me. I would be all that she had wished me to be.
7. I was a passionate, headstrong boy; and never did this frame of temper come upon me, but I seemed to see her mild, tearful eyes full upon me, just as she used to look in life; and when I strove for the mastery over my passions, her smile seemed to cheer my heart, and I was happy.
8. My whole character underwent a change, even from the moment of her death. Her spirit seemed to be always with me, to aid the good and root out the evil that was in me. I felt it would grieve her gentle spirit to see me err, and I could not, would not, do so.
9. I was the child of her affection. I knew she had prayed and wept over me; and that even on the threshold of the grave, her anxiety for my welfare had caused her spirit to linger, that she might pray once more for me. I never forgot my mother's last kiss. It was with me in sorrow; it was with me in joy; it was with me in moments of evil, like a perpetual good.
QUESTIONS.—1. What was the age of the person represented in this piece? 2. What, when his mother died? 3. What did he say of himself when a child? 4. Had he ever grieved his mother? 5. What did he say of his faults, after his mother's death? 6. What did he desire to tell her? 7. How ought you to treat your mother, in order to avoid the reproaches of your own conscience?
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SUR PRISE', amazement. PER' ISH ED, died. STINT' ED, small of size. STERN, severe; harsh; rigid. LOI' TER, linger; tarry. STAG' GER ED, reeled to and fro. FORD' ED, waded. ES CAP ED, fled from.
THE DEAD CHILD'S FORD.
MRS. E. OAKES SMITH.
1. "Dear mother, here's the very place Where little John was found, The water covering up his face, His feet upon the ground. Now won't you tell me all about The death of little John'? And how the woman sent him out Long after sun was down'? And tell me all about the wrong, And that will make the story long."
2. I took the child upon my knee Beside the lake so clear; For there the tale of misery Young Edward begged to hear He looked into my very eyes, With sad and earnest face, And caught his breath with wild surprise, And turned to mark the place Where perished, years agone, the child Alone, beneath the waters wild.
3. "A weakly orphan boy was John, A barefoot, stinted child, Whose work-day task was never done, Who wept when others smiled. Around his home the trees were high, Down to the water's brink, And almost hid the pleasant sky, Where wild deer came to drink." ('') "And did they come, the pretty deer'? And did they drink the water here'?"
4. Cried Edward, with a wondering eye: "Now, mother, tell to me, Was John about as large as I'? Pray tell, how big was he'?" "He was an older boy than you, And stouter every way; For, water from the well he drew, And hard he worked all day. But then poor John was sharp and thin, With sun-burnt hair and sun-burnt skin.
5. "His mother used to spin and weave; From farm to farm she went; And, though it made her much to grieve, She John to service sent. He lived with one, a woman stern, Of hard and cruel ways; And he must bring her wood to burn, From forest and highways; And then, at night, on cold, hard bed, He laid his little, aching head.
6. "The weary boy had toiled all day With heavy spade and hoe; His mistress met him on the way, And bade him quickly go And bring her home some sticks of wood, For she would bake and brew; When he returned, she'd give him food; For she had much to do. And then she charged him not to stay, Nor loiter long upon the way.
7. "He went; but scarce his toil-worn feet Could crawl along the wood, He was so spent with work and heat, And faint for lack of food. He bent his aching, little back To bear the weight along, And staggered then upon the track; For John was never strong; His eyesight, too, began to fail, And he grew giddy, faint, and pale.
8. "The load was small, quite small, 'tis true, But John could bring no more; The woman in a rage it threw,— She stamped upon the floor. (f.) 'No supper you shall have to-night; So go along to bed, You good-for-nothing, ugly fright, You little stupid-head!'" Said Edward: "I would never go; She wouldn't dare to serve me so!"
9. "The moon-beams fell upon the child As, weeping, there he lay; And gusty winds were sweeping wild Along the forest way, When up rose John, at dead of night; For he would see his mother; She loved her child, although he might Be nothing to another. That narrow creek he forded o'er,— 'Tis nearer than around the shore.
10. "But here the shore is rough, you see; The bank is high and steep; And John, who climbed on hands and knee, His footing could not keep. He backward fell, all, all alone; Too weak was he to rise; (pl.) And no one heard his dying moan, Or closed his dying eyes. How still he slept! And grief and pain Could never come to him again.
11. "A stranger, passing on his way, Found him, as you have said; His feet were out upon the clay, The water o'er his head. And then his foot-prints showed the path He took, adown the creek, When he escaped the woman's wrath, So hungry, faint, and weak. And people now, as you have heard, Do call the place, THE DEAD CHILD'S FORD."
QUESTIONS.—1. Was John an orphan, or half orphan? 2. Was he drowned at night, or in the daytime? 8. By whom was he found? 4. What is the place called where he was drowned? 5. Give the rule for the rising inflections, as marked in the 1st, 2d, and 4th verses. 6. Why are there no quotation marks at the beginning of the 2d verse? 7. Why are half quotations used in the 3d and 8th verses? 8. How should a part of the 8th and 10th verses be read, according to the notation marks? See page 41.