Shepp's Photographs of the World
by James W. Shepp
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Panoramic Views of Cities—Street Scenes—Public Buildings—Cathedrals— Mosques—Churches—Temples—Observatories—Castles—Palaces—Homes of Noted People—Private Apartments of Presidents, Queens, Kings, Emperors, Monarchs and Rulers—Harems—Universities—Colleges—Active Volcanoes— Mountain Scenery—Lake Scenery—Lochs—Fjords—Falls—River Scenery— Canyons—Geysers—Bridges—Parks—Fountains—Theatres—Obelisks—Towers— Memorials—Tombs—Caves—Cemeteries—Pyramids—Ruins of Castles—Ruins of Temples—Ruins of Ancient Cities—Tropical Scenery—Towns—Villages— Huts,

Together with a large array of instantaneous photographs, showing the every-day life of the people in the various countries of the world.





Also, direct copies of all the original famous paintings and statuary, by the world's old masters and modern artists, taken from the leading galleries, including the


Forming the largest and most valuable collection of works of art in the world.










n all ages, men have been eager to tell and to hear new things; and before books were printed, travellers wandered abroad, bringing home wonderful stories of unknown lands.

In the construction of this publication, the object is not to tell stories or relate experiences, but to exhibit, by carefully taken photographs, the great sights of the world as they exist to-day.

The art of teaching with pictures is very old. The ancient Egyptians used emblems and designs to record the various incidents of their history, traces of which are still found on obelisks and ruined temples.

Wood illustrations were also introduced many years ago; and as time rolled on, marked improvements were made in the art of wood-engraving. Notwithstanding the fact that they have not the power of truly representing the original objects they intend to portray, they are still largely used for illustrating printed books and papers.

Over a century ago, the art of photography was made known to the world by Scheele, a Swedish chemist; since then, many improvements have been made in this art, until now, by the photo-electro process, an exact photograph can be transferred on a copper plate, without losing a single line or shade, and from this plate, photographs can be printed, such as appear in this book.

Owing to the increasing popularity of the graphic and pictorial methods of imparting information, the photographic camera was employed to secure photographs of the greatest things of the world as seen to-day, both for instruction and entertainment.

We forget knowledge acquired by common conversation, and descriptions of places and things; but when we observe them, and their forms are conveyed to our minds through the medium of our eyes, they are indelibly impressed upon the memory.

The object, then, of this Publication is to present photographs of all the great sights of the world, from every corner of the globe, carefully reproducing them by the photo-electro process, and adding a few lines of explanation to every picture, so that any one can comprehend each subject.

To make this collection, every country was carefully ransacked, starting in Ireland, with the famous Blarney Castle and Lakes of Killarney in the south, and extending to the Giant's Causeway in the north, said by an old legend to have been built by giants to form a road across the channel to Scotland.

Passing through Scotland, we photographed its hills, castles, lochs, bridges and cities. Throughout Wales and England, we represent their busy seaport and manufacturing towns; the home of Shakespeare, the Bard of Avon; Windsor Castle, far-famed for its beauty and battlements; Greenwich Observatory, from which the longitude of the world is computed; Hampton Court, a relic of royalty; and London, the metropolis of the world, with over six million people, its crowded streets, imperial buildings, historic abbeys, famous towers and monuments.

The Netherlands and Denmark are represented by the dykes and windmills, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, the battlefield of Waterloo; Russia, the land of the Czar, by Moscow, The Kremlin; St. Petersburg, the Winter Palace. Thence our photographers travelled across the steppes to Lapland, Finland, Poland, and over the tundras to sterile Siberia, inflicting its cruel tortures on unhappy exiled prisoners.

Germany, that romantic country of northern Europe, affords Berlin; Potsdam, its Royal Palaces; Dresden and its Picture Galleries; Frankfort-on-the-Main, the former home of Luther, the reformer, and Rothschild, the financial king of the world; the picturesque Rhine, lined with its historic castles.

France furnishes for our collection Paris, the proudest city of the whole world, ever gay, its pretty boulevards, monuments, towers, bridges, historic buildings, the Louvre and Luxembourg Galleries, and their treasures of painting and sculptures; Versailles, its royal palaces, the largest in the world; the palace at Fontainbleau, buried in the midst of that imperial forest, the home where Napoleon ruled and abdicated; the cities of the interior and those of the ever-delightful Riveria, from Marseilles to Monte Carlo, the latter both lovely, hideous, serene, sensational, beautiful and damnable.

Through Spain and Portugal, every object of interest was photographed, from the wild and thrilling scenery of the Pyrenees in the north to that bold headland rock of Gibraltar in the south, and from the calm Mediterranean in the east to the turbulent waters of the Atlantic on the west.

Of Switzerland, we exhibit its snow-capped peaks of perpetual ice and snow; Mont Blanc, Matterhorn and Jungfrau; its placid lakes; mountain passes, like shelves cut in rock; its bridges of ice and variety of wild scenery that is seen nowhere but in Switzerland.

