Saratoga and How to See It
by R. F. Dearborn
1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse



* * * * *


Is unsurpassed for beauty of location and accessibility to the principal Springs. This Institution was established in 1855, for the special treatment of

Lung, Female and Various Chronic Diseases.

During the Fall and Winter the Institute has been doubled in size to meet the necessities of its increased patronage. It is now the largest health institution in Saratoga, and is unsurpassed in the variety or its remedial appliances by any in this country. In the elegance and completeness of its appointments, it is unequaled. The building is heated by steam, so that in the coldest weather the air of the house is like that of Summer.

The proprietors, Drs. S.S. and S.E. Strong, are graduates of the Medical Department of the New York University, and are largely patronized by the medical profession.

In addition to the ordinary remedial agencies used in general practice they employ


For particulars of the Institution, call or send for Circulars on Lung, Female and Chronic Diseases and on our Appliances. Address


* * * * *




* * * * *


Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1872, by R.F. DEARBORN, In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



PART I—The Saratoga Mineral Springs

The Saratoga Valley Geology General Properties of the Springs Discovery of the Springs Are They Natural Commercial Value Medicinal Value Analysis by Prof. Chandler Individual Characteristics History and Properties of each Spring Congress Spring Columbian Spring Crystal Spring Ellis Spring Empire Spring Eureka Spring Excelsior Spring Geyser Spring Glacier Spring Hamilton Spring Hathorn Spring High Rock Spring Pavilion Spring Putnam Spring Red Spring Saratoga "A" Spring Seltzer Spring Star Spring Ten Springs United States Spring Washington Spring White Sulphur Spring Directions for Drinking the Water Saratoga Abroad Special Notice

PART II—Saratoga as a Watering Place

Places of Interest History Routes and Distances Railway Station The Village Hotel Accommodations Congress Hall Grand Union Grand Central Hotel Clarendon Everett House Alphabetical List of hotels Temple Grove The Climate Drs. Strong Churches YMCA Rooms Real Estate Hack Fares Drives and Walks Moon's Lake House Saratoga Lake Chapman's Hill Wagman's Hill Hagerty Hill Wearing Hill Lake Lovely Stiles Hill Corinth Falls Luzerne Lake George Ballston Glen Mitchell Excelsior Grove Walk to Excelsior Spring Congress Park Gridley's Trout Ponds Saratoga Battle Ground Surrender Ground The Village Cemetery Verd-Antique Marble Works Amusements Josh Billings Routine for a Lady Balls Races Indian Camp Circular Railway Shopping Evenings Saratoga in Winter Romance Saratoga Society




The design of this work is not to give a history of the village of Saratoga. That, as well as a more elaborate description of the geology of the county, may be found in a very interesting book, published several years since, by R.L. ALLEN, M.D., entitled the "Hand Book of Saratoga and Stranger's Guide." We acknowledge our indebtedness to the work for several items in regard to the history of the Springs.

Our thanks are due also to Prof. C.H. CHANDLER, Ph.D., of the Columbia School of Mines, for the Analyses of the Springs, and for electroplates and valuable suggestions from the American Chemist, of which he is the distinguished editor.

We would acknowledge here also, the assistance and uniform courtesy which we have received from the Superintendents and officers of the various Springs. The failure of an engraving company to fulfill their agreement has delayed the issue of the work and prevented the insertion of several other engravings.


SARATOGA. June, 1872


The Analysis, History and Properties OF THE MINERAL SPRINGS.

* * * * *

THE Mineral Springs of Saratoga.

The region of Mineral Springs in Eastern New York consists of a long, shallow and crescent-shaped valley, extending northeast from Ballston, its western horn, to Quaker Springs, its eastern extremity. The entire valley abounds in mineral fountains of more or less merit, and in the central portion bubble up the Waters of Healing, which have given to SARATOGA its world-wide celebrity.

Professor CHANDLER, of the Columbia School of Mines, thus describes the

Geology of the County.

"Beginning with the uppermost, the rocks of Saratoga county are:

1. The Hudson river and Utica shales and slates.

2. The Trenton limestone.

3. The calciferous sand rock, which is a silicious limestone.

4. The Potsdam sand stone; and

5. The Laurentian formation of gneiss and granite, of unknown thickness.

"The northern half of the county is occupied by the elevated ranges of Laurentian rocks; flanking these occur the Potsdam, Calciferous and Trenton beds, which appear in succession in parallel bands through the central part of the county. These are covered in the southern half of the county by the Utica and Hudson river slates and shales.

"The most remarkable feature is, however, the break, or vertical fissure, which occurs in the Saratoga valley, which you see indicated in the cut. Notice, especially, the fact that the strata on one side of the fissure have been elevated above their original position, so that the Potsdam sandstone on the left meets the edges of the calciferous sand rock, and even the Trenton limestone on the right. It is in the line of this fissure, or fault, in the towns of Saratoga and Ballston that the springs occur.

"The Laurentian rocks, consisting of highly crystalline gneiss, granite and syenite, are almost impervious, while the overlying Potsdam sandstone is very porous, and capable of holding large quantities of water. In this rock the mineral springs of Saratoga probably have their origin. The surface waters of the Laurentian hills, flowing down over the exposed edges of the Potsdam beds, penetrate the porous sandstones, become saturated with mineral matter, partly derived, perhaps, from the limestones above, and are forced to the surface at a lower level, by hydrostatic pressure. The valley in which the springs all occur indicates the line of a fault or fracture in the rocky crust, the strata on the west side of which are hundreds of feet above the corresponding strata on the east.

"The mineral waters probably underlie the southern half of the entire county, many hundred feet below the surface; the accident of the fault determining their appearance as springs in the valley of Saratoga Springs, where, by virtue of the greater elevation of their distant source, they reach the surface through crevices in the rocks produced by the fracture.

"It is probable that water can be obtained anywhere in the southern portion of the county by tapping the underlying Potsdam sandstone. In these wells the water usually rises to and above the surface. Down in the rocky reservoir the water is charged with gases under great pressure. As the water is forced to the surface, the pressure diminishes, and a portion of gas escapes with effervescence. The spouting wells deliver, therefore, enormous volumes of gas with the water, a perfect suds of water, carbonic acid and carburetted hydrogen.

"The common origin of the springs is shown by the analysis: all contain the same constituents in essentially the same order of abundance; they differ in the degree of concentration merely. Those from the deepest strata are the most concentrated. The constituents to which the taste of the water and its most immediate medicinal effects are due, are: Chloride of sodium, bicarbonate of lime, bicarbonate of magnesia, bicarbonate of soda and free carbonic acid. Other important, though less speedily active, constituents are: Bicarbonate of iron, bicarbonate of lithia, iodide of sodium and bromide of sodium."

The solvent power which holds all these solid substances in solution, and which contributes to their agreeable taste, is the carbonic acid gas with which the water is so freely charged. This free carbonic acid gas is probably formed by the decomposition of the carbonates which compose the rock. The water, impregnated with it, becomes a powerful solvent, and, passing through different strata, absorbs the various mineral substances which compose its solid constituents.

General Properties.

Writers upon mineral springs generally divide them into the following classes: Carbonated or acidulous, saline, chalybeate or iron, alkaline, sulphur or hepatic, bitter and thermal springs.

The Saratoga waters embrace nearly all of these except the last two; some of the springs being saline, some chalybeate, some sulphur, and nearly all carbonated; and in the list may be found cathartic, alterative, diuretic and tonic waters of varied shade and differing strength. The cathartic waters are the most numerous and the most extensively used. The curative agents prepared in the vast and mysterious laboratories of Nature are very complex in constitution and different in temperature, and on that account do not, like iron, opium, quinia, etc., exhibit single effects; they exercise rather, with rare exceptions, combined effects, and these are again modified by various modes of employment and the time and circumstances of their use.

The Discovery of the Springs.

All the older springs have been found in beds of blue marl, or clay rather, which cover the valley more or less throughout its whole extent. On digging into this clay to any considerable depth, we are pretty certain to find traces of mineral water. In some places, at the depth of six or eight feet, it has been discovered issuing from a fissure or seam in the underlying limestone, while at other places it seems to proceed from a thin stratum of quicksand which is found to alternate with the marl at distances of from ten to forty feet, below which bowlders of considerable size are found.

The spouting springs have been found by experimental boring. As this is the cheapest and more certain method, it is "the popular thing" at present, and the day may not be far distant when all Saratoga will be punched through with artesian wells reaching hundreds of feet, if not through to China, and thus an open market made for the Saratoga waters among "the Heathen Chinee."

Mr. Jessie Button, to whom we are indebted for both the Glacier and the Geyser springs, seems best to understand the process of successfully boring artesian wells, having made these his special study and profession. Like Moses of old, he strikes, or taps, the rock and behold streams of water gush forth.

Are the Springs Natural?

Is a question that will probably seem absurd to those who are at all familiar with mineral springs or Saratoga waters. Nevertheless, it is a not unfrequent and amusing occurrence to hear remarks from strangers and greenies who have a preconceived notion that the springs are doctored, and that a mixture of salts, etc., is tipped in every night or early in the morning! Strange that the art should be limited to the village of Saratoga! The incredulity of some people is the most ridiculous credulity known. Such wonders as the spouting springs, the "strongest" in Saratoga, come from so small an orifice in the ground, as to preclude the least possibility of adulteration. Besides, the manufactured article would be too costly to allow such immense quantities to flow away unused.

But to argue this question would be a reductio ad absurdum. Nature is far better than the laboratory. Artificial waters may simulate the natural in taste and appearance, but fall far short of their therapeutic effects.

The Commercial Value

Of the various springs differs as widely as does people's estimate of their individual merits. Spring water property is very expensive. It costs large sums of money to manage some of the springs. The old method of tubing, by sinking a curb, may cost several thousand dollars, and is uncertain then. Moreover, it is no small work to keep the springs in perfect repair, and in a clean and pure condition.

The artesian wells cost not far from $6 per foot for the boring, and are much less expensive.

Most of the springs are owned by stock companies, with a capital ranging from several hundred thousand to a million dollars. On dit that the proprietors of the Geyser Spring were offered $175,000 for their fountain, and probably the Congress could not be purchased for quadruple that amount. It would not be a very profitable bargain if some of the springs could be bought for a song, even, and yet there is not enough mineral water in all the springs now discovered in the Saratoga valley to supply New York alone, if artificial waters were to be abandoned. The only profit of the springs is in the sale of the water in bottles and barrels; and as the method of bottling requires great care, and is expensive, the per cent. of profit is not enormous. The use of mineral water, both as a beverage and for medicinal purposes, is increasing, and there may be "a good time coming," when these springs will bring wealth to the owner as they give health to the drinker.

The Medicinal Value of the Waters.

There is no doubt of their power to promote evacuations of effete accumulations from the kidneys, skin and bowels.

Dr. Draper, an eminent physician, in speaking of the springs, says: "They restore suppressed, and correct vitiated secretions, and so renovate health, and are also the means of introducing many medicines into the system in a state of minute subdivision, in which they exert a powerful alterative and curative action."

The value of mineral water has been shown in the treatment of obscure and chronic diseases. In many instances persons have been restored to health, or greatly relieved, by the use of mineral waters when all other remedies had proved of no avail.

The best known waters are now prescribed by the faculty in certain diseases with as much confidence as any preparation known to the apothecary. Indeed, no prescription is known equally beneficial to such differently made patients.

A large majority of those who resort to the springs for their health have tried other means of cure without relief.

It may also be considered a marked compliment to the medicinal properties of the waters, that the thousands who come here for pleasure merely, living fast and indulging in dissipation while here, return to their homes in better health—as they almost always do—than when they came.

Unlike certain other springs, whose wonderful properties and vaunted cures are found in pompous advertisements, the Saratoga waters have not made their celebrity by printer's ink. Their reputation has depended upon their own intrinsic merits, and steadily and surely has their renown advanced.

To repeat all the disorders which they have been known to benefit, would be very nearly to copy the sad list of ailments to which our creaky frames are subject.

In short, spring water is good for the stomach, good for the skin, good for ladies of all possible ages, and for all sorts and conditions of men.

Individual Characteristics.

In stating the special properties of the individual springs, we have conscientiously endeavored to make this work as reliable and accurate as possible. Those who are familiar with the reputation and claims of some of the several springs in past years will notice many changes, but it is believed that the information herein given is on the best authority, and brought down to the latest date.

The Analyses of the Saratoga Waters, by C.F. Chandler, Ph.D., of the Columbia School of Mines.

- - - - - Compounds as they exist Star High Seltzer Pavilion United in Solution in the Waters. Spring. Rock Spring. Spring. States Spring. Spring. - - - - - Chloride of sodium 398.361 390.127 134.291 459.903 141.872 Chloride of potassium 9.695 8.974 1.335 7.660 8.624 Bromide of sodium 0.571 0.731 0.630 0.987 0.844 Iodide of sodium 0.126 0.086 0.031 0.071 0.047 Fluoride of calcium Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Bicarbonate of lithia 1.586 1.967 0.899 9.486 4.847 Bicarbonate of soda 12.662 34.888 29.428 3.764 4.666 Bicarbonate of magnesia 61.912 54.924 40.339 76.267 72.883 Bicarbonate of lime 124.459 131.739 89.869 120.169 93.119 Bicarbonate of strontia Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.018 Bicarbonate of baryta 0.096 0.494 Trace. 0.875 0.909 Bicarbonate of iron 1.213 1.478 1.703 2.570 0.714 Sulphate of potassa 5.400 1.608 0.557 2.032 Trace. Phosphate of soda Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.007 0.016 Biborate of soda Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Alumina Trace. 1.223 0.374 0.329 0.094 Silica 1.283 2.260 2.561 3.155 3.184 Organic Matter Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. - - - - - Total per U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in. 617.367 630.500 302.017 687.275 331.837 - - - - - Carbonate acid gas 407.650 409.458 324.080 332.458 245.734 Density 1.0091 1.0092 1.0034 1.0095 1.0035 Temperature 52 deg.F. 52 deg.F. 50 deg.F. ... ...

- - - - Compounds as they exist Hathorn Crystal Congress Geyser in Solution in the Waters. Spring. Spring. Spring. spouting (Continued) well. - - - - Chloride of sodium 509.968 328.468 400.444 562.080 Chloride of potassium 9.597 8.327 8.049 42.634 Bromide of sodium 1.534 0.414 8.559 2.212 Iodide of sodium 0.198 0.066 0.138 0.248 Fluoride of calcium Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Bicarbonate of lithia 11.447 4.326 4.761 7.004 Bicarbonate of soda 4.288 10.064 10.775 71.232 Bicarbonate of magnesia 176.463 75.161 121.757 149.343 Bicarbonate of lime 170.646 101.881 143.339 170.392 Bicarbonate of strontia Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.425 Bicarbonate of baryta 1.737 0.726 0.928 2.014 Bicarbonate of iron 1.128 2.038 0.340 0.979 Sulphate of potassa Trace. 2.158 0.889 0.318 Phosphate of soda 0.006 0.009 0.016 Trace. Biborate of soda Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Alumina 0.131 0.305 Trace. Trace. Silica 1.260 3.213 0.840 0.665 Organic Matter Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. - - - - Total per U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in. 888.403 537.155 700.895 991.546 - - - - Carbonate acid gas 375.747 317.452 392.289 454.082 Density 1.0115 1.0060 1.096 1.0120 Temperature ... 50 deg.F. 52 deg.F. 46 deg.F.

- - - - - Bases and Acids as Star High Seltzer Pavilion United actually found in the Spring. Rock Spring. Spring. States Analysis uncombined Spring. Spring. - - - - - Potassium 7.496 5.419 0.949 4.931 4.515 Sodium 160.239 163.216 61.003 182.084 57.259 Lithium 0.163 0.202 0.093 0.976 0.499 Lime 43.024 45.540 31.066 41.540 32.189 Strontia Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.009 Baryta 0.056 0.292 Trace. 0.517 0.537 Magnesia 16.992 15.048 11.051 20.895 19.968 Protoiyde of iron 0.491 0.598 0.689 1.040 0.289 Alumina Trace. 1.223 0.374 0.329 0.094 Chlorine 246.357 241.017 82.128 282.723 90.201 Bromine 0.443 0.568 0.489 0.767 0.656 Iodine 0.106 0.072 0.026 0.060 0.039 Fluorine Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Sulphuric acid 2.483 0.739 0.256 0.934 Trace. Phosphoric acid Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.004 0.008 Boracic acid Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Carbonic acid in carbonates 56.606 62.555 44.984 60.461 50.380 Carbonic acid for bicarbonates 56.606 62.555 44.984 60.461 50.380 Silica 1.283 2.260 2.561 3.155 3.184 Organic matter Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Water in bicarbonates 23.160 25.591 18.405 24.736 20.613 Oxygen in KO (SO{3}). 0.496 0.148 0.051 0.187 ... Oxygen in LiO (HO{2} CO{2}) 0.187 0.232 0.105 1.116 0.570 Oxygen in NaO (HO{2} CO{2}) 1.206 3.323 2.803 0.358 0.444 Oxygen in 2 NaO (HO, PO{5}) ... ... ... 0.001 0.002 - - - -+ Total per U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in. 617.367 630.500 302.007 687.275 331.837 + - - - - Total residue by evaporation 537.600 542.350 238.970 602.080 260.840

- - - - Bases and Acids as Hathorn Crystal Congress Geyser actually found in the Spring. Spring. Spring. spouting Analysis uncombined well. (Continued) - - - - Potassium 5.024 5.326 4.611 13.039 Sodium 102.058 132.006 162.324 251.031 Lithium 1.179 0.445 0.490 0.720 Lime 58.989 35.218 49.569 58.901 Strontia Trace. Trace. Trace. 0.211 Baryta 1.026 0.429 0.549 1.190 Magnesia 48.346 20.592 33.358 40.915 Protoiyde of iron 0.456 0.824 0.137 0.396 Alumina 0.131 0.305 Trace. Trace Chlorine 214.037 203.292 246.834 352.825 Bromine 1.188 0.322 6.645 1.718 Iodine 0.166 0.055 0.117 0.208 Fluorine Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace Sulphuric acid Trace. 0.992 0.409 0.146 Phosphoric acid 0.003 0.004 0.008 Trace Boracic acid Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace Carbonic acid in carbonates 04.928 54.984 80.249 112.880 Carbonic acid for bicarbonates 04.928 54.984 80.249 112.880 Silica 1.260 3.213 0.840 0.665 Organic matter Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace Water in bicarbonates 42.929 22.496 33.828 46.183 Oxygen in KO (SO{3}) ... 0.199 0.082 0.029 Oxygen in LiO (HO{2} CO{2}) 1.347 0.509 0.560 0.824 Oxygen in NaO (HO{2} CO{2}) 0.408 0.959 1.024 6.785 Oxygen in 2 NaO (HO, PO{5}) 0.001 ... .002 ... - - - Total per U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in. 688.403 537.155 700.895 991.546 - - - Total residue by evaporation 540.550 439.670 588.818 832.483


Table showing the total quantities of mineral matter left by evaporation, and of some of the more important constituents.

Total solids as left by evaporation. Chlorides of sodium and potassium. All other solids left by evaporation; carbonates of lime, magnesia, etc. Bicarbonate of lime (CaO, HO, 2CO_{2}). Bicarbonate of magnesia (MgO, HO, 2CO_{2}). Bicarbonate of iron (FeO, HO, SPRING. 2CO_{2}). Geyser Spouting well 832.48 586.71 245.77 170.39 149.34 0.98 Hathorn spring 740.55 519.55 221.00 170.65 176.46 1.13 Hamilton spring 611.71 411.00 200.71 144.84 104.80 1.80 Congress spring 588.82 408.49 180.33 143.40 121.76 0.34 High Rock spring 542.35 399.10 143.25 131.74 54.92 1.48 Washington spring 353.23 215.00 138.23 110.23 40.56 2.40 Excelsior spring 611.05 473.00 138.05 90.38 72.27 2.84 Pavilion spring 602.08 467.56 134.51 120.17 76.73 2.57 Putnam spring 354.79 220.50 134.27 110.72 60.01 3.97 Columbian spring 353.08 219.00 134.08 104.89 78.05 3.26 Star spring 537.60 408.05 129.55 124.46 61.91 1.21 Crystal spring 459.67 336.79 122.88 101.88 75.16 2.04 Eureka spring 280.16 171.00 119.16 94.02 63.75 3.36 United States spring 260.84 150.49 110.35 93.12 72.88 0.71 Empire spring 460.32 355.16 105.16 113.54 48.10 1.34 Seltzer spring 238.97 135.62 103.35 89.87 40.34 1.70 Red spring 155.53 73.50 82.03 79.80 27.84 2.51 Village spring, Ballston 153.09 75.00 78.09 65.08 21.59 2.00 -

Individuals have their preferences, and opinions may differ in regard to the relative value of the springs, particularly when parties are interested in them. We have no interest in one more than in all, and have brought to our task, we believe, no partiality. The manuscript has been submitted to leading physicians of Saratoga before publication, and is approved by them. The arrangement is alphabetical.


In Congress Park, opposite Grand Central Hotel. Congress and Empire Spring Company are the proprietors. The New York office is at 94 Chambers street.


Congress Spring was discovered in 1792, by a party of three gentlemen, who were out upon a hunting excursion. Among the party was John Taylor Gilman, an ex-member of Congress from New Hampshire. Probably in that day, office conferred more honor than at the present time, and as a compliment to so distinguished a person, the spring was then and there christened the Congress. The attention of the hunters was attracted to the spot by the foot-prints of large numbers of deer, the first patrons, it seems, of the sparkling water. Although more especially esteemed by pretty dears of a different character at the present day, the liquid-eyed fawn, who grace Congress Park, are among those who take their daily rations. At the time of discovery, the low ground about the spring was a mere swamp, and the country in the immediate vicinity a wilderness. The mineral water issued in a small stream from an aperture in the side of the rock, which formed the margin of a small brook, and was caught by pressing a glass to the side of the rock. The flow of water was only about one quart per minute.

From the date of its discovery to the present time this celebrated spring has been the center of attraction at Saratoga. Its name has become a household word through out the land, and the whole civilized world are its customers.

At one time Mr. Putnam had three large potash kettles evaporating the water. The salts thus precipitated were sold in small packages to the amount of several hundred dollars. It was not long, however, before it was discovered that Congress water was not obtained by re-dissolving the salts, as might have been expected if the nature of the water had been considered.

About the year 1820, Dr. John Clarke, the proprietor of the first soda fountain opened in this country, purchased the Congress Spring property. By him the water was first bottled for transportation and sale, and to him the village is indebted for much of its beauty and attractiveness.

The simple and tasteful Doric colonnade over the Congress, and the pretty Grecian dome over the Columbian were erected by him. Dr. Clarke realized a handsome income from the sale of the water. He died in 1846, but the property continued in the hands of his heirs, under the firm name of Clarke & White, until 1865, when it was purchased by an incorporated company, under the title of "Congress and Empire Spring Company." The capital is $1,000,000, and the company is composed of a large number of individual stockholders. The present proprietors of Congress Spring have contributed not a little to the beauty and attractiveness of this favorite watering place.


When taken before breakfast the water is a very pleasant and effective cathartic. Drank in moderate quantities throughout the day, it is a delightful, wholesome beverage, its effects being alterative and slightly tonic. It is successfully used in affections of the liver and kidneys; and for chronic constipation, dyspepsia and gout it is highly valued. It has been employed in cases of renal calculi with decidedly beneficial results.

Crowds gather round the fountain in the early summer morning to win appetite for breakfast and life for the pleasures of the day. Old and young, sick and well, everybody, drinks, for the Congress fountain is as much the morning exchange as the ball-room is the resort of the evening.

Prof. G.F. Chandler, the leading chemist in America, says: "The peculiar excellence of the far-famed Congress spring is due to the fact that it contains very much less iron than any other spring, and that it contains, in the most desirable proportions, those substances which produce its agreeable flavor and satisfactory medicinal effects; neither holding them in excess, nor lacking in anything that is desirable in this class of waters."

In submitting a new analysis (which appears elsewhere) Prof. Chandler writes,—"A comparison of this with the analysis made by Dr. John H. Steel in 1832, proves that Congress water still retains its original strength, and all the virtues which established its well merited reputation." Higher authority there is none.

Bottling the Water.

It should be remembered that the water of this spring is sold in bottles only. What purports to be Congress water for sale on draught in various places throughout the country is not genuine. The artificial preparations thus imposed upon the public may have a certain resemblance in taste and appearance, but are frequently worse than worthless for medicinal purposes.


In Congress Park, under the Grecian Dome, near the Congress spring, Congress and Empire Spring Co., proprietors.

History and Peculiarities.

This spring was opened in 1806 by Gideon Putnam. The water issues from the natural rock about seven feet below the surface of the ground, and is protected by heavy wooden tubing. It is the most popular spring among the residents of Saratoga. The escaping bubbles of free carbonic acid gas give to the fountain a boiling motion. Large quantities of the gas can easily be collected at the mouth of the spring at any time.


It is a fine chalybeate or iron water, possessing strong tonic properties. It also has a diuretic action and is extensively used for that purpose. The water is recommended to be drank in small quantities frequently during the day, generally preceded by the use of the cathartic waters taken before breakfast.

Only from one-half to one glass should be taken at a time. When taken in large quantities or before breakfast its effects might remind one of that great race in northern and central Europe,—the Teutonic (too tonic). A peculiar headache would certainly be experienced.

The proper use of this water is found to strengthen the tone of the stomach and to increase the red particles of the blood which, according to Liebeg, perform an important part in respiration. It has been proved by actual experiments that the number of red particles of the blood may be doubled by the use of preparations of iron.

Though containing but 3.26 grains of iron in one gallon of water—Prof. Chandler's analysis—it is an evident and remarkable fact that the water thus weakly impregnated has a most perceptible iron taste in every drop. Is it much to be wondered at, then, that a mineral which has so extensive a power of affecting the palate, should possess equally extensive influence over the whole system? Many minerals in a dilute state of solution may pass easily through the absorbents, while in a more concentrated state they may be excluded. Carbonic acid gas, for instance, when diluted is readily inhaled, but when concentrated acts in a peculiar manner upon the wind-pipe so as to prevent its admission. So the happy medicinal effects of these iron waters seem to consist—to some extent—in the minute division of the mineral properties so that they are readily taken into the system.


Is under the southern extremity of the new hotel. The proprietors have named it the Crystal Spring from the crystalline appearance of the water, which does not rise to the surface, but is pumped up from a depth of several feet. It was discovered in 1870 by experimental excavation. The characteristic, and to many disagreeable odor of sulphuretted hydrogen, is readily perceived. Sulphur veins, or iron pyrites, are found in all sections of this valley; one of the most provoking problems of the owners of the springs being to keep their fountains from a sulphur taint, the quantity and quality of which is not considered beneficial, while it injures the sale of the bottled water.

The Crystal Spring is somewhat alterative in its therapeutic effects.


Is near the railroad, between the Glacier and Geyser Springs. It has been known for a long time. The water flows through the slate rock, and, unlike any other spring at Saratoga, issues in a horizontal direction from the side of the hill. It is a very fine chalybeate, but is not bottled.


Situated on Spring avenue, at the head of Circular street, and near the base of a high limestone bluff, in the northerly part of the village, a few rods above the Star Spring, and about three-fourths of a mile from the Congress. Owned by the Congress and Empire Spring Company. O.H. Cromwell, Superintendent.


Mineral water was known to trickle down the bank at this point ever since the land was cleared of its primitive shrubs. It was not till the year 1846 that the fountain was taken in charge. The tubing is eleven feet, and fits closely to the rock. Messrs. Weston and Co., the early proprietors, made extensive improvements in the grounds surrounding, planting shade trees, etc., and during the past year the opening of Spring avenue has rendered the place more attractive.


The water of this spring has a general resemblance to that of the Congress. In the cathartic effects of the two waters the difference is scarcely appreciable, although from the presence of a larger quantity of magnesia in the Congress, its operation is perhaps somewhat more pungent. The Empire is highly esteemed for the treatment of obscure and chronic diseases requiring alterative and diuretic remedies. It is also recommended as a preventive or remedy for the diseases natural to warm climates, especially intermittent, gastric and bilious fevers, dysenteries and disorders of the liver. The directions for using are the same as for the Congress.


Is situated on Lake avenue, and on Spring avenue, about a mile east of Broadway, and a few rods beyond the Excelsior Spring. Eureka Spring Company, proprietors. A.R. Dyett, Esq., President.

The location of the spring is in the midst of very romantic and picturesque scenery, embracing a beautiful park of some twenty-five acres. Since the water was analyzed the fountain has been retubed, and its quality improved. It is serviceable in dyspepsia and all diseases and affections of the liver and kidneys, and is classed among saline and cathartic waters.

It resembles in taste and appearance the other Saratoga waters. The New York office of the Eureka Spring Company, for the sale of their bottled water, is at No. 7 Hudson R.R.R. Depot, Varick street. Mr Benj. J. Levy is the agent.

Within a few steps of the Eureka, and belonging to the same company, is the White Sulphur Spring and bathing-house. The water of the White Sulphur Spring is an hepatic water of an excellent character, possessing, as the company claim every essential element to render it equal for internal use to the best White Sulphur waters in this State, and far superior to most of them. The company have erected a commodious bath-house, containing fifty bath-rooms, with every convenience for warm and cold baths, at a moderate price.

Frequent omnibuses convey passengers to and from these springs for 25 cents, passing the principal hotels.


Is found in a beautiful valley, and amid most romantic scenery, about a mile east of the town hall. The principal entrance to this spring is on Lake avenue, about half a mile east of Circular street. Another route is via Spring avenue, by which we pass a majority of the other springs, and also the Loughberry water-works which supply the village of Saratoga Springs with water from the Excelsior Lake by the celebrated Holly system. Just before us, as we reach a point where the avenue turns towards the Excelsior, is the fine summer hotel known as the Mansion House, and the pretty cottage residence of Mr. Henry Lawrence.


The Excelsior Spring has been appreciated for its valuable qualities by some of the oldest visitors of Saratoga for more than half a century. The water, however, was not generally known to the public until in 1859, when Mr. H.H. Lawrence, the former owner, and father of the present proprietors, retubed the spring at a considerable expense, having excavated it to a depth of fifty-six feet, eleven of which are in the solid rock. By this improvement the water flows with all its properties undeteriorated, retaining from source to outlet its original purity and strength. Since then, the present proprietors, under the firm of A.R. Lawrence & Co., by a new and improved method of bottling and barreling the Excelsior water under its own hydrostatic pressure, have given it an increased reputation and it is rapidly attaining a wide-spread popularity.


The water of this spring is a pleasant cathartic, and has also alterative and tonic properties, and is moreover a very delightful beverage. Two or three glasses in the morning is the dose as a cathartic. As an alterative and diuretic, it should be taken in small quantities during the day. We have seen stronger commendations of this water from the highest medical authority than of any other.

Exportation of the Water.

After a refreshing draught from this sparkling and delicious fountain, let us not fail to examine the proprietors' peculiar and very perfect method of bottling and barreling the Excelsior water by its own hydrostatic pressure. Since last season a handsome brick bottling-house has replaced the ancient wooden structure. Entering this bottling-house we find our way to a capacious and well-lighted cellar, in which we discover a perpendicular opening some ten feet in diameter; this proves to be a circular brick vault, in whose depths the process of filling is performed. Twelve feet below the surface of the spring a block tin tube conveys the water into reservoirs placed at the bottom of this vault. These reservoirs are strong oak barrels, lined with pure block tin in such a manner as to be perfectly gas-tight, and furnished with two tubes, one quite short and the other extending from the top to the bottom of the reservoir. Then, by filling the reservoirs through the long tube by hydrostatic pressure, the air is excluded, while the gas is not allowed to escape. When sold on draught, it is necessary simply to connect the long tube with the draught tube, and the short tube with an air pump, when the water can be forced out by the pressure of the air, and will flow forth sparkling and delicious as at the spring, without being re-charged with gas.

Having concluded our investigation, and tarried to notice the MINNEHAHA, UNION, and other springs which bubble up in this immediate vicinity, we have now the choice of continuing along the banks of a winding stream to the Eureka and White Sulphur Springs, or of returning by the way of Lake avenue. But should we prefer the healthful exercise of walking, we may dismiss our carriage and stroll into those magnificent woods that border the hill and valley for half a mile between Excelsior Spring and the village. Through them there is a wide and shady path, well known to visitors who love the picturesque, and along its winding way is found the shortest walk to the center of the village.

The beauty of this region would seem to indicate it as the proper site for the future Central Park of Saratoga.


Is about a mile and a half below the village, on the Ballston road, and near the railroad. Business address, "Geyser Spring."


This wonderful mineral fountain was discovered in February. 1870. There had been indications of mineral water in this neighborhood, which had been noticed for a long time. The building which is now used as a bottling-house, and beneath which the spring was found, was used as a bolt factory. The proprietors, Messrs. Vail and Seavy, determined to bore for a spring. They were successful, and when they had reached a point 140 feet below the surface rock, they struck the mineral vein. The water immediately burst forth with vehemence, and the marvelous phenomenon of a spouting spring was established.

The orifice bored in the rock is five and a half inches in diameter and 140 feet deep. The tubing is a block tin pipe, encased with iron, eighty-five feet in length and two inches in diameter. The diameter of the orifice of the tube is three-eighths of an inch. The tube is firmly secured at the bottom, and "seed bags" are filled in around it, so that all the water and gas is compelled to enter the tube, thereby preventing the possibility of adulteration. The fact that the spring is located 140 feet beneath the solid rock renders it free from all impurities of surface waters.


The water is thrown up by the action of its own carbonic acid gas, with great force, producing a fountain jet very attractive in appearance. The height of the fountain is twenty-five feet. A portion of the stream is allowed to flow through a hollow globe of glass, and large bubbles of gas of a bright pearl color rising in rapid succession through the water, form a beautiful addition to the attractiveness of the fountain. The curious will find an opportunity to obtain a sniff of pure gas at a wooden tube, near the bottling room, where water is drawn for bottling.

It is noticeable that when a portion of the stream is allowed to flow through another tube to the bottling-room, the fountain spouts to an unusual height.


The water, as shown by the analysis, is a powerful cathartic, and contains a larger amount of valuable medicinal properties than any other spring at Saratoga. The dose is from one to two glasses. The temperature of the spring is 46 deg. Fahr., being only 14 deg. from the freezing point. As the water is drawn from the fountain it foams like soda water, from the great abundance of carbonic acid gas, which gives to the water its agreeable taste.

During the two years since its discovery the water has been introduced all over the Union, and is now to be obtained in the principal cities of America and Europe.

A beautiful ravine, cascade and lake, and a sulphur spring also are in the immediate vicinity south of the spring. Seats are provided and the pleasure seeker will find a few hours in this locality a delightful recreation. The Geyser Spring is one of the chief attractions of Saratoga, and no visitor should fail to see it and taste its sparkling water.


"Sparkling, rippling, and dancing about, Freighted with health and brilliant with light, Soothing the ear and entrancing the sight."

May be found in a little valley east of the railroad and directly opposite the Geyser Spring, about a mile south of the village. Button & Gibbs, proprietors.

It was discovered in Sept. 1871, and is the most remarkable fountain in the world. It discharges from four to eight gallons per minute, spouting through a quarter inch nozzle to a height of fifty-two feet, or through a half inch nozzle forty feet, pouring forth a perfect suds of water and gas.


In the spring of 1870, Mr. Jesse Button, having been employed to sink the Geyser well, was so successful that he was induced to bore for another spring on land owned by D. Gibbs, Esq., in this locality. Mineral water was found at no great depth, but in no considerable quantity. The well was sunk 220 feet in the slate rock, reaching the magnesian limestone. At this point the mineral water could be made to spout for a few moments, occasionally, by agitating it with a sand-pump. The stream, however, was quite small, and as Mr. Button was called elsewhere, the project was temporarily abandoned. In Sept., 1871, boring was resumed. The diameter of the well which had been sank was four and three-fourths inches. It was made an inch larger, tapering toward the bottom, and the well was continued through the magnesian limestone to the Trenton limestone, making a total depth of 300 feet. Having reached this point the water spouted forth with great force. The well was at once carefully tubed.


The water is very concentrated, and small doses are all that is required. It will bear dilution with fresh water much better then milk. It seems to have not only strong cathartic properties, but a special action upon the kidneys and liver. For medicinal purposes it promises to equal any in Saratoga.

As an object of curiosity and interest, the Glacier Spring is unequaled in Saratoga, and it will doubtless speedily become a popular resort.


On Spring street, corner of Putnam, in the rear of Congress Hall, and a short distance from Hathorn Spring. Its principal action is diuretic and, in large doses, cathartic. The mineral ingredients are the same as those of the other springs, but, owing to the peculiar combination, the medicinal effects are widely different. It has been found of great service in kidney complaints. From one to three glasses during the day is the usual dose. It should be used under the prescription of a physician, and warm drinks should not be taken immediately after. Persons suffering from "a cold" should not drink this water. It is not bottled.


Is situated immediately north of Congress Hall, on Spring street. H.H. Hathorn, proprietor.


The spring was discovered in 1868 by workmen engaged in excavating for the foundations of a brick building for Congress Hall ball-room. At the time of discovery its waters contained more mineral substances than any other spring at Saratoga. During the past winter a defect in the tubing has led the proprietors to retube it very carefully and at great expense. At the recent retubing two streams were found and carefully tubed, one of which discharges sixty gallons per minute.


It is a powerful cathartic. Since its discovery it has achieved a wonderful popularity and a high reputation in all sections of the country. In nearly all cases when a powerful cathartic is needed its effects are excellent, benefiting those on whom the milder waters produce little effect.

Persons whose alimentary organs are very sensitive, or in an inflammatory condition, should not imbibe large quantities.

There is an unusual amount of lithia in the water, which increases its medicinal value.


Is located on Willow walk, between the Seltzer and the Star Springs.

The High Rock is the oldest in point of discovery of the Saratoga springs. As early as 1767, Sir Wm. Johnson was brought to it on a litter by his Indian friends. It is noted for the most remarkable natural curiosity of the vicinity, certainly. The following interesting description of this rock is by Prof. Chandler: "The spring rises in a little mound of stone, three or four feet high, which appears like a miniature volcano, except that sparkling water instead of melted lava flows from its little crater. When Sir William Johnson visited the spring, and in fact until quite recently, the water did not overflow the mound, but came to within a few inches of the summit; some other hidden outlet permitting its escape. The Indians had a tradition, however, which was undoubtedly true, that the water formerly flowed over the rim of the opening. A few years ago (1866) the property changed hands, and the new owners, convinced that by stopping the lateral outlet they could cause the water to issue again from the mouth of the rock, employed a number of men to undermine the mound, and with a powerful hoisting derrick to lift it off and set it one side, that the spring might be explored.

"If you will examine the cut which presents a vertical section of the spring, you will be able to follow me as I tell you what they found.

"Just below the mound were found four logs, two of which rested upon the other, two at right angles, forming a curb. Under the logs were bundles of twigs resting upon the dark-brown or black soil of a previous swamp. Evidently some ancient seekers after health had found the spring in the swamp, and to make it more convenient to secure the water had piled brush around it, and then laid down the logs as a curb. But you inquire, how came the rock, which weighed several tons, above the logs? The rock was formed by the water. It is composed of tufa, carbonate of lime, and was formed in the same manner as stalactites and stalagmites are formed. As the water flowed over the logs, the evaporation of a portion of the carbonic acid gas caused the separation of an equivalent quantity of insoluble carbonate of lime, which, layer by layer, built up the mound. A fragment of the rock which I possess contains leaves, twigs, hazel nuts, and snail shells, which, falling from time to time upon it, were incrusted and finally imprisoned in the stony mass.

Analysis of a Fragment of the Rock

Carbonate of lime 95.17 Carbonate of magnesia 2.49 Sesquioxide of iron 0.07 Alumina 0.22 Sand and clay 0.09 Organic matter 1.11 Moisture 0.39 Undetermined 0.46 ——— 100.00

"Below the rocks the workmen followed the spring through four feet of tufa and muck. Then they came to a layer of solid tufa two feet thick, then one foot of muck in which they found another log. Below this were three feet of tufa, and there seventeen feet below the apex of the mound they found the embers and charcoal of an ancient fire. By whom and when could the fire have been built? The Indian tradition went back only to the time when the water overflowed the rock. How many centuries may have elapsed since even the logs were placed in their position? A grave philosopher of the famous watering-place, remembering that botanists determine the age of trees by counting the rings on the section of the stems and noticing the layers in the tufa rock, polished a portion of the surface, and counted eighty-one layers to the inch. He forthwith made the following calculation:

High Rock, 4 feet 80 lines to the inch 3,840 years Muck and tufa, 7 feet low estimate 400 " Tufa, 2 feet 25 lines to the inch 600 " Muck, 1 foot 130 " Tufa, 3 feet 900 " ——- Time since the fire was built 5,870 "

"As I have seen half an inch of tufa formed in two years on a brick which received the overflow from a spout of water containing only twenty grams of carbonate of lime in a gallon, I am inclined to think our antiquarian's estimates are not entirely reliable."[A]

The rock has been replaced over the spring, and the water now flows over it. A very beautiful and expensive colonnade has been built over the rock by the "High Rock Congress Spring Company." This company was formed in 1866, and was inaugurated under favorable auspices and with brilliant prospects of success. But though founded on a rock, it was not successful in withstanding the storms. Whether the rock was too slippery, or the Spring rains too severe, or what was the slip-up, or rather slip-down, we do not presume to say, but the company failed, and the spring was sold at auction during the present month for $16,000.

Those who invested their dollars in it sank them in a well, and unlike "bread cast upon the waters," they do not seem to return again.

A new company has been organized, and under their direction the spring is being retubed. With honest and careful management it ought to be profitable to the owners and conducive to the health of the public.


[A] A lecture on Water by C.H. Chandler, Ph.D., delivered at the American Institute.


A few steps from Broadway, in a somewhat secluded valley, though in the very centre of Saratoga and directly at the head of Spring avenue (now being completed), bubble up the clear and sparkling water of the Pavilion Spring.

The pleasure seeker strolling up Broadway is directed by a modest sign down Lake avenue to "Pavilion Spring and Park." A few steps, less than half a block, brings him to the handsome arched gateway of this very pretty park in which one can pass the time as pleasantly as could be wished. The colonnade over the spring is one of the most elegant of its class. It was erected in 1869, at a cost of over $6,000, and is a fine ornament to the park. The United States Spring is under the same colonnade. Our cut is a very faithful likeness of the grounds.


The spring was originally owned by the Walton family. Though long known, its situation was such, being in the midst of a deep morass, that the owners took no steps towards tubing it. In 1839 it passed into the hands of Mr. Daniel McLaren, who tubed it at a heavy expense and trouble by sinking a crib twenty-two feet square to a depth of forty feet. A tube was constructed in the form of a boot, and to render the ground dry and firm around it several tons of iron filings from Troy were packed around.

When the work was finished, the water was bottled to some extent and was a favorite drink with many of the citizens. It was then esteemed as a tonic spring. In 1868 it was retubed and the tube extended down ten feet further to the sandstone rock. Clay was used for the packing, and the water has since been of a finer flavor and of cathartic properties. At this time the spring became the property of the Pavilion and United States Spring Co., composed of enterprising business men, under whose management the grounds have been rendered quite attractive and the water is becoming celebrated as one of the leading cathartic springs of far-famed Saratoga.


There is a liveliness and pungency to this water which makes it a pleasant beverage. An abundance of gas, so much desired in a mineral spring, is so intimately associated with the water, and is so well "fixed" as to hold the medicinal constituents in a clear and permanent solution. The property of the water is cathartic, affecting more or less, however, all the secretions. It is of special service in dyspepsia, biliousness, rheumatism, etc. A half a glass to a glass, drank after hearty meals, will relieve at once the distress from which so many suffer. Medical men recommend the water also for kidney disease.

While stronger than the milder waters which require so large potions to be effective, it is not characterized by the harshness and irritating power of some of the more recently discovered springs. It seems to us a sort of golden mean between the two extremes.

The water bottles nicely, and is sent to every part of the Union. It is also sold on draught. Persons becoming attached to it while at Saratoga, can thus easily obtain it at any time in a manner only equaled by that dipped from the spring. The sale of this, as well as of nearly all mineral waters, is conducted almost exclusively by druggists.

The business address of the proprietors is "Pavilion & U.S. Spring Company, 113 Chambers street, N.Y.," to whom orders should be addressed.


On Phila street, near Broadway. Used chiefly for bathing purposes. It is a tonic or chalybeate, and, as this goes to press, is being retubed. The proprietor, Mr. Lewis Putnam, is the oldest native resident of Saratoga.


This spring is located on Spring avenue, a short distance beyond the Empire, at the junction of Geneva and Warren streets. Red Spring Co., proprietors.


It was discovered soon after the Revolutionary war, by a Mr. Norton, who had been driven from the place from fear of hostile Indians during the war, and who returned about the year 1784 to re-occupy and improve some buildings erected by him for the accommodation of a few invalids who came to visit the High Rock, Flat Rock, President and Red Springs. No other springs were known at that time, or for many years after. Nearly a hundred years ago the first bath-house ever built at Saratoga was erected at the Red Spring, and was used for the cure of all kinds of eruptive and skin diseases for many years. Through the neglect of the owners, this spring, with others near, was allowed to fall into an impure condition; the tubes rotted out, and for a number of years the water of the Red Spring was only used for washing sore eyes, bad ulcers, and the cure of salt rheum, etc. The springs of Ballston, and the valuable qualities of Congress water, drew public attention away from these springs, and it was only a few years since that the present owners of the spring retubed and secured this valuable water for public use. The reputation it had long sustained as a powerful alterative for the cure of blood diseases was confirmed; and for several years this water has been used with growing confidence and wonderful results.


In a general sense its therapeutic effects are alterative, and it possesses a particular adaptation to inflamed mucous surfaces; scrofula in all its forms, dyspepsia in its worst conditions, and kidney difficulties, with every kind of skin disease, including salt rheum, which it never fails to cure, are prominent among the diseases cured by the use of this water.

Its general effect is to tone up the system, regulate the secretions and vitalize the blood, thereby creating a better appetite and better assimilation.

The analysis of this water does not indicate any properties that can account for its astonishing effects on disease, but they are supposed to be owing to its peculiar combination. Scientific men, however, differ in regard to this point and in regard to the analysis.

A greater number of invalids are now using this water than from all the other springs in the place. This water is not used as a beverage. More than a hundred gallons per day are taken away by real invalids, besides that drank at the spring. To become acquainted with its wonderful cures one needs only to go there and spend an hour conversing with those who are using it for their various ailments. The water is used at all hours of the day and a short time is all that is needed to learn the high estimation in which it is held as a remedial agent.


The "A" Spring is situated on Spring avenue, a little beyond the Empire Spring, on the eastern side of a steep bluff of calciferous sand rock, upon grounds which could be made quite attractive by a moderate outlay.


The memory of that reverend being, the oldest inhabitant does not recall the time when the existence of mineral water in this immediate locality was not known. As the merits of spring waters were so little known and understood in the earlier days of their discovery, the demand was far below the supply, and no attempt was made to introduce this spring to public attention, nor any provision for the use of its waters. In 1865, Messrs. Western & Co. purchased the property, and at once instituted plans for securing the fountain; and a shaft twelve feet square was sunk to the depth of sixteen feet. The surface above the rock consists of bluish marl, similar to that found all along this mineral valley. A tube, in the usual form, was placed over the spring, and clay was used as packing around it. In the spring of the next year the fountain was more perfectly secured by a new tubing, and the water was bottled and shipped all over the country.

An ill wind seemed to be blowing, and in 1867 the bottling-house was nearly destroyed by fire; and the spring was again retubed to the depth of thirty-two feet, going down to the solid rock, where one of the most perfect veins of water was found flowing in all its original purity, which was secured with the greatest care, in order to prevent the mixture of sulphurous or other waters, and carried to the surface through a tube made of maple.

At present the spring itself is protected by a temporary structure, while the water is bottled in a portion of the original building which was not destroyed by fire. The spring is at some little distance from the business part of Saratoga, and, since the bottling-house was destroyed no special efforts have been made to attract a crowd of visitors, though many who know the virtues of the water take the pains and trouble to go out of their way to obtain it, fresh from the spring in all its purity, as it is held in the highest estimation by all who have used it. We believe it is the intention of the present management to rebuild the houses and ornament the surroundings either this summer or next.

Of the original company, Jay Gould was President, and John F. Henry, Secretary. The officers of the present company are, John F. Henry, President; B.S. Barrett, Secretary, and Edwin F. Stevens, Treasurer. Mr. Henry is well known as the leading druggist in America and the largest dealer in proprietary medicines in the world.


The water possesses a very agreeable taste and flavor, resembling in many respects the favorite Congress. Its principal action is alterative and cathartic.


"Saratoga Seltzer Spring Co.," proprietors. Perhaps no one of the springs gratifies the curious more than the Seltzer.

It is situated about 150 feet from the High Rock Spring, but, although in such close proximity thereto, its water is entirely different, thus illustrating the wonderful extent and capacity of nature's subterranean laboratory.


The owners of the Seltzer Spring have an ingenious contrivance for exhibiting the flow of the water and its gas. It consists of a glass tube, three feet in height and fifteen inches in diameter, nicely adjusted to the mouth of the spring, through which the sweet, clear, sparkling water gushes in a steady volume, while, faster than the water, bubble up the glittering globules of pure carbonic acid gas.


The spring was discovered several years ago, but only recently was it tubed so as to be available. The tube extends down thirty-four feet to the surface of the foundation rock. The crevice in the rock through which the water issues is about twelve inches by five. The column of water above the rock is thirty-seven feet high. The flow of gas is abundant and constant, but every few minutes, as the watchful visitor will observe, there is a momentary ebullition of an extraordinary quantity which causes the water in the tube to boil over the rim. When the sunshine falls upon the fountain it presents a beautiful appearance.

This is a genuine Seltzer spring. The character of the water is almost identical with that of the celebrated Nassau Spring of Germany, which is justly esteemed so delicious by the natives of the "Fatherland." Our German citizens, with their usual sagacity, have discovered this fact, and the consumption of the water by them is daily on the increase.

The importance of this American Seltzer Spring will be somewhat appreciated by the reader, when informed of the fact that nearly two millions of stone jugs, holding one quart each, of the Nassau Seltzer are annually exported from Germany.


The water of this spring is very pleasant to the taste, being slightly acidulous and saline, but much milder than that of the other Saratoga springs. It is an agreeable and wholesome beverage. When mixed with still wines, etc., it adds the peculiar flavor only to be derived from a pure, natural Seltzer. It enlivens them and gives them the character of sparkling wines.

Saratoga possesses numerous objects of interest for the German population, surpassing even the famous Spas of Europe, and the discovery of the Seltzer will doubtless attract large numbers of this intelligent and genial people.

The analyses of the Saratoga and the German Seltzer springs are almost identical.

No people in the world, perhaps, consider a summer's excursion to a watering place so absolutely essential to life, physically, dietetically, morally and politically considered, as the Germans, and we are happy to know that they are beginning to realize the attractions of Saratoga.

The United States Spring is also successfully used for mixing with the still wines, and is attaining a popularity among the Germans.


Is located on Spring avenue near the termination of Circular street. Star Spring Co., proprietors, Melvin Wright, Superintendent.


Under the name of President Spring, and afterwards Iodine Spring, the fountain now called the Star has been known for nearly a century; long enough to test its merits and long enough to sink it in oblivion if it possessed no merits. Its lustre is undimmed, and it promises to be a star that shall never set. During these many years a goodly proportion of tottering humanity have found in this spring an amendment to their several crippled constitutions. It was first tubed in 1835. In 1865 the Star Spring Co. was formed, and in the following year the spring was retubed under their direction. In 1870 they erected the finest bottling-house in Saratoga. Great care is taken to preserve the spring in a pure condition and perfect repair. The water has become immensely popular in New England, where it is "the spring," and throughout the United States and Canada.

For Commercial Use.

The water is sold in cases of quarts and pints, and besides, owing to the large amount of gas which is finely incorporated with the water, the company are enabled to supply families with it in kegs of fifteen gallons, in which the water keeps as well as in bottles, and at one-fourth to one-sixth the cost. This method seems to give entire satisfaction and is fast coming into general use. This is the only spring that supplies the water in bulk to families. The price to druggists in bulk is twenty cents per gallon, to families $4 per half barrel, to the trade in cases at $21 per gross for pints, and $30 per gross for quarts.


The Star water is mildly cathartic, has a pleasant, slightly acid taste, gentle and healthy in its action, and yet powerful in its effects.

It is far more desirable for general use as a cathartic than the preparations of the apothecary.

Rev. Dr. Cuyler, in one of his peculiarly charming letters, gives the Star Water preference over all others as an active and efficient cathartic.


This is the name which was formerly given to several springs in the immediate vicinity of the Excelsior, and embracing the Union and the Minnehaha, which have been recently tubed. The other springs have been neglected, and the name "Ten Springs" has been abandoned.


Is located under the same colonnade as the Pavilion, and less than ten feet distant from it. When the Pavilion was being retubed, in 1868, a new spring was discovered flowing from the east (the Pavilion and nearly all the other springs flowing from the west). It has been carefully tubed and christened the United States. It seems to be tonic in its properties, with only a very slight cathartic effect. It is now used for mixing with the still wines by our German citizens, who find in it the virtues of their own Nassau Spring. There are very few of the Saratoga waters that can be used successfully with the red and white wines, the presence of a very large proportion of chloride of sodium being considered an objection. The United States Spring seems to fully answer the purpose, giving to the wines a rich flavor and sparkling character.

It is a matter of surprise to visitors that two springs, welling up their waters so near together, should yet be widely different. Where nature in her subterranean laboratory obtains all the elements, and how she can manage that from one crevice shall issue a water whose ingredients shall never materially differ, and whose temperature shall remain constant throughout the year, while within a few feet she sends up an equally unvarying, and yet widely different spring, is indeed a problem, and the oftener one reflects on subjects of this kind, the oftener is the old fashioned observation repeated, that "let a man go where he will, Omnipotence is never from his view."


Is situated in the grounds of the Clarendon Hotel, on South Broadway.


This fountain was the first tubed in this mineral valley, being opened by Gideon Putnam, in 1806. It was used for bathing purposes chiefly. Dr. Steel writes of it in 1828, that it is "found of eminent service when applied to old, ill-conditioned ulcers, and obstinate eruptions of the skin." A cluster of bushes formed a shelter for the external use of the water.

In 1858 a shaft eleven feet square was sunk round the spring to a depth of thirty feet. The stream seemed to come from a lateral direction, and a tunnel was excavated for a distance of thirty feet. At this point the earth gave way, and the water and gas flowed in so suddenly that the workmen hardly escaped with their lives, leaving their tools behind them. In fifteen minutes 12,000 gallons of water, and double that quantity of gas, filled the excavation. Rotary pumps, worked by a steam engine, were insufficient to remove the water. Another shaft, near the end of the tunnel, was sunk to a depth of twenty-eight feet, when the water burst into this also, and it had to be abandoned. A third shaft, twenty feet in diameter, and held by a strong coffer dam, was sunk southeast of the former. When the rock was reached two streams were found issuing from a fissure; one of them was tubed, and water rose to the surface.

This brief sketch will give a little idea of the difficulties and dangers incident to the tubing of some of these springs.


This is a chalybeate or iron spring, having tonic and diuretic properties. It is not a saline water, and the peculiar inky taste of iron is perceptible. It should be drank in the afternoon or evening, before or after meals, or just before retiring. One glass is sufficient for tonic purposes. Many regard this as the most agreeable beverage in Saratoga. It is frequently called the "Champagne Spring" from its sparkling properties.

The grounds in the immediate vicinity are very picturesque, and in the evening are lighted by gas. The Clarendon Band discourse their music on the neighboring piazza, and large numbers of fashionably attired people throng beneath the majestic pines, forming one of those peculiar group pictures which render Saratoga so charming.


Is about a mile east of Broadway and only a few rods distant from the Eureka Mineral and the Ten Springs. Lake avenue and Spring avenue lead directly to it. Stages run between the spring and the village every hour, passing the principal hotels. Eureka Spring Co. are the proprietors.

This is the Sulphur Spring of Saratoga. It is said to be unsurpassed by any Sulphur spring in the State. Sulphuretted or hepatic waters acquire their peculiar properties from beds of pyrites or by passing through strata of bituminous shale and foetic-oolitic beds. These we regard as organic sulphuretted waters, while the others are mineral.

The mere presence of hydrosulphuric acid gas does not constitute an hepatic water: for the solid ingredients are essential; and these are found in that of the Eureka White Sulphur Spring, proving it to be a very valuable water. It is successfully used in the long list of diseases for which, sulphur water, both internally and externally, is so highly recommended by the medical faculty. Sulphur waters are very useful in the treatment of rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, and kindred diseases, and in glandular affections and certain chronic diseases of the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, kidneys, bladder and uterus, and in dropsy, scrofula, chlorosis and mercurial diseases. It is beneficial, used both internally and externally in the form of baths at different degrees of temperature, best determined in each case by the physician under whose advice, as a general rule, they should be used. The water is highly beneficial in cutaneous diseases, inflamed eyes, etc. If the person is dyspeptic the non-gaseous water should be used in small doses. It may be as well to add that such waters should not be used if there is a tendency to cerebral disease, or in cases of consumption and cancer.

The water of this sulphur spring is remarkably pellucid. The fountain discharges upwards of 20,000 gallons per day.

A large and commodious bathing-house, containing fifty bath-rooms, with excellent and ample accommodations and superior facilities, affords warm and cold sulphur water baths. They are a real luxury.

This completes our list of the important springs. Mineral water of considerable merit has been found in several other places in the village and its vicinage, which, if situated elsewhere, would doubtless excite marked attention and popularity, but in the midst of Saratoga's brilliant galaxy and in the absence of any distinguishing peculiarity, they possess at present "no name."


The CATHARTIC waters, as a cathartic, should be taken only before breakfast in the morning, and possibly before retiring at night, because in the morning the body, refreshed by sleep, is best prepared for the water, and the stomach is empty. Two or three glasses are usually sufficient, if drank within a short interval and only a few minutes before breakfast. Many physicians attribute the cathartic effect to the "stimulus of distention" as well as to the absorption of the mineral properties, and for this purpose the water should not be sipped but drank. Before eating, the sipping of a little tea or coffee will make the waters more efficacious.

None of the cathartic waters should be drank in large quantities immediately before, during or within two hours after meals, as they are then liable to disturb digestion and prevent nutrition.

When suffering from a cold the cathartic waters should be avoided. Those affected with lung complaints should not drink these waters.

As an ALTERATIVE, the waters should be drank in small quantities at various intervals during the day. As their alterative effect is from the absorption of the water, the quantity taken should be small.

The chalybeate or TONIC waters are liable to cause headache when taken before breakfast. They may be used with benefit before or after dinner and tea. Only from a half to one glass should be taken at a time.

The DIURETIC waters should be drank before meals, and at night, and should not be followed by warm drinks. Walking and other exercise increase the diuretic effect.

Attention to system should characterize the use of these as of other remedies.

It is impossible to give complete and invariable directions for drinking any of the waters.

The experience and necessities of each individual can alone determine many things in regard to their use.

It is advisable to consult some experienced resident physician.

A moderate use of the waters will be found most beneficial.

The enormous quantities of water which some persons imbibe at the popular springs is perfectly shocking, and can only be injurious. It is no uncommon occurrence to see persons drink from five to ten glasses of Congress or Hathorn water with scarcely any interval, and the writer has heard of a lady who swallowed within a few minutes fourteen glasses of one of the springs. It is to be presumed that her thirst was satisfied, as no further account of her has been given.

Those who are taking a course of mineral water will usually find their appetite increased thereby.

An abundance of vegetables should be avoided, and only those which are perfectly fresh should be used.

Frequent bathing in mineral water and otherwise will be found beneficial.

Raising the temperature of the spring water, by placing a bottle of it in boiling water, makes it more efficacious as a cathartic, and is said to remove the iron. Heating the water makes it better for bathing purposes.


[B] This article is copy righted. Parties who wish to copy the entire article, or a portion of it, will please give credit.

The Saratoga Waters at a Distance from the Springs.

If the Saratoga waters are really what they have the reputation of being—and certainly no one who has witnessed their effects can deny their wonderful power—the purity of the water which is supplied to invalids, at a distance from the springs, becomes a matter of the utmost consequence.

"The fashionable and the rich," writes an eminent divine, "who fill these splendid saloons, are not alone the people for whom the beneficent Creator opened these health-giving fountains; but they are also those who occupy the sick chambers in all parts of the earth, who have never seen Saratoga, but who are relieved and comforted by its waters."

Personally the writer has found in several cities more or less difficulty in obtaining the genuine water. He therefore offers a few suggestions on the present mode of exportation.

For many years the sale of spring water has been chiefly conducted by druggists. In the earlier days the business was conducted with fairness and profit to all concerned, but the small cost of manufacturing an artificial water imitating the natural in taste and appearance, and made even more sparkling and pungent by a heavy charging with gas, the enormous extent of the patent medicine business which has protruded itself in all directions, and to an overwhelming extent, and the large percentage of profit which druggists now realize on their goods, all these have interfered with the sale of pure natural spring water. We assert as an indisputable fact that the sale of artificial waters has been a serious and unjust detriment to the reputation of natural mineral water.

Very little of the water sold on draught by druggists is genuine. Several instances have fallen under the immediate notice of the writer, in which druggists have obtained the photographs and trade marks of a certain spring, by the purchase of a small quantity of water, and then manufactured that which they sold on draught; and instances are numerous in which druggists have overcharged consumers for the bottled water.

We cannot too strongly urge those who wish to obtain Saratoga water pure and fresh, to send direct to the spring whose waters they desire.

To the Superintendents of springs we suggest the supplying of the waters through grocers, who can best handle both the barreled and the bottled water, and will be most likely to sell it in its purity. It should be made a staple article, and its merits as a beverage and a preventive of disease brought to public notice. The use of the water increases the appetite, and grocers would find its extended sale would be an advantage to their business.

We believe our country would be better, and biliousness, dyspepsia, fevers, and a long range of diseases more rare, if the natural waters which God has provided were to become a standard article in our groceries.

Special Notice.—The subscriber is desirous of making a special study of the mineral springs of Saratoga. He will gladly receive any reliable information which may be communicated to him in regard to the history, properties, etc., of the various springs, or their effects in particular cases. Such information will be acknowledged in future editions of this work.

Invalids who have received benefit or injury from the use of the waters are earnestly requested to give a statement of their experience. Communications of this sort will be held confidential.

Proprietors of springs in other places are also requested to send circulars and other information in regard to their several springs.

Address, R.F. DEARBORN, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.



* * * * *


Battlefield, Ballston, Bemis Heights, Benedict's Sulphur Spring, Chapman's Hill, Circular Railway, Columbian Spring, Cohoes Falls, Congress Park, Congress Spring, Corinth Falls, Crystal Spring, Diamond Spring, Drs. Strongs Turkish Baths, Ellis Spring, Empire Spring, Eureka Spring, Excelsior Grove, Excelsior Spring, Excelsior Lake, Geyser Spring, Glass Factory, Glacier Spring, Glen Mitchel, Hagerty Hill, Hamilton Spring, Hathorn Spring, High Rock Spring, Indian Encampment, Indian Spring, Lake Lovely, Lake Saratoga, Luzerne, Marble Works, Pavilion Spring, Putnam's Spring, Race Course, Red Spring, Saratoga "A" Spring, Seltzer Spring, Star Spring, Stiles' Hill, Surrender Ground, Ten Springs, Trout Ponds, United States Spring, Verd Antique Marble Works, Washington Spring, Wagman's Hill, Water Works, Wearing Hill, White Sulphur Springs, Y.M.C.A. Rooms,

Photographs of the above can be had of Baker & Record.

For the location of these places see map.

No charge is made to visitors for the use of the waters, except a trifling fee to the "dipper boys," and even this is at the option of the visitor.

Saratoga as a Watering Place.

The question "where to spend the Summer?" is usually discussed by paterfamilias, anxious mammas and uneasy children long before the summer solstice drives them from the pent-up confines of the busy metropolis to the pure air and quite recreation of country life. Many will visit the seaside, some will climb the mountains or explore the forests. Fashion, in most instances, determines the place of resort, and has fixed on certain localities, or courts of its acknowledged leaders, where not to have been seen at least is to have been buried for the season.

One place has held through the many years the highest rank, both from intrinsic merit, and from an unfluctuating devotion of the fashionable world, and has been aptly termed "The Queen of American Watering Places."

The village of Saratoga, where dwells the benign goddess Hygeia, in the midst of her far-famed waters of life and health, is pleasantly situated within the heart of a broad stretch of varied table-land, in the upper part and near the eastern boundary of New York.

The History

Of this fashionable resort embraces a century. The muse of history has marked the spot with one of her red battleflags, and thus distinguished her from the herd of new places whose mushroom growth is like that of the gentility which they harbor.

The first white visitor who is known to have drank from these "rivers of Pactolus" is no less a distinguished person than Sir Wm. Johnson, Bart., who was conducted hither, in 1767, by his Mohawk friends. At that early day America could boast of little in the way of aristocracy, and it was not till 1803 that the career of Saratoga, as a fashionable watering place, was inaugurated. In this year, when the village consisted of only three or four cabins, Gideon Putnam opened the Union Hotel, and displayed his primitive sign of "Old Put and the Wolf."

It was Putnam's ambition, when a boy even, to build him a great house, and in his time the Union Hotel, then 70 feet long, seemed to him doubtless comparatively as large as the present Grand Union seems to us.

It is not necessary for us to follow Saratoga through its misfortunes and its successes, its fires and its improvements, until it has reached its present reputation and attractiveness.

Year after year the water wells up its sparkling currents; year after year a little paint and plaster new-decks the great caravansaries; year after year belles blush and sigh away the summer, or, linking their destinies, rejoice or repine at leisure; and year after year, for a short four months of sequence, the little town swarms and rejoices with merry glee.

Routes to Saratoga.

During the visiting season trains from the metropolis reach the place in five hours and thirty minutes—a distance of 186 miles. You can leave the city at nine o'clock in the morning, and upon the soft-cushioned seats, and amid the damask and velvet of Wagman's magnificent drawing-room cars, enjoy a pleasurable journey up the famous Hudson, till you arrive at Saratoga early in the afternoon. Or, by the four o'clock train, Saratoga is reached in the evening. If pleasure is the object, and enjoyment of the lordly Hudson's bewildering beauty is desired, one of the steam palaces that plough the river should be taken. The most luxurious and elegant, and the safest and surest of these are the boats of the Peoples' Line. The contrast between the accommodations of these boats and certain others nearly as large, is so great as to leave no question which route is preferable.

From New England and Boston the shortest and most direct route is via Rutland and Fitchburgh. This is the only route that run Palace cars through between Boston and Saratoga.


Albany, 38 miles. Boston via Rutland, 230 miles. Philadelphia, 274 miles. Washington, 412 miles. Chicago, 841 miles. White Mountains, 322 miles. Boston via Albany, 250 miles. Troy, 32 miles. New York City, 186 miles. Niagara, 311 miles. Lake George, 45 miles. Montreal, 202 miles. Quebec, 392 miles. Rutland, 62 miles.

The Railway Station

Is naturally a place of special interest in any watering place. Visitors are no sooner settled in their summer quarters than they become interested in the incomings and outgoings of their fellow men, watching eagerly if perchance any old acquaintance may turn up. The contrast between city and country life in this respect is noticable. Those who, amid the race for wealth in the cities, can scarcely afford a nod to intimate friends, here greet a slight acquaintance even with a friendliness and cordiality undreamed of in the busy town.

The station at Saratoga is elegant and tasteful, facing an open square, adorned with fountain and shade trees. It is built of brick, with elaborate iron trimmings from the Corrugated Iron Company of Springfield, Mass.

The crowds are hastening away from it, and with them we will proceed towards

The Village.

Large enough to possess a fixed population of some 9,000, it has double, and perhaps treble, this number in the visiting season; with elegant and costly churches, mammoth hotels and metropolitan stores, affording everything desirable, from a paper of pins to the rarest diamonds and laces, it has been called "rus in urbe"—more properly, urbs in rure.

The principal street is Broadway, miles in length, ample in breadth, and, for the most part, shaded with a double line of graceful elms. Its extremities are adorned with beautiful villas. The Fifth avenue of the place, where the handsomest residences are located, is Circular street, east of the Park. Beautiful dwellings may also be found on Lake avenue and Franklin street. The streets are thronged with a gay and brilliant multitude, engaged in riding, driving, walking, each enjoying to the utmost a facinating kind of busy idleness. But by the time the tourist has glanced at all this he will be thinking of clean napkins, and will be interested to know what may be afforded in the way of

Accommodations for Man and Beast.

About 15,000 visitors can at one time be quartered in the gay watering place, and consequently to pen up all the fashionable flock within the limits of so small a town, requires no little tact. During August, Saratoga is always full, crowded, squeezed.

Saratoga has the largest and most extensive hotels in the world. There are in all from thirty to forty, and in addition to them numerous public and private boarding-houses accommodate large numbers of guests.

Among the hotels, the gem of Saratoga, and one of the finest, if not the finest, hotel in this country is

Congress Hall.

Extending from Spring to Congress street, with a front on Broadway of 416 feet, and reaching with its two mammoth wings 300 feet back, it is architecturally a perfect beauty. The rooms are large and elegant. The halls are ten feet wide, and broad, commodious stairways, with the finest elevator in the country, render every portion readily accessible. A front piazza, 20 feet wide and 240 feet in length, with numerous others within the grounds, and a promenade on the top of the hotel affording a charming view, contribute to render the house attractive. The dining halls, parlors, etc., are superb and ample, and everything about the house is on a scale of unequaled magnificence and grandeur.

The proprieters have endeavored to incorporate into this hotel everything that can afford comfort and pleasure, at whatever expense.

The cut of Congress Hall will give some idea of its outlines, but fails to do it justice. It must be seen to be appreciated, and when seen commands the unqualified admiration of the beholder. It was erected in 1868, by H.H. Hathorn, Esq., the proprietor of the old Congress Hall, and one of the most influential citizens of Saratoga.

The Grand Union Hotel.

This mammoth establishment is located on the west side of Broadway, and with its magnificent grounds embraces a space seven acres in extent, covering nearly an entire square. It is a splendid brick structure, with a street frontage of 1,364 feet. The office, parlor, dining room and dancing hall are unequaled for size, graceful architecture and splendid equipments and finish—the former exhibiting a lavish display of white and colored marbles, while a series of colonnades rise from the center to the dome. Within the capacious grounds are several elegant cottages, which are greatly sought for by the elite. A vertical railway, comprising the latest improvements, renders the six stories so easy of access as to be equally desirable to guests.

The capacity of this house is greater than that of any other in the world. Some idea of its immensity may be formed from the following statistics: Length of piazzas, one mile; halls, two miles; carpeting, twelve acres; marble tiling, one acre; number of rooms, eight hundred and twenty-four; doors, one thousand four hundred and seventy-four; windows, one thousand eight hundred and ninety one; the dining room is two hundred and fifty feet by fifty-three feet and twenty feet high, and will accommodate at one time 1,200 people.

Music on the lawn at nine in the morning and at three and a half in the afternoon. Hops every evening; balls on Tuesday evening.

During the present year this hotel has fallen into the hands of Messrs. Breslin, Gardner & Co., of the Gilsey House, N.Y., gentlemen who are unsurpassed as hotel managers.

Grand Central.

"The new hotel," erected by Dr. R. Hamilton and Mr. C.R. Brown, is located on Broadway, directly opposite Congress Park, occupying the ground swept over by the immense conflagration which consumed the Crescent, Park Place and other hotels last September. Untiring energy has been manifested in its construction, and it is without doubt one of the most perfect summer hotels in the world. It is a tasteful and elegant structure, adding very much to the beauty and attractiveness of Saratoga. The citizens may well be proud of it.

The exterior of the house is most imposing. It is five stories in height, with a French roof, and has a front of 340 feet on Broadway, and 200 feet on Congress street, and by a far-reaching wing in the rear incloses quite a little park.

The building contains 650 rooms, with bowling alleys and billiards, and twenty-two stores in the basement. It is built of brick, with iron trimmings. The dining room is 200 feet long. The other rooms are in suites with bath-room attached. All parts of the house communicate with the office through the medium of electricity. Everything is in the most modern and improved style, and with the latest improvements. Looking out upon the green vista of Congress Park and upon the interesting crowds of visitors who throng around the famous spring, affording from its windows and piazzas an ample view of the most fashionable part of Broadway, and embracing in its outlook the colonnades of the other large hotels, its location and surroundings are perfectly enchanting.

Although at the present writing the hotel has not been opened to the public, we learn that it is the purpose of the proprietors, Messrs. Hamilton & Brown, gentlemen of experience and enviable reputation as hotel managers, to conduct it on a very liberal scale.

The table will be made a special feature. Epicureans may rest assured that

"Whatever toothsome food or sprightly juice On the green bosom of this earth are found, Will be there displayed."

That it will be a popular and well patronized resort is unquestionable. In its elegant furniture the house surpasses all others, and it has the further advantage that every room has a spacious clothes press, and is supplied with hot and cold water.

The Clarendon.

Is patronized by a very aristocratic and select class of guests. Its location is very picturesque; and within its inclosure, magnificently circled by elms and covered with a superb pagoda, is the celebrated Washington spring.

1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse