SCOTLAND'S MARK ON AMERICA
By GEORGE FRASER BLACK, PH.D.
With a Foreword By JOHN FOORD
The Scottish Section of "America's Making" New York, 1921
It has been said that the Scot is never so much at home as when he is abroad. Under this half-jesting reference to one of the characteristics of our race, there abides a sober truth, namely, that the Scotsman carries with him from his parent home into the world without no half-hearted acceptance of the duties required of him in the land of his adoption. He is usually a public-spirited citizen, a useful member of society, wherever you find him. But that does not lessen the warmth of his attachment to the place of his birth, or the land of his forbears. Be his connection with Scotland near or remote, there is enshrined in the inner sanctuary of his heart, memories, sentiments, yearnings, that are the heritage of generations with whom love of their country was a dominant passion, and pride in the deeds that her children have done an incentive to effort and an antidote against all that was base or ignoble.
It is a fact that goes to the core of the secular struggle for human freedom that whole-hearted Americanism finds no jarring note in the sentiment of the Scot, be that sentiment ever so intense. In the sedulous cultivation of the Scottish spirit there is nothing alien, and, still more emphatically, nothing harmful, to the institutions under which we live. The things that nourish the one, engender attachment and loyalty to the other. So, as we cherish the memories of the Motherland, keep in touch with the simple annals of our childhood's home, or the home of our kin, bask in the fireside glow of its homely humor, or dwell in imagination amid the haunts of old romance, we are the better Americans for the Scottish heritage from which heart and mind alike derive inspiration and delight.
It is as difficult to separate the current of Scottish migration to the American Colonies, or to the United States that grew out of them, from the larger stream which issued from England, as it is to distinguish during the last two hundred years the contributions by Scotsmen from those of Englishmen to the great body of English literature. We have the first census of the new Republic, in the year 1790, and an investigator who classified this enumeration according to what he conceived to be the nationality of the names, found that the total free, white, population numbering 3,250,000 contained 2,345,844 people of English origin; 188,589 of Scottish origin, and 44,273 of Irish origin. The system of classification is manifestly loose, and the distribution of parent nationalities entirely at variance with known facts. That part of the population described as Irish was largely Ulster-Scottish, the true Irish never having emigrated in any considerable numbers until they felt the pressure of the potato famine, fifty years later. There is excellent authority for the statement that, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War one-third of the entire population of Pennsylvania was of Ulster-Scottish origin. A New England historian, quoted by Whitelaw Reid, counts that between 1730 and 1770 at least half a million souls were transferred from Ulster to the Colonies—more than half of the Presbyterian population of Ulster—and that at the time of the Revolution they made one-sixth of the total population of the nascent Republic. Another authority fixes the inhabitants of Scottish ancestry in the nine Colonies south of New England at about 385,000. He counts that less than half of the entire population of the Colonies was of English origin, and that nearly, or quite one-third of it, had a direct Scottish ancestry.
These conclusions find powerful support in the number of distinguished men whom the Scots and the Ulstermen contributed to the Revolutionary struggle, and to the public life of the early days of the United States. Out of Washington's twenty-two brigadier generals, nine were of Scottish descent, and one of the greatest achievements of the war—the rescue of Kentucky and the whole rich territory northwest of the Ohio, from which five States were formed—was that of General George Rogers Clark, a Scottish native of Albert County, Virginia. When the Supreme Court of the United States was first organized by Washington three of the four Associate Justices were of the same blood—one a Scot and two Ulster-Scots. When the first Chief Justice, John Jay, left the bench, his successor, John Rutledge, was an Ulster-Scot. Washington's first cabinet contained four members—two of them were Scotch and the third was an Ulster-Scot. Out of the fifty-six members who composed the Congress that adopted the Declaration of Independence eleven were of Scottish descent. It was in response to the appeal of a Scot, John Witherspoon, that the Declaration was signed; it is preserved in the handwriting of an Ulster-Scot who was Secretary of the Congress; it was first publicly read to the people by an Ulster-Scot, and first printed by a third member of the same vigorous body of early settlers.
George Bancroft will hardly be accused of holding a brief for the Scot in American history but, with all his New England predilections, he frankly records this conclusion: "We shall find the first voice publicly raised in America to dissolve all connection with Great Britain, came not from the Puritans of New England, or the Dutch of New York, or the planters of Virginia, but from Scotch-Irish Presbyterians." It was Patrick Henry, a Scot, who kindled the popular flame for independence. The foremost, the most irreconcilable, the most determined in pushing the quarrel to the last extremity, were those whom the bishops and Lord Donegal & Company had been pleased to drive out of Ulster.
The distinguished place which men of Scottish or of Ulster origin had asserted for themselves in the councils of the Colonies was not lost when the Colonies became independent States. Among the first of the thirteen original States two-thirds were of either Scottish or Ulster-Scottish origin. Of the men who have filled the great office of President of the United States, eleven out of the whole twenty-five come under the same category. About half the Secretaries of the Treasury of the Government of the United States have been of Scottish descent, and nearly a third of the Secretaries of State.
But it is perhaps in the intangible things that go to the making of national character that the Scottish contribution to the making of America has been most notable. In 1801, the population of the whole of Scotland was but little over a million and a half, and behind that there were at least eight centuries of national history. Behind that, too, were all the long generations of toil and strife in which the Scottish character was being molded into the forms that Scott and Burns made immortal. It is a character full of curious contrasts, with its strong predilection for theology and metaphysics on one side, and for poetry and romance on the other. Hard, dry and practical in its attitude to the ordinary affairs of life, it is apt to catch fire from a sudden enthusiasm, as if volatility were its dominant note and instability its only fixed attribute. And so it has come about that side by side with tomes of Calvinistic divinity, there has been transmitted to Scotsmen an equally characteristic product of the mind of their race—a body of folksong, of ballad poetry, of legend and of story in that quaint and copious Doric speech which makes so direct an appeal to the hearts of men whether they are to the manner born or not. It is surely a paradox that a nation which, in the making, had the hardest kind of work to extract a scanty living from a stubborn soil, and still harder work to defend their independence, their liberties, their faith from foes of their own kindred, should be best known to the world for the romantic ideals they have cherished and the chivalrous follies for which their blood has been shed.
But, it is well to remember that long before the Reformers of the sixteenth century founded the parish school system of Scotland, the monasteries had their schools and so had the parish churches; there were high schools in the burghs and song schools of remarkable excellence. The light of learning may have waxed dim at times, but it was not from an illiterate land that Scottish scholars carried into Europe all through the Middle Ages the name and fame of their country, any more than it was from a people unversed in the arts of war that Scottish soldiers went abroad to fight foreign battles, giving now a Constable to France, a General-in-Chief to Russia and still again a Lieutenant to Gustavus Adolphus. If evidence were needed of the vigor of the Scottish race, it is readily forthcoming in the fact that for five hundred years the Land O'Cakes enriched the world with the surplus of her able men.
Nurse of heroes, nurse of martyrs, nurse of freemen, are titles which belong of right to our Motherland and she has been justified of her children, at home and abroad. The rolls of honor of many countries and many climes bear their names; there is no field of distinction whether it be of thought or of action that has not witnessed their triumphs. That Scotland has yielded more than her share of the men who have gone forth to the conquest of the world is largely due to the fact that it was part of her discipline that men must first conquer themselves. The weakest of them felt that restraining influence, and the striving after the Scottish ideal, however feeble, has been a protection against sinking into utter baseness. The most wayward scions of the Scottish family have known that influence, and have borne testimony to the beauty of the homely virtues which they failed to practice and the nobility of aspirations which fell short of controlling their life.
It belongs to the character and antecedents of Scotsmen that the attribute of national independence should take so high a place among the objects of human effort and desire. It was because Scotland settled for all time, six hundred years ago, her place as an independent State that she proved herself capable of begetting men like John Knox, Robert Burns and Walter Scott. It is because the vigor of the Scottish race and the adaptiveness of the Scottish genius remain to-day unimpaired, that the lustre of Scottish-names shone so brilliantly during the World War. It may be confidently asserted that, whether regarded as a race or a people no members of the great English-speaking family did more promptly, more cheerfully or more courageously make the sacrifices required to perform their full part in the struggle to defend the freedom that belongs to our common heritage and to preserve the ideals without which we should not regard life as worth living. The union, centuries old, in the Scottish mind and heart of the most uncompromising devotion to individual liberty with the most fervid patriotism, is a sentiment of which the world stands greatly in need to-day. We need not go far to find evidence of how perilous it is to sink regard for the great conception of human brotherhood in a narrow, nationalistic concern for individual interests. In the Scottish conception of liberty, duties have always been rated as highly as rights; it has been a constructive, not a destructive formula; it has been an inspiration to raise men out of themselves, not to prompt them to indulge in antics of promiscuous leveling. The kind of democracy for which Scotsmen have deemed that the world should be made safe is a human brotherhood, indeed, but a brotherhood imbued with the generous rivalry of effort, the enthusiasm of emulous achievement, and not one of inglorious, monotonous and colorless equality.
Scottish Emigration to the American Colonies 11
Some Prominent Scots and Scots Families 24
Scots as Colonial and Provincial Governors 32
Scots and the Declaration of Independence 36
Scots as Signers of the Declaration of Independence 38
Scots in the Presidency 40
Scots as Vice-Presidents 41
Scots as Cabinet Officers 42
Scots in the Senate 45
Scots in the House of Representatives 47
Scots in the Judiciary 48
Scots as Ambassadors 51
Scots as State Governors 53
Scots in the Army 60
Scots in the Navy 65
Scots as Scientists 67
Scots as Physicians 73
Scots in Education 76
Scots in Literature 81
Scots in the Church and Social Welfare 84
Scots as Lawyers 87
Scots in Art, Architecture, etc. 88
Scots as Inventors 95
Scots as Engineers 99
Scots in Industries 101
Scots in Banking, Finance, Insurance and Railroads 105
Scots as Journalists, Publishers and Typefounders 108
Some Prominent Scots in New York City 113
Scottish Societies in the United States 115
List of Principal Authorities Referred to 117
"No people so few in number have scored so deep a mark in the world's history as the Scots have done. No people have a greater right to be proud of their blood."—James Anthony Froude.
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SCOTTISH EMIGRATION TO THE AMERICAN COLONIES
Scottish emigration to America came in two streams—one direct from the motherland and the other through the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland. Those who came by this second route are usually known as "Ulster Scots," or more commonly as "Scotch-Irish," and they have been claimed as Irishmen by Irish writers in the United States. This is perhaps excusable but hardly just. Throughout their residence in Ireland the Scots settlers preserved their distinctive Scottish characteristics, and generally described themselves as "the Scottish nation in the north of Ireland." They, of course, like the early pioneers in this country, experienced certain changes through the influence of their new surroundings, but, as one writer has remarked, they "remained as distinct from the native population as if they had never crossed the Channel. They were among the Irish but not of them." Their sons, too, when they attended the classes in the University of Glasgow, signed the matriculation register as "A Scot of Ireland." They did not intermarry with the native Irish, though they did intermarry to some extent with the English Puritans and with the French Huguenots. (These Huguenots were colonies driven out of France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and induced to settle in the north of Ireland by William III. To this people Ireland is indebted for its lace industry, which they introduced into that country.)
Again many Irish-American writers on the Scots Plantation of Ulster have assumed that the Scots settlers were entirely or almost of Gaelic origin, ignoring the fact, if they were aware of it, that the people of the Scottish lowlands were "almost as English in racial derivation as if they had come from the North of England." Parker, the historian of Londonderry, New Hampshire, speaking of the early Scots settlers in New England, has well said: "Although they came to this land from Ireland, where their ancestors had a century before planted themselves, yet they retained unmixed the national Scotch character. Nothing sooner offended them than to be called Irish. Their antipathy to this appellation had its origin in the hostility then existing in Ireland between the Celtic race, the native Irish, and the English and Scotch colonists." Belknap, in his History of New Hampshire (Boston, 1791) quotes a letter from the Rev. James MacGregor (1677-1729) to Governor Shute in which the writer says: "We are surprised to hear ourselves termed Irish people, when we so frequently ventured our all for the British Crown and liberties against the Irish papists, and gave all tests, of our loyalty, which the government of Ireland required, and are always ready to do the same when demanded."
Down to the present day the descendants of these Ulster Scots settlers living in the United States who have maintained an interest in their origin, always insist that they are of Scottish and not of Irish origin. On this point it will be sufficient to quote the late Hon. Leonard Allison Morrison, of New Hampshire. Writing twenty-five years ago he said: "I am one of Scotch-Irish blood and my ancestor came with Rev. McGregor of Londonderry, and neither they nor any of their descendants were willing to be called 'merely Irish.' I have twice visited," he adds, "the parish of Aghadowney, Co. Londonderry, from which they came, in Ireland, and all that locality is filled, not with 'Irish' but with Scotch-Irish, and this is pure Scotch blood to-day, after more than 200 years." The mountaineers of Tennessee and Kentucky are largely the descendants of these same Ulster Scots, and their origin is conclusively shown by the phrase used by mothers to their unruly children: "If you don't behave, Clavers [i.e., Claverhouse] will get you."
If we must continue to use the hyphen when referring to these early immigrants it is preferable to use the term "Ulster Scot" instead of "Scotch-Irish," as was pointed out by the late Whitelaw Reid, because it does not confuse the race with the accident of birth, and because the people preferred it themselves. "If these Scottish and Presbyterian colonists," he says, "must be called Irish because they had been one or two generations in the north of Ireland, then the Pilgrim Fathers, who had been one generation or more in Holland, must by the same reasoning be called Dutch or at the very least English Dutch."
To understand the reasons for the Scots colonization of Ulster and the replantation in America it is necessary to look back three centuries in British history. On the crushing of the Irish rebellion under Sir Cahir O'Dogherty in 1607 about 500,000 acres of forfeited land in the province of Ulster were at the disposal of the crown. At the suggestion of King James the I. of England, Ulster was divided into lots and offered to colonists from England. Circumstances, however, turned what was mainly intended to be an English enterprise into a Scottish one. Scottish participation "which does not seem to have been originally regarded as important," became eventually, as Ford points out, the mainstay of the enterprise. "Although from the first there was an understanding between [Sir Arthur] Chichester and the English Privy Council that eventually the plantation would be opened to Scotch settlers, no steps were taken in that direction until the plan had been matured ... The first public announcement of any Scottish connection with the Ulster plantation appears in a letter of March 19, 1609, from Sir Alexander Hay, the Scottish secretary resident at the English Court, to the Scottish Privy Council at Edinburgh." In this communication Hay announced that the king "out of his unspeikable love and tindir affectioun" for his Scottish subjects had decided that they were to be allowed a share, and he adds, that here is a great opportunity for Scotland since "we haif greitt advantaige of transporting of our men and bestiall [i.e., live stock of a farm] in regairde we lye so neir to that coiste of Ulster." Immediately on receipt of this letter the Scottish Privy Council made public proclamation of the news and announced that those of them "quho ar disposit to tak ony land in Yreland" were to present their desires and petitions to the Council. The first application enrolled was by "James Andirsoun portionair of Litle Govane," and by the 14th of September seventy-seven Scots had come forward as purchasers. If their offers had been accepted, they would have possessed among them 141,000 acres of land. In 1611, in consequence of a rearrangement of applicants the number of favored Scots was reduced to fifty-nine, with eighty-one thousand acres of land at their disposal. Each of these "Undertakers," as they were called, was accompanied to his new home by kinsmen, friends, and tenants, as Lord Ochiltree, for instance, who is mentioned as having arrived "accompanied with thirty-three followers, a minister, some tenants, freeholders, [and] artificers." By the end of 1612 the emigration from Scotland is estimated to have reached 10,000. Indeed, before the end of this year so rapidly had the traffic increased between Scotland and Ireland that the passage between the southwest of Scotland and Ulster "is now become a commoun and are ordinarie ferrie," the boat-men of which were having a rare time of it by charging what they pleased for the passage or freight. In the selection of the settlers measures were carefully taken that they should be "from the inwards part of Scotland," and that they should be so located in Ulster that "they may not mix nor intermarry" with "the mere Irish." For the most part the settlers appear to have been selected from the shires of Dumbarton, Renfrew, Ayr, Galloway, and Dumfries. Emigration from Scotland to Ireland appears to have continued steadily and the English historian Carte estimated, after diligent documentary study, that by 1641 there were in Ulster 100,000 Scots and 20,000 English settlers. In 1656 it was proposed by the Irish government that persons "of the Scottish nation desiring to come into Ireland" should be prohibited from settling in Ulster or County Louth, but the scheme was not put into effect. Governmental opposition notwithstanding emigration from Scotland to Ireland appears to have continued steadily, and after the Revolution of 1688 there seems to have been a further increase. Archbishop Synge estimated that by 1715 not less than 50,000 Scottish families had settled in Ulster during these twenty-seven years. It should be also mentioned that "before the Ulster plantation began there was already a considerable Scottish occupation of the region nearest to Scotland. These Scottish settlements were confined to counties Down and Antrim, which were not included in the scheme of the plantation. Their existence facilitated Scottish emigration to the plantation and they were influential in giving the plantation the Scottish character which it promptly acquired. Although planned to be in the main an English settlement, with one whole county turned over to the city of London alone, it soon became in the main a Scottish settlement."
The Scots were not long settled in Ulster before misfortune and persecution began to harass them. The Irish rebellion of 1641, said by some to have been an outbreak directed against the Scottish and English settlers, regarded by the native Irish as intruders and usurpers, caused them much suffering; and Harrison says that for "several years afterward 12,000 emigrants annually left Ulster for the American plantations." The Revolution of 1688 was also long and bloody in Ireland and the sufferings of the settlers reached a climax in the siege of Londonderry (April to August, 1688). They suffered also from the restrictions laid upon their industries and commerce by the English government. These restrictions, and later the falling in of leases, rack-renting by the landlords, payment of tithes for support of a church with which they had no connection, and several other burdens and annoyances, were the motives which impelled emigration to the American colonies from 1718 onwards. Five ships bearing seven hundred Ulster Scots emigrants arrived in Boston on August 4, 1718, under the leadership of Rev. William Boyd. They were allowed to select a township site of twelve miles square at any place on the frontiers. A few settled at Portland, Maine, at Wicasset, and at Worcester and Haverhill, Massachusetts, but the greater number finally at Londonderry, New Hampshire. In 1723-4 they built a parsonage and a church for their minister, Rev. James MacGregor. In six years they had four schools, and within nine years Londonderry paid one-fifteenth of the state tax. Previous to the Revolution of 1776 ten distinct settlements were made by colonists from Londonderry, N.H., all of which became towns of influence and importance. Notable among the descendants of these colonists were Matthew Thornton, Henry Knox, Gen. John Stark, Hugh McCulloch, Horace Greeley, Gen. George B. McClellan, Salmon P. Chase, and Asa Gray. From 1771 to 1773 "the whole emigration from Ulster is estimated at 30,000 of whom 10,000 were weavers."
In 1706 the Rev. Cotton Mather put forth a plan to settle hardy Scots families on the frontiers of Maine and New Hampshire to protect the towns and churches there from the French and Indians, the Puritans evidently not being able to protect themselves. He says, "I write letters unto diverse persons of Honour both in Scotland and in England; to procure Settlements of Good Scotch Colonies, to the Northward of us. This may be a thing of great consequence;" and elsewhere he suggests that a Scottish colony might be of good service in getting possession of Nova Scotia. In 1735, twenty-seven families, and in 1753 a company of sixty adults and a number of children, collected in Scotland by General Samuel Waldo, were landed at George's River, Maine. In honor of the ancient capital of their native country, they named their settlement Stirling.
Another and an important cause of the early appearance of Scots in America was the wars between Scotland and England during the Commonwealth. Large numbers of Scottish prisoners taken at Dunbar (1650) and at Worcester (1651) were sold into service in the colonies, a shipload arriving in Boston Harbor in 1652 on the ship John and Sara. The means taken to ameliorate their condition led in 1657 to the foundation of the Scots Charitable Society of Boston—the earliest known Scottish society in America. Its foundation may be taken as evidence that there were already prosperous and influential Scots living in Boston at that time. A list of the passengers of the John and Sara is given in Suffolk Deed Records (bk. 1, pp. 5-6) and in Drake's The Founders of New England (Boston, 1860, pp. 74-76). These men, says Boulton, "worked out their terms of servitude at the Lynn iron works and elsewhere, and founded honorable families whose Scotch names appear upon our early records. No account exists of the Scotch prisoners that were sent to New England in Cromwell's time; at York in 1650 were the Maxwells, McIntires, and Grants. The Mackclothlans [i.e., Mac Lachlans], later known as the Claflins, gave a governor to Massachusetts and distinguished merchants to New York City."
The bitter persecution of Presbyterians during the periods of episcopal rule in the latter half of the seventeenth century also contributed largely to Scottish emigration to the new world. A Scottish merchant in Boston named Hugh Campbell, obtained permission from the authorities of the Bay State Colony in February 1679-80 to bring in a number of settlers from Scotland and to establish them in the Nepmug country in the vicinity of Springfield, Massachusetts.
So desperate had matters become in Scotland at the beginning of the eighth decade of the seventeenth century that a number of the nobility and gentry determined to settle in New Jersey and the Carolinas. One of these colonies was founded in New Jersey in 1682 under the management of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, John Drummond, Robert Barclay the Quaker Apologist, David and John Barclay, his brothers, Robert Gordon, Gawen Lawrie, and George Willocks. In 1684 Gawen Lawrie, who had been for several years previously residing in the colony, was appointed Deputy Governor of the province, and fixed his residence at Elizabeth. In the same year Perth (so named in honor of the Earl of Perth, one of the principal proprietors, now Perth Amboy) was made the capital of the new Scottish settlement. During the following century a constant stream of emigrants both from Scotland and from Ulster came to the colony. One of the principal encouragers of the Scottish colony in New Jersey was George Scot or Scott (d. 1685) of Pitlochrie, who had been repeatedly fined and imprisoned by the Privy Council of Scotland for attending "Conventicles," as clandestine religious gatherings were then called in Scotland, and in the hope of obtaining freedom of worship in the new world he proposed to emigrate "to the plantations." To encourage others to do the like he printed at Edinburgh (1685) a work, now very rare, called "The Model of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey, in America; and Encouragement for Such as Design to be concerned there." Scot received a grant of five hundred acres in recognition of his having written the work, and sailed in the Henry and Francis for America. A malignant fever broke out among the passengers and nearly half on board perished including Scot and his wife. A son and daughter survived and the proprietors a year after issued a confirmation of the grant to Scot's daughter and her husband (John Johnstone), many of whose descendants are still living in New Jersey.
Walter Ker of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, banished in 1685, settled in Freehold, and was active in organizing the Presbyterian Church there, one of the oldest in New Jersey. The Scots settlers who came over at this period occupied most of the northern counties of the state but many went south and southwest, mainly around Princeton, and, says Samuel Smith, the first historian of the province, "There were very soon four towns in the Province, viz., Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown and Shrewsbury; and these with the country round were in a few years plentifully inhabited by the accession of the Scotch, of whom there came a great many." These Scots, says Duncan Campbell, largely gave "character to this sturdy little state not the least of their achievements being the building up if not the nominal founding of Princeton College, which has contributed so largely to the scholarship of America."
In 1682 another company of nobles and gentlemen in Scotland arranged for a settlement at Port Royal, South Carolina. These colonists consisted mainly of Presbyterians banished for attending "Conventicles." The names of some of these immigrants, whose descendants exist in great numbers at the present day, included James McClintock, John Buchanan, William Inglis, Gavin Black, Adam Allan, John Gait, Thomas Marshall, William Smith, Robert Urie, Thomas Bryce, John Syme, John Alexander, John Marshall, Matthew Machen, John Paton, John Gibson, John Young, Arthur Cunningham, George Smith, and George Dowart. The colony was further increased by a small remnant of the ill-fated expedition to Darien. One of the vessels which left Darien to return to Scotland, the Rising Sun, was driven out of its course by a gale and took refuge in Charleston. Among its passengers was the Rev. Archibald Stobo, who was asked by some people in Charleston to preach in the town while the ship was being refitted. He accepted the invitation and left the ship with his wife and about a dozen others. The following day, the Rising Sun, while lying off the bar, was overwhelmed in a hurricane and all on board were drowned. This Rev. Archibald Stobo was the earliest American ancestor of the late Theodore Roosevelt's mother. In the following year (1683) the colony was augmented by a number of Scots colonists from Ulster led by one Ferguson. A second Scottish colony in the same year under Henry Erskine, Lord Cardross, founded Stuartstown (so named in honor of his wife). Another colony from Ulster was that of Williamsburgh township (1732-34), who named their principal village Kingstree.
There were settlements of Scots Highlanders in North Carolina, on the Cape Fear River, as early as 1729; some indeed are said to have settled there as early as 1715. Neill McNeill of Jura brought over a colony of more than 350 from Argyllshire in 1739, and large numbers in 1746, after Culloden, and settled them on the Cape Fear River. Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, was the center of these Highland settlements, and hither came the Scottish heroine, Flora MacDonald, in 1775. The mania for emigration to North Carolina affected all classes in Scotland and continued for many years. The Scots Magazine for May 1768 records that a number of settlers from the Western Isles had embarked for Carolina and Georgia, including forty or fifty families from Jura alone. In September of following year it is stated that a hundred families of Highlanders had arrived at Brunswick, North Carolina, and "two vessels are daily expected with more." In August 1769 the ship Mally sailed from Islay full of passengers for North Carolina, which was the third or fourth emigration from Argyll "since the conclusion of the late war." In August 1770 it was stated that since the previous April six vessels carrying about twelve hundred emigrants had sailed from the western Highlands for North Carolina. In February of the following year the same magazine states that five hundred souls in Islay and adjacent islands were preparing to emigrate to America in the following summer. In September of the same year three hundred and seventy persons sailed from Skye for North Carolina, and two entries in the magazine for 1772 record the emigration of numbers from Sutherland and Loch Erribol. In the same year a writer says the people who have emigrated from the Western Isles since the year 1768 "have carried with them at least ten thousand pounds in specie. Notwithstanding this is a great loss to us, yet the depopulation by these emigrations is a much greater.... Besides, the continual emigrations from Ireland and Scotland, will soon render our colonies independent on the mother-country." In August, 1773, three gentlemen of the name of Macdonell, with their families and four hundred Highlanders from Inverness-shire sailed for America to take possession of a grant of land "in Albany." On the 22d of June previously between seven and eight hundred people from the Lewis sailed from Stornoway for the colonies. On the first of September, 1773, four hundred and twenty-five men, women and children from Inverness-shire sailed for America. "They are the finest set of fellows in the Highlands. It is allowed they carried at least 6000 pounds Sterling in ready cash with them." In 1774 farmers and heads of families in Stirlingshire were forming societies to emigrate to the colonies and the fever had also extended to Orkney and Shetland and the north of England. In 1753 it was estimated that there were one thousand Scots in the single county of Cumberland capable of bearing arms, of whom the Macdonalds were the most numerous. Gabriel Johnston, governor of the province of North Carolina from 1734 to 1752, appears to have done more to encourage the settlement of Scots in the colony than all its other colonial governors combined.
In 1735 a body of one hundred and thirty Highlanders with fifty women and children sailed from Inverness and landed at Savannah in January 1736. They were under the leadership of Lieutenant Hugh Mackay. Some Carolinians endeavoured to dissuade them from going to the South by telling them that the Spaniards would attack them from their houses in the fort near where they were to settle, to which they replied, "Why, then, we will beat them out of their fort, and shall have houses ready built to live in." "This valiant spirit," says Jones, "found subsequent expression in the efficient military service rendered by these Highlanders during the wars between the Colonists and the Spaniards, and by their descendants in the American Revolution. To John 'More' McIntosh, Captain Hugh Mackay, Ensign Charles Mackay, Col. John McIntosh, General Lachlan McIntosh, and their gallant comrades and followers, Georgia, both as a Colony and a State, owes a large debt of gratitude. This settlement was subsequently augmented from time to time by fresh arrivals from Scotland.... Its men were prompt and efficient in arms, and when the war cloud descended upon the southern confines of the province no defenders were more alert or capable than those found in the ranks of these Highlanders." "No people," says Walter Glasco Charlton, "ever came to Georgia who took so quickly to the conditions under which they were to live or remained more loyal to her interests" than the Highlanders. "These men," says Jones, "were not reckless adventurers or reduced emigrants volunteering through necessity, or exiled through insolvency or want. They were men of good character, and were carefully selected for their military qualities.... Besides this military band, others among the Mackays, the Dunbars, the Baillies, and the Cuthberts applied for large tracts of land in Georgia which they occupied with their own servants. Many of them went over in person and settled in the province."
Among the immigrants who flocked into Virginia in 1729 and 1740 we find individuals named Alexander Breckinridge, David Logan, Hugh Campbell, William Graham, James Waddell (the "Blind Preacher"), John McCue, Benjamin Erwin, Gideon Blackburn, Samuel Houston, Archibald Scott, Samuel Carrack, John Montgomery, George Baxter, William McPheeters, and Robert Poage (Page?), and others bearing the names of Bell, Trimble (Turnbull), Hay, Anderson, Patterson, Scott, Wilson, and Young. John McDowell and eight of his men were killed by Indians in 1742. Among the members of his company was his venerable father Ephraim McDowell. In 1763 the Indians attacked a peaceful settlement and carried off a number of captives. After traveling some distance and feeling safe from pursuit they demanded that their captives should sing for their entertainment, and it was a Scotswoman, Mrs. Gilmore, who struck up Rouse's version of the one hundred and thirty-seventh psalm:
"By Babel's streams we sat and wept, When Zion we thought on, In midst thereof we hanged our harps The willow tree thereon.
"For there a song required they, Who did us captive bring; Our spoilers called for mirth, and said: 'A song of Zion sing.'"
In the following year Colonel Henry Bouquet led a strong force against the Indians west of the Ohio, and compelled them to desist from their predatory warfare, and deliver up the captives they had taken. One of his companies was made up of men from the Central Valley of Virginia, largely composed of Scots or men of Ulster Scot descent, and commanded by Alexander McClanahan, a good Galloway surname. Ten years later occurred the battle of Point Pleasant when men of the same race under the command of Andrew Lewis defeated the Shawnee Indians.
In January 1775, the freeholders of Fincastle presented an address to the Continental Congress, declaring their purpose to resist the oppressive measures of the home government. Among the signers were William Christian, Rev. Charles Cummings, Arthur Campbell, William Campbell, William Edmundson, William Preston and others. Several other counties in the same state, inhabited mainly by Scots or people of Scottish descent, adopted like resolutions. During the Revolutionary war, in addition to large numbers of men of Scottish origin serving in the Continental army from this state, the militia were also constantly in service under the leadership of such men as Colonels Samuel McDowell, George Moffett, William Preston, John and William Bowyer, Samson Mathews, etc.
The following Scots were members of His Majesty's Council in South Carolina under the royal government, from 1720 to 1776: Alexander Skene, James Kinloch (1729), John Cleland, James Graeme, George Saxby, James Michie, John Rattray (1761), Thomas Knox Gordon, and John Stuart. Andrew Rutledge was Speaker of the Commons' House of Assembly from 1749 to 1752. David Graeme, attorney at law in 1754, was Attorney-General of the State from 1757 to 1764. James Graeme, most probably a relation of the preceding, was elected to the Assembly from Port Royal in 1732, became Judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty from 1742 to 1752, and Chief Justice from 1749 to 1752. James Michie was Speaker of the Assembly from 1752 to 1754, Judge of the Court of Admiralty from 1752 to 1754, and Chief Justice from 1759 to 1761. William Simpson served as Chief Justice 1761-1762. Thomas Knox Gordon was appointed Chief Justice in 1771 and served till 1776, and in 1773 he also appears as Member of Council. John Murray was appointed Associate Justice in 1771 and died in 1774. William Gregory was appointed by His Majesty's mandamus to succeed him in 1774. Robert Hume was Speaker of the Assembly in 1732-1733. Robert Brisbane was Associate Justice in 1764, and Robert Pringle appears in the same office in 1760 and 1766. John Rattray was Judge of the Court of Vice-Admiralty in 1760-61, and James Abercrombie appears as Attorney-General in 1731-32. James Simpson was Clerk of the Council in 1773, Surveyor-General of Land in 1772, Attorney-General in 1774-75, and Judge of Vice-Admiralty in the absence of Sir Augustus Johnson in 1769. John Carwood was Assistant Justice in 1725. Thomas Nairne was employed in 1707 "as resident agent among the Indians, with power to settle all disputes among traders ... to arrest traders who were guilty of misdemeanors and send them to Charleston for trial, to take charge of the goods of persons who were committed to prison, and to exercise the power of a justice of the peace." This Thomas Nairne is probably the same individual who published, anonymously, "A letter from South Carolina; giving an account of the soil ... product ... trade ... government [etc.] of that province. Written by a Swiss Gentleman to his friend at Bern," the first edition of which was published in London in 1710 (second ed. in 1732).
Among the names of the seventeen corporate members of the Charleston Library Society established in 1743 occur those of the following Scots: Robert Brisbane, Alexander M'Cauley, Patrick M'Kie, William Logan, John Sinclair, James Grindlay, Alexander Baron, and Charles Stevenson.
Of the members of the Provincial Congress held at Charleston in January, 1775, the following were Scotsmen or men of Scottish ancestry: Major John Caldwell, Patrick Calhoun (ancestor of Vice-President Calhoun), George Haig of the family of Bemersyde, Charles Elliott, Thomas Ferguson, Adam Macdonald, Alexander M'Intosh, John M'Ness, Isaac MacPherson, Col. William Moultrie, David Oliphant, George Ross, Thomas Rutledge, James Sinkler, James Skirving, senior, James Skirving, junior, William Skirving, and Rev. William Tennent.
In Maryland there seems to have been a colony of Scots about 1670 under Colonel Ninian Beall, settled between the Potomac and the Patuxent, and gradually increased by successive additions. Through his influence a church was established at Patuxent in 1704, the members of which included several prominent Fifeshire families. Many other small Scottish colonies were settled on the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia, particularly in Accomac, Dorchester, Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester counties. To minister to them the Rev. Francis Makemie and the Rev. William Traill were sent out by the Presbytery of Laggan in Ulster. Upper Marlborough, Maryland, was founded by a company of Scottish immigrants and were ministered to by the Rev. Nathaniel Taylor, also from Scotland.
Two shiploads of Scottish Jacobites taken at Preston in 1716 were sent over in the ships Friendship and Good Speed to Maryland to be sold as servants. The names of some of these sufficiently attest their Scottish origin, as, Dugall Macqueen, Alexander Garden, Henry Wilson, John Sinclair, William Grant, Alexander Spalding, John Robertson, William MacBean, William McGilvary, James Hindry, Allen Maclien, William Cummins, David Steward, John Maclntire, David Kennedy, John Cameron, Alexander Orrach [Orrock?], Finloe Maclntire, Daniel Grant, etc. Another batch taken in the Rising of the '45 and also shipped to Maryland include such names as John Grant, Alexander Buchanan, Patrick Ferguson, Thomas Ross, John Cameron, William Cowan, John Bowe, John Burnett, Duncan Cameron, James Chapman, Thomas Claperton, Sanders Campbell, Charles Davidson, John Duff, James Erwyn, Peter Gardiner, John Gray, James King, Patrick Murray, William Melvil, William Murdock, etc.
A strong infusion of Scottish blood in New York State came through settlements made there in response to a proclamation issued in 1735 by the Governor, inviting "loyal protestant Highlanders" to settle the lands between the Hudson River and the northern lakes. Attracted by this offer Captain Lauchlin Campbell of Islay, in 1738-40, brought over eighty-three families of Highlanders to settle on a grant of thirty thousand acres in what is now Washington County. "By this immigration," says E.H. Roberts, "the province secured a much needed addition to its population, and these Highlanders must have sent messages home not altogether unfavorable, for they were the pioneers of a multitude whose coming in successive years were to add strength and thrift and intelligence beyond the ratio of their numbers to the communities in which they set up their homes." Many Scottish immigrants settled in the vicinity of Goshen, Orange County, in 1720, and by 1729 had organized and built two churches. A second colony arrived from the north of Ireland in 1731. At the same time as the grant was made to Lauchlin Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor Clarke granted to John Lindsay, a Scottish gentleman, and three associates, a tract of eighty thousand acres in Cherry Valley, in Otsego County. Lindsay afterwards purchased the rights of his associates and sent out families from Scotland and Ulster to the valley of the Susquehanna. These were augmented by pioneers from Londonderry, New Hampshire, under the Rev. Samuel Dunlop, who, in 1743 established in his own house the first classical school west of the Hudson. Ballston in Saratoga County was settled in 1770 by a colony of Presbyterians who removed from Bedford, New York, with their pastor, and were afterwards joined by many Scottish immigrants from Scotland, Ulster, New Jersey, and New England. The first Presbyterian Church was organized in Albany in 1760 by Scottish immigrants who had settled in that vicinity.
Sir William Johnson for his services in the French War (1755-58) received from the Crown a grant of one hundred thousand acres in the Mohawk Valley, near Johnstown, which he colonized with Highlanders in 1773-74.
In New York City about the end of the eighteenth century there was a colony of several hundred Scottish weavers, mainly from Paisley. They formed a community apart in what was then the village of Greenwich. In memory of their old home they named the locality "Paisley Place." A view of some of their old dwellings in Seventeenth Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, as they existed in 1863, is given in Valentine's Manual for that year.
Although many Scots came to New England and New York they never settled there in such numbers as to leave their impress on the community so deeply as they did in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the south. There were Presbyterian churches in Lewes, Newcastle (Delaware), and Philadelphia previous to 1698, and from that time forward the province of Pennsylvania was the chief centre of Scottish settlement both from Scotland direct and by way of Ulster. By 1720 these settlers had reached the mouth of the Susquehanna, and three years later the present site of Harrisburg. Between 1730 and 1745 they settled the Cumberland Valley and still pushing westward, in 1768-69 the present Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny, and Washington counties. In 1773 they penetrated to and settled in Kentucky, and were followed by a stream of Todds, Flemings, Morrisons, Barbours, Breckinridges, McDowells, and others. By 1790 seventy-five thousand people were in the region and Kentucky was admitted to the Federal Union in 1792. By 1779 they had crossed the Ohio River into the present state of Ohio. Between the years 1730 and 1775 the Scottish immigration into Pennsylvania often reached ten thousand a year.
SOME PROMINENT SCOTS AND SCOTS FAMILIES
Lord Bacon expressed his regret that the lives of eminent men were not more frequently written, and added that, "though kings, princes, and great personages be few, yet there are many excellent men who deserve better fate than vague reports and barren elegies." Of no country is this more true than the United States. An examination of the innumerable early biographical dictionaries with which the shelves of our public libraries are cumbered, will show that the bulk of the life sketches of the individuals therein commemorated are vague and unsatisfactory. In nearly every case little or no information is given of the parentage or origin of the subject, and indeed one work goes so far as to say that such information is unnecessary, the mere fact of American birth being sufficient. However pleasing such statements may be from an ultra patriotic viewpoint it is very unsatisfactory from the biological or historical side of the question, which is undoubtedly the most important to be considered. The neglect of these items of origin, etc., makes the task of positively identifying certain individuals as of Scottish origin or descent a very difficult one. One may feel morally certain that a particular individual from his name or features (if there be a portrait) is of Scottish origin, but without a definite statement to that effect the matter must in most cases be left an open question. One other cause of uncertainty, and it is a very annoying one, is the careless method of many biographers in putting down a man's origin as "Irish," "from Ireland," "from the north of Ireland," etc., where they clearly mean to state that the individual concerned is descended from one of the many thousands of Scots who settled in Ulster in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Notwithstanding this uncertainty the proportion of men of undoubted Scottish origin who have reached high distinction, and whose influence has had such far reaching scope in the United States, is phenomenal. "Let anyone," says Dinsmore, "scrutinize the list of names of distinguished men in our annals; names of men eminent in public life from President down; men distinguished in the Church, in the Army, in the Navy, at the Bar, on the Bench, in Medicine and Surgery, in Education, trade, commerce, invention, discovery—in any and all of the arts which add to the freedom, enlightenment, and wealth of the world, and the convenience and comfort of mankind; names which have won luster in every honorable calling—let him scrutinize the list" and he will be astonished to find how large a proportion of these names represent men of Scottish birth or Scottish descent. In these pages it is obviously impossible to mention every Scot who has achieved distinction—to do so would require a large biographical dictionary. We can here only select a few names in each class from early colonial times to the present day.
The most famous family of Colonial times was that of the Livingstons of Livingston Manor, famed alike for their ability and their patriotism. The first of the family in America was Robert Livingston (1654-1725), born at Ancrum, Roxburghshire, who came to America about 1672. He married Alida (Schuyler) Van Rensselaer. His eldest son, Philip (1686-1749), second Lord of the Manor, succeeded him and added greatly to the family wealth and lands by his business enterprise. Peter Van Brugh Livingston (1710-92), second son of Philip, was President of the first Provincial Congress. Another son, Philip (1716-78), was Member of the General Assembly for the City of New York, Member of Congress in 1774 and 1776, and one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. A third son was William (1723-90), Governor of New Jersey. Other prominent members of this family were Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813), and Edward (1764-1836). The former was Member of the Continental Congress, Chancellor of the State of New York (1777-1801), Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1781-83), Minister to France (1801-05), and Negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase (1803). He administered the oath of office to George Washington on his assuming the office of President. Edward was Member of Congress from New York (1795-1801), Mayor of New York City (1801-03), Member of Congress from Louisiana (1823-29), United States Senator (1829-31), Secretary of State (1831-33), and Minister to France (1833-35). Robert Fulton, the inventor, married a daughter of the Livingstons and thus got the necessary financial backing to make the Clermont a success. A sister of Edward was married to General Montgomery of Quebec fame, another to Secretary of War Armstrong, and a third to General Morgan Lewis.
The Bells of New Hampshire descended from John Bell, the Londonderry settler of 1718, gave three governors to New Hampshire and one to Vermont. Luther V. Bell, formerly Superintendent of the McLean Asylum, Somerville, Massachusetts, was another of his descendants. The McNutts of Londonderry, New Hampshire, are descended from William McNaught, who settled there in 1718. The McNaughts came originally from Kilquhanite in Galloway. The Bean family, descended from John Bean who came to America in 1660, were pioneers in new settlements in New Hampshire and Maine, and bore the burden of such a life and profited by it. About one hundred of them were soldiers in the Revolutionary War. The Macdonough family of Delaware is also of Scottish descent. Thomas Macdonough, the famous naval officer, was of the third generation in this country. The Corbit family of Delaware are descended from Daniel Corbit, a Quaker born in Scotland in 1682. The Forsyths of Georgia are descended from Robert Forsyth, born in Scotland about 1754, who entered the Congressional Army and became a Captain of Lee's Light Horse in 1776. The Forsyths of New York State trace their descent to two brothers from Aberdeenshire (John and Alexander). The bulk of the Virginia Gordons appear to have been from Galloway.
Alexander Breckenridge, a Scot, came to America about 1728, settling in Pennsylvania and later in Virginia. One of his sons, Robert, was an energetic Captain of Rangers during the Indian wars, and died before the close of the Revolutionary War. By his second wife, also of Scottish descent, he had several sons who achieved fame and success. One of these sons, John Breckenridge (1760-1808), became Attorney-General of Kentucky in 1795; served in the state legislature 1797-1800; drafted the famous Kentucky resolutions in 1798; was United States Senator from Kentucky (1801-05) and Attorney-General in Jefferson's Cabinet from 1805 till his death. Among the sons of John Breckenridge were Robert Jefferson Breckenridge (1800-71), clergyman and author, and Joseph Cabell Breckenridge. John Cabell Breckenridge, son of Joseph C. Breckenridge, was Vice-President of the United States (1857-61), candidate of the Southern Democrats for President in 1860, General in the Confederate Armies (1862-64), Confederate Secretary of War till 1865. Joseph Cabell Breckenridge (b. 1840), son of Robert J. Breckenridge, also served with distinction in the Civil War, and took an active part in the Santiago campaign during the Spanish-American War. Henry Breckenridge (b. 1886), son of Joseph C. Breckenridge, was Assistant Secretary of War, and served with the American Expeditionary Forces in the Argonne. William Campbell Preston Breckenridge (1837-1904), son of Robert J. Breckenridge, was Member of the Forty-ninth Congress.
The descendants of James McClellan, kin of the McClellans of Galloway, Scotland, who was appointed Constable at the town meeting held in Worcester in March, 1724, have written their name large in the medical and military annals of this country. Some of his descendants are noticed under Physicians. The most famous of the family was General George Brinton MacClellan (1826-85), Major-General in the United States Army during the Civil War, unsuccessful candidate of the Democratic Party for President in 1864, and Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881. The General's son, George B. McClellan (b. 1865), was Mayor of New York (1903 and 1905) and is now a Professor in Princeton. James Bulloch, born in Scotland c. 1701, emigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1728. In the following year he married Jean Stobo, daughter of the Rev. Archibald Stobo, and was the first ancestor of the late President Roosevelt's mother. His son, Archibald Bulloch (d. 1777), was Colonial Governor of Georgia and Commander of the State's forces in 1776-77, and signed the first Constitution of Georgia as President. He would have been one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence had not official duties called him, home. A descendant of his, James Dunwoody Bulloch, uncle of the late President Roosevelt, was Lieutenant in the Confederate Navy and Confederate States Naval Agent abroad. Irvine S. Bulloch, another uncle of Roosevelt's, was Sailing Master of the Alabama when in battle with the U.S.S. Kearsarge. Another of this family was William B. Bulloch (1776-1852), lawyer and State Senator of Georgia. The Chambers family of Trenton, New Jersey, are descended from two brothers, John and Robert Chambers, who came over in the ship Henry and Francis in 1685.
In the eighteenth century many natives of Dumfriesshire emigrated to the American colonies, and of these perhaps the most prominent were those descended from John Johnston of Stapleton, Dumfriesshire, an officer in a Scottish regiment in the French service. His second son, Gabriel, became Governor of North Carolina. In the house of the Governor's brother, Gilbert, it is stated that General Marion signed the commission for the celebrated band known as "Marion's Men." Among the more prominent descendants of Gilbert Johnston are: (1) James, who became a Colonel on the staff of General Rutherford during the Revolution and served in several engagements; (2) William, M.D., who married a daughter of General Peter Forney, and died in 1855. This William had five sons: (1) James, a Captain in the Confederate Army; (2) Robert, a Brigadier-General; (3) William, a Colonel; (4) Joseph Forney, born in 1843, Captain in the Confederate Army, Governor of Alabama from 1896 to 1900, and United States Senator for Alabama in 1907; (5) Bartlett, an officer in the Confederate Navy. Samuel Johnston, a nephew of Gilbert's, was the Naval Officer of North Carolina in 1775, Treasurer during the Revolution, and Governor of North Carolina from 1787 to 1789, President of the Convention that finally adopted the State Constitution, and first Senator elected by his state in the United States Congress in 1789. His son, James, was the largest planter in the United States on his death in 1865. Gilbert's brother Robert, was an attorney and civil engineer. His son, Peter, served as Lieutenant in the legion which Colonel Henry Lee recruited in Virginia, and after the war became Judge of the South-Western Circuit in Virginia, and Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates. He married Mary Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry. Their eighth son, Joseph Eccleston Johnston, born in 1807, graduated from West Point in 1829, served in the Federal Army in all its campaigns, up to the time of the Civil War. Although holding the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Quarter-Master-General, he resigned and joined the Confederate Army, and rendered brilliant service in its ranks. Another eminent individual of this name was General Albert Sydney Johnston, the son of a physician, John Johnston, the descendant of a Scottish family long settled in Connecticut. Christopher Johnston (1822-1891), a descendant of the Poldean branch of the Annandale Johnstons, was professor of surgery in the University of Maryland. His son, also named Christopher (d. 1914), graduated M.D., practised for eight years, studied ancient and modern languages, and eventually became Professor of Oriental History and Archaeology in Johns Hopkins University. He was one of the most distinguished Oriental scholars this country has produced.
Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), one of the founders of the Republic, served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, but it was as a Statesman of the highest ability that he acquired his great fame. He was one of the most prominent Members of the Continental Congress (1782-83), of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and Secretary of the Treasury (1789-95). He was born in the West Indies, the son of a Scots father and a French mother.
Thomas Leiper (1745-1825), born in Strathaven, Lanarkshire, emigrated to Maryland in 1763, was one of the first to favor separation from the mother country, and raised a fund for open resistance to the Crown.
Robert Stuart (1785-1848), pioneer and fur-trader, born at Callander, Perthshire, a grandson of Rob Roy's bitterest enemy. In 1810, in company with his uncle, John Jacob Astor, and several others, he founded the fur-trading colony of Astoria. His share in this undertaking is fully described in Washington Irving's Astoria. In 1817 Stuart settled at Mackinac as agent of the American Fur Company, and also served as Commissioner for the Indian tribes. General George Bartram, of Scottish parentage, was one of the "Committee of Correspondence" appointed to take action on the "Chesapeake Affair" in 1807, when war with Britain seemed imminent, and was active in military affairs during the war of 1812. Allan Pinkerton (1819-84), born in the Gorbals, Glasgow, organized the United States Secret Service Division of the United States Army in 1861, discovered the plot to assassinate President Lincoln on his way to his inauguration in 1861, and also broke up the "Molly Maguires," etc. William Walker (1824-60), the filibuster, was born in Tennessee of Scots parentage.
Rev. George Keith, a native of Aberdeen, became Surveyor-General of New Jersey in 1684. He founded the town of Freehold and marked out the dividing line between East and West Jersey. In 1693 he issued the first printed protest against human slavery, "An Exhortation & Caution to Friends concerning Buying and Keeping of Negroes," New York, 1693. James Alexander (1690-1756), a Scot, was disbarred for attempting the defense of John Peter Zenger, the printer, in 1735. Along with Benjamin Franklin he was one of the founders of the American Philosophical Society. Andrew Hamilton (1676-1741), the most eminent lawyer of his time, Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, and chief Commissioner for building Independence Hall in Philadelphia, was born in Scotland. For his championship of the freedom of the press and his successful defense of Zenger he was hailed by Governor Morris as "the day-star of the Revolution." His son James Hamilton, was the first native-born Governor of Pennsylvania and Mayor of Philadelphia. James Breghin or Brechin, Missionary, born in Scotland, took a prominent part in the affairs of Virginia (1705-19) and was an active supporter of Commissary Blair. Charles Anderson, another Missionary, probably a graduate of Aberdeen, served in Virginia from 1700 to 1719, was also a supporter of Blair. James Graham, first Recorder of the city of New York (1683-1700) and Speaker of Assembly (1691-99) was born in Scotland. Thomas Gordon (d. Perth Amboy, 1722), born in Pitlochrie, was Attorney-General of the Eastern District (1698), Chief Secretary and Registrar in 1702, later Speaker of Assembly, and in 1709 Chief Justice and Receiver-General and Treasurer of the province. Alexander Skene, who previously held office in Barbadoes, settled in North Carolina about 1696. In 1717 he was Member of Council and Assistant to the Judge of Admiralty to try a number of pirates. In 1719 he was elected Member of the New House of Assembly and became leader of the movement for the Proprietary Government. He was "looked upon as a man that understood public affairs very well." Major Richard Stobo (1727-c. 1770), a native of Glasgow, served in the Canadian campaign against the French. It was he who guided the Fraser Highlanders up the Heights of Abraham. Archibald Kennedy (c. 1687-1763), a relative of the Earl of Cassilis, was Collector of Customs of the Port of New York and Member of the Provincial Council. In his letters to headquarters and in his reports he urged the importance of the American Colonies to the mother country and advocated measures which, if carried out, would undoubtedly have strengthened their loyalty and added to their wealth and prosperity. Alexander Barclay, grandson of the Apologist of the Quakers, was Comptroller of the Customs under the Crown in Philadelphia from 1762 till his death in 1771. William Ronald, a native of Scotland, was a delegate in the Virginia Convention of 1788. His brother, General Andrew Ronald, was one of the Counsel representing the British merchants in the so-called British Debts Case. William Houston, son of Sir Patrick Houston, was a Delegate to the Continental Congress (1784-87) and a Depute from Georgia to the Convention for revising the Federal Constitution. His portrait, as well as that of his brother's, was destroyed by fire during the Civil War. Sir William Dunbar (c. 1740-1810), a pioneer of Louisiana, held important trusts under the Federal government and was a correspondent of Thomas Jefferson. Rev. Henry Patillo (1736-1801), born in Scotland, advocated separation from the mother country on every possible occasion, and was a Member of the Provincial Council in 1775. John Dickinson (1732-1808), Member of the Continental Congress of 1765, of the Federal Convention of 1787, and President of Pennsylvania (1782-85), was also the founder of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The Dickinsons came from Dundee in early colonial times. John Ross, purchasing agent for the Continental Army, was born in Tain, Ross-shire. He lost about one hundred thousand dollars by his services to his adopted country, but managed to avoid financial shipwreck. John Harvie, born at Gargunnock, died 1807, was Member of the Continental Congress (1777), signer of the Articles of Confederation the following year, and in 1788 was appointed Secretary of the Commonwealth. John McDonnell (1779-1846), born in Scotland, was in business in Detroit in 1812, and "thoroughly Americanized." He opposed the British commander's orders after the surrender of Hull, and redeemed many captives from the Indians. Became Member of State Constitutional Convention (1835), State Senator (1835-37), and Collector of the Port of Detroit (1839-41). John Johnstone Adair (b. 1807), graduate of Glasgow University, settled in Michigan, filled several important positions and became State Treasurer, State Senator, and Auditor General. Colonel James Burd (1726-93), born at Ormiston, Midlothian, took part with General Forbes in the expedition to redeem the failure of Braddock. General John Forbes (1710-59), born in Pittencrieff, Fifeshire, was founder of Pittsburgh. He was noted for his obstinacy and strength of character, and may have been the prototype of the Scotsman of the prayer: "Grant, O Lord, that the Scotchman may be right; for, if wrong, he is eternally wrong." Captain William Bean was the first white man to bring his family to Tennessee. His son, Russell Bean, was the first white child born in the state. His descendant, Dr. James Bean, died in a snowstorm on Mont Blanc while collecting specimens for the Smithsonian Institution.
George Rogers Clark (1752-1818), to whose prowess is due the possession of the territory Northwest of the Ohio, secured by the peace of 1783, was of Scottish descent. David Crockett (1786-1836), was most probably of the same origin, though vaguely said to be "son of an Irishman." The name is distinctly Scottish (Dumfriesshire). Samuel McDowell (1735-1817), took an active part in the movement leading to the War of Independence and was President of the first State Constitutional Convention of Kentucky (1792). Colonel James Innes, born in Canisbay, Caithness, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the forces in the expedition to the Ohio in 1754 by Governor Dinwiddie.
Isaac Magoon, a Scot, was the first settler of the town of Scotland (c. 1700), and gave it the name of his native country. Dr. John Stevenson, a Scot, pioneer merchant and developer of Baltimore, if not indeed its actual founder, was known as the "American Romulus." George Walker, a native of Clackmannanshire, pointed out the advantages of the present site of the Capital of the United States, and George Buchanan, another Scot, laid out Baltimore town in 1730. John Kinzie (1763-1828), the founder of Chicago, was born in Canada of Scottish parentage, the son of John MacKenzie. It is not known why he dropped the "Mac." Samuel Wilkeson (1781-1848), the man who developed Buffalo from a village to a city, was of Scottish descent. Alexander White (1814-72), born in Elgin, Scotland, was one of the earliest settlers of Chicago and did much to develop the city. Major Hugh McAlister, who served in the Revolutionary War, later founded the town of McAlisterville, Pennsylvania, was of Scots parentage. James Robertson (1742-1814), founder of Nashville, Tennessee, was of Scottish origin. His services are ranked next to Sevier's in the history of his adopted state. Walter Scott Gordon (1848-86), founder of Sheffield, Alabama, was the great-grandson of a Scot. The town of Paterson, in Putnam county, New York, was settled by Matthew Paterson, a Scottish stone-mason, in the middle of the eighteenth century, and was named after him. Lairdsville, in New York state, was named from Samuel Laird, son of a Scottish immigrant, in beginning of the eighteenth century. Paris Gibson (b. 1830), grandson of a Scot, founded and developed the town of Great Falls.
SCOTS AS COLONIAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS
Of the colonial Governors sent from Britain to the American Colonies before the Revolution and of Provincial Governors from that time to 1789, a large number were of Scottish birth or descent. Among them may be mentioned the following:
NEW YORK. Robert Hunter, Governor (1710-19), previously Governor of Virginia, was a descendant of the Hunters of Hunterston, Ayrshire. He died Governor of Jamaica (1734). He was described as one of the ablest of the men sent over from Britain to fill public positions. William Burnet (1688-1729), Governor in 1720, was also Governor of Massachusetts (1720-1729). He was the eldest son of Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Sarum. Smith, the historian of New York, calls him "a man of sense and polite breeding, a well bred scholar." John Montgomerie, Governor of New York and New Jersey (1728-31), was born in Scotland. John Hamilton, Governor (1736). Cadwallader Golden (1688-1776), Lieutenant-Governor (1761-1776), born in Duns, Berwickshire, was distinguished as physician, botanist, mathematician, and did much to develop the resources of the state. O'Callaghan in his "Documentary History of the State of New York," says: "Posterity will not fail to accord justice to the character and memory of a man to whom this country is most deeply indebted for much of its science and for many of its most important institutions, and of whom the State of New York may well be proud." John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, Governor (1770-71), afterwards Governor of Virginia. James Robertson (1710-1788), born in Fifeshire, was Governor in 1780. Andrew Elliot, born in Scotland in 1728, was Lieutenant-Governor and administered the royalist government from 1781 to November, 1783.
NEW JERSEY. Robert Barclay of the Quaker family of Barclay of Ury was appointed Governor of East New Jersey in 1682, but never visited his territory. Lord Neil Campbell, son of the ninth Earl of Argyll, was appointed Governor in 1687, but meddled little in the affairs of the colony. Andrew Hamilton (c. 1627-1703), his deputy, born in Edinburgh, on Lord Neil Campbell's departure, became Acting Governor. He was an active, energetic officer, who rendered good service to the state, and organized the first postal service in the colonies. John Hamilton, son of Andrew, was Acting Governor for a time and died at Perth Amboy in 1746. William Livingston (1723-90), the "Don Quixote of New Jersey," grandson of Robert Livingston of Ancrum, Scotland, founder of the Livingston family in America, so famous in the history of New York State, was Governor from 1776 to 1790. William Paterson (1745-1806), of Ulster Scot birth, studied at Princeton, admitted to the New Jersey bar in November, 1767, Attorney-General in 1776, first Senator from New Jersey to first Congress (1789), succeeded Livingston as Governor (1790-92), and in 1793 became Justice of the Supreme Court. The city of Paterson is named after him.
PENNSYLVANIA. Andrew Hamilton, Governor (1701-03), was previously Governor of East and West Jersey. Sir William Keith (1680-1751), born in Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Deputy Governor from 1717 to 1726. Patrick Gordon (1644-1736), Governor (1726-28). James Logan (1674-1751), born in County Armagh, son of Patrick Logan, of Scottish parentage, was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania from 1731 to 1739, and President of the Council (1736-38). He bequeathed his library of over two thousand volumes to Philadelphia, and they now form the "Loganian Library" in the Philadelphia Public Library. James Hamilton (c. 1710-1783), son of Andrew Hamilton, champion of the liberty of the press, was elected Member of the Provincial Assembly when but twenty years of age, and was re-elected five times. He was Deputy Governor 1748-54 and 1759-63. Robert Hunter Morris, of the famous New Jersey family of that name, Deputy Governor (1745-56). Joseph Reed, of Ulster Scot descent, Governor (1778-81). John Dickinson was President from 1782 to 1785.
DELAWARE. Dr. John McKinly (1721-96), first Governor of the state (1777), was of Ulster Scot birth. (All the above Governors of Pennsylvania except Reed also held the governorship of Delaware along with that of Pennsylvania.)
VIRGINIA. Robert Hunter (1707). (See above under New York.) Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor (1710-22), a scion of the Spotswood of that Ilk. He was one of the ablest and most popular representatives of the crown authority in the Colonies and was the principal encourager of the growth of tobacco which laid the foundation of Virginia's wealth. Hugh Drysdale, Lieutenant-Governor (1722-26), was strongly opposed to the introduction of slavery into the colony. Commissary James Blair (1655-1743), President of Council (1740-41), was born in Scotland. Robert Dinwiddie, born in Glasgow in 1693, was Governor from 1751 to 1758. He recommended the annexation of the Ohio Valley and so secured that great territory to the United States. To him is also due the credit of calling George Washington to the service of his country. Dinwiddie county is named after him. John Campbell, Earl of Loudon (1705-82), Governor (1756-58), does not appear to have come to this colony. John Blair, Governor (1768), son of Dr. Archibald Blair and nephew of Rev. James Blair, the Commissary. Many of his descendants have distinguished themselves in the annals of Virginia. John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, Governor (1771-75), was previously Governor of New York. Patrick Henry (1736-99), Governor (1776-79, 1784-86), was born in Hanover County, Virginia, of Scottish parentage, his father being a native of Aberdeen, his grandmother a cousin of William Robertson the historian. He became a lawyer in 1760 and in 1763 found his opportunity, when having been employed to plead against an unpopular tax, his great eloquence seemed suddenly to develop itself. This defence placed him at once in the front rank of American orators, and in 1765 he entered the Virginia House of Burgesses, immediately thereafter becoming leader in Virginia of the political agitation which preceded the Declaration of Independence. On the passage of the Stamp Act his voice was the first that rose in a clear, bold call to resistance, and in May, 1773, he assisted in procuring the passage of the resolution establishing a Committee of Correspondence for intercourse with the other colonies. In the Continental Congress which met in Philadelphia in 1774 he delivered a fiery and eloquent speech worthy of so momentous a meeting. In 1776 he carried the vote of the Virginia Convention for independence. He was an able administrator, a wise and far-seeing legislator, but it is as an orator that he will forever live in American history. William Fleming (1729-95), surgeon, soldier, and statesman, Councillor and Acting-Governor (1781), was born in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire.
NORTH CAROLINA. William Drummond, Governor of "Albemarle County Colony" (i.e., North Carolina), was a native of Perthshire, a strenuous upholder of the rights of the people, and ranks as one of the earliest of American patriots. He took a prominent part in "Bacon's Rebellion" in 1676, "an insurrection that was brought about by the insolence and pig-headedness of Sir William Berkeley, then Governor of Virginia," and was executed the same year. Gabriel Johnston (1699-1752), Governor (1734-52), was born in Scotland, and held the Professorship of Oriental Languages in St. Andrews University before coming to the colonies. Johnston County is named after him. Matthew Rowan was President of Council and Acting Governor in 1753. Alexander Martin (1740-1807), was fourth and Acting Governor, 1782-84, and from 1789 to 1792. Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), sixth Governor (1788-89), four years Senator, and Justice of the Supreme Court from 1800-1803. Bancroft says the movement for freedom was assisted by "the calm wisdom of Samuel Johnston, a native of Dundee, in Scotland, a man revered for his integrity, thoroughly opposed to disorder and revolution, if revolution could be avoided without yielding to oppression."
SOUTH CAROLINA. Richard Kirk, Governor (1684). James Glen, born in Linlithgow in 1701, Governor (1743-56). Lord William Campbell, third brother of the fifth Duke of Argyll, Governor (1775). John Rutledge (1739-1800), brother of Edward Rutledge the Signer, was President of South Carolina (1776-78) and first Governor (1779-82). He was later a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1789-91), Chief Justice of South Carolina (1791-95), and in 1795 appointed Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
GEORGIA. William Erwin or Ewen, born in England in 1775. John Houston, son of Sir Patrick Houston, one of the prime instigators and organizers of the Sons of Liberty (1774), was Governor in 1774-76, 1778. His portrait was destroyed by fire during the Civil War. Houston County was named in his honor. Edward Telfair, born in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in 1735 and died at Savannah in 1807. When the revolutionary troubles commenced he earnestly espoused the side of the colonies, and became known locally as an ardent advocate of liberty. He was regarded as the foremost citizen of his adopted state, and his death was deeply mourned throughout the state.
FLORIDA. George Johnstone, a member of the family of Johnstone of Westerhall, was nominal Governor of Florida when that colony was ceded by Spain to Great Britain in 1763. He was one of the Commissioners appointed by the British government to try and restore peace in America in 1778.
SCOTS AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Presbyterians in the Colonies, being dissenters, were untrammeled and free to speak their mind in defence of their country's right, and history shows that they did not fail their opportunity: the doctrine of passive obedience never finding favor with them. In the Colonies the Presbyterian ministers claimed equal rights, religious freedom, and civil liberty. Their teaching had great influence, particularly in the South, and Patrick Henry of Virginia, David Caldwell, Dr. Ephraim Brevard, Rev. Alexander Craighead (d. 1766), and James Hall of North Carolina, the two Rutledges and Tennant of South Carolina, William Murdoch of Maryland, James Wilson and Thomas Craighead of Pennsylvania, Witherspoon of New Jersey, Read and McKean of Delaware, Livingston of New York, and Thornton of New Hampshire, with their associates had prepared the people for the coming conflict. In Maryland the lower house of the General Assembly was a fortress of popular rights and of civil liberty. Its resolutions and messages, beginning in 1733, and in an uninterrupted chain until 1755 continually declared "that it is the peculiar right of his Majesty's subjects not to be liable to any tax or other imposition but what is laid on them by laws to which they themselves are a party." These principles were reiterated and recorded upon the journals of every Assembly until 1771. The resolutions, addresses, and messages of the lower house during this period discuss with remarkable fullness and accuracy the fundamental principles of free government, and most of them emanated from William Murdoch, born in Scotland (c. 1720), who was one of the leading spirits and the directing force of the discussion. He led in the resistance to the Stamp Act and in other ways he united his colony in solid resistance to the attempt to levy taxes and imposts without their consent. In May, 1775, the General Synod of the Presbyterian Church met in Philadelphia and issued its famous "Pastoral Letter," which was sent broadcast throughout the Colonies, urging the people to adhere to the resolutions of Congress, and to make earnest prayer to God for guidance in all measures looking to the defense of the country. This powerful letter was also sent to the legislature in every colony. Adolphus in his "History of England from the Accession of George III. to the Conclusion of Peace in 1783," published in London in 1802, declared that the Synod and their circular was the chief cause which led the Colonies to determine on resistance. There is no question that from the Scots Presbyterians and their descendants came many of the leaders in the struggle for independence, as Bancroft has well pointed out in the following words: "The first voice publicly raised in America to dissolve all connection with Great Britain came not from the Puritans of New England, nor the Dutch of New York, nor the planters of Virginia, but from the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians." Joseph Galloway (1730-1803), the Loyalist, than whom, says Ford, "there could be no better informed witness," "held that the underlying cause of the American Revolution was the activity and influence of the Presbyterian interest," and further, that "it was the Presbyterians who supplied the Colonial resistance a lining without which it would have collapsed." And Joseph Reed of Philadelphia, himself an Episcopalian, said: "The part taken by the Presbyterians in the contest with the mother country was indeed, at the time, often made a ground of reproach, and the connection between their efforts for the security of religious liberty and opposition to the oppressive measures of Parliament, was then distinctly seen. A Presbyterian loyalist was a thing unheard of." Parker, the historian, quotes a writer who says: "When the sages of America came to settle the forms of our government, they did but copy into every constitution the simple elements of representative republicanism, as found in the Presbyterian system. It is a matter of history that cannot be denied, that Presbyterianism as found in the Bible and the standards of the several Presbyterian churches, gave character to our free institutions." Ranke, the German historian, declared that "Calvin was the founder of the American Government;" and Gulian C. Verplanck of New York, in a public address, traced the origin of our Declaration of Independence to the National Covenant of Scotland. Chief Justice Tilghman (1756-1827) stated that the framers of the Constitution of the United States were through the agency of Dr. Witherspoon much indebted to the standards of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in molding that instrument.
SCOTS AS SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Of the fifty-six Signers of the Declaration of Independence, no less than nine can be claimed as directly or indirectly of Scottish origin. Edward Rutledge (1749-1800), the youngest Signer, was a son of Dr. John Rutledge who emigrated from Ulster to South Carolina in 1735. The Rutledges were a small Border clan in Roxburghshire. William Hooper (1742-1790), was the son of a Scottish minister, who was born near Kelso and died in Boston in 1767. Hooper early displayed marked literary ability and entered Harvard University when fifteen years of age. At twenty-six he was one of the leading lawyers of the colony of North Carolina. George Ross (1730-79), was also of Scottish parentage. His nephew's wife, Elizabeth (Griscom) Ross (1752-1832), better known as "Betsy Ross," was maker of the first national flag. Matthew Thornton (1714-1803), the distinguished New Hampshire statesman and physician, was brought to this country from the north of Ireland by his father when about three years of age. He accompanied the expedition against Louisburg in 1745, was President of the Provincial Convention in 1775 and Speaker in January, 1776. In September, 1776, he was elected to Congress, and in November following signed the Declaration of Independence, although he had not been one of the framers. Thomas McKean (1734-1817), was a great-grandson of William McKean of Argyllshire who moved to Ulster about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was a member of Congress from Delaware (1774-83), Chief Justice of Pennsylvania (1777-99), and Governor of the state from 1799 to 1808. George Taylor (1716-81), described as the son of a clergyman and "born in Ireland," was most probably an Ulster Scot. He was a member of the Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania from 1764 to 1770 and again in 1775. James Wilson (1742-1798), whose fame was to become as wide and lasting as the nation, was born in St. Andrews, the old university city of Fifeshire. He was a Delegate to Congress from Pennsylvania in 1776, Member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1789 till his death. He strongly advocated independence as the only possible means of escape from the evils which had brought the various commonwealths into such a state of turmoil and dissatisfaction. Philip Livingston (1716-1778), grandson of Robert Livingston, the first of the American family of the name, was Member of Congress from New York in 1776. "His life was distinguished for inflexible rectitude and devotion to the interests of his country."
Last but greatest of all to be mentioned is the Rev. John Witherspoon (1722-94). Born in Yester, Scotland, educated in Edinburgh, minister in Paisley, he was called in 1768 to be President of the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. He said he had "become an American the moment he landed." He took an active part in the public affairs of the colony of New Jersey, and in the convention which met to frame a constitution he displayed great knowledge of legal questions and urged the abolition of religious tests. In June, 1776, he was elected to the Continental Congress, and in the course of the debates he displayed little patience with those who urged half measures. When John Dickinson of Pennsylvania said the country was not ripe for independence, Witherspoon broke in upon the speaker exclaiming, "Not ripe, Sir! In my judgment we are not only ripe, but rotting. Almost every colony has dropped from its parent stem and your own province needs no more sunshine to mature it." He further declared that he would rather be hanged than desert his country's cause. One of his sons was killed at the battle of Germantown.
SCOTS IN THE PRESIDENCY
Of the twenty-nine Presidents of the United States five (Monroe, Grant, Hayes, Roosevelt, and Wilson) are of Scottish descent, and four (omitting Jackson who has been also claimed as Scottish by some writers) are of Ulster Scot descent, namely, Polk, Buchanan, Arthur, and McKinley. Jackson may possibly have been of Ulster Scot descent as his father belonged to Carrickfergus while his, mother's maiden name, Elizabeth Hutchins, or Hutchinson, is Scottish. She came of a family of linen weavers. Benjamin Harrison might also have been included as he had some Scottish (Gordon) blood. His wife, Caroline Scott Harrison, was of Scottish descent.
James Monroe, fifth President, was descended from Andrew Monroe, who emigrated from Scotland in the middle of the seventeenth century. President Grant was a descendant of Matthew Grant, who came from Scotland to Dorchester, Mass., in 1630. George Hayes, ancestor of Rutherford B. Hayes, nineteenth President, was a Scot who settled in Windsor prior to 1680. Theodore Roosevelt was Dutch on his father's side and Scottish on his mother's. His mother was descended from James Bulloch, born in Scotland about 1701, who emigrated to Charleston, c. 1728, and founded a family which became prominent in the annals of Georgia. Woodrow Wilson's paternal grandfather, James Wilson, came from county Down in 1807. His mother, Janet (or Jessie) Woodrow, was a daughter of Rev. Thomas Woodrow, a native of Paisley, Scotland. James Knox Polk, eleventh President, was a great-great-grandson of Robert Polk or Pollok, who came from Ayrshire through Ulster. Many kinsmen of President Polk have distinguished themselves in the annals of this country. James Buchanan, fifteenth President, was of Ulster Scot parentage. Chester Alan Arthur, twenty-first President, was the son of a Belfast minister of Scottish descent. William McKinley, twenty-fifth President, was descended from David McKinley, an Ulster Scot, born about 1730, and his wife, Rachel Stewart. The surname McKinley in Ireland occurs only in Ulster Scot territory.
SCOTS AS VICE-PRESIDENTS
Of the Vice-Presidents of the United States six at least were of Scottish or Ulster Scot descent.
John Caldwell Calhoun (1782-1850), of Scottish descent on both sides. Previous to becoming Vice-President he was Secretary of War in Monroe's cabinet, and later was Secretary of State in the cabinet of President Tyler. He was one of the chief instruments in securing the annexation of Texas. George Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864), son of Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury, was Minister to Russia in 1837-39, and subsequent to his Vice-Presidency was Minister to Great Britain (1856-61). John Cabell Breckenridge (1821-75), of direct Scottish descent, was Vice-President from 1857-61, candidate for President in 1860, Major-General in the Confederate Army (1862-64), and Confederate Secretary of War (1864-65). Henry Wilson (1812-75), of Ulster Scot descent, had a distinguished career as United States Senator before his election to the Vice-Presidency (1873-75). His original name was Jeremiah Jones Colbraith (i.e., Galbraith). He was also a distinguished author, his most important work being the "History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America" (1872-75). Thomas Andrews Hendricks (1819-85), who held the Vice-Presidency only for a few months (March to November, 1885), was of Scottish descent on his mother's side. Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) was Member of Congress from Illinois (1875-77), and First Assistant Postmaster-General (1885-89), previous to becoming Vice-President (1893-97).
SCOTS AS CABINET OFFICERS
WAR. William Harris Crawford (1772-1834), descended from David Crawford, who came from Scotland to Virginia, c. 1654. Secretary of War (1615-16), Secretary of the Treasury (1816-25), and save for an unfortunate attack of paralysis, would have been President in 1824. He was also United States Senator from Georgia (1807-13) and Minister to France (1813-15). John Bell (1797-1869), Secretary (1841), Senator (1847-59), and candidate of the Constitutional Union Party for President in 1860, was probably of Scottish descent. George Washington Crawford, Secretary of War, was also Governor of Georgia. Simon Cameron (1799-1889), of Scottish parentage or descent, Senator (1845-49), Secretary of War in cabinet of Lincoln (1861-62), United States Minister to Russia (1862-63), and again Senator (1866-77). James Donald Cameron (1833-1918), son of the preceding, was Secretary under Grant for a year and United States Senator from 1877 to 1897. Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905), journalist and Secretary under Cleveland, was of Ulster Scot origin.
TREASURY. George Washington Campbell (1768-1848), Secretary (1814), was also Minister to Russia (1810-20). Alexander James Dallas (1759-1817), Secretary (1814-16), was the son of a Scottish physician, Dr. Robert C. Dallas. During 1815-16 he also discharged the functions of Secretary of War. Had a distinguished career as a statesman. Louis McLane (1776-1857), son of Allen McLane, a Revolutionary soldier and Speaker of the Legislature of Delaware, had a distinguished career as Senator from Delaware (1827-29), Minister to Great Britain (1829-31), Secretary of the Treasury (1831-33), and Secretary of State (1833-34). His son, Robert Milligan McLane (1815-98), had a distinguished career as a diplomat. James Guthrie (1792-1869), Secretary in the cabinet of President Pierce (1853-57). Thomas Ewing (1789-1871), was United States Senator from Ohio (1831-37), Secretary of the Treasury (1841), Secretary of the Interior (1849-50). He traced his descent from Findlay Ewing, a native of Loch Lomond, who distinguished himself in the Revolution of 1688 under William of Orange. Hugh McCulloch (1808-95), descended from Hugh McCulloch, Bailie of Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, was Comptroller of the Currency (1863-65), Secretary of the Treasury (1865-69, 1884-85). He funded the National Debt during his first term as Secretary. Charles Foster (1825-1904), Governor of Ohio (1880-84), was Secretary of the Treasury from 1891 to 1893. Franklin MacVeagh (b. 1837), of Scottish ancestry, also held the office under President Taft.
INTERIOR. Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart (b. 1807), Secretary in President Fillmore's cabinet, was son of Archibald Stuart, a Scot who fought in Revolutionary War. Thomas Ewing is already referred to (under Treasury). Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, Secretary of the Interior under Garfield, was also three times Governor of Iowa.
NAVY. Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813), Secretary (1798-1801), was grandson of a Scot. William Alexander Graham (1804-75), Secretary (1850), was also Governor of North Carolina. He projected the expedition to Japan under Commodore Perry. James Cochrane Dobbin (1814-57). Paul Morton (1857-1911), Secretary (1904-05), was said to be descended from Richard Morton, a blacksmith and ironmaster of Scottish birth, who came to America about the middle of the eighteenth century.
STATE. James Gillespie Blaine (1830-93), Secretary (1881, 1889-92) and unsuccessful candidate for President in 1884. John Hay (1838-1905), one of the ablest Secretaries of State (1898-1905) this country ever had, was also of Scottish descent. He also held several diplomatic posts in Europe (1865-70), culminating in Ambassador to Great Britain (1897-98).
AGRICULTURE. James Wilson (1835-1920), Secretary (1897-1913) under McKinley, Roosevelt, and Taft, was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. He was Regent of Iowa State University, and in 1891 was elected to the chair of Practical Agriculture in the College of Agriculture and Director of the State Experiment Stations. He was wonderfully successful in the expansion and administration of the "most useful public department in the world."
LABOR. William Bauchop Wilson, born in Blantyre, near Glasgow, Scotland, in 1862, Secretary-Treasurer of the United Mine Workers of America (1900-09); Member of Congress (1907-13), and Chairman of the Committee on Labor in the sixty-second Congress, Secretary of Labor (1913).
POSTMASTER-GENERAL. The first postal service in the Colonies was organized by Andrew Hamilton, a native of Edinburgh, who obtained a patent for a postal scheme from the British Crown in 1694. A memorial stone on the southwest corner of the New York Post Office at Thirty-third Street commemorates the fact. John Maclean (1785-1861), Postmaster-General from 1823 to 1829, was later Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court of Ohio, and unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for President in 1856 and again in 1860. He took part in the famous Dred Scott case, in which he dissented from Taney, maintaining that slavery had its origin merely in power and was against right. James Campbell (1812-93), of Ulster Scot parentage, Postmaster-General in the cabinet of President Pierce, made a record by reducing the rate of postage and introducing the registry system. Montgomery Blair (1813-83) was Postmaster-General in the cabinet of President Lincoln. Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Assistant Postmaster-General, later became Vice-President.
SCOTS IN THE SENATE
John Ewing Colhoun (1749-1802), Member of State Legislature of South Carolina and Senator from the same state (1801), was of the same family as John C. Calhoun. George Logan (1753-1821), a man of high scientific attainments, grandson of James Logan, Quaker Governor of Pennsylvania, went to France in 1798 with the design of averting war with that country, Senator from Pennsylvania (1801-07). John Rutherfurd (1760-1840) was grandson of Sir John Rutherfurd of Edgerston, Scotland. James Brown (1766-1835), Senator and Minister-Plenipotentiary to France, was of Scottish descent. Jacob Burnet (1770-1853), Jurist and Senator, was the grandson of a Scot. His father, William Burnet (1730-91), was a skilful physician and Member of Congress. John Leeds Kerr (1780-1844), lawyer and Senator, was the son of James Kerr of Monreith. Alexander Campbell (1779-1857), Senator, was of Argyllshire descent. Walter Lowrie (1784-1868), Senator (1819-35) and thereafter Secretary of the Senate for twelve years, was born in Edinburgh. His four sons all became prominent in law and theology. Simon Cameron (1799-1889), grandson of a Cameron who fought at Culloden. His ancestor emigrated to America soon after the '45 and fought tinder Wolfe against the French at Quebec. Simon Cameron was also for a time Secretary of War in Lincoln's Cabinet and Minister to Russia. He named his residence at Harrisburg "Lochiel." His brother James was Colonel of the New York Volunteers, the 79th Highlanders, in the Civil War. James Donald Cameron (b. 1833), son of Simon Cameron, was President of the Northern Central Railroad of Pennsylvania (1863-74), Secretary of War Under General Grant, and Senator from Pennsylvania. Charles E. Stuart (1810-87), Lawyer and Senator, was a descendant of Daniel Stuart who came to America before 1680. Stephen Arnold Douglas (1813-61), Senator and unsuccessful candidate of the Democratic party for the Presidency in 1860, was of Scottish origin. Joseph Ewing MacDonald (1819-91), who held a foremost place among constitutional lawyers and was Democratic candidate for Governor of Indiana in 1864, was of Scottish ancestry. Francis Montgomery Blair (1821-75), a descendant of Commissary Blair of Virginia, was Senator from Missouri (1871-73), and Democratic candidate for Vice-President in 1868. James Burnie Beck (1822-90), born in Dumfriesshire, was Member of Congress (1867-75) and Senator from 1876 to 1890. He served on many important committees. Joseph McIlvaine (1765-1826), United States Senator from 1823 to 1826, was grandson of a Scot. His father fought on the Colonial side in the Revolution. Randall Lee Gibson (1822-92), of Scottish ancestry, Major-General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, was United States Senator from Louisiana from 1883 till his death. His grandfather, Randall Gibson, was one of the founders of Jefferson College, Mississippi. John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), Lieutenant-General in the Confederate Army, thirty-fifth Governor of Georgia and United States Senator, was grandson of a Scot. Marcus Alonzo Hanna (1837-1904) was also partly Scottish descent. Calvin Stewart Brice (1845-1898), Chairman of the Democratic Campaign Committee (1888) and Senator from Ohio (1891-97), claimed descent from Bruce of Kinnaird. Daniel Hugh McMillan (b. 1846), was much identified with the welfare of Buffalo. His grandfather was "John the Upright," arbiter of the Hollanders of the Mohawk Valley during the latter part of the eighteenth century. Alexander McDonald (d. 1903), Senator from Arkansas (1868-71), was the son of John McDonald who came to the United States in 1827, and was one of the first to discover and develop bituminous coal mines on the west branch of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. John Lendrum Mitchell (1842-1904), grandson of John Mitchell, farmer of Aberdeenshire, was State Senator of Wisconsin, Member of Congress from Wisconsin (1891-93), and Senator from the same state (1893-99), was also noted as a capitalist. Samuel James Renwick MacMillan (d. 1897), Chairman of the Committee of Commerce, was of Covenanting descent.