Through sunny Italy we gathered photographs from lakes Lugano, Maggiore and Como with perpetual spring, in the north, to the fiery crater of Mount Vesuvius in the south; Venice, the "Queen of the Adriatic;" Genoa, the home of Columbus; Pisa, its leaning tower; Florence, the "flower of cities," with its galleries of statues and paintings that the wealth of nations could not purchase; and Rome, that mighty city by the Tiber, that once ruled the world, and is still the abode of the Pope; St. Peters and its ruins; yet now calm, peaceful and powerless.

Austria, where the Catholic bows his head to every shrine, favored us with its sublime mountain scenery; the picturesque Tyrol; the blue Danube, famous in history and song; and Vienna, the home of the Emperor and the former abode of Maria Theresa, strangely fascinating and unlike any other city in the whole world. Turkey, the land of the Sultan and the followers of Mahomet, with its strange people and curious habits, is represented by Constantinople, with its mosques and minarets, from the top of which the Mussulman sings out his daily calls for prayer, Ali! Ali!—there is but one God, and Mahomet is his prophet; its streets, gates and squares; the Bosphorus and Golden Horn.

Classic Greece, once the centre of art and learning, adorns our collection with Athens, the Acropolis and Parthenon, the latter almost completely and shamefully bereft of those famous marbles, chiseled by Phidias nearly five hundred years before Christ.

In ancient Egypt we photographed the Suez Canal; Alexandria, the former city of Cleopatra; Cairo, the home of the Khedive and his harems; the Sphynx and Pyramids, the latter the tombs of the selected Ptolemies; the river Nile, fed by the melting snows from the mountains of the Moon, and pouring its waters over this ancient valley with a regularity as though the ruined temples on its banks give it command.

Palestine, the Holy Land, made famous in the history of the Christian Church, added Jeruselem, the City of David; Bethlehem, the cradle of Christ; Jordan, where He was baptized; the Sea of Galilee, on whose shores He preached to the multitude; Nazareth, from which He was called a Nazarene; Gethsemane, where He suffered; Calvary, where He was crucified.

Asia furnished Mecca, that eternal city to which Mahomet's disciples make their weary pilgrimages; Hindoostan, from Bombay to Calcutta; the grottos of Illora; the caverns of Salcette; the Hindoo priests, chanting the verses of the Vedas; the ruins of the city of the great Bali, the domes of the pagodas; glacier views, snow bridges, rattan bridges in the Himalayas; the sacred caves of Amurnath, to which pilgrimages are made by the Hindoos; Srinugurr and its floating gardens; curious bridges; bazaars for the sale of the world-renowned Cashmere shawls, the winding river Jheulm, with its many curves, suggesting the pattern or design for these famous wraps; Darjeeling and Mussorie, celebrated hill sanitariums, in the heart of the Himalayas, much frequented by tourists during summer; Melapore, where St. Thomas was martyred and where Christ, perhaps, lived during His absence from Judea, drawing from the books of the Brahmins, the most perfect precepts of His divine teachings; the subterranean caverns of Candy; the splendor of the Valley of Rubies; Adam's Peak; the footmark of Buddha; the fairy-like view of the Straits of Sunda.

Our photographers also traversed the Celestial Empire, South America, Central America, Mexico, Greenland, Iceland, Alaska, Canada and the United States, from the Golden Gate in the west to the Rocky Coast of New England in the east, and from the Lake Cities in the north to the Cotton States in the south. Through every country and every clime, north, south, east and west, wherever was located a point of interest, an historic castle, a famous monument, a grand cathedral, a world's wonder, a great city, a crowded avenue, an imperial building, a pretty picture, an exquisite statue, a picturesque river, an inspiring grandeur of nature, a curious cavern, a lofty peak, a deep valley, a strange people, the same was reflected through the camera and added to this book.

The result of this collection entailed therefore the expenditure of a vast amount of money and labor, as may be supposed; and the only wish of the publishers is, that it may afford pleasure and instruction to those that view the result of their labors.


IRELAND. Blarney Castle Lakes of Killarney Dublin (Instantaneous) Giant's Causeway

SCOTLAND. Municipal Buildings, Glasgow Loch Lomond Forth Bridge Balmoral Castle Clamshell Cave, Island of Staffa Edinburgh (Instantaneous)

ENGLAND. Liverpool (Instantaneous) Lime Street, Liverpool (Instantaneous) Manchester (Instantaneous) Warwick Castle, Warwick Shakespeare's House, Stratford-on-Avon Brighton Osborne House, Isle of Wight Hampton Court Palace, Hampton Court Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich

WINDSOR CASTLE. Windsor Castle Green Drawing Room

LONDON. Midland Grand Hotel and St. Pancras Station The Strand (Instantaneous) Cheapside (Instantaneous) St. Paul's Cathedral The Bank of England (Instantaneous) Tower of London London Bridge (Instantaneous) Westminster Abbey Houses of Parliament Trafalgar Square Buckingham Palace Rotten Row (Instantaneous) Albert Memorial

BELGIUM. Antwerp

BRUSSELS. Panoramic View of Brussels Palace of the King Bourse (Instantaneous) City Hall Cathedral of Ste. Gudule The Forbidden Book. Painting, Ooms

HOLLAND. Scheveningen Amsterdam (Instantaneous) Windmill

NORWAY. Christiansand Bergen Naerdfjord, Gudvnagen North Cape

RUSSIA. Moscow Winter Palace, St. Petersburg

GERMANY. The Cathedral, Cologne Bingen Ehrenbreitstein Frankfort-on-the-Main Martin Luther's House, Frankfort-on-the-Main Ariadne on the Panther, Statuary, Dannecker University Building, Leipsic

BERLIN. Royal Palace Berlin, Unter den Linden Statue of Frederick the Great The Brandenburg Gate Monument of Victory

POTSDAM. The Historic Windmill

DRESDEN GALLERY. Madonna di San Sisto, Painting, Raphael Magdalene, Painting, Battoni,

FRANCE. PARIS. Bird's-eye View of Paris Place de la Concorde (Instantaneous) Madeleine (Instantaneous) Opera House (Instantaneous) Great Boulevards July Column Statue of the Republic Vendome Column Royal Palace Hotel de Ville Cathedral of Notre Dame Palace of Justice Arc of Triumph Dome des Invalides Tomb of Napoleon Eiffel Tower Pantheon Louvre Buildings

LOUVRE GALLERY. Venus de Milo, Statuary, Unknown Tomb of Phillippe Pot, Statuary, Renaissance Peacemaker of the Village, Painting, Greuze


The Last Veil, Statuary, Bouret Arrest in the Village, Painting, Salmson A Mother, Statuary, Lenoir Joan of Arc, Statuary, Chapu Paying the Reapers, Painting, Lhermitte Ignorance, Painting, Paton

VERSAILLES. Royal Palace Royal Carriage

VERSAILLES GALLERY. Last Victims of the Reign of Terror, Painting, Muller Napoleon at Austerlitz, Painting, Vernet Napoleon, Painting, Gosse

FONTAINEBLEAU. Royal Palace Throne Room Apartment of Tapestries Apartment of Mme. de Maintenon

SOUTHERN FRANCE. Nice Monaco Monte Carlo Gaming Hall, Monte Carlo

SPAIN. Madrid Seville Bull Fight, Seville (Instantaneous) Toledo Gibraltar


SWITZERLAND. Kirchenfeld Bridge, Berne Clock Tower, Berne Peasant Woman Interlaken and the Jungfrau Grindelwald A Thousand Foot Chasm Brunig Pass Lucerne Rigi Rigi-Kulm Pilatus Simplon's Pass Zermatt and the Matterhorn Chamounix and Mont Blanc Engleberg St. Gotthard Railway Axenstrasse

AUSTRIA. VIENNA. Panorama of Vienna Hotel Metropole Church of St. Stephen Theseus, Statuary, Canova, Schoenbrunn

TURKEY. CONSTANTINOPLE. Galata Bridge (Instantaneous) Mosque of St. Sophia Interior of the Mosque of St. Sophia Street Scene (Instantaneous) Mosque of Ahmed Turkish Lady Street Merchants Sultan's Harem

GREECE. Acropolis, Athens Parthenon, Athens

ITALY. MILAN. Grand Cathedral and Square Corso Venezia

TURIN. Exposition Buildings Duke Ferdinand of Genoa

GENOA. General View of Genoa Statue of Columbus

PISA. Leaning Tower

VENICE. Palace of the Doges Grand Canal Cathedral of St. Mark Street Scene in Venice The Rialto (Instantaneous)

FLORENCE. The Cathedral Vecchio Bridge Monk Loggia dei Lanzi Uffizi Buildings

LOGGIA DEI LANZI. Rape of Polyxena, Statuary, Fedi

UFFIZI GALLERY. Wild Boar, Bronze The Grinder, Statuary, 16th Century

ROME. Appian Way and Tomb of Cecilia Metella Pyramid of Cestius and St. Paul Gate Roman Forum Forum of Trajan Baths of Caracalla Colosseum Interior of Colosseum Pantheon Bridge of St. Angelo and Tomb of Hadrian St. Peter's and Vatican Interior of St. Peter's Romulus and Remus

VATICAN GALLERY. Transfiguration, Painting, Raphael La Ballerina, Statuary, Canova Laocoonte, Statuary

NAPLES. Toledo Street (Instantaneous)


POMPEII. Street of Tombs Civil Forum

ISLAND OF CAPRI. General View and Landing


EGYPT. ALEXANDRIA. Harbor Place of Mehemet Ali

CAIRO. Citadel Mosque of Mohammed 'Ali Street Scene Palace of Gezireh

On Camel-Back Pyramids of Gizeh Corner View of the Great Pyramid The Sphynx In Central Africa

SUEZ CANAL. Landing on Suez Canal (Instantaneous) Post Office, Suez

PALESTINE. Yaffa or Jaffa

JERUSALEM. General View of Jerusalem Wailing Place of the Jews Street Scene

Garden of Gethsemane Bethlehem Dead Sea Nazareth Jacob's Well

SYRIA. Beyrouth Great Mosque, Damascus Ba'albek Mecca

INDIA. Kalbadevie Road, Bombay Benares Tropical Scenery Heathen Temple Royal Observatory

CHINA. Wong Tai Ken


ALASKA. Sitka Totem Poles

CANADA. Parliament Buildings


SAN FRANCISCO. Golden Gate Market Street, San Francisco

YOSEMITE VALLEY. General View Glacier Point Mirror Lake Big Tree

SALT LAKE CITY. Great Mormon Temple

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. Pulpit Terrace Obsidian Cliff Mammoth Paint Pots Old Faithful Geyser Yellowstone Lake and Hot Springs Yellowstone Falls Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

COLORADO. Animas Canyon Grand Canyon of the Arkansas River Mountain of the Holy Cross Manitou and Pike's Peak Summit of Pike's Peak Gateway to the Garden of the Gods Cathedral Spires

Life in Oklahoma Indian Wigwam, Indian Territory State Street, Chicago, Ill. Niagara Falls, N. Y. Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, Mass.

NEW YORK. Park Row Brooklyn Bridge Elevated Railroad Statue of Liberty

PHILADELPHIA. Chestnut Street Market Street

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA. Fort San Marco Ponce de Leon

WASHINGTON, D. C. The Capitol White House

[Illustration: DUBLIN, IRELAND.—Dublin, the capital and chief city of Ireland, is the centre of the political, ecclesiastical, educational, commercial, military and railroad enterprises of the kingdom. It is the residence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and it claims a high antiquity, having been in existence since the time of Ptolemy. In the ninth century it was taken by the Danes, who held sway for over two hundred years. In 1169 it was taken back by the English, and seven years later, its history began to be identified with that of Ireland. The city is divided into two parts by the Liffey, which is spanned by nine bridges. This photograph represents Sackville street, one of its principal thoroughfares.]

[Illustration: BALMORAL CASTLE, SCOTLAND.—The above-named castle, the summer residence of Queen Victoria, is most beautifully and romantically situated in the Highlands of Scotland. The Queen has two other residences, one on the Isle of Wight, and the other at Windsor; but the Highland home is the most pleasant and attractive. The surrounding country is rich in deer, grouse and every other kind of game. The place is always guarded by soldiers, and no one is allowed to come near the castle, unless by special permission. The cairns which crown most of the hills, are memorials of friends of Her Majesty. The property covers forty thousand acres, three-fourths of which is a deer forest.]

[Illustration: LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND.—Liverpool, the second city and principal seaport of England, is situated on the right bank of the Mersey, three miles from the sea, and one hundred and eighty-five miles from London. The town was founded by King John in 1207, and its growth for several centuries was very slow. In 1840 regular steamboat communications were opened between it and New York, which, no doubt, established the modern pre-eminence of Liverpool. The importation of raw cotton from the United States forms the great staple of its commerce. The docks which flank the Mersey for a distance of seven miles, and give employment to thousands of workmen, are its most characteristic and interesting sights.]

[Illustration: SHAKESPEARE'S HOUSE, STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.—Of all the ancient castles and monuments throughout England, the house of William Shakespeare at Stratford-on-Avon is perhaps the most interesting and popular. The chief literary glory of the world was born here, April 23, 1564, which gives his home an ancient and noted history. The house has undergone various vicissitudes since his time, but the framework remains substantially unaltered. The rooms to the right on the ground floor contain interesting collections of portraits, early editions of his productions, his school-desk and signet-ring. The garden back of the house contains a selection of the trees and flowers mentioned in his plays.]

[Illustration: WINDSOR CASTLE, ENGLAND.—This favorite seat of the sovereigns of Great Britain, twenty miles from London, at the town of Windsor, was frequently extended under succeeding monarchs, until finally, in the reign of Queen Victoria, when it was completed at a total cost of $4,500,000, it became one of the largest and most magnificent royal residences in the world. The Saxon kings resided on this spot long before the castle was founded by William the Conqueror. In its vaults are buried the sovereigns of England, including Henry VIII. and Charles I. The interior of the castle is richly and profusely decorated, and filled with pictures, statuary, bronze monuments and other works of art.]

[Illustration: ALBERT MEMORIAL, LONDON, ENGLAND.—This magnificent monument to Albert, the late Prince Consort, was erected by the English nation at a cost of $600,000. On a spacious platform, to which granite steps ascend on each side, rises a basement adorned with reliefs in marble, representing artists of every period, poets. musicians, painters and sculptors. In the centre of the basement sits the colossal bronze-gilt figure of Prince Albert. The canopy terminates at the top in a Gothic spire, rising in three stages and surmounted by a cross. The monument is one hundred and seventy-five feet high, and gorgeously embellished with bronze and marble statues, gildings, colored stones and mosaic.]

[Illustration: ANTWERP, BELGIUM.—Antwerp, the capital of a province of its own name, stands on the right bank of the Scheldt. It is strongly fortified; its walls and other defenses completely encompass the city on the land sides, having more than twelve miles of massive ramparts. The appearance of Antwerp is exceedingly picturesque, an effect produced by its numerous churches, convents, magnificent public buildings, its elaborate and extensive fortifications, the profusion of beautiful trees, and by the stately antique-looking houses which line its older thoroughfares. Of the docks, dock-yards and basins, constructed by Bonaparte at an expense of $10,000,000, the last only remains. Its harbor is one of the finest in the world.]

[Illustration: WIND-MILL, HOLLAND.—Millions wonder that a country so situated as Holland can exist; and the stranger is almost unable to decide whether land or water predominates. Those broken and compressed coasts, those deep bays and great rivers, the lakes and canals crossing each other, all combine to give the idea of a country that may at any time disintegrate and disappear. In the thirteenth century the sea broke the dykes in northern Holland and formed the Zuyder Zee, destroying many villages and causing the death of eighty thousand people. To drain the lakes, and save the country from destructive inundations, the Hollanders press the air into their service, which is represented by the above wind-mill.]

[Illustration: NIERDFJORD, GUDVNAGEN, NORWAY.—One of the grandest and most picturesque of the many Fjords on the broken coast of Norway, is represented here. Enormous waterfalls, formed by the melting snows and ice, are seen along the steep precipices of the high mountains on every side. The mountains on both sides of this inland sea, rise to the height of several thousand feet. The steamer in the foreground is one of the many that make weekly trips between Christiansand and Hammerfest, the latter being the most northern town in the world. During the summer season, these steamers are crowded with tourists to their utmost capacity. This fact evinces the grandeur of the place, and the interest it must afford to travellers.]

[Illustration: MOSCOW, RUSSIA.—Moscow, which was at one time the capital of all Russia and home of the Czar, was founded nearly seven hundred and fifty years ago. The principal event in its history is the burning of it in 1812, for the purpose of dislodging the French from their winter quarters during the French and Russian war. The city is built with strange irregularities, having streets and numerous paltry lanes opening all at once into magnificent squares. It has a great number of churches and monasteries, and a university with 1000 students. This photograph represents the principal portion of the city and the river Moskva, on whose bank it is situated, with the Kremlin in the distance, piercing the air with its lofty spires.]

[Illustration: BERLIN, GERMANY.—Berlin, the capital of Prussia and the home of the emperor, with its large and beautiful buildings and its regularity of streets, ranks among the finest cities in Europe. The most noted street is that called "Unter den Linden," the city's pride, a broad and imposing thoroughfare, resembling the boulevards of Paris. It contains four rows of trees, ornamented at one end by the Brandenburg Gate, and at the other by the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great, well represented by this photograph. The palace of the king, different gardens, the aquarial museum and many other noted buildings border on "Unter den Linden," which is nearly a mile long, and thronged all day with pedestrians.]

[Illustration: THE BRANDENBURG GATE, BERLIN, GERMANY.—The Brandenburg Gate, forming the entrance to Berlin, from the Thiergarten, was erected in 1793 in imitation of the Propylaea at Athens. It is 85 feet high and 205 feet wide, and has five different passages, separated by massive Doric columns. It is at the one end of "Unter den Linden," and its middle passage is reserved for royal carriages only. The material is sandstone, and it is surmounted by a Quadriga of Victory from copper, taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1807, but restored in 1814. On the side are two wings resembling Grecian Temples, one of which is a pneumatic post-office and the other a guard-house. Both combine in their construction, strength, elegance and beauty.]

[Illustration: PLACE DE LA CONCORDE, PARIS, FRANCE.—Place de la Concorde, one of the most beautiful and extensive public parks in Paris, being considered, by the best authorities, the finest in the world, is bounded by the Seine, Champs Elysees, Tuileries and Rue de Rivoli. Numerous historical associations are connected with the place. The guillotine did much bloody work here during 1793-4-5; upwards of 2800 people perished by it. Foreign troops frequently bivouacked on the square when Paris was in their power. The Obelisk of Luxor, a Monolith or single block of reddish granite 76 feet high, was presented to Louis Phillipi by Mohamed Ali and erected in the centre of the Place. It adds very much to the interest of the park.]

[Illustration: TOMB OF NAPOLEON, PARIS, FRANCE.—This tomb is situated beneath the Dome des Invalides, in an open circular crypt, twenty feet in depth and thirty-six feet in diameter. The walls are of polished granite, adorned with ten marble reliefs. On the mosaic pavement rises the Sarcophagus, thirteen feet long, six and one-half feet wide, and fourteen and one-half feet high, a huge block of reddish-brown granite weighing sixty-seven tons, and costing $30,000. At the further end of the crypt appears Napoleon's last request: "I wish that my ashes rest on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the French people, whom I loved so well." To these words, as well as to the tomb of the great leader, every Frenchman reverts with pride.]

[Illustration: VENUS DE MILO, LOUVRE GALLERY, PARIS.—This statue of Aphrodite, which was found on the Island of Melos, now Milo, at the entrance to the Greek Archipelago, was sold to the French Government for 6000 francs, and is now not for sale for its weight in gold. It is exhibited in the Louvre and represents one of the most celebrated treasures of the Gallery. Aphrodite is here represented, not only as a beautiful woman, but as a goddess, as is seen by her powerful and majestic form and the noble expression of the head, indicating her independence of human needs and the placid self-competence of her divine character. It is one of the masterpieces which constitute the great marvel of antiquity.]

[Illustration: LAST VICTIMS OF THE REIGN OF TERROR (BY MULLER) VERSAILLES GALLERY, VERSAILLES, FRANCE.—The French Revolution, more commonly termed the "Reign of Terror," is perhaps unparalleled in the history of civilized countries. Hundreds of citizens were guillotined, and when that process proved too slow, they were shot down by platoon-fire. The picture represents a prison scene crowded with "suspects." The officer to the right, with a list of condemned criminals, calls out the names of those to be put to death, each one fearing that his or her name will be next called to join the procession to the guillotine on the Place de la Concorde. The photograph presents a view of the last victims of that terrible war.]

[Illustration: NAPOLEON AT AUSTERLITZ (BY VERNET), VERSAILLES GALLERY, VERSAILLES, FRANCE.—The conqueror here views the progress of the battle between the French troops, numbering 90,000 men, and the allied forces of fully 80,000. Napoleon, on his white horse, receives reports from his generals in the field, while with his field-glass he watches the advancing columns of both sides. This decisive battle was witnessed by three Emperors, those of France, Russia and Austria, and resulted in a glorious victory for Napoleon and the French. A treaty of peace followed between France and Austria; but it was of short duration, for the dangerous ambition of Napoleon could not fail to force all European nations into alliance.]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.—The whole interior of this noted structure is lined with costly marble. To add to its splendor, the temples of the ancient gods at Heliopolis and Ephesus, at Delos and Baalbec, at Athens and Cyzicus, were plundered of their columns. To secure the building from ravages of fire, no wood was employed in its construction except for the doors. The visitor cannot fail to be impressed by the bold span of the arches and the still bolder sweep of the dome, while his eye is at once bewildered and charmed by the rich, if not altogether harmonious, variety of decorations, from the many colored pillars down to the mosaics and inscriptions on the walls.]

[Illustration: SULTAN'S HAREM, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.—This photograph represents an odalisque, one of the beautiful inmates of the harem of the Sultan of Turkey. The photographer who took this picture found her most courteous and obliging, and able to converse fluently in English, French and German. Abdul Mezed, who ruled Turkey during the Crimean War, had 1200 wives and odalisques in his harem. When a Turkish Sultan wishes to show especial honor to a subject, he makes him a present of one of the cast-off wives. To refuse the gift would be to invite death. The harem is continually recruited by the gifts of those who wish to carry favor with the Sultan, and these comprise slaves of every nationality.]

[Illustration: CORSO VENEZIA, MILAN, ITALY.—The principal shopping street of the city, and the favorite promenade of the Milanese is here represented. The buildings have a modern aspect, with little balconies at almost every window, which are often adorned with plants, flowers and creeping vines. The street, which is well paved, is wide, extending almost from house to house. The pavements are very narrow, consisting of only four smooth slabs of stone, laid side by side. The shop-windows are decorated in the most tempting style with the wares of the various merchants. The picture was secured in the early morning, giving the street a deserted look, which at all other times is crowded with people.]

[Illustration: PALACE OF THE DOGES, VENICE, ITALY.—This magnificent edifice, founded in 800, and destroyed five times, has as often been re-erected in grander style. The palace is flanked with colonnades, forming two pointed arcades on the south and west. The upper portion of the building is constructed of red and white marble. The interior presents a noble specimen of Venetian art. Many famous masters are here represented, the subjects either portraying the glory of Venice, or being of a religious order. The Bridge of Sighs connects the palace with the prison adjoining, which contains a series of gloomy dungeons, a torture chamber and a place of execution for political criminals.]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF ST. MARK, VENICE, ITALY.—Facing the piazza of St. Mark, which is in the heart of Venice and the grand focus of attraction, rises the magnificent Cathedral of St. Mark, decorated with almost oriental splendor. The building dates back to the tenth and eleventh centuries, and portions of the materials used in its construction have been brought from almost every country in Europe. The ceiling of the interior is richly adorned with mosaics in the form of various noted paintings. Behind the High Altar repose the remains of St. Mark, while further back stand four spiral columns said to have belonged to the Temple of Solomon. The building to the right is the Ducal Palace.]

[Illustration: FORUM OF TRAJAN, ROME, ITALY.—This forum, which adjoined that of Augustus, contained a collection of magnificent edifices, and is said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus. Trajan's forum must have measured two hundred and twenty yards in width, and was probably of still greater length; it was considered the most magnificent in Rome. On the north side of the Basilica rises Trajan's Column, one hundred and forty-seven feet high, constructed entirely of marble. Around the column runs a spiral band, covered with admirable reliefs from Trajan's War with the Dacians. Beneath this monument Trajan was interred; on the summit stood his statue, now replaced by St Peter's.]

[Illustration: COLOSSEUM, ROME, ITALY.—The Colosseum, originally called the Amphitheatrum Flavium and completed by Titus in 80 A.D., was the largest theatre and one of the most imposing structures in the world. It was inaugurated by 100 days' gladiatorial combats, in which 5000 wild animals were killed. It contained seats for 87,000 spectators. Only one-third of the gigantic structure now remains, yet the ruins are still stupendously impressive. The Colosseum has ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the eighth century to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims: "While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand; when falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall; and when Rome falls, with it shall fall the world!"]

[Illustration: PANTHEON, ROME, ITALY.—This is the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still in perfect preservation, as regards the walls and vaulting. The original statues and architectural decorations have long since been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing appearance. The walls are twenty feet in thickness and were originally covered with marble and stucco. The height and diameter of the dome are each one hundred and forty feet. The opening of the dome at the top is thirty feet in diameter, and through this aperture the ancients supposed the gods to descend. The building is supposed to have been constructed in the first century B. C.]

[Illustration: TOLEDO STREET, NAPLES, ITALY.—This famous city is beautifully situated on the Bay of Naples, with Mount Vesuvius in the distance. Its charming position has given rise to the phrase "See Naples and die." It was founded by the Greeks, and here Virgil spent his time in study, his tomb being one of the points of interest for travelers. The city is still surrounded by a wall. It has often suffered from earthquakes and eruptions. The manufactures are numerous, of which macaroni and vermicelli are of first importance. The photograph represents Toledo Street, which intersects the city from south to north, and with its immense amount of well-conducted business, presents a very interesting sight.]

[Illustration: CIVIL FORUM, POMPEII, ITALY.—The ancient market-place in the central part of Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A. D. The Forum has been excavated during the present century, and found to be five hundred and fifteen feet long and one hundred and seven feet wide; it is surrounded by granite columns of the Doric order. From the discoveries made, it is supposed that the Forum was far from complete when the eruption occurred. The smoking mountain is still seen in the distance, while the ruins of the ancient market stand prominent in the foreground of this photograph. The Forum is a most interesting spot, and is familiar to all readers of "The Last Days of Pompeii."]

[Illustration: THE SPHYNX, EGYPT.—

"Since what unnumbered year, "No faithless slumber snatching, Hast thou kept watch and ward, Still couched in silence brave, And o'er the buried Land of Fear, Like some fierce hound long watching, So grimly held thy guard?" Above her master's grave."

[Illustration: JERUSALEM, PALESTINE.—Here is a place of overwhelming interest, but at first sight sadly disappointing. Little is seen of the ancient City of Zion and Moriah, the far-famed capital of the Jewish Empire, in the narrow, crooked and ill-paved streets of the modern town. The combination of wild superstitions, with the merest formalism which is everywhere observed, and the fanaticism and jealous exclusiveness of the numerous religious communities of Jerusalem, form the chief modern characteristics of that memorable city which was once the fountain-head from which the knowledge of the true God was wont to be vouchsafed to mankind, and which has exercised the greatest influence on religious thought throughout the world.]

[Illustration: PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, OTTAWA, CANADA.—The capital of the Dominion of Canada is situated on the Ottawa River, four hundred and fifty miles from New York, and one hundred and twenty-six miles from Montreal. It is one of the most flourishing cities in Ontario, on account of the great lumber products in the surrounding districts. The city was founded sixty-three years ago, its chief attraction being the Government Buildings, which stand on Barrack Hill, and are built mainly of light-colored sandstone. The style of architecture is that of Italian Gothic. The main building is five hundred feet long, covering nearly four acres, and involving a cost of $4,000,000 in its construction.]

[Illustration: SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.—The city is the commercial metropolis of California, and is situated nearly six miles from the ocean on the west side of the magnificent bay from which it derives its name. It stands on a plain which inclines towards the bay, and has numerous hills behind it. The city is regularly laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles. Market Street, which has four street-car tracks, two of which are cable lines, is the principal business street; it runs south-west from the bay, and divides the older from the newer portion of the city. The city was originally called Yerba Buena ("good herbs"), and was settled by the Spaniards about 1777, but was changed to San Francisco in 1847.]

[Illustration: GREAT MORMON TEMPLE, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.—The Mormon religion was founded by Joseph Smith, at Manchester, New York, in 1830, and the same year was published "The Book of Mormon," in which Joseph Smith was declared to be God's "Prophet." He soon removed, with his followers, to Kirtland, Ohio, which was to be the seat of the New Jerusalem. Several years later the Mormon band emigrated to Missouri, and later to Salt Lake City, Utah. After the death of Smith, Brigham Young succeeded, until 1877, when he died and left a fortune of $2,000,000 to seventeen wives and fifty-six children. Here they prospered and started to build the great temple, which is not yet quite finished.]

[Illustration: PULPIT TERRACE, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.-The Yellowstone Park has in the vicinity of the Mammoth Hot Springs many remarkable terrace-building springs, which are situated one thousand feet above the Gardiner River, into which they discharge their waters. The water finds its way to the surface through deep-lying cretaceous strata, and contains a great deposit of calcareous material. As the water flows out at the various elevations on the terraces through many vents, it forms corrugated layers of carbonate of lime, which is generally hard while wet, but becomes soft when dry. While these springs are active, vegetation dies in their vicinity; but when dry, grass and trees again grow on the crumbling calcareous deposit.]

[Illustration: OBSIDIAN CLIFF, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.—This noted and volcanic glass mountain, situated in the Yellowstone Park, glistens like jet, is opaque and rises like basalt in almost vertical columns, from the shore of Beaver Lake. It is unequalled in the world, and is about two hundred feet high and one thousand feet in length, being variegated with streaks of red and yellow. When the carriage road was constructed over the side of the mountain along the lake, great fires were built upon the masses of Obsidian; and after they had been sufficiently expanded by the heat, cold water was thrown on them, which fractured the blocks into fragments that could be handled. Thus a glass carriage way was made one-quarter of a mile in length, which is without doubt the only piece of glass road in the world.]

[Illustration: MAMMOTH PAINT POTS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.—Among all the geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park, there is nothing more striking to behold than the Mammoth Paint Pots, which measure forty by sixty feet, with a mud rim on three sides from three to four feet in height. The whitish substance in this basin, which looks like paint, is in constant agitation, and resembles a vast bed of mortar with numerous points of ebullition. There is a constant bubbling up of this peculiar formation, which produces a sound similar to a hoarse whisper. Its contents have been reduced by the constant action to a mixed silicious clay, which in former years consisted of different colors, but is now active only in the white portion of its formation.]

[Illustration: YELLOWSTONE LAKE AND HOT SPRINGS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.—This large and beautiful sheet of water is nearly one-half mile higher than the summit of Mount Washington, N. H., and is surrounded by snow-capped mountains. It covers an area of one hundred and fifty square miles, and has a great depth. Trout are so plentiful that there is little pleasure afforded in capturing them. The lake is fed by numerous large tributaries and a score of smaller streams. A number of boiling springs, charged with sulphur, alum and alkali, dot its shores; and the fishermen can cook their trout by dropping them into the boiling springs without walking from the spot where they are caught.]

[Illustration: ANIMAS CANYON, COLORADO.—This canyon is between Durango and Silverton, and the scenery through it is of surpassing grandeur and beauty. The railroad follows the course of the Animas River (to which the Spaniard gave the musical but melancholy title of "Rio de las Animas Perdidas," or River of Lost Souls) until the picturesque mining town of Silverton is reached. To the right is the silvery Animas River, which frets in its narrowing bed, and breaks into foam against the opposing boulders, beyond which rise the hills; to the left are mountains, increasing in rugged contour as the advance is made, and in the shadow of the rocks all is solitary, weird and awful; the startled traveler loses all apprehension in the wondrous beauty and grandeur of the scene.]

[Illustration: LIFE IN OKLAHOMA, OKLAHOMA TERRITORY.—Oklahoma Territory is a beautiful stretch of country, abounding in vast and fertile plains. In the eastern part, the soil is particularly rich and well irrigated, making it almost as productive as a garden. The territory was formerly the special domain for all the Indian tribes, but this original race seems to be gradually becoming extinct. The above photograph represents a scene in Oklahoma County. This county is nearly in the centre of the territory, on the line of it railroad which has recently been opened. Owing to its admirable adaptability for agriculture, it is fast becoming populated. The picture suggests the most primitive rural simplicity.]

[Illustration: CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.—This city, which is now the most important centre of commerce in the Northwestern States, is situated at the mouth of the Chicago River, on Lake Michigan. The first inhabitants known to have been in the locality were the Pollawatomie Indians, and the earliest Europeans were French fur traders, who visited the site in 1654. Fort Dearborn was built in 1804, when the first attempt was made to settle here; but the Indians destroyed and massacred most of the garrison in 1812. In 1816 the place was rebuilt and to-day stands as one of the leading cities of America. The above represents State Street, one of the principal thoroughfares, and the Palmer House, one of its leading hotels.]

[Illustration: NEW YORK, N. Y.—The metropolis of the United States, is considered the headquarters of the stock and money market. It is here where the greater number of foreign vessels land and depart, and where the majority of immigrants first step upon our shores. The city is built on Manhattan Island, which is 13 miles long, and from 2 to 4 miles wide. This picture represents Park Row, and the New York Times' Building in the front, and the general Post-Office on the right, which is a large granite structure, and an ornament to the city. New York has a population of nearly two million people, composed of all nationalities. This city gives to the student of human nature an excellent opportunity to observe the life and habits of the different nations.]

[Illustration: ELEVATED RAILROAD, NEW YORK, N. Y.—The steam cars, the street railway and the electric road are the three modern modes of transportation. The motive power of the elevated railroads of New York City is steam, and the quick facilities afforded exceed that of any other country. These elevated railroads are sufficiently high so as not to interfere with street traffic, stations are located every four or five blocks apart, there is little delay, and a passenger can ride from one end of the city to the other in a very short time. It is said that one million people ride daily on the elevated railroads of New York giving the company an income of $50,000 per day. The above photograph represents the railroad at Chatham Square, where it branches off into different directions.]

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