SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
CARLOTTA C. GREER HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF FOODS AND HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT, EAST TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL CLEVELAND, OHIO
School and Home Cooking is a text which can be placed in the hands of the pupils and used by them as a guide both in the school and home. Its use eliminates note-taking (which in reality is dictation) and thus saves much time.
The psychological method of education, which treats first of material within the experience of the beginner and with that as a basis develops new material to meet the needs of the pupil, was kept in mind in preparing this text. Although the grouping of foods rich in each foodstuff may be considered a logical arrangement, the method of arrangement of the content of each division and the method of approach of each lesson is psychological. The manipulative processes and kinds of dishes are sufficiently varied to arouse and sustain the interest of a pupil.
Experience with pupils in the classroom shows that their interest in any subject cannot be awakened by using a list or classification involving technical terms in introducing the subject. For this reason a classification of the foodstuffs is not placed at the beginning of the text; they are classified after each is considered.
At the close of each division of the text there is placed a group of lessons called Related Work, which includes table service lessons, home projects, and meal cooking. Table service lessons are introduced in this way to emphasize the fact that a complete meal should be prepared before all types of foods are studied and manipulative processes are performed. The cost and food value of meals are considered in conjunction with their preparation. Wise selection and thrifty buying of foods are also treated in these lessons.
Home projects which progressive teachers have found effective in making home economics function in the home—one of the goals to be attained in democratic education—contain suggestive material which may be adapted to the particular needs of the pupils in their homes.
An adaptation of the "meal method," i.e., meal cooking, is used both for the purpose of reviewing processes of cooking, and also for gaining skill and speed in the preparation of several foods at the same time.
Experiments regarding food preparation and composition and processes of digestion are found in this book. Special care has been taken to state these experiments in terms within the understanding of the pupil and to intersperse definite questions so that a pupil can follow directions, make observations, and draw helpful deductions.
The recipes have been adapted from various sources. Where it is possible, without a sacrifice of flavor or food value, the least expensive food materials are used. The more expensive materials are used as sparingly as possible. Definite and practical methods of preparing foods follow the list of ingredients. The recipes have proved satisfactory in the home kitchen.
Special thanks are due to Mrs. Mary Swartz Rose, Assistant Professor of Nutrition, Teachers College, Columbia University, for criticizing portions of the text regarding dietetics; to Miss S. Gertrude Hadlow, Head of the Department of English, Longwood High School of Commerce, Cleveland, for valuable suggestions of material formerly prepared which aided in the preparation of this work; to Mrs. Jessie M. Osgood for painstaking reading of the manuscript; and to the following for the use of illustrative material: The Macmillan Company, D. Appleton and Company, William Wood and Company, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The Journal of Home Economics, and the United States Department of Agriculture.
CLEVELAND, July, 1920.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
I. Baked Apples—Dishwashing
II. Measurements—Stuffed and Scalloped Tomatoes
III. Fuels and Combustion—Sauted and Baked Squash
IV. Coal Ranges—Corn Dishes
V. Gas Ranges—Scalloped Fruit
VI. Stoves and Heating Devices—Stuffed Peppers, Butterscotch Apples
VII. Water and Beverages (A)
VIII. Water and Beverages (B)
IX. Home Projects
X. Afternoon Tea
BODY-BUILDING AND BODY-REGULATING FOODS,—RICH IN ASH (MINERAL MATTER)
XI. Fresh Vegetables (A)
XII. Fresh Vegetables (B)
XIII. Fresh Fruits
XIV. Review: Meal Cooking
XV. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
XVI. Sugar: Digestion of Sugar
XVII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (A)
XVIII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (B)
XIX. Cereals: Starch and Cellulose
XX. Cereals: Rice (A)
XXI. Cereals: Rice (B)
XXII. Cereals and the Fireless Cooker
XXIII. Cereals for Frying or Baking
XXIV. Powdered Cereals Used for Thickening
XXV. Toast: Digestion of Starch
XXVI. Root Vegetables (A)
XXVII. Root Vegetables (B)
XXVIII. Root Vegetables (C)
XXIX. Starchy Foods Cooked at High Temperature
XXX. Dining Room Service
XXXI. Cooking and Serving Breakfast
XXXII. Review: Meal Cooking
XXXIII. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN FATS AN OILS
XXXIV. Fat as a Frying Medium
XXXV. Fat as a Frying Medium—Food Fats
XXXVI. Fat as a Frying Medium—Digestion of Fat
XXXVII. Fat Saving
XXXVIII. Dining Room Courtesy
XXXIX. Cooking and Serving Breakfast
XL. Review: Meal Cooking
XLI. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING AND BODY-BUILDING FOODS,—RICH IN PROTEIN
XLIII. Eggs: Digestion of Protein
XLIV. Eggs: Omelets (A)
XLV. Eggs: Omelets (B)
XLVII. Milk with Cocoa and Chocolate
XLVIII. Milk and Cream
XLIX. Cream Soups (A)
L. Cream Soups (B)
LI. Milk Thickened with Egg (A)
LII. Milk Thickened with Egg (B)
LIII. Milk Thickened with Egg (C)
LIV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (A)
LV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (B)
LVI. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (C)
LVII. Cheese (A)
LVIII. Cheese (B)
LIX. Structure of Beef—Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts
LX. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (A)
LXI. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (B)
LXIL. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (A)
LXIII. Beef; Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (B)
LXIV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (C)
LXV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (D)
LXVI. Beef: Uses of Cooked Beef
LXVII. Gelatine (A)
LXVIIL. Gelatine (B)
LXIX. Fish (A)
LXX. Fish (B)
LXXI. Fish (C)
LXXII. Legumes (A)
LXXIII. Legumes (B)
LXXIV. Legumes (C)
LXXV. Cost of Food
LXXVI. Cooking and Serving a Breakfast
LXXVII. Review: Meal Cooking
LXXVIII. Home Projects
HEALTH AND GROWTH-PROMOTING FOODS,—RICH IN VITAMINES
LXXIX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Delicate Flavor
LXXX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Strong Flavor
LXXXI. Salads (A)
LXXXII. Salads (B)
LXXXIII. Classification of Foodstuffs
LXXXIV. Selecting Food
LXXXV. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
LXXXVL. Review: Meal Cooking
LXXXVII. Home Projects
FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS
LXXXVIII. Food Adjuncts—Dishes Containing Food Adjuncts
LXXXIX. Spending for Food
XC. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
XCI. Review: Meal Cooking
XCII. Home Projects
XCIII. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (A)
XCIV. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (B)
XCV. Fish Salad and Salad Rolls
XCVI. Cream of Tomato Soup and Cheese Straws
XCVII. Veal and Potatoes
XCVIII. Mutton and Lamb Dishes
XCIX. Pork, Vegetables, and Apple Sauce
C. Chicken and Rice
CI. Chicken and Peas
CII. Oyster Dishes
CIII. Meat-substitute Dishes
CIV. Meat Extenders and One-dish Meals
CVI. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
CVII. Review: Meal Cooking
CVIII. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: POUR BATTERS
CIX. Leavening with Steam and Air: Popovers
CX. Leavening with Baking Soda and Sour Milk: Spider Corn Bread
CXI. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Molasses: Gingerbread
CXII. Leavening with Baking Powder: Griddle Cakes
CXIII. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Baking Powder: Sour Milk Griddle Cakes
CXIV. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Cream of Tartar: Steamed Brown Breads
CXV. Formulating Recipes—Waffles
CXVI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Foods
CXVII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner
CXVIII. Review: Meal Cooking
CXIX. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: DROP BATTERS
CXX. Fine and Coarse Flours—Muffins
CXXI. Comparison of Wheat and Other Grains—Muffins
CXXII. Baking Powder Loaf Breads
CXXIII. Eggs for Quick Breads—Cream Puffs
CXXIV. Food Requirement
CXXV. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner
CXXVI. Review: Meal Cooking
CXXVII. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: SOFT DOUGHS
CXXVIII. Method of Mixing Fat in Quick Breads—Drop Biscuit
CXXIX. Quantity of Fat in Quick Breads—Short Cake
CXXX. "Cut" Biscuit
CXXXI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Food Applied to the Daily Food Requirement.
CXXXII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner.
CXXXIII. Review: Meal Cooking.
CXXXIV. Home Projects.
YEAST BREADS: STIFF DOUGHS
CXXXV. Yeast—Loaf Bread.
CXXXVI. Wheat Flour—Bread Sponge.
CXXXVII. Modifications of Plain White Bread.
CXXXVIII. Rolls and Buns.
CXXXIX. Food for Girls and Boys.
CXL. Planning a Day's Diet—Cooking and Serving a Meal.
CXLI. Review: Meal Cooking.
CXLII. Home Projects.
CXLIII. Cake without Fat—Sponge Cake.
CXLIV. Cake Containing Fat—One-egg Cake.
CXLV. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (A)
CXLVI. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (B)
CXLVII. Cake Containing Fat—Cookies
CXLVIII. Cakes without Eggs
CXLIX. The Luncheon Box
CL. Planning and Preparing Box Luncheons
CLI. Review—Meal Cooking
CLII. Home Projects
CLIII. Pies with Under Crust
CLIV. Pies with Upper Crust
CLV. Two-crust Pies
CLVI. Infant Feeding
CLVII. Modifying Milk
CLVIII. Review—Meal Cooking
CLIX. Home Projects
CLX. Method of Freezing—Water Ice
CLXI. Frozen Creams
CLXII. Diet for Young Children
CLXIII. Planning and Preparing Menus for Children
CLXIV. Review—Meal Cooking
CLXV. Home Projects
CLXVI. The Principles of Preserving Food
CLXVII. Processing with Little or No Sugar—Canned Fruit
CLXVIII. Processing with Much Sugar—Preserves, Jams, and Conserves
CLXIX. Processing with Much Sugar—Jellies
CLXX. Processing with Vinegar and Spices—Relishes
CLXXI. Canned Vegetables
CLXXII. Dried Vegetables
CLXXIII. The Sick-room Tray
CLXXIV. Preparing Trays for the Sick and Convalescent
CLXXV. Review—Meal Cooking
CLXXVI. Home Projects
I. Thanksgiving Sauce
II. Thanksgiving Desserts
III. Christmas Sweets
IV. Christmas Candy
Suggestions for Teaching
Books for Reference
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
A corner in Washington's kitchen at Mt. Vernon [Frontispiece]
1. Skewer and knitting needle for testing foods
2. A sink arranged for efficiency in dish-washing
3. Utensils for dish-washing
8. A rack for drying dishes
9. Utensils for measuring and weighing foods
10. Coal range, showing course of direct draft
11. Coal range, showing course of indirect draft
12. Gas burner, showing mixer
13. Gas burners
14. Gas range, showing direction of draft
15. Cross-section of wickless kerosene stove
16. Electric range
17. Pressure cooker
18. Steam cooker, containing various foods
19. Scene on a tea plantation
20. Tea-ball teapot
21. Coffee berries
22. Coffee percolator
23. Grains of starch
24. A cupful of rice before and after boiling
25. Insulated wall of a refrigerator
26. Fireless cooker, having excelsior packing
27. Fireless cooker, with stone disks
28. Electric fireless cooker
29. Gas range, having fireless cooker attachment, insulated oven and hoods
30. Method of folding filter paper
31. Utensil for steaming,—a "steamer"
32. "Steam" without pressure, and "steam" which has been under pressure
33. Table laid for an informal luncheon
34. Wheel tray
35. How to hold the knife and fork
36. Keeping the fork in the left hand to carry food to the mouth
37. The teaspoon should rest on the saucer
38. How to hold the soup spoon
39. Apparatus to determine the temperature at which eggs coagulate
40. Method of holding pan to turn an omelet on to a platter
41. Cocoa pods
42. Dried bread crumbs
43. Structure of meat
44. Club or Delmonico steak
46. Sirloin,—hip steak
47. Sirloin,—flat bone
48. Sirloin,—round bone
49. First cut prime rib roast
50. Second cut prime rib roast
51. Blade rib roast
52. Chuck rib roast
53. Colonial fireplace, showing a "roasting kitchen"
56. Cuts of beef
58. Cross rib, Boston cut, or English cut
59. Skirt steak; flank steak
60. Fish kettle, showing rack
61. A suggestion for the division of each dollar spent for food
62. The composition of roots and succulent vegetables
63. The composition of butter and other fat-yielding foods
64. The composition of milk and milk products
65. Cuts of veal
66. Cuts of lamb or mutton
67. Lamb chops
68. The composition of fresh and cured meats
69. Cuts of pork
70. The composition of fresh and dried fruits
71. Removing tendons from the leg of a fowl
72. Fowl trussed for roasting,—breast view
73. Fowl trussed for roasting,—back view
74. Composition of fish, fish products, and oysters
75. The composition of eggs and cheese
76. The composition of legumes and corn
77. The composition of bread and other cereal foods
78. Foods containing calcium
79. Foods containing phosphorus
80. Foods containing iron
81. Oven heat regulator
82. Illustrating the amount of heat represented by one Calorie
83. Comparative weights of 100-Calorie portions of food
84. 100-Calorie portions of food
85. Longitudinal section of wheat grain, showing bran, floury part, and germ
86. Growing yeast plants
87. Graduated measure and dipper for measuring the ingredients of modified milk
88. Some species of molds
89. The four types of bacteria
90. Canning foods
91. Rack for holding jars
92. The composition of fruits and fruit products
93. Drier for vegetables or fruits
94. The composition of sugar and similar foods
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Measurement equivalents.
2. Use of the wooden spoon.
3. Lack of draft.
4. Presence of draft.
5. The regulation and purpose of a gas mixer.
6. The dissolving power of water.
7. Presence of gases in water. 8. Simmering and boiling of water.
9. Tannin in tea.
10. The solubility of granulated sugar in cold water.
11. The solubility of granulated sugar in hot water.
12. The solubility of powdered sugar.
13. The solubility of caramel.
14. The starch test.
15. The effect of cold water on starch.
16. The effect of heat on starch.
17. Stiffening of cooked starch.
18. The structure of starch.
19. Separation of cellulose and starch.
20. The difference in the nutritive value of boiled rice and rice cooked over boiling water.
21. Retention of heat.
22. Starch grains and boiling water.
23. Separation of starch grains with cold water.
24. Separation of starch grains with sugar.
25. Separation of starch grains with fat.
26. The change of starch into dextrin.
27. The solubility of dextrin.
28. Starch in cracker.
29. Action of saliva upon starch.
30. The effect of soaking starchy vegetables in water.
31. Temperature at which fats and oils decompose or "burn".
32. Bread fried in "cool" fat.
33. The temperature of fat for frying
34. Saponification of fat
35. Action of oil and water
36. Emulsion of fat
37. The coagulation of egg-white
38. The solubility of albumin
39. Temperature at which eggs coagulate
40. Comparison of cooked and boiled eggs
41. Effect of beating a whole egg
42. Comparison of eggs beaten with a Dover egg beater and with a wire spoon
43. Effect of beating egg yolk and white separately
44. Separation of milk into foodstuffs
45. Scalding milk
46. Comparison of the conducting power of metal and earthenware
47. Effect of rennet on milk
48. Separation of curd and whey
49. Effect of acid on milk
50. Division of muscle
51. Effect of dry heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber
52. Effect of moisture and heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber
53. Comparison of starch and dextrin for thickening
54. Effect of cold water on meat
55. Effect of boiling water on meat
56. Effect of salt on meat
57. Effect of cold water on gelatine
58. Effect of hot water on gelatine
59. Effect of soaking fish in water
60. Effect of boiling fish rapidly
61. Effect of acid on milk
62. Neutralization of acid by means of soda
63. Protein in oyster liquor
64. Leavening with steam and air
65. Comparison of thick and thin quick breads
66. Preparation of flour for quick breads
67. Action of baking soda on sour milk
68. Chemical change
69. Quantity of baking soda to use with sour milk
70. Action of baking soda on molasses.
71. Quantity of baking soda to use with molasses.
72. Effect of cold water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.
73. Effect of hot water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.
74. Effect of hot water on baking powder.
75. Starch in baking powder.
76. Comparison of the time of action of different types of baking powders.
77. Conditions for growth of the yeast plant.
78. Protein in flour.
79. Mixtures for freezing.
80. Effect of air, light, and drying upon the growth of molds.
81. Effect of moisture and light upon the growth of molds.
82. Effect of moisture and darkness upon the growth of molds.
83. Effect of moisture and low temperature upon the growth of molds.
84. Growth of molds on cut fruit.
85. Growth of molds upon whole fruits.
86. Growth of molds on other foods.
87. Growth of molds upon wood.
88. Growth of molds upon cloth.
89. Contamination of fresh food by means of moldy food.
90. Growth of bacteria.
91. Effect of boiling upon the growth of bacteria.
92. Effect of preservatives on the growth of bacteria.
93. Use of sugar as a preservative.
94. Pectin in fruit juice.
95. Pectin in the inner portion of orange and lemon peel.
One of the slogans of the World War,—"Food will win the War,"—showed that food was much more important than many persons had believed. It confirmed the fact that food was not merely something that tastes good, or relieves the sensation of hunger, but that it was a vital factor in achieving one of the noblest ideals of all time.
The subject of food is a broad one,—one that is growing in interest. Many present-day scientists are finding a lifework in food study. "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are," was spoken many years ago. The most recent work in science confirms the fact that the kind of food an individual eats has much to do with his health and his ability to work. If you would be well, strong, happy, and full of vim choose your food carefully.
A study of food means a knowledge of many things. Before purchasing foods one should know what foods to select at market, whence they come, how they are prepared for market, by what means they are transported, and how they are taken care of in the market. There is a great variety of foods in the present-day market; some are rich in nutrients; others contain little nourishment, yet are high in price. It has been said that for food most persons spend the largest part of their incomes; it is a pity if they buy sickness instead of health. Whether foods are purchased at the lunch counter or at market, it is necessary to know what foods to choose to meet best the needs of the body.
Meal planning is an important factor of food study. The matter of combining foods that are varied in composition or that supplement one another in nutritious properties deserves much consideration. Not only nutriment but flavor enters into food combination. It is most important to combine foods that "taste well."
In learning to prepare foods, the experience of those who have cooked foods successfully is most helpful. Hence the pupil is told to follow directions for cooking a type of food or to use a recipe. Following a direction or recipe in a mechanical way, however, does not result in rapid progress. Keen observation and mental alertness are needed if you would become skilful in food preparation.
One class of food or one principle of cooking may be related to another or associated with another. For example, the method of cooking a typical breakfast cereal may be applied to cereals in general. There may be some exceptions to the rule, but when the basic principle of cooking is kept in mind, the variations can be readily made. If a pupil has learned to prepare Creamed Potatoes she should be able to apply the principle to the cooking of Potato Soup. In making chocolate beverage, the pupil learns to blend chocolate with other ingredients. The knowledge gained in making chocolate beverage should be applied to the flavoring of a cake or of a dessert with chocolate. In all the thousands of recipes appearing in cook books, only a few principles of cooking are involved. The pupil who appreciates this fact becomes a much more resourceful worker and acquires skill in a much shorter time.
The results of every process should be observed. Careful observations should be made when work is not successful. There is no such thing as "good luck" in cooking. There is a cause for every failure. The cause of the failure should be found and the remedy ascertained. The same mistake should never be made a second time. Progress is sure to result from such an attitude towards work. Moreover, confidence in the result of one's work is gained. This is of incalculable value, besides being a great satisfaction, to the home-keeper.
A dining table with carefully laid covers is always inviting. Graceful serving of food at such a table is an art. The ability to serve food in an attractive way is an accomplishment that no girl should fail to acquire.
Considerations regarding success in learning to cook may be summed up as follows:
(a) Know what foods to select from the standpoint of economy, nutriment, and flavor.
(b) Observe and think when working. Relate or associate one class of foods with another and one principle of cooking with another.
(c) Note the results of your work; know why the results are successful or why they are unsuccessful.
Food selection, food combination, and food preparation are all important factors of good cooking. It is to be hoped that the pupil will realize that the study of food and cooking means the ability not only to boil, broil, and bake, but to select, combine, use, and serve food properly. All this demands much earnest thought and effort.
SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
BAKED APPLES (Stuffed with Raisins)
6 apples Seeded raisins 6 tablespoonfuls brown sugar 6 tablespoonfuls water
Wash the apples; with an apple corer or paring knife, remove the core from each. Place the apples in a granite, earthenware, or glass baking-dish. Wash a few raisins and place 6 of them and I level tablespoonful of sugar in each core. Pour the water around the apples.
Bake in a hot oven until tender. Test the apples for sufficient baking with a fork, skewer, or knitting needle (see Figure 1). During baking, occasionally "baste" the apples, i.e. take spoonfuls of the water from around the apples and pour it on the top of them. The time for baking apples varies with the kind of apple and the temperature of the oven. From 20 to 40 minutes at 400 degrees F. is usually required.
DISH-WASHING AND EFFICIENCY.—There is almost invariably a waste of effort in both the washing and the drying of dishes. This may be due to:
(a) Poorly arranged dish-washing equipments.
(b) Inadequate utensils for dish-washing.
(c) Lack of forethought in preparing the dishes for washing and too many motions in washing and drying them.
Since dish-washing is one of the constant duties of housekeeping, efficiency methods, i.e. methods which accomplish satisfactory results with the fewest motions and in the least time, should be applied to it. The washing of dishes, invariably considered commonplace, may become an interesting problem if it is made a matter of motion study.
For thorough and rapid dish-washing, the following equipment is desirable:
A sink placed at a height that admits of an erect position while washing dishes, [Footnote 1: In case it is necessary for one to wash dishes at a sink which is placed too low, the dish-pan may be raised by placing it on an inverted pan or on a sink-rack, which may be purchased for this purpose.] and equipped with two draining boards, one on each side of the sink, or with one draining board on the left side; dish and draining pans; dish-drainer (see Figures 4 and 5); dish-rack (see Figures 6 and 7); dish- mop (see Figure 3); wire dish-cloth or pot-scraper (see Figure 3); dish- cloths (not rags); dish-towels; rack for drying cloths and towels; soap- holder (see Figure 3) or can of powdered soap; can of scouring soap and a large cork for scouring; tissue paper or newspapers cut in convenient size for use; scrubbing-brush; bottle-brush (see Figure 3); rack made of slats for drying brushes (see Figure 2).
PREPARING DISHES FOR WASHING.—If possible, as soon as serving dishes, i.e. dishes used at the dining table, are soiled, scrape away bits of food from them. The scraping may be done with: (a) a piece of soft paper, (b) plate-scraper (see Figure 3), (c) a knife or spoon. The latter is doubtless the most commonly used for dish scraping, but it is less efficient and may scratch china. If it is impossible to wash dishes soon after soiling, let them soak in water until they can be washed.
Cooking utensils need special care before washing, especially if they have held greasy foods. "Oil and water do not mix!" The grease from dish-water often collects in the drain-pipe and prevents or retards the drainage of waste water. This often means expensive plumber's bills and great inconvenience. Bear in mind the following cautions Before putting a utensil which has held fat into the dish-water, always wipe it carefully with a piece of paper. After wiping most of the grease from a pan or kettle, the remaining fat can be entirely removed by filling the utensil with hot water and then adding washing-soda. Boil the solution a few minutes. Fat and washing-soda react and form soap; hence the effectiveness of this method (See Experiment 34) (This method should not be applied to aluminum utensils; washing-soda or any alkaline substance makes a dark stain on aluminum)
Utensils used in cooking can generally be washed with greater efficiency if they are soaked before washing. Fill each dish or pan with water, using cold water for all utensils which have held milk, cream, eggs, flour, or starch, and hot water for all dishes having contained sugar or sirup.
ARRANGING DISHES.—Arrange dishes and all the requisite dish-washing utensils in convenient order for washing, placing all of one kind of dishes together. Also place the dishes to be washed at the right of the dish-pan. Wash them and place the washed dishes at the left of the pan. A dish-washer invariably holds a dish that is being washed in her left hand and the dish-cloth or mop in her right hand. That there may be no unnecessary motions, the dishes should be placed to drain after washing at the left of the dish-pan. In this way there is no crossing of the left hand over the right arm as there would be if the washed dishes were placed at the right of the dish-pan. A cupboard located above the draining board at the left makes the storing of dishes an efficient process (see Figure 2).
WASHING AND SCOURING DISHES AND UTENSILS.—Fill the dish-pan about two thirds full of hot water. "Soap" the water before placing the dishes in the pan; use soap-powder, a soap-holder, or a bar of soap. If the latter is used, do not allow it to remain in the water. Fill another pan about two thirds full of hot water for rinsing the dishes. A wire basket may be placed in the rinsing pan.
Place the dishes, a few at a time, in the dish-pan. Wash the cleanest dishes first, usually in the following order: glasses, silverware, cups, saucers, plates, large dishes, platters, cooking utensils, then the soap- dish and dish-pan. In washing decorated china, use soap sparingly. Do not wash glassware in very hot water. Use slices of potato, finely torn bits of blotting paper, or egg shells to clean the inside of water bottles or vinegar cruets. Wooden-handled utensils or the cogs of the Dover egg beater should not soak in water.
If the cogs of the egg beater are soiled, wipe them with a damp cloth. Change the dish-water occasionally, not allowing it to become cold or greasy.
Wash steel knives and forks and place them without rinsing on a tin pan to scour. With a cork apply powdered bath brick or other scouring material to the steel. Again wash the scoured utensils, rinse, and dry. If there are any stains on tin, iron, or enamel ware, remove with scouring soap. Apply the latter with a cork, or wring out the dish-cloth as dry as possible, rub scouring soap on it, and apply to the utensils. Scrub meat, pastry or bread boards, wooden rolling pins, and wooden table tops with cold water and scouring soap. Then rinse and wipe the scoured wood with a cloth which is free from grease. If it is not necessary to scrub meat, pastry, or bread boards on both sides, they should be rinsed on the clean side to prevent warping.
RINSING AND DRAINING DISHES.—Place the washed dishes in wire baskets (see Figures 4 and 5) or in dish-racks (see Figures 6, 7, and 8). If the former has been placed in the rinsing pan, the basket may be lifted out of the water to drain the dishes. In case the washed dishes are placed in dish- racks, rinse them by pouring hot water over them and let them drain again.
DRYING DISHES AND UTENSILS.—If such dishes as plates, platters, and saucers are placed upright to drain and are rinsed with very hot water, no towel-drying is required. Glassware and silver should be dried with a soft towel. Towels made from flour sacks or from glass toweling are good for this purpose.
Coarser towels may be used to dry cooking utensils. To prevent rusting, dry tin, iron, and steel utensils most thoroughly. After using a towel on these wares it is well to place them on the back of the range or in the warming oven. Woodenware should be allowed to dry thoroughly in the open air. Stand boards on end until dry.
CARE OF DISH-TOWELS AND CLOTHS.—Use dish-towels and cloths for no other purpose than washing and drying dishes. It is a matter of much importance to keep dish-towels and cloths clean. To clean the towels and cloths soak them in cold water. Then wash in hot soapy water and rinse them well. Wring, stretch, and hang to dry on a rack, or preferably in the sun. At least once a week boil the towels. First soak, wash, and rinse them as directed above. Then place them in cold water and heat the water until it boils. Wring, stretch, and hang to dry.
CARE OF THE SINK.—If the sink is of porcelain or enamel, it may be cleaned with soap, but not with scouring soap or powder. The latter wears away the smooth finish, makes it slightly rough and hence more difficult to clean. Before applying soap to a sink, wring out the cloth used in cleaning it as dry as possible and then with the hand push any water standing in the sink down the drainpipe. Then apply soap to the cloth and wash the sink. Do not let the water run from the faucet while cleaning the sink. If the dirt and grease on a sink do not yield to soap, apply a small quantity of kerosene. After cleaning, rinse the sink by opening the hot-water faucet, letting a generous supply of water flow down the drain-pipe so as to rinse the trap.
The drain-pipe and trap of a sink need special cleaning occasionally. This is often done by pouring a solution of washing-soda down the drain. If this is used, special care should be taken to rinse the drain with much hot water. As previously explained, grease and washing-soda form soap. If the latter is allowed to remain in the trap, it may harden and stop the drain-pipe. Because of the formation of soap and the possible stoppage of the drain-pipe when washing-soda is used, kerosene is advised. To use this, first flush the drain with about half a gallon of hot water. Immediately pour in one half cupful of kerosene. Let the kerosene remain in the trap for at least 5 minutes. Then rinse with another half gallon of water. Kerosene emulsifies grease and makes it easy to rinse away.
SUGGESTIONS FOR PERSONAL NEATNESS IN THE SCHOOL KITCHEN AND AT HOME.—For both comfort and cleanliness a washable gown should be worn in the kitchen or the gown should be well covered by an apron. It is advisable to cover the hair with a hair net or cap. Rings are an inconvenience when worn in the kitchen. The hands should be washed before preparing or cooking food, and after touching the hair or handkerchief. It is desirable to have a hand towel conveniently placed.
Clean cooking means clean tasting. This can be done by taking some of the food with the cooking spoon and then pouring it from the cooking spoon into a teaspoon. Taste from the teaspoon.
Are apples sold by weight or by measure, i.e. by the pound or peck?
What is the price per pound or per peck of apples?
Why should dishes which have held milk, cream, egg, flour, or starch be rinsed with cold water?
Why should dishes having contained sugar or sirup be soaked in hot water?
Why should greasy dishes and utensils be wiped with paper and then rinsed with hot water before washing?
Why should not a bar of soap "soak" in dish-water?
Why not fill the dish-pan with soiled dishes?
Why should glass be washed in warm (not hot) water?
Why should not wooden-handled utensils and the cogs of the Dover egg beater "soak" in dish-water? Why should glass and silver be wiped with a soft towel?
Why should tin, iron, and steel utensils be dried most thoroughly?
Why should woodenware be allowed to dry in the open air? (See Experiment 87.)
Why should dish-towels be placed in boiling water during laundering?
Why should scouring soap or powder not be used in cleaning a porcelain or enamel sink?
What is the purpose of wringing out dry a sink-cloth and letting no water run from the faucet while cleaning a sink?
MEASUREMENTS—STUFFED AND SCALLOPED TOMATOES
EXPERIMENT 1: [Footnote 2: The pupil should record each experiment in a notebook in a methodical way, giving (a) the aim of the experiment, (b) the process, (c) the result, and (d) the conclusion or practical application.] MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENTS.—In measuring solid materials with teaspoon, tablespoon, or standard measuring cup (see Figure 9), fill the measuring utensil with the material and then "level" it with a knife.
Use both water and flour or sugar for the following measurements:
(a) Find the number of teaspoonfuls in one tablespoonful
(b) Find the number of tablespoonfuls in one cup
(c) Find the number of cupfuls in one pint
Half a spoonful is obtained by dividing through the middle lengthwise
A quarter of a spoonful is obtained by dividing a half crosswise
An eighth of a spoonful is obtained by dividing a quarter diagonally
A third of a spoonful is obtained by dividing twice crosswise
A set of measuring spoons (see Figure 9) is most convenient for measuring fractional teaspoonfuls
NEED OF ACCURACY—When learning to cook, it is necessary to measure all ingredients with exactness. Experienced cooks can measure some ingredients for certain purposes quite satisfactorily "by eye". The result is satisfactory, however, only when the cook has established her own standards of measurements by much practice. Even then many housewives are not sure of success. For certain foods the ingredients should always be measured accurately, no matter how skilful the cook. As far as possible, the exact quantity of a recipe is given in this text. When the quantity of an ingredient is too small for practical measurement, merely the name of the ingredient is given and no definite quantity indicated. When large quantities of materials are to be measured, a quart measure on which the pint and half pint quantities are indicated usually proves more convenient than a measuring cup. Many foods, especially fats, are more conveniently weighed than measured. Kitchen scales are a useful equipment for cooking (see Figure 9).
The amateur should, however, train her eye to approximate measurements. She should learn to estimate the size of saucepans and other cooking utensils, and also of serving dishes. Measure by cupfuls the capacity of several utensils in constant use and thus establish a few standards of measurement.
Also it is well to be on the alert to learn the proper quantity of food to buy at market, and the proper quantity of food to cook for a stated number of persons. She would make a sad failure who would prepare just enough rice to serve four persons when six were to be seated at the table. She might be able to cook the cereal well and to tell many interesting facts concerning its growth, composition, and preparation, yet for the lack of a little homely knowledge the meal would be disappointing. A thrifty housekeeper would not buy enough lettuce or spinach for ten people when there were only six to be served. In the school kitchen always note the quantity of the materials used, and then observe the quantity of the finished product.
EXPERIMENT 2: USE OF THE WOODEN SPOON.—Place a tin and a wooden spoon in a saucepan of boiling water. After the water has boiled for at least 5 minutes grasp the handles of the spoons. Which is the hotter? Which would be the more comfortable to use when stirring hot foods? What kind of spoon—tin or wood—should be used for acid foods? Why? (See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits.)
Explain why it is that the handles of teakettles, knobs on covers for saucepans, etc., are of wood.
6 ripe tomatoes 2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls salt Dash pepper 3/4 teaspoonful mixed herbs 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute
Wash the tomatoes, remove a slice from the tops, and take out most of the seed portion. Add the seasoning to the bread crumbs, melt the fat, then add the seasoned bread crumbs to the fat. Fill the tomatoes with the prepared crumbs, place them in an oiled baking-pan, and bake slowly (about 20 minutes) until the tomatoes are soft but not broken, and the crumbs brown. Test the tomatoes with a knitting needle or skewer (see Figure 1) rather than with a fork.
For mixed herbs use equal parts of marjoram, savory, and thyme.
Soft bread crumbs are prepared from stale bread, i.e. bread that has been out of the oven for at least twenty-four hours.
Vegetables, such as corn and canned peas, may be used instead of bread crumbs to stuff tomatoes. Use salt, pepper, and butter with these vegetables.
Use a granite, glass, or earthenware utensil for cooking tomatoes. (See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits.)
SCALLOPED TOMATOES [Footnote 3: NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—Recipes for both fresh and canned vegetables are given so that a selection depending upon the season can be made.]
1 can or 1 quart tomatoes 1 tablespoonful salt Dash pepper 3 cupfuls bread crumbs 3 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute
If fresh tomatoes are used, plunge them into boiling water, then drain and peel and cut into pieces.
Mix the salt and pepper with the tomatoes and pour into a buttered baking- dish. Cover with buttered crumbs (see Stuffed Tomatoes) and bake at 400 degrees F., 30 to 40 minutes. Cover during first part of baking to prevent the crumbs from browning too rapidly. Serve hot. A scalloped dish should be served from the dish in which it is baked.
Green tomatoes may be scalloped in the same manner as ripe tomatoes.
Soft or dried bread crumbs may be used in scalloping tomatoes. Use only 1 cupful of the dried crumbs.
TO GREASE OR OIL A PAN OR BAKING-DISH.—Heat slightly the pan or dish to be oiled. Put a bit of fat on a small piece of clean paper. Then rub the heated pan or dish with the paper. This is a most satisfactory method because little fat is required and the utensils used for oiling do not have to be cleaned. Often a spoon or cup that has contained fat may be wiped with a piece of paper and the latter used for greasing a pan. It is well for a housekeeper to have a boxful of pieces of paper in the kitchen for this purpose. Some authorities consider a pastry brush a satisfactory means of applying melted butter for oiling. Much fat, however, clings to the bristles of the brush and the brush needs frequent and careful cleaning.
Butter, oleomargarine, lard, vegetable fats, or oils may be used for oiling pans or baking-dishes.
In stuffed tomatoes, note that the seasonings are added to the crumbs before they are buttered. Why?
Why test the tomatoes with a knitting needle or skewer rather than with a fork?
What kind of baking-pan—tin, granite, or earthenware—is best to use for Stuffed or Scalloped Tomatoes? Why? (See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits, p.65)
Are tomatoes sold by weight or by measure, i.e. by the pound or peck?
What is the price of tomatoes per pound or peck?
How many slices of bread are required to make 2 cupfuls of crumbs?
How many slices in one loaf of bread?
FUELS AND COMBUSTION—SAUTED AND BAKED SQUASH
FUEL.—In order to cook foods, heat in some form must be applied. This heat is obtained usually by burning some substance. Thus the first requisite for obtaining heat is something to burn, i.e. a fuel. The fuels commonly used in households are,—wood, coal, kerosene, and gas. Although electricity is not a fuel, its use in cooking is so well established that it should be mentioned as a source of heat.
HEAT; KINDLING TEMPERATURE.—There are fuel substances everywhere,—paper, cloth, wood, etc. These materials do not burn unless heated; even gas does not burn by simply turning on the stopcock. But if a piece of paper is placed in contact with glowing iron, the paper burns. It burns because it is heated. If the blazing paper is placed in contact with kindling wood and coal, the kindling wood soon begins to burn because it is heated by the burning paper. The coal burns when it is heated by the burning wood. All fuels must be heated before they will burn.
When one thinks of the ease with which paper "catches fire" and of the difficulty of making hard coal burn, it becomes evident that some substances require only a small amount of heat before they will burn, while others require much heat. Different materials, then, require different degrees of heat to burn. The phosphorus and other substances on the tip of a match ignite readily. The heat that is developed by rubbing the tip over some surface is sufficient to make the phosphorus burn. The burning phosphorus and other substances heat the match stick to the temperature at which it begins to burn; the burning match stick applied to paper heats the latter to the temperature at which it burns. The temperature to which a substance must be heated in order to burn and continue to burn is called the kindling temperature of that substance.
EXPERIMENT 3: LACK OF DRAFT.—(a) Place a short candle on a pan. Light the candle and put a tall slender lamp chimney over it. Does the candle continue to burn? Why?
(b) Again light the candle and replace the chimney, but this time support it on two sticks of wood or on the handles of a knife and fork so that it will not rest directly on the pan. Place a saucer or a piece of cardboard over the top of the chimney. Does the candle continue to burn? Why?
EXPERIMENT 4: PRESENCE OF DRAFT.—Remove the cover from the top of the chimney, and again light the candle. Does it continue to burn? What substance necessary for combustion is present in the chimney? Explain why the candle soon went out in Experiment 3, but continued to burn in this experiment.
If a blanket is thrown upon a burning stick of wood, the wood soon ceases to burn. The wood stops burning because the oxygen of the air is excluded from it. The act of burning, i.e. combustion, is the union of any substance with oxygen, with the result that heat and light are produced. We have learned that a fuel cannot unite with oxygen until heated to a certain temperature. And, no matter how hot it is, the fuel will not burn unless it unites with oxygen. Oxygen, then, is the third requisite for combustion.
The necessity for a draft, i.e. a continuous supply of fresh air which furnishes oxygen, is shown by Experiments 3 and 4.
SAUTED [Footnote 4: To saute is to brown in a small quantity of fat.] SUMMER SQUASH [Footnote 5: See footnote 3.]
Wash summer squash. Cut it in slices 3/4 inch thick. (Do not remove the skin or the seeds.) Dip each slice in flour. In a frying pan put some fat and heat it. Add the squash and cook each slice on both sides until golden brown in color. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Then place a cover over the frying pan and continue to cook the squash until it is tender. Serve at once.
BAKED WINTER SQUASH [Footnote 6: See "Note to Teacher," Footnote 3]
Wash a squash and cut or split it into pieces of suitable size for serving. Remove the seeds from each piece and make several gashes (at right angles to one another) cutting through the pulp down to the shell. Place the pieces (shell down) on the grating in the oven and bake (at moderate temperature) until the pulp is tender. Serve hot, with butter, salt, and pepper.
Name the three requisites for combustion.
Which has the higher kindling temperature, wood or coal? Explain your answer.
What is the price of summer and of winter squash? How much of each kind of squash is required to serve 6 persons?
COAL RANGES [Footnote 7: NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—The principles of building a coal fire and of regulating dampers may be applied to furnaces and heating stoves as well as to kitchen ranges. In case there are no cooking or heating stoves or furnaces in which coal is burned in the homes of the pupils, this lesson may be omitted]—CORN DISHES
EXAMINATION OF A COAL RANGE.—Remove the lids from the coal range. Note the location of the fire box. What is its purpose? How is the floor of the fire box constructed? Where is the check damper? What is its purpose? Where is the ash pan? Where is the front damper? What is its purpose? Note the place where the stovepipe joins the range. What is the purpose of the stovepipe? Note the damper in the stovepipe. What is its purpose? Note the location of the oven. By what is the oven surrounded? Find the oven damper. Open it. In what direction do the hot gases pass out when the oven damper is open? What part of the range is heated when the oven damper is open?
An open damper permits a direct draft to pass through the range (see Figure 10).
Close the oven damper. Trace the direction of the hot gases when the damper is closed. What parts of the range are heated when the oven damper is closed?
A closed oven damper permits an indirect draft to pass through the range (see Figure 11).
How should the front, oven, check, and chimney dampers be arranged when the fire is kindled?
PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION.—What is found deposited on the inside of the stovepipe of a coal range? To what is the upper end of the stovepipe joined? What does one often see coming from the top of a chimney?
In the previous lesson it was found that when a material burned, it united with oxygen. It is a matter of common observation that when all solid fuels—coal, wood, paper—burn, they decrease in size, and that fuel gas is consumed. Apparently only a few ashes remain when solid fuels have been burned, and only a disagreeable odor remains when gas has been burned. Yet soot is deposited in the stovepipe and smoke issues from the chimney. Both solid and gaseous materials, such as ashes, soot, and smoke, are formed when fuels burn. Such materials are called products of combustion.
FIRE BUILDING IN A COAL RANGE.—It is necessary to have the fire box, ash pan, and other parts of the stove clean before building a fire. After cleaning, place a generous layer of loosely crumpled paper over the bottom of the fire box, then about four layers of kindling wood, placed so that there are air passages between the pieces, and on top of the wood put two shovelfuls of coal. Regulate the dampers for a direct draft, replace the stove-lids, and brush the surface of the stove.
Before lighting the fuels, polish the range in the following manner: To the nickel of the stove apply whiting and ammonia or any satisfactory metal cleanser.
To the iron of the stove apply oil rather than "blacking." Light paraffin oil may be used for this purpose. Apply the oil with cotton waste, or a soft cloth. (Care should be taken not to apply an excess of oil.) Polish with soft cotton or woolen cloth. One should remember, however, that oil must be used with caution. It should never be applied to a stove containing burning fuels. If the stove cloth, saturated with oil, is not destroyed after using, it is well to keep it in a covered tin can or stone jar. After polishing the stove, light the fuels. When the wood is reduced to glowing embers and the coal is burning, add more coal. If this burns well, change the dampers to make an indirect draft.
GREEN CORN In selecting corn for cooking, choose those ears that are filled with well-developed kernels, from which milky juice flows when pressed with the thumb. Cook as soon as possible after gathering.
To boil green corn remove silk and husk from the corn, place the ears in boiling water. Cook the corn until no juice flows from the kernels when pressed (usually from 12 to 20 minutes). Serve whole on a platter. The platter may be covered with a folded napkin.
To bake green corn select 12 ears. Remove the corn from the cob as follows: Cut through the center of each row of grains, slice off the tops of the kernels, and then scrape the pulp thoroughly from the cob. Put in a baking-dish, add:
3/4 cupful milk 1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 2 teaspoonfuls salt Pepper
Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes. Serve hot.
Green corn which has been cut from the cob may also be cooked on top of the range. To the corn cut from 12 ears, add the same ingredients, using less milk. Cook at simmering temperature until tender.
1 can corn 2/3 cupful milk 1 1/4 teaspoonfuls salt Dash pepper 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs
Mix the corn, milk, and seasonings. Mix the crumbs and fat, and place one fourth of them in the bottom of a buttered baking-dish, add one half of the corn mixture, then another fourth of the crumbs, the remainder of the corn mixture, and finally the remainder of the buttered crumbs. Bake at 400 degrees F., for 45 minutes.
Explain why it is necessary to have the fire box, ash pan, and other parts of a coal range clean before building a fire.
If both hard and soft woods are used in building a fire, which should be placed next to the paper? Explain your answer.
What is the advantage in using oil rather than blacking in cleaning a range?
Explain why a stove cloth, saturated with oil, should be kept in a covered tin can or stone jar.
Compare the method of mixing the crumbs in Scalloped Tomatoes and in Scalloped Corn. Which contains the more moisture,—corn or tomatoes? From this explain the difference in mixing.
What is the price of 12 ears of green corn or of 1 can of corn?
GAS RANGES—SCALLOPED FRUIT
EXAMINATION OF A GAS BURNER.—Inspect a gas burner and find the following parts: (a) Supply pipe. (b) Stopcock. (c) Burner. (d) Mixer (see Figure 12).
To light a gas burner, observe the following directions, and in the order named: (a) Strike the match. (b) Turn the stopcock. (c) Apply the match to the open burner. (d) If necessary, regulate the stopcock and mixer, so that the flame is blue in color.
EXPERIMENT 6: THE REGULATION AND PURPOSE OF A GAS MIXER.—Light a gas burner and then completely close the mixer of the burner. If the mixer is stationary, it may be closed by wrapping a piece of paper about it. What is the color of the flame? Now open the mixer. What is the color of the flame? What substance has been "mixed" with the gas by opening the burner? What is the purpose of the mixer?
EXAMINATION OF A GAS RANGE.—Inspect a gas range and find the following parts: (a) Top burners—regular, giant and simmering (see Figure 13). (b) Stopcocks of top burners. (c) Oven burners. (d) Stopcocks of oven burners. (e) Pilot (if there is one). (f) Baking oven. (g) Broiling oven. (h) Warming oven and its burner (if there is one). (i) Supply pipe. (j) Stovepipe.
The method of lighting oven burners varies in different ranges, and for this reason it is impossible to give directions for lighting which will apply to all oven burners. There is, however, one important direction that should always be borne in mind. Always open the oven door before lighting the oven burners. If such caution is not observed, the gas may escape into the oven and cause an explosion. In case there is a pilot- lighter, open the oven door and see that the oven burners are turned off before lighting the pilot.
ADJUSTING A GAS BURNER.—The products of combustion of fuel gas that most interest the housekeeper are carbon and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not a poisonous gas, but it does not support animal life. Air containing much carbon dioxide does not contain enough oxygen for perfect respiration, hence the need of an outlet for the products of combustion of a gas stove; good flue construction is quite as necessary for a gas range as for a coal range (see Figure 14).
When gas burns with a yellow flame, it deposits soot on cooking utensils and does not give as much heat as it should. This is caused by incomplete combustion. Moreover, carbon monoxide, which is present in some gas, may escape without burning. This is an exceedingly poisonous gas and when inhaled even in small quantities may cause serious effects. Hence it is specially necessary for a housewife to see that the gas burner is clean, well regulated, and properly constructed, so that sufficient air can mix with the gas to produce a blue flame.
CONSERVING GAS.—According to authoritative information, [Footnote 8: United States Fuel Administration Bulletin, "Use and Conservation of Natural Gas"] "the demands for natural gas are now greater than the available supply. Food and trees can be grown. Water supplies are constantly replenished by nature, but there is no regeneration in natural gas." It is thought that natural gas forms so slowly that millions of years will be required to make the present concentrated supply. As far as we are concerned, when the present supply is used up, it is gone forever. Since natural gas is a most efficient fuel, every housekeeper and householder should feel obligated to waste none of it. Suggestions for conserving gas follow:
(1) See that the mixer is properly adjusted so that the flame is light blue in color.
(2) In selecting a gas stove, see that the burner is so located that the cooking surface is the correct distance above the burner. The tip of the flame should touch the bottom of the utensil. If it is necessary to have a long flame in order to bring this about, there is considerable waste of gas.
(3) If the flame is long, the gas pressure is greater than necessary. Regulate the gas pressure by adjusting the valve in the supply pipe. A short flame will save gas and produce satisfactory results, provided the cooking surface is the proper distance above the burner.
(4) After the contents of a cooking utensil boils, turn the gas cock so that only "gentle" boiling takes place. A food becomes no hotter in rapidly boiling than in gently boiling water.
(5) When possible, use the simmering burner rather than the regular or giant burner.
(6) Let the flame touch only the bottom of the cooking utensil. There is a wastage of gas when the flame streams lip the sides of the cooking utensil.
(7) Turn off the gas immediately when fuel is not needed. Matches are cheaper than fuel gas.
CARE OF THE GAS RANGE.—Daily Care.—If any substance on the stove cannot be removed easily, loosen it with a knife, and then wipe the stove with a newspaper. Clean the stove with waste or a cloth having a little light paraffin oil on it. Polish with soft cotton or flannel cloth. Remove the tray that is beneath the top burners, and wash.
Weekly Care.—Wash the inside of the oven and the movable tray with water to which washing soda solution has been added. It is well to light the oven burner to dry the stove after washing the ovens. Polish the nickel, if necessary. Clean the stove with oil as directed for a coal range. (Since oils ignite most readily, care should be taken not to apply the oil when the stove is lighted!) Wipe the burner with the oil. Clean the small holes of the burners by using a knitting needle or wire kept for this purpose; or, if the openings in the burners are slots, use a knife to clean them.
2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 3 cupfuls apples 1/2 cupful sugar 1/4 teaspoonful cinnamon 1/2 teaspoonful nutmeg 1/2 lemon,—juice and grated rind 1/4 cupful water
Mix the bread crumbs with the fat as directed for Stuffed Tomatoes.
Chop or cut the apples in small pieces, and add the remaining ingredients to the apples. Arrange the crumbs and apple mixture in a baking dish as directed for Scalloped Corn. Bake 40 to 60 minutes (until the apples are tender and the crumbs brown), in a moderate oven. Cover during first 20 minutes of baking. Serve hot with sugar and cream or Hard Sauce. Care should be taken in grating lemon rind. Only the thin yellow portion should be used as flavoring.
1 cupful butter 1 cupful powdered sugar 1 teaspoonful vanilla
Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, then the flavoring. Chill and serve over hot puddings.
In the Scalloped Apple recipe substitute bananas for apples, omit the water, and use 1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon and 1/8 teaspoonful of cloves for the spices. Bake until the bananas are heated through and the crumbs browned. (It will take about 15 minutes.) Serve as Scalloped Apples.
Explain fully why the oven door of a gas range should be opened while the oven burners are being lighted.
If a gas stove has no pipe for waste products, what special caution must be observed in ventilating the kitchen?
What are some of the advantages of a gas range over a coal range?
What disadvantage other than gas wastage is there when a flame streams up the sides of a cooking utensil?
What causes pared apples to become discolored?
Give the order of preparation of ingredients for Scalloped Apples so that discoloration of the apples will be avoided.
How many medium-sized apples are required to make three cupfuls of chopped apples?
What is the purpose of covering the Scalloped Apples during the first half of the time for baking?
What is the effect of the air on peeled bananas?
Give the order of preparation of ingredients for Scalloped Bananas.
Why should the banana mixture be baked a shorter time than the apple mixture?
What is the effect of too long baking on bananas?
What is the most practical method of cleaning a grater? Why should not the dish-cloth be used in cleaning it?
STOVES AND HEATING DEVICES—STUFFED PEPPERS, BUTTERSCOTCH APPLES
KEROSENE STOVES. [Footnote 9: NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—In case no kerosene, gasoline, or electric stoves are used in the homes of the pupils, the portion of the lesson regarding these stoves may be omitted.]—Where gas is not available for cooking, kerosene may serve as a fuel. In case a house is equipped with a coal range, a kerosene stove may also be desirable for use in summer time.
There are two types of kerosene stoves, viz., wick and wickless stoves. The burners of the former type are supplied with cotton wicks which become saturated with kerosene. When a match is applied to the wick, the kerosene on it vaporizes and the vapor burns. The burning kerosene vapor vaporizes more kerosene and thus the burning continues.
In one type of wickless stove it is necessary to heat the burner so that the kerosene will vaporize when it comes in contact with it (see Figure 15). Such a burner may be heated by pouring a small quantity of gasoline into it. A lighter is then applied to the burner. When the latter is sufficiently heated, the kerosene is turned on. The kerosene then vaporizes as it flows into the hot burner and burns.
In other types of so-called wickless stoves, the burners are equipped with asbestos or other incombustible material. This material becomes saturated with kerosene and carries the fuel to the tip of the burner somewhat as does a cloth wick.
It is especially necessary to keep kerosene burners clean. Bits of carbon collect in them and prevent perfect combustion. This results in "smoke" or soot issuing from the burner. It is well to keep the burners and wicks free from charred material, and to renew the latter when they become short.
Most kerosene stoves are equipped with removable containers for the fuel. These should be kept filled with sufficient kerosene for burning. A wick burner should never be allowed to burn after all the kerosene in the container is exhausted.
GASOLINE STOVES [Footnote 10: See note to the teacher, Footnote 9.]— Since gasoline is a much more readily inflammable fuel than kerosene, it requires a different type of burner and stove. As a usual thing gasoline cannot be burned in kerosene stoves nor kerosene in gasoline stoves. (In the stove shown in Figure 15, however, either fuel may be burned.)
When gasoline is used in a stove, it is necessary to vaporize the gasoline before lighting the burner. This is accomplished in most stoves by letting the gasoline flow into a cup situated underneath the burner, turning off the supply of gasoline, and then applying a match to the cup. By the time the gasoline is burned the burner is heated. Then the stopcock is turned on, a match applied to the burner, and the gasoline vaporizes and burns.
Gasoline burners, like those in which kerosene is burned, should be kept clean. When a mixture of gasoline vapor and air is heated, an explosion may result. It is for this reason that the tank or gasoline container of a stove should never be filled while the burners of the stove are lighted or even hot.
ELECTRIC STOVES. [Footnote 11: See note to the teacher, Footnote 9.]—It was mentioned previously that electricity is not a fuel. Hence electric stoves are not provided with burners. They have heaters which contain coils of wires through which an electric current passes. Electricity is the cleanest source of heat for cooking. But in order to operate an electric stove economically, it is necessary to utilize the current required for a heating element to its greatest extent. For example, if the current is turned on to heat the oven as many foods as possible should be cooked in the oven (see Figure 16).
DEVICES AND UTENSILS FOR SAVING FUEL.—The pressure cooker (see Figure 17) in which a temperature higher than that of boiling water is maintained is a great saver of fuel. A food can be cooked in from one third to one fourth the usual length of time in one of these devices. Moreover, pressure cookers are especially valuable for high altitude cooking, where water boils at a temperature lower than at sea level.
The steam cooker (see Figure 18) is a fuel saver, when several foods are cooked at one time in it. Sufficient fuel for only one burner is required to operate it. The so-called clover leaf pans or utensils of such shape that two or three can be placed over one burner or heater save much fuel or current (see Figures 16 and 27.).
The fireless cookers described in Lesson XXII are practical fuel and heat savers.
STUFFED PEPPERS [Footnote 12: A choice of either Stuffed Peppers or Butterscotch Apples may be made for this lesson.]
6 green peppers 1 cupful cooked meat, chopped 1 tablespoonful scraped onion 1 teaspoonful salt 2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 1 tablespoonful butter or substitute
Cut a slice from the stem end of each pepper or cut each pepper lengthwise in halves. Remove the seeds.
Mix the chopped meat, onion, and salt. Mix the bread crumbs and fat as directed in Stuffed Tomatoes. Combine the ingredients and stuff the peppers with the mixture. Place the peppers in a baking-dish or pan, and pour enough boiling water into the dish or pan to cover the bottom of it. Bake in a moderate oven (375 degrees F.) for 30 to 45 minutes or until the peppers are tender. Serve hot in place of meat.
If desired, 1/4 cupful fresh or canned tomatoes may be added to the stuffing mixture. Cooked rice may be substituted for the bread crumbs. A mixture of cooked rice and cheese sauce (see p 87) also makes a tasty stuffing for peppers.
If a slice is cut from the top of the pepper, it may be used as a lid to cover the pepper after stuffing.
BUTTERSCOTCH APPLES [Footnote 13: See footnote 12.]
5 apples 2/3 cupful brown sugar 1/2 cupful water 3/4 cupful milk 1/2 tablespoonful corn-starch 1/8 teaspoonful salt 1/2 to 1 tablespoonful butter 1/2 teaspoonful vanilla
Wash the apples, and cut them into quarters, pare and core them. Into a saucepan put the sugar and water, and heat. When the sirup boils, add the apples. Cover and boil gently until the apples are tender. Remove the apples from the sirup with a skimmer or a wire egg beater, placing the fruit in sherbet glasses or other suitable dishes for serving.
In another pan, mix the milk and corn-starch thoroughly. Stir and cook until the mixture reaches the boiling point, then add it to the sirup in which the apples were cooked. Boil for a few minutes. Add the salt, butter, and vanilla. Stir these into the mixture, then pour the sauce over the apples. Serve Butterscotch Apples hot or cold for a dessert.
State at least two reasons why gas, kerosene, and gasoline are more popular fuels in summer time than coal.
Mention a possible cause for smoke issuing from a kerosene burner.
Why should a wick burner never be allowed to burn after all the kerosene in the container is exhausted?
Carefully explain why the tank of a gasoline stove should never be filled while the stove is lighted or hot.
Why are electric stoves not provided with burners?
Why is a pressure cooker regarded as a fuel saver?
How should a steam cooker be used in order to save fuel?
Explain how it is possible to save fuel by using clover leaf pans.
Note that no ground pepper is added to the stuffing for peppers Give the reason for this.
What is the purpose of pouring boiling water in the dish or pan in which peppers are baked?
Did the sirup in which the apples were placed completely cover the fruit? From this explain why it is advisable to cover the apples during the cooking.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—If the course in food study is begun in the fall, when fruits are in season, the lessons of Division Seventeen—The Preservation of Food—may follow this lesson. The plan of canning fruit in the autumn is desirable, especially if the course in foods covers but one year. If more than one year is devoted to food study, the teacher may find it more satisfactory to can fruits in the autumn of the second year, or at the close of the spring semester of the first year. The pupils at these times will have become more skilful, so that the canning of foods can be accomplished with greater satisfaction. The high cost of fruits and sugar make it imperative that as little spoilage as possible result from food preservation. (Also see the note at the end of lesson XIII.)
BODY-REGULATING FOOD: WATER
WATER AND BEVERAGES (A)
EXPERIMENT 6: THE DISSOLVING POWER OF WATER.—Put 1/2 teaspoonful of salt in a test tube, half fill it with water. Cover the mouth of the test tube with the thumb, then shake the tube. Do the contents become clear? Set the tube aside for a few minutes. Does the salt separate from the water?
When a solid substance, by mixing with water, disappears in the water and does not separate on standing, the solid substance is dissolved. The salt was therefore dissolved in cold water, or it may be said that salt is soluble in cold water, or that water is a solvent of salt.
SOLUTION AND DIGESTION.—The change of foods in the body from insoluble to a soluble form is one step in digestion. Foods are dissolved in the digestive juices of the mouth, stomach, and intestines. Some foods such as salt and certain sugars are readily dissolved. Other foods have to undergo changes before they will dissolve. Corn-starch, for example, does not dissolve in cold water. It must be changed into sugar (which is easily dissolved) in the process of digestion. Dissolving then is an important step in the process of digesting.
USE OF WATER IN THE BODY.—A person might live for a number of weeks without eating food, but he could live only a few days without drinking water. Water has many uses in the body.
(a) It is the greatest known solvent. Because of this property, water is extremely important in the processes of digestion. (See Solution and Digestion.)
(b) It is a great carrier. Water helps carry food materials to all parts of the body; and it aids in carrying off the wastes of the body.
(c) It assists in regulating the temperature of the body. Because water is present in blood, and blood flows from the warmer interior of the body to the colder exterior, the water aids in distributing the heat of the body. The evaporation of perspiration, which is largely composed of water, also aids in regulating body temperature.
It is thus readily seen that water is needed to keep the machinery of the body working smoothly. The uses of water may be summed up in the statement: Water aids in regulating body processes.
FOREIGN MATERIALS IN WATER.—Since water is such a ready solvent, it contains many foreign materials. In passing through the air and in flowing through the ground, it dissolves many substances. Some of these substances are harmless, while some contain disease bacteria and are dangerous. Well water is frequently contaminated. It is often not safe to use for drinking purposes unless boiled.
EXPERIMENT 7: PRESENCE OF GASES IN WATER.—Fill a beaker half full of water, and note its temperature. Heat the water, and observe the changes which take place. What appears on the sides and bottom of the beaker? What does water contain which is driven off by heat?
EXPERIMENT 8: SIMMERING AND BOILING OF WATER.—Continue to heat the water of Experiment 7 until the larger bubbles form and disappear at the surface of the water. Note the temperature. Continue to heat the water until bubbling occurs on the surface of the water. Note the temperature. What is indicated by the larger bubbles?
HEATING WATER.—When bubbling occurs below the surface, water is simmering. When the surface is in motion and steam is given off, water is boiling.
The loss of gases makes boiled water taste flat or insipid. This flatness can be overcome somewhat by aerating the water after boiling, i.e. by pouring it from one vessel into another and thus mixing air with it.
TEA AND ITS SELECTION.—Tea shrubs grow in India, Ceylon, China, and Japan (see Figure 19). The buds and leaves of these shrubs are cut and dried and sold as tea.
In buying tea the size of the dried leaves should be noted. The smallest leaves are those which have grown nearest the tip of the twig and hence are the youngest. These make the choicest tea. The older and larger leaves make tea of less fine flavor. "Flowery Pekoe" and "Orange Pekoe" are choice India teas. These brands consist of the buds and youngest leaves.
Another point to consider in buying tea is its color. Tea leaves are either black or green. The chief difference between black and green tea is that black tea leaves are fermented after picking, while green are not. Tea leaves contain flavoring and stimulating materials and a substance called tannin (sometimes called tannic acid) which interferes with digestion. The presence of tannin in both black and green tea can be shown by the following:
EXPERIMENT 9: TANNIN IN TEA.—(a) Put 1/2 teaspoonful of black tea in a cup. Add 1/2 cupful of boiling water. Let it stand for 5 minutes, then strain the infusion.
(b) Repeat (a) substituting green tea for black.
(c) Into 2 test tubes put 1 teaspoonful of each kind of beverage. To each tube, add 1/2 teaspoonful of ferrous sulphate solution and let the tubes stand. If a black substance appears in the tubes, tannin is present. Which kind of beverage,—black or green tea,—shows the greater quantity of tannin?
By fermentation, tannin is changed into a less soluble form, so the beverage made from black tea contains less tannin than that made from green tea. Hence, black tea is preferable. It is, however, slightly more stimulating than green tea. Good black tea is grayish black in color, not dead black. "English Breakfast" is a black tea. It consists of a mixture of several black teas. "Oolong" is black in appearance, but has the flavor of green tea. This is because it is only semi-fermented. Teas grown in various countries have different flavors.
Tea is sometimes adulterated by using the leaves of other plants or by adding large leaves and stems. It is said the finest brands of tea do not reach this country.
MAKING THE BEVERAGE.—Because tea contains tannic acid, an earthen, enamel, china, or silver teapot should be used; a tin teapot should never be used. (See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits.) The ingredient in tea that gives it its odor and flavor is a volatile substance. Hence tea leaves should be kept in closely covered jars or cans.
Boiling water draws out substances which give the beverage its flavor and stimulating properties, while water below the boiling point only partially draws out these substances. If, however, the leaves are boiled or are allowed to remain in water for more than five minutes, much tannin is drawn out in the water. Therefore, never boil tea, but pour boiling water over it and in five minutes strain out the tea leaves.
TEA (proportion for one cupful)
1/4 to 1 teaspoonful black tea leaves 1 cupful freshly boiled water
Heat the teapot by pouring boiling water into it. Pour out the water and add the tea leaves. Pour over them the freshly boiled water. Place the teapot in a warm place to steep, and in 5 minutes strain out the tea leaves.
Teapots provided with perforated cups or with tea-balls (see Figure 20) for holding the tea leaves are most convenient, as the cup containing the leaves may easily be removed or the tea-ball can be drawn above the surface of the liquid after steeping the tea for 5 minutes. Or two teapots may be used, the beverage being strained from one teapot into the other.
The quantity of tea to be used varies with the strength of tea desired. If the leaves are closely rolled, less tea is required than if they are loosely folded.
Tea may be served with cream and sugar, or with lemon and sugar. The latter is called Russian Tea, and is often served with a preserved cherry.
In warm weather Iced Tea may be served. "Left over" tea may be utilized in this way, or hot tea may be cooled quickly by adding ice to it. While the latter method requires more ice, the tea is considered of a finer flavor. Iced Tea is served usually with sugar and lemon. Since sugar does not dissolve as readily in cold solutions as in hot (see Experiments 10 and 11) a sirup may be prepared for sweetening Iced Tea.
Even though tea is carefully selected and prepared it contains some tannin. This, as has been mentioned, is injurious. The stimulating material in tea also distresses some persons. Children, nervous persons, and those who suffer from constipation are advised not to drink tea.
TOASTED WAFERS AND CHEESE
Spread crackers or wafers with a small quantity of cheese. Season the cheese with a sprinkling of salt and paprika. Brown the wafers in the oven. When the cheese is melted, the wafers are ready to serve.
If thick crackers are used, they may be split open and the broken surface spread with cheese.
By what means is flavor extracted from tea leaves?
How can the extraction of much tannic acid be avoided in tea?
Give the reason for using freshly boiled water for tea. (See Experiments 7 and 8.)
Which is the better kind of tea to use—black or green? Explain.
Why should tea be strained after steeping 5 minutes?
From your grocer learn the names and prices of two green and two black teas. From what countries do they come?
How many cupfuls in one pound of tea leaves? How many teaspoonfuls in a pound?
Determine the approximate number of wafers in a pound. Also estimate the quantity of cheese needed for one pound of wafers.
WATER AND BEVERAGES (B)
WATER AS A BEVERAGE.—Most foods contain water. Not only moist foods such as milk and watermelon, but solid foods such as potatoes and rice contain water. The water present in foods, however, is not sufficient for the needs of the body. It is necessary to use water as a beverage.
When one rises in the morning, it is well to drink one or two glassfuls of water. From one to two quarts of water,—either as plain water or in beverages,—should be taken each day. It used to be thought that water drinking during a meal was harmful. Scientific investigations have shown that this is a mistaken idea. Water may be drunk at mealtime. Indeed it has been found that it aids in the digestive processes, provided foods are not "rinsed down" with it and provided very cold water is not used.
WATER, A FOODSTUFF.—The body is nourished by food and there are many different kinds of food. Moreover, most foods are made up not of one substance, but of a number of materials. The chemical substances of which foods are composed are called nutrients or foodstuffs [Footnote 14: The difference between the scientific and popular meaning of the word foodstuffs should be noted. Foodstuffs is defined and used as a scientific term in this text.]. (Foodstuffs were formerly called food principles.) A few foods contain but one foodstuff, some contain several foodstuffs, many contain all the foodstuffs.
Water is a foodstuff. There are other foodstuffs about which we shall study later. Each foodstuff has a certain function to perform in the body. As explained in the previous lesson, water is a body-regulating foodstuff.
USE OF WATER IN CLEANING AND IN PREPARING FOODS.—Water is a cleansing agent because most soil is soluble in water. It also plays a most important part in the preparation of foods, since it serves as a medium for the cooking of foods, as in the processes of steaming and boiling. Because water dissolves many substances, it acts as a carrier of flavor as in fruit drinks, tea, and coffee. Although there are some foods which can be cooked without a water medium, baked potatoes and roast meat for example, certain foods such as rice and dried beans require water during cooking. It is readily seen that water is indispensable in cooking.
COFFEE.—Coffee is the seed of the fruit of an evergreen tree grown in tropical countries (see Figure 21). Each fruit contains two seeds or berries. The fruit is picked, allowed to ferment, and the seeds removed from their pulpy covering. The seeds, which are also called coffee beans, are then roasted and sent to market. The flavor of the coffee bean is due to the variety of coffee tree, the maturity of the fruit when picked, and the time subjected to the roasting process. Mocha [Footnote 15: Mocha is a port in Arabia. Mocha coffee was so called because much of the coffee grown in Arabia was exported from Mocha.] and Java are choice brands of coffee. Although originally grown in Arabia and Java, their names are not used to designate the localities in which they grow, but the variety of coffee. Much of our coffee now comes from Brazil.
Coffee is somewhat like tea in composition. It contains tannic acid, and therefore a tin coffeepot should never be used. The flavor can be extracted from coffee by boiling it or by pouring boiling water through it. Coffee should not boil longer than three minutes, as much tannic acid is extracted by long boiling.
Because coffee contains volatile substances, it should not be purchased ground, unless in small quantities, and it should then be kept in tightly covered jars or cans. When freshly roasted, coffee has the best flavor. In this condition, it is crisp and emits a strong aroma.
BOILED COFFEE (proportion for one cupful)
1 heaping tablespoonful coarsely ground coffee 2 tablespoonfuls cold water Bit of crushed egg-shell or a little egg white 1 cup boiling water (1 egg-shell or 1/2 egg white is sufficient for 8 heaping tablespoonfuls of ground coffee.)
Into a well-cleaned coffeepot, place the coffee, 1 tablespoonful of the cold water, and egg. Mix; then add the boiling water and boil for not more than three minutes. Remove from the fire; pour out about one half cupful of coffee, in order to rinse the grounds from the inside and from the spout of the coffeepot. Return the coffee to the pot; add the second tablespoonful of cold water. If the spout is not covered, a piece of paper may be inserted so that the aroma will be retained. Allow to stand in a warm place for about 5 minutes for the coffee to become clear.
Cold water may be used instead of boiling water in making coffee
CARE OF COFFEEPOT.—The coffee should never be allowed to stand in the coffeepot, but should be turned out at once after using. If any clear coffee is left, it may be used for spice cakes, jellies, or other desserts. The coffeepot should be washed well, and scoured if necessary. The spout needs special care in cleaning.
2/3 cupful finely ground coffee 5 cupfuls freshly boiled water
(For the following method of preparing coffee, a drip coffeepot is used. A drip coffeepot is provided with a perforated receptacle or a muslin bag in which the finely ground coffee is held. The boiled water is poured through the ground coffee.)
Heat the coffee by steaming it, placing a little boiling water in the bottom of the coffeepot and the ground coffee in the coffee bag or perforated cup. Remove the bag or cup and pour the water from the pot. Return the bag or cup to the coffeepot and slowly pour over it the freshly boiled water. If it is desired to make the coffee stronger, the beverage may be poured over the ground coffee a second time. Care should be taken, however, not to cool the coffee in so doing. Wash the coffee bag in clear cold water and dry in the air. Renew the bag occasionally. "Black" or After Dinner Coffee may be prepared in a drip coffeepot. Use 1 cupful of finely ground coffee to 5 cupfuls of freshly boiled water.
Filtered coffee may also be prepared in a coffee percolator (see Figure 22). A percolator is so constructed that the water is heated in the pot and kept at boiling temperature while passing through the ground coffee. The method of preparing the beverage depends upon the construction of the percolator. Follow the directions that come with it.
1 egg 1/2 cupful sugar 3/8 cupful fat or 1/4 cupful vegetable oil 2 tablespoonfuls sour milk 1 cupful rolled oats 1 cupful flour 1/2 teaspoonful salt 1/8 teaspoonful baking soda 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 1/2 cupful raisins