Southern Literature From 1579-1895
by Louise Manly
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Transcriber's Note

There is a small amount of Greek in this text, which has been transliterated. It is surrounded by plus signs like this.

Bold text is indicated with tildes like this.

Characters with a macron (straight line) over them are indicated as x, where x is the letter in question. Those with a caron (v shape) over them are indicated as x. Superscripted text is indicated with a caret (^) preceding the superscripted letters.

The original text indicated omitted text with varied numbers of spaced periods; this convention has been retained.


From 1579-1895.



Containing an Appendix with a Full List of Southern Authors






The primary object of this book is to furnish our children with material for becoming acquainted with the development of American life and history as found in Southern writers and their works. It may serve as a reader supplementary to American history and literature, or it may be made the ground-work for serious study of Southern life and letters; and between these extremes there are varying degrees of usefulness.

To state its origin will best explain its existence. This may furthermore be of some help to teachers in using the book, though each teacher will use it as best suits his classes and methods.

The study of History is rising every day in importance. Sir Walter Raleigh in his "Historie of the World" well said, "It hath triumphed over time, which besides it nothing but eternity hath triumphed over." It is the still living word of the vanished ages.

The best way of teaching history has of late years received much attention. One excellent method is to read, in connection with the text-book, good works of fiction, dramas, poetry, and historical novels, bearing upon the different epochs, and also to read the works of the authors themselves of these different periods. We thus make history and literature illustrate and beautify each other. The dry dates become covered with living facts, the past is peopled with real beings instead of hard names, fiction receives a solid basis for its airy architecture, and the mind of the pupil is interested and broadened. Even the difficult subjects of politics and institutions gradually assume a more pleasing aspect by being associated with individual human interests, and condescend to simplify themselves through personal relations.

To illustrate this method, which I have used with great success in teaching English History:

In connection with the times of the early Britons, read Tennyson's "Idyls of the King."

At the Norman Conquest, Bulwer's "Harold."

At the reign of Richard I. (Coeur de Lion), Scott's "Ivanhoe" and "Talisman," Shakspere's "King John."

At the reign of Elizabeth, Scott's "Kenilworth," the non-historical plays of Shakspere, as he lived at that epoch, Bacon's Essays, and others.

I mention merely a few. The amount of reading can be increased almost indefinitely and will depend on the time of the pupil, the plan of the teacher, and the accessibility of the books. Most of the books necessary for English History are now published in cheap form and are within reach of every pupil.

A great deal of reading is very desirable; it is the only way to give our pupils any broad view of literature and history, and to cultivate a taste for reading in those destitute of it. It is often the only opportunity for reading which some pupils will ever have, and it lasts them a life-time as a pleasure and a benefit.[1]

The reading may be done in the class or out of school hours. It is well to read as much as practicable in class, and to have some sketch of the outside reading given in class.

Geography must also go hand in hand with history, a point now well understood. But its importance can hardly be exaggerated and its practice is of the utmost value. One must use maps to study and read intelligently.

In American History pursue a similar course, as for example:

At the period of discovery and early settlement, read Irving's "Columbus," Simms' "Vasconselos" (De Soto's Expedition), and "Yemassee," John Smith's Life and Writings, Longfellow's "Hiawatha" and "Miles Standish," Kennedy's "Rob of the Bowl," Strachey's Works, Mrs. Preston's "Colonial Ballads," &c.

In Revolutionary times, the Revolutionary novels of Simms and Cooper, Kennedy's "Horse-Shoe Robinson;" the great statesmen of the day, as Jefferson, Adams, Patrick Henry, Hamilton, Washington; Cooke's "Fairfax" in which Washington appears as a youthful surveyor, and "Virginia Comedians" in which Patrick Henry appears, Thackeray's "Virginians;" and others.

Each teacher will make his own list as his time and command of books allow. And each State or section of our great country will devote more time to its own special history and literature; this is right, for knowledge like charity begins at home, and gradually widens until it embraces the circle of the universe.

In collecting material for classes in American History to read in accordance with this plan, it was found easy to get cheap editions of Irving, Longfellow, Cooper, and other writers of the northern States, but almost impossible to get those of the southern, in cheap or even expensive editions. And the present volume has been prepared to supply in part this deficiency. To fit it to the plan suggested, the dates of the writers and the period and character of their works have been indicated, and some selections from them given for reading,—too little, it is feared, to be of much service, and yet enough to stimulate to further interest and study.

The materials have been found so abundant, even so much more abundant than I suspected when undertaking the work, that it has been a hard task to make a selection from the rich masses of interesting writing. I fear that the work is too fragmentary and contains too many writers to make a lasting impression in a historical point of view.

If, however, it leads to a sympathetic study of Southern life and literature, and especially if it makes young people acquainted with our writers of the past and with something of the old-time life and the spirit that controlled our ancestors, it will serve an excellent purpose.

Our writers should be compared with those of other sections and other countries; and due honor should be given them, equally removed from over-praise and from depreciation. If we, their countrymen, do not know and honor them, who can be expected to do so? No people is great whose memory is lost, whose interest centres in the present alone, who looks not reverently back to true beginnings and hopefully forward to a grand future.

So I would urge my fellow-teachers to a fresh diligence in studying and worthily understanding the life and literature of our past, and in impressing them upon the minds of the rising generation, so as to infuse into the new forms now arising the best and purest and highest of the old forms fast passing away.

My sincere thanks are hereby tendered to the scholars who have aided me by their advice and encouragement, to living authors and the relatives of those not living who have generously given me permission to copy extracts from their writings, to the publishers who have kindly allowed me to use copyrighted matter, to Miss Anna M. Trice, Mr. Josiah Ryland, Jr., and the officials of the Virginia State Library where I found most of the books needed in my work, and to Mr. David Hutcheson, of the Library of Congress. My greatest indebtedness is to Professor William Taylor Thom and Professor John P. McGuire, for scholarly criticism and practical suggestions in the course of preparation.



[1] See Professor Woodrow Wilson's excellent article on the University study of Literature and Institutions, in the FORUM, September, 1894.


Appleton: Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 6 vols.

Duyckinck: Cyclopaedia of American Literature, 2 vols.

Allibone: Dictionary of Authors, 3 vols.

Kirk: Supplement to Allibone, 2 vols.

Stedman: Poets of America.

Stedman and Hutchinson: Library of American Literature, 11 vols.

Poe: Literati of New York.

Griswold: Poets and Poetry of America. Prose Writers of America. Female Poets of America.

Hart: American Literature, Eldredge Bros., Phila.

Davidson: Living Writers of the South, (1869).

Miss Rutherford: American Authors, Franklin Publishing Company, Atlanta, Georgia.

Southern Literary Messenger, 1834-1863.

Southern Quarterly Review, 1842-1855.

De Bow's Commercial Review.

The Land We Love, 1865-1869.

Southern Review, and Eclectic Review, Baltimore.

Southland Writers, by Ida Raymond (Mrs. Tardy).

Women of the South in Literature, by Mary Forrest.

Fortier: Louisiana Studies, F. F. Hansell, New Orleans.

Ogden: Literature of the Virginias, Independent Publishing Company, Morgantown, West Virginia.

C. W. Coleman, Jr.: Recent Movement in the Literature of the South, Harper's Monthly, 1886, No. 74, p. 837.

T. N. Page: Authorship in the South before the War, Lippincott's Magazine, 1889, No. 44, p. 105.

Professor C. W. Kent, University of Virginia: Outlook for Literature in the South.

People's Cyclopedia (1894).


In Chronological Order.

FIRST PERIOD ... 1579-1750.

PAGE JOHN SMITH, 1579-1631 33 Rescue of Captain Smith by Pocahontas 35 Our Right to Those Countries 38 Ascent of the River James, 1607 42

WILLIAM STRACHEY, in America 1609-12 45 A Storm Off the Bermudas 45

JOHN LAWSON, in America 1700-08 48 North Carolina in 1700-08 49 Harvest Home of the Indians 53

WILLIAM BYRD, 1674-1744 54 Selecting the Site of Richmond and Petersburg, 1733 58 A Visit to Ex-Governor Spotswood, 1732 58 Dismal Swamp, 1728 61 The Tuscarora Indians and Their Legend of a Christ, 1729 65

SECOND PERIOD ... 1750-1800.

HENRY LAURENS, 1724-1792 67 A Patriot in the Tower 68

GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1732-1799 71 An Honest Man 73 How to Answer Calumny 74 Conscience 74 On his Appointment as Commander-in-Chief, 1775 74 A Military Dinner-Party 76 Advice to a Favorite Nephew 76 Farewell Address to the People of the United States, 1796 77 Union and Liberty 77 Party Spirit 79 Religion and Morality 81

PATRICK HENRY, 1736-1799 82 Remark on Slavery, 1788 84 Not Bound by State Lines 84 If This Be Treason, 1765 84 The Famous Revolution Speech, 1775 84

WILLIAM HENRY DRAYTON, 1742-1779 87 George III.'s Abdication of Power in America 89

THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1743-1826 91 Political Maxims 94 Religious Opinions at the Age of Twenty 94 Scenery at Harper's Ferry, and at the Natural Bridge 95 On Freedom of Religious Opinion 98 On the Discourses of Christ 98 Religious Freedom (the Act of 1786) 98 Letter to his Daughter 100 Jefferson's Last Letter, 1826 101

DAVID RAMSAY, 1749-1815 103 British Treaty with the Cherokees, 1755 105 Sergeant Jasper at Fort Moultrie, 28 June, 1776 106 Sumpter and Marion 107

JAMES MADISON, 1751-1836 109 Opinion of Lafayette 110 Plea for a Republic 111 Character of Washington 112

ST. GEORGE TUCKER, 1752-1828 113 Resignation, or Days of My Youth 115

JOHN MARSHALL, 1755-1835 116 Power of the Supreme Court 117 The Duties of a Judge 118

HENRY LEE, 1756-1818 119 Capture of Fort Motte by Lee and Marion, 1780 120 The Father of His Country 124

MASON LOCKE WEEMS, 1760-1825 126 The Hatchet Story 126

JOHN DRAYTON, 1766-1822 127 A Revolutionary Object Lesson in the Cause of Patriotism 1775 128 The Battle of Noewee, 1776 129

WILLIAM WIRT, 1772-1834 131 The Blind Preacher (James Waddell) 132 Mr. Henry against John Hook 135

JOHN RANDOLPH, 1773-1833 137 Revision of the State Constitution, 1829 138

GEORGE TUCKER, 1775-1861 140 Jefferson's Preference for Country Life 142 Establishment of the University of Virginia 143

THIRD PERIOD ... 1800-1850.

HENRY CLAY, 1777-1852 147 To Be Right above All 148 No Geographical Lines in Patriotism 148 Military Insubordination 148

FRANCIS SCOTT KEY, 1780-1843 151 The Star-Spangled Banner 151

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, 1780-1851 153 The Mocking-Bird 155 The Humming-Bird 157

THOMAS HART BENTON, 1782-1858 158 The Duel Between Randolph and Clay, 1826 159

JOHN CALDWELL CALHOUN, 1782-1850 161 War and Peace 164 System of Our Government 164 Defence of Nullification 164 The Wise Choice 166 Official Patronage 167

NATHANIEL BEVERLEY TUCKER, 1784-1851 167 The Partisan Leader 168

DAVID CROCKETT, 1786-1836 173 Spelling and Grammar: Prologue To His Autobiography 173 On a Bear-hunt 175 Motto: Be Sure You Are Right 178

RICHARD HENRY WILDE, 1789-1847 178 My Life Is Like the Summer Rose 179

AUGUSTUS BALDWIN LONGSTREET, 1790-1870 180 Ned Brace at Church 180 A Sage Conversation 182

ROBERT YOUNG HAYNE, 1791-1839 185 State Sovereignty and Liberty 185

SAM HOUSTON, 1793-1863 189 Cause of the Texan War of Independence 190 Battle of San Jacinto, 1836 193 How To Deal With the Indians 196

WILLIAM CAMPBELL PRESTON, 1794-1860 199 Literary Society in Columbia, S. C., 1825 201

JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY, 1795-1870 204 A Country Gentleman in Virginia 205 His Wife 207 How Horse-Shoe and Andrew Captured Five Men 210

HUGH SWINTON LEGARE, 1797-1843 217 Commerce and Wealth vs. War 217 Demosthenes' Courage 219 A Duke's Opinions of Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, in 1825 221

MIRABEAU BUONAPARTE LAMAR, 1798-1859 223 The Daughter of Mendoza 223

FRANCIS LISTER HAWKS, 1798-1866 224 The First Indian Baptism in America 225 Virginia Dare, the First English Child Born in America 226 The Lost Colony of Roanoke 226

GEORGE DENISON PRENTICE, 1802-1870 228 The Closing Year 228 Paragraphs 231

EDWARD COATE PINKNEY, 1802-1828 231 A Health 232 Song: We Break the Glass 233

CHARLES ETIENNE ARTHUR GAYARRE, 1805-1895 235 Louisiana in 1750-1770 236 The Tree of the Dead 240

MATTHEW FONTAINE MAURY, 1806-1873 243 The Gulf Stream 246 Deep-Sea Soundings 247 Heroic Death of Lieutenant Herndon 249

WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS, 1806-1870 252 Sonnet—The Poet's Vision 255 The Doom of Occonestoga 255 Marion, the "Swamp-Fox" 262

ROBERT EDWARD LEE, 1807-1870 265 Duty—To His Son 266 Human Virtue—At the Surrender 266 His Last Order, 1865 266 Letter Accepting the Presidency of Washington College 268

JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808-1889 269 Trip To Kentucky at Seven Years of Age, and Visit to General Jackson 271 Life of the President of the United States 272 Farewell to the Senate, 1861 274

EDGAR ALLAN POE, 1809-1849 276 To Helen 279 Israfel 279 Happiness 281 The Raven 281

ROBERT TOOMBS, 1810-1885 284 Farewell to the Senate, 1861 286

OCTAVIA WALTON LE VERT, 1810-1877 288 To Cadiz from Havanna, 1855 289

LOUISA SUSANNAH M'CORD, 1810-1880 291 Woman's Duty 292

JOSEPH G. BALDWIN, 1811-1864 294 Virginians in a New Country 294

ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPHENS, 1812-1883 296 Laws of Government 297 Sketch in the Senate, 1850 298 True Courage 301

ALEXANDER BEAUFORT MEEK, 1814-1865 301 Red Eagle, or Weatherford 302

PHILIP PENDLETON COOKE, 1816-1850 305 Florence Vane 305

THEODORE O'HARA, 1820-1867 308 Bivouac of the Dead 308

FOURTH PERIOD ... 1850-1895.

GEORGE RAINSFORD FAIRBANKS, 1820- 311 Osceola, Leader of the Seminoles 311

RICHARD MALCOLM JOHNSTON, 1822- 314 Mr. Hezekiah Ellington's Recovery 315

JOHN REUBEN THOMPSON, 1823-1873 317 Ashby 318 Music in Camp 319

JABEZ LAMAR MONROE CURRY, 1825- 321 Relations between England and America 322

MARGARET JUNKIN PRESTON, 1825- 324 The Shade of the Trees 324

CHARLES HENRY SMITH, ("BILL ARP"), 1826- 326 Big John, on the Cherokees 327

ST. GEORGE H. TUCKER, 1828-1863 329 Burning of Jamestown in 1676 330

GEORGE WILLIAM BAGBY, 1828-1883 332 Jud. Brownin's Account of Rubinstein's Playing 332

SARAH ANNE DORSEY, 1829-1879 336 A Confederate Exile on His Way to Mexico, 1866 338

HENRY TIMROD, 1829-1867 341 Sonnet—Life Ever Seems 344 English Katie 344 Hymn for Magnolia Cemetery 345

PAUL HAMILTON HAYNE, 1830-1886 346 The Mocking-Bird (At Night) 348 Sonnet—October 349 A Dream of the South Wind 349

JOHN ESTEN COOKE, 1830-1886 350 The Races in Virginia, 1765 351

ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE, 1830-1894 358 Changes Wrought by the War 360 The Country Gentlemen 360 The Negroes 362

ALBERT PIKE, 1809-1891 365 To the Mocking-Bird 365

WILLIAM TAPPAN THOMPSON, 1812-1882 367 Major Jones's Christmas Present 368

JAMES BARRON HOPE, 1827-1887 370 The Victory at Yorktown 371 Washington and Lee 372

JAMES WOOD DAVIDSON, 1829- 373 The Beautiful and the Poetical 373

CHARLES COLCOCK JONES, JR., 1831-1893 376 Salzburger Settlement in Georgia 376

MARY VIRGINIA TERHUNE ("MARION HARLAND") 379 Letter Describing Mary [Ball] Washington When a Young Girl 381 Madam Washington at the Peace Ball 381

AUGUSTA EVANS WILSON, 1835- 383 A Learned and Interesting Conversation 384

DANIEL BEDINGER LUCAS, 1836- 387 The Land Where We Were Dreaming 388

JAMES RYDER RANDALL, 1839- 389 My Maryland 390

ABRAM JOSEPH RYAN, 1839-1886 392

WILLIAM GORDON MCCABE, 1841- 393 Dreaming in the Trenches 393

SIDNEY LANIER, 1842-1881 394 Song of the Chattahoochee 396 What is Music? 397 The Tide Rising in the Marshes 397

JAMES LANE ALLEN 398 Sports of a Kentucky School in 1795 399

JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS, 1848- 401 The Tar-Baby 403

ROBERT BURNS WILSON, 1850- 405 Fair Daughter of the Sun 406 Dedication—A Sonnet 407

"CHRISTIAN REID," FRANCES C. TIERNAN 407 Ascent of Mt. Mitchell, N. C. 409

HENRY WOODFEN GRADY, 1851-1889 413 The South before the War 413 Master and Slave 413 Ante-bellum Civilization 416

THOMAS NELSON PAGE, 1853- 419 Marse Chan's Last Battle 421

MARY NOAILLES MURFREE, ("CHARLES EGBERT CRADDOCK") 423 The "Harnt" that Walks Chilhowee 423

DANSKE DANDRIDGE, 1859- 429 The Spirit and the Wood-Sparrow 430

AMELIE RIVES CHANLER, 1863- 431 Tanis 432

GRACE KING 437 La Grande Demoiselle 437

WAITMAN BARBE, 1864- 441 Sidney Lanier 442

MADISON CAWEIN, 1865- 442 The Whippoorwill 443


LIST OF AUTHORS AND WORKS omitted for lack of space 445


PAGE A Confederate Exile on His Way to Mexico, Sarah A. Dorsey 338

Address in Congress, 1800, on the Death of Washington, Henry Lee 124

A Dream of the South Wind, Paul H. Hayne 349

Advice to His Nephew, George Washington 76

A Health, E. C. Pinkney 232

Alamo, Fall of the 192

A Learned and Interesting Conversation, Augusta E. Wilson 384


Anecdotes of Alexander H. Stephens 296, 297

An Honest Man, George Washington 73

Ante-bellum Civilization, Henry W. Grady 416

Arber, Professor, on John Smith's Writings 35

A Sage Conversation, A. B. Longstreet 182

Ascent of Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina, Christian Reid 409

Ascent of the James River, 1607, John Smith 42

Ashby, John R. Thompson 318


Bacon, Nathaniel 330




Battle of Noewee, 1776, John Drayton 129

Battle of San Jacinto, 1836, Sam Houston 193

Battle of the Blue Licks, Ky., 1782 400

Battle of Tohopeka, or Horse-Shoe Bend, Ala. 302

Bear Hunt, David Crockett 175

Beauvoir 270, 273

Beautiful and the Poetical, The, Jas. Wood Davidson 373

Beauty is Holiness 395


"Be sure you are right," David Crockett 178

Big John, on the Cherokees, Bill Arp 327


Bivouac of the Dead, Theodore O'Hara 308

Blind Preacher, William Wirt 132

Boone, Daniel 401

British Treaty with the Cherokees, 1755, David Ramsay 105

Burning of Jamestown, 1676, St. George H. Tucker 330

Byrd, Evelyn 56



Calhoun and the Union 275

Calhoun, Death of 300

Capture of Fort Motte, Henry Lee 120

Cause of the Texan War of Independence, Sam Houston 190


Changes Wrought by the War, Z. B. Vance 360


Character of Washington, James Madison 112

Cherokees, Big John on the, Bill Arp 327


Closing Year, The, George D. Prentice 228

Commerce and Wealth vs. War, Hugh S. Legare 217

Conscience, George Washington 74



Corn-Shucking and Christmas Times 362

Country Gentleman in Virginia and His Wife, John P. Kennedy 205

Country Gentlemen 360

Cow-Boy's Song 339




Dale, General Sam 302


Daughter of Mendoza, M. B. Lamar 223



Davis, Winnie 270

Davis, Mrs. Varina Jefferson 271

Davy Crockett's Motto 178

Days of My Youth, or Resignation, St. George Tucker 115

Death of Calhoun 300

Death of Lieutenant Herndon 249

Dedication Sonnet (to his Mother), Robert Burns Wilson 407

Deep-Sea Soundings, M. F. Maury 247

Defence of Nullification, John C. Calhoun 164

Demosthenes, Hugh S. Legare 219

DeSaussure, Judge, and Social Dining in Columbia 201

Discourses of Christ, Thomas Jefferson 98

Dismal Swamp, William Byrd 61

Dixie 444

Dixie and Yankee Doodle 319

Doom of Occonestoga, Wm. Gilmore Simms 255




Dreaming in the Trenches, Wm. Gordon McCabe 393

Duel Between Randolph and Clay, 1826, Thomas H. Benton 159

Duke of Saxe-Weimar in Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, 1825, Hugh S. Legare 221

Duties of a Judge, John Marshall 118

Duty, Robert E. Lee 266

England and America, Relations between, J. L. M. Curry 322

English Katie, Henry Timrod 344

Ennui 101

Establishment of the University of Virginia, George Tucker 143


Fair Daughter of the Sun, Robert Burns Wilson 406

Farewell Address to the American People, 1796, George Washington 77

Farewell to the Senate, 1861, Jefferson Davis 274

Farewell to the Senate, 1861, Robert Toombs 286

Father of His Country, Henry Lee 124

First Indian Baptism in America, Francis L. Hawks 225

"First in War, first in Peace" 124

Five Demands of the South 286

Florence Vane, Philip Pendleton Cooke 305

Fort King, Florida 311

Fort Motte, Capture of, Henry Lee 120

Freedom of Religious Opinion, Thomas Jefferson 98


George the Third's Abdication of Power in America, William Henry Drayton 89

Gladstone's Opinion of the United States 322

Goliad, Massacre at 192


Grave of Dr. Elisha Mitchell 411

Gulf Stream, M. F. Maury 246

Hampton at the Battle of Noewee, South Carolina, 1776 130

Happiness, Edgar Allan Poe 281


"Harnt" that Walks Chilhowee, The, Charles Egbert Craddock 423

Harper's Ferry, Scenery at 95


Harvest Home of the Indians, John Lawson 53

Hatchet Story, Mason L. Weems 126




Hayne, William Hamilton 346

Helen, To, Edgar Allan Poe 279


Hermitage, General Jackson at The 271

Heroic Death of Lieutenant Herndon, M. F. Maury 249


Horse-Shoe Bend, Battle of 302


How Horse-Shoe and Andrew Captured Five Men, John P. Kennedy 210

How Ruby Played, George William Bagby 332

How to Answer Calumny, George Washington 74

How to Deal with the Indians, Sam Houston 196

Human Virtue, R. E. Lee 266

Humming-Bird, The, J. J. Audubon 157

Hymn for Magnolia Cemetery, Henry Timrod 345

"If This Be Treason—", Patrick Henry 84

"I'll HAUNT you," 317

Indian Doom of Excommunication 255

Israfel, Edgar Allan Poe 279

Jackson, General, at Home 271

Jamestown, Burning of, 1676, St. George H. Tucker 330

James Waddell, the Blind Preacher, William Wirt 132


Jefferson's Last Letter, June 24, 1826, Thomas Jefferson 101

Jefferson's Preference for Country Life, George Tucker 142

Jefferson's Religious Opinions at Twenty, Thomas Jefferson 94

John Hook, Patrick Henry against, William Wirt 135



Jud. Brownin's Account of Rubinstein's Playing, George William Bagby 332




La Fayette, Madison's Opinion of, James Madison 110

La Grande Demoiselle, Grace King 437


Land Where We Were Dreaming, The, D. B. Lucas 388


Lanier, To Sidney, Waitman Barbe 442

La Rabida 291

Last Letter of Jefferson, June 24, 1826, Thomas Jefferson 101


Laurens, John, the "Bayard of the Revolution" 67

Laws of Government, A. H. Stephens 297




Lee's Last Order, R. E. Lee 266

Lee's Letter Accepting the Presidency of Washington College, R. E. Lee 268


Letter to Martha Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson 100


Life Ever Seems—Sonnet, Henry Timrod 344

Life of the President of the United States, Jefferson Davis 272

Literary Society in Columbia in 1825, Wm. C. Preston 201


Lost Colony of Roanoke, F. L. Hawks 226

Louisiana in 1750-'70, C. E. A. Gayarre 236


Madam Washington at the Peace Ball, Marion Harland 381


Madison, Mrs. Dolly 110

Madison's Opinion of La Fayette, James Madison 110

Magnolia Cemetery, Hymn for Dedication, Henry Timrod 345

Major Jones's Christmas Present, W. T. Thompson 368


Marion, Sumpter and, David Ramsay 107

Marion, the "Swamp-Fox," Wm. Gilmore Simms 262

Marquis de Vaudreuil, the "Great Marquis" 237

Marse Chan's Last Battle, Thomas Nelson Page 421

"Marseillaise of the Confederacy" 389


Maryland, My Maryland 390

Mary Washington When a Girl, Marion Harland 381

Mary Washington's Monument, Marion Harland 379

Master and Slave 413


Maxims of Jefferson 94



M'CORD, D. J. 201, 291


Military Dinner Party, George Washington 76

Military Insubordination, Henry Clay 148

"Millions for Defence" 116

Mitchell's Grave, Mt. Mitchell, N. C. 411

Mocking-Bird, The, J. J. Audubon 155

Mocking-Bird (At Night), Paul H. Hayne 348

Mocking-Bird, To The, Albert Pike 365

Mocking-Bird and Nightingale Compared 100

Mr. Hezekiah Ellington's Recovery, R. M. Johnston 315


Music in Camp, John R. Thompson 319

My Life Is Like the Summer Rose, R. H. Wilde 179

My Maryland, James R. Randall 390

Naming of Tallahassee, The 288

Natural Bridge of Virginia 97

Ned Brace at Church, A. B. Longstreet 180

No Geographical Lines in Patriotism, Henry Clay 148

North Carolina in 1700-1708, John Lawson 49

Not Bound by State Lines, Patrick Henry 84

Nullification, Defence of, John C. Calhoun 164

Object-Lesson in the Cause of Patriotism, John Drayton 128

Occonestoga, Doom of, Wm. Gilmore Simms 255

October—A Sonnet, Paul H. Hayne 349

Official Patronage, John C. Calhoun 167


Old Church at Jamestown 39, 331

On a Bear Hunt, David Crockett 175

Osceola, Leader of the Seminoles, George R. Fairbanks 311, 312

Our Right to Those Countries, John Smith 38

Page, John, Letter to 94


Paragraphs, George D. Prentice 231

Partisan Leader, N. Beverley Tucker 168

Party Spirit, George Washington 79

Patrick Henry against John Hook, William Wirt 135

Patrick Henry's Famous Revolution Speech, Patrick Henry 84

Patriot in the Tower, Henry Laurens 68

Payne, John Howard, among the Cherokees 327



Plea for a Republic, James Madison 111

Pocahontas,—Rescue of John Smith, John Smith 35


Poet's Vision.—A Sonnet, William Gilmore Simms 255

Political Patronage, John C. Calhoun 167

Power of the Supreme Court, John Marshall 117

Powhatan 35

Preference for Country Life, George Tucker 142




Prologue to Arms and the Man, James Barren Hope 371

Prologue to Autobiography, David Crockett 173

Races in Virginia, 1765, John Esten Cooke 351




Raven, The, Edgar Allan Poe 281

Red Eagle, or Weatherford, A. B. Meek 302

Red Eagle and General Jackson 304


Relations Between England and America, J. L. M. Curry 322

Religion and Morality, George Washington 81

Religious Freedom, Thomas Jefferson 98

"Remember the Alamo!" 195

Rescue of Captain Smith by Pocahontas, John Smith 35

Resignation: or, Days of My Youth, St. George Tucker 115

Revision of the State Constitution, John Randolph 138

Revolutionary Object-Lesson, John Drayton 128

Revolution Speech, 1775, Patrick Henry 84


"Rope of sand" 186

Rubinstein's Playing, George William Bagby 332


Sage Conversation, A, A. B. Longstreet 182

Salzburger Settlement in Georgia, 1734, C. C. Jones, Jr. 376

Sang-Digger,[2] The, Amelie Rives 432

Savannah in 1735 378

Scenery at Harper's Ferry and at the Natural Bridge, Thomas Jefferson 95

Selecting the Site of Richmond and of Petersburg, 1733, William Byrd 58

Seminole War 313

Sergeant Jasper at Fort Moultrie, 1776, David Ramsay 106

Sergeant Jasper at Savannah, 1779 107

Sidney Lanier, To, Waitman Barbe 442

Siege of Fort Moultrie, David Ramsay 106


Sketch in the Senate, February 5, 1850, A. H. Stephens 298

Slavery, Remark on, Patrick Henry 84

Slave, Master and 413



Smith, John, Writings of 35

Song of the Chattahoochee, Sidney Lanier 396

Sonnet: Dedication, R. B. Wilson 407

Song: We Break the Glass, E. C. Pinkney 233

Sonnet: Life ever seems, Henry Timrod 344

Sonnet: October, Paul H. Hayne 349

Sonnet: Poet's Vision, William Gilmore Simms 255

South Before the War, The, Henry W. Grady 413

Southern Literary Messenger 277, 317, 332

Southern "Mammy" and the Children 363

Speaking of Clay in the Senate, 1850, The 298

Spelling and Grammar (Prologue to Autobiography), David Crockett 173

Spirit and Wood-Sparrow, The, Danske Dandridge 430

Sports of a Kentucky School in 1795, James Lane Allen 399

Spotswood, Ex-Gov., and his Home in 1732 58

Star-Spangled Banner, Francis Scott Key 151

State Sovereignty and Liberty, Robert Y. Hayne 185


Stonewall Jackson's Last Words 324

Storm Off the Bermudas, Wm. Strachey 45


Sugar-Cane: Introduction into the United States 236

Sumpter and Marion, David Ramsay 107

"Swamp-Fox," The 262

System of Our Government, John C. Calhoun 164

Tanis, Amelie Rives 432

Tar-Baby, The, Joel Chandler Harris 403


Texas Prairie and Cow-Boy's Song 339

The Land Where We Were Dreaming, D. B. Lucas 388

The Spirit and the Wood-Sparrow, Danske Dandridge 430

The South Before the War, Henry W. Grady 413


Tide Rising in the Marshes, Sidney Lanier 397



To Be Right Above All, Henry Clay 148

To Cadiz from Havanna, 1855, Madame Le Vert 289

To Helen, Edgar Allan Poe 279

Tohopeka, Battle of 302


To the Mocking-Bird, Albert Pike 365

Tree of the Dead, C. E. A. Gayarre 240

Trip to Kentucky at Seven Years of Age, Jefferson Davis 271

True Courage, A. H. Stephens 301





Tuscarora Indians and Their Legend of a Christ, William Byrd 65

Under the Shade of the Trees, Margaret J. Preston 324

Union and Liberty, George Washington 77

University of Virginia, Establishment of, George Tucker 143


Victory at Yorktown, 1781, James Barren Hope 371

Virginia Dare, F. L. Hawks 226

Virginian or American? Patrick Henry 84

Virginians in a New Country, Joseph G. Baldwin 294

Visit to Ex-Governor Spotswood, 1732, William Byrd 58

Visit to the Hermitage 271

War and Peace, John C. Calhoun 164


Washington and the Hatchet 126

Washington's Advice to His Nephew, George Washington 76

Washington, Character of, James Madison 112

Washington's Farewell to the American People, 1796, George Washington 77

Washington and Lee, James Barren Hope 372

Washington's Mother When a Girl 381

Washington's Mother at the Peace Ball 381

Washington's Speech in Congress on his Appointment as Commander-in-Chief, 1775, George Washington 74

Washington, Memorial Address in Congress, 1800, by Henry Lee, 124

Weatherford, or Red Eagle 302

We Break the Glass,—Song, E. C. Pinkney 233


What is Music? Sidney Lanier 397

Whippoorwill, The, Madison Cawein 443





Wise Choice, John C. Calhoun 166

Woman's Duty, Louisa S. M'Cord 292


[2] Ginseng-Digger.


PAGE Captain John Smith 34

Rescue of Captain Smith by Pocahontas 36

Jamestown, Va. The first permanent English settlement in America 39

Storm at Sea 44

Sir Walter Raleigh 50

Westover, the Home of William Byrd 55

Evelyn Byrd 57

The Chapel, University of Georgia, Athens 62

The Tower of London 69

George Washington 72

Washington Taking the Oath of Office 75

Old St. John's Church, Richmond, Va. 83

Fort Moultrie, S. C. Fort Sumter in the Distance 88

Monticello, the Home of Jefferson 92

Harper's Ferry 96

Jasper Replacing the Flag 104

William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. 114

University of Virginia 141

Henry Clay 146

Star-Spangled Banner and Seal of the United States 152

Scene in Louisiana 154

John Caldwell Calhoun and His Home 163

The Alamo, San Antonio, Texas 174

University of North Carolina 188

Old Plantation Home 200

State House, Columbia, S. C. Oppo. 211

Tulane University, New Orleans 234

Florida State Agricultural College 244

"Woodlands," the Home of W. Gilmore Simms 253

General R. E. Lee Oppo. 265

Washington and Lee University 267

Beauvoir, the Home of Jefferson Davis 273

Robert Toombs 285

University of Alabama 299

University of Kentucky 307

Osceola 312

Natural Bridge, Virginia 325

University of Mississippi 337

University of Texas (Main Building), Austin 347

State Capitol of North Carolina 359

Tomb of Mary, the Mother of Washington, Fredericksburg, Va. 380

General T. J. Jackson (Stonewall) Oppo. 388

Arkansas Industrial University 402

Mt. Mitchell, N. C. Above the Clouds 408

Grady Monument, Atlanta, Ga. 414

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi 420

University of Tennessee, Knoxville 424

Model School, Peabody Normal College 433

Mississippi Industrial Institute and College for Girls Oppo. 446

Southern Literature.

FIRST PERIOD ... 1579-1750.



CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH, the first writer of Virginia, was born at Willoughby, England, and led a life of rare and extensive adventure. "Lamenting and repenting," he says, "to have seen so many Christians slaughter one another," in France and the Lowlands, he enlisted in the wars against the Turks. He was captured by them and held prisoner for a year, but escaped and travelled all over Europe. He finally joined the expedition to colonize Virginia, and came over with the first settlers of Jamestown in 1607. His life here is well known; he remained with the colony two years. He afterwards returned to America as Admiral of New England, but did not stay long. He spent the remainder of his life in writing accounts of himself and his travels, and of the colonies in America.


True Relation (1608). Map of Virginia (1612). Description of New England (1616). New England's Trials (1620). Accidence for Young Seamen (1626). Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624). True Travels (1630). Advertisements for Inexperienced Planters of New England (1631).

Captain Smith's style is honest and hearty in tone, picturesque, often amusing, never tiresome. It is involved and ungrammatical at times, but not obscure. The critics have professed to find many inaccuracies of historical statement; but the following, from Professor Edward Arber, the editor of the English Reprint of Smith's Works, will acquit him of this charge:

"Inasmuch as the accuracy of some of Captain Smith's statements has, in this generation, been called in question, it was but our duty to subject every one of the nearly forty thousand lines of this book to a most searching criticism; scanning every assertion of fact most keenly, and making the Text, by the insertion of a multitude of cross-references, prove or disprove itself.

"The result is perfectly satisfactory. Allowing for a popular style of expression, the Text is homogeneous; and the nine books comprising it, though written under very diverse circumstances, and at intervals over the period of twenty-two years (1608-1630), contain no material contradictions. Inasmuch, therefore, as wherever we can check Smith, we find him both modest and accurate, we are led to think him so, where no such check is possible, as at Nalbrits in the autumn of 1603, and on the Chickahominy in the winter of 1607-'8." See Life, by Simms, by Warner, and by Eggleston in "Pocahontas."


(From Generall Historie.)

[This extract from his "Generall Historie" is in the words of a report by "eight gentlemen of the Jamestown Colony." It is corroborated by Captain Smith's letter to the Queen on the occasion of Pocahontas' visit to England after her marriage to Mr. John Rolfe. Matoaka, or Matoax, was her real name in her tribe, but it was considered unlucky to tell it to the English strangers.]

At last they brought him [Smith] to Meronocomoco, where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had beene a monster; till Powhatan and his trayne had put themselues in their greatest braveries. Before a fire vpon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered with a great robe, made of Rarowcun skinnes, and all the tayles hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 yeares; and along on each side the house, two rowes of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red; many of their heads bedecked with the white downe of Birds; but every one with something; and a great chayne of white beads about their necks.

At his entrance before the King, all the people gaue a great shout. The Queene of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to dry them; having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan; then as many as could layd hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, to beate out his braines, Pocahontas, the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his head in her armes, and laid her owne vpon his to saue him from death: whereat the Emperour was contented he should liue to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselues. For the King himselfe will make his owne robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, pots; plant, hunt, or doe anything so well as the rest.

They say he bore a pleasant shew, But sure his heart was sad. For who can pleasant be, and rest, That liues in feare and dread: And having life suspected, doth It still suspected lead.

Two dayes after, Powhatan having disguised himselfe in the most fearefullest manner he could, caused Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there vpon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not long after from behinde a mat that divided the house, was made the most dolefullest noyse he ever heard; then Powhatan, more like a devill than a man, with some two hundred more as blacke as himselfe, came vnto him and told him now they were friends, and presently he should goe to James towne, to send him two great gunnes, and a gryndstone, for which he would giue him the Country of Capahowosick, and for ever esteeme him as his sonne Nantaquoud.

So to James towne with 12 guides Powhatan sent him. That night, they quartered in the woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his imprisonment) every houre to be put to one death or other; for all their feasting. But almightie God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those sterne Barbarians with compassion. The next morning betimes they came to the Fort, where Smith having vsed the Salvages with what kindnesse he could, he shewed Rawhunt, Powhatan's trusty servant, two demi-Culverings and a millstone to carry Powhatan; they found them somewhat too heavie: but when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with Isickles, the yce and branches came so tumbling downe, that the poore Salvages ran away halfe dead with feare. But at last we regained some conference with them, and gaue them such toyes: and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents, as gaue them in generall full content.


(From Advertisements for the Inexperienced.)

Many good religious devout men have made it a great question, as a matter in conscience, by what warrant they might goe to possesse those Countries, which are none of theirs, but the poore Salvages.

Which poore curiosity will answer it selfe; for God did make the world to be inhabited with mankind, and to have his name knowne to all Nations, and from generation to generation: as the people increased, they dispersed themselves into such Countries as they found most convenient. And here in Florida, Virginia, New-England, and Cannada, is more land than all the people in Christendome can manure [cultivate], and yet more to spare than all the natives of those Countries can use and culturate. And shall we here keepe such a coyle for land, and at such great rents and rates, when there is so much of the world uninhabited, and as much more in other places, and as good or rather better than any wee possesse, were it manured and used accordingly?

If this be not a reason sufficient to such tender consciences; for a copper knife and a few toyes, as beads and hatchets, they will sell you a whole Countrey [district]; and for a small matter, their houses and the ground they dwell upon; but those of the Massachusets have resigned theirs freely.

Now the reasons for plantations are many. Adam and Eve did first begin this innocent worke to plant the earth to remaine to posterity; but not without labour, trouble, and industry. Noah and his family began againe the second plantation, and their seed as it still increased, hath still planted new Countries, and one Country another, and so the world to that estate it is; but not without much hazard, travell, mortalities, discontents, and many disasters; had those worthy Fathers and their memorable offspring not beene more diligent for us now in those ages, than wee are to plant that yet unplanted for after-livers: Had the seed of Abraham, our Saviour Christ Jesus and his Apostles, exposed themselves to no more dangers to plant the Gospell wee so much professe, than we; even we our selves had at this moment beene as Salvages, and as miserable as the most barbarous Salvage, yet uncivilized.

The Hebrewes, the Lacedemonians, the Goths, Grecians, Romans, and the rest; what was it they would not undertake to enlarge their Territories, inrich their subjects, and resist their enemies? Those that were the founders of those great Monarchies and their vertues, were no silvered idle golden Pharisees, but industrious honest hearted Publicans; they regarded more provisions and necessaries for their people, than jewels, ease, and delight for themselves; riches was their servants, not their masters; they ruled as fathers, not as tyrants; their people as children, not as slaves; there was no disaster could discourage them; and let none thinke they incountered not with all manner of incumbrances; and what hath ever beene the worke of the best great Princes of the world, but planting of Countries, and civilizing barbarous and inhumane Nations to civility and humanity; whose eternall actions fils our histories with more honour than those that have wasted and consumed them by warres.

Lastly, the Portugals and Spaniards that first began plantations in this unknowne world of America till within this 140. yeares [1476-1616], whose everlasting actions before our eyes, will testifie our idlenesse and ingratitude to all posterity, and neglect of our duty and religion we owe our God, our King, and Countrey, and want of charity to those poore Salvages, whose Countries we challenge, use and possesse: except wee be but made to marre what our forefathers made; or but only tell what they did; or esteeme our selves too good to take the like paines where there is so much reason, liberty, and action offers it selfe. Having as much power and meanes as others, why should English men despaire, and not doe as much as any? Was it vertue in those Hero[e]s to provide that [which] doth maintaine us, and basenesse in us to do the like for others to come? Surely no: then seeing wee are not borne for ourselves but each to helpe other; and our abilities are much alike at the howre of our birth and the minute of our death: seeing our good deeds or bad, by faith in Christs merits, is all wee have to carry our soules to heaven or hell: Seeing honour is our lives ambition, and our ambition after death to have an honourable memory of our life; and seeing by no meanes we would be abated of the dignitie and glory of our predecessors, let us imitate their vertues to be worthily their successors; or at least not hinder, if not further, them that would and doe their utmost and best endeavour.


(From Newes from Virginia.)

The two and twenty day of Aprill [or rather May, 1607], Captain Newport and myself with diuers others, to the number of twenty two persons, set forward to discouer the Riuer, some fiftie or sixtie miles, finding it in some places broader, and in some narrower, the Countrie (for the moste part) on each side plaine high ground, with many freshe Springes, the people in all places kindely intreating vs, daunsing, and feasting vs with strawberries, Mulberies, Bread, Fish, and other their Countrie prouisions whereof we had plenty; for which Captaine Newport kindely requited their least fauors with Bels, Pinnes, Needles, beades, or Glasses, which so contented them that his liberallitie made them follow vs from place to place, and euer kindely to respect vs. In the midway staying to refresh our selues in a little Ile foure or five sauages came vnto vs which described vnto vs the course of the Riuer, and after in our iourney, they often met vs, trading with vs for such prouision as wee had, and arriuing at Arsatecke, hee whom we supposed to bee the chiefe King of all the rest, moste kindely entertained vs, giuing vs in a guide to go with vs vp the Riuer to Powhatan, of which place their great Emperor taketh his name, where he that they honored for King vsed vs kindely.

But to finish this discouerie, we passed on further, where within an ile [a mile] we were intercepted with great craggy stones in the midst of the riuer, where the water falleth so rudely, and with such a violence, as not any boat can possibly passe, and so broad disperseth the streame, as there is not past fiue or sixe Foote at a low water, and to the shore scarce passage with a barge, the water floweth foure foote, and the freshes by reason of the Rockes haue left markes of the inundations 8. or 9. foote: The south side is plaine low ground, and the north side high mountaines, the rockes being of a grauelly nature, interlaced with many vains of glistring spangles.

That night we returned to Powhatan: the next day (being Whitsunday after dinner) we returned to the fals, leauing a mariner in pawn with the Indians for a guide of theirs, hee that they honoured for King followed vs by the riuer. That afternoone we trifled in looking vpon the Rockes and riuer (further he would not goe) so there we erected a crosse, and that night taking our man at Powhatans, Captaine Newport congratulated his kindenes with a Gown and a Hatchet: returning to Arsetecke, and stayed there the next day to obserue the height [latitude] thereof, and so with many signes of loue we departed.


WILLIAM STRACHEY[3] was an English gentleman who came over to Virginia with Sir Thomas Gates in 1609, and was secretary of the Colony for three years. Their ship, the Sea Venture, was wrecked on the Bermudas in a terrible tempest, of which he gives the account that follows. It is said to have suggested to Shakspere the scene of the storm and hurricane in his "Tempest."


A True Repertory of the Wracke and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates upon and from the Islands of the Bermudas. Historie of Travaile into Virginia Brittania. Edited Lawes Divine, Morall, and Martiall.

William Strachey's writings show a thoughtful and cultivated mind. His style abounds in the long involved and often obscure sentences of his times, but his subject matter is usually very interesting. Compare the following selection with Shakspere's "Tempest," Act I., scene 1 and 2, to "Ariel, thy charge." Notice the reference to Bermoothes (Bermudas).


(From A True Repertory of the Wracke and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates.)

On St. James his day, July 24, being Monday (preparing for no less all the black night before) the clouds gathering thick upon us, and the winds singing and whistling most unusually, which made us to cast off our Pinnace, towing the same until then asterne, a dreadful storm and hideous began to blow from out the Northeast, which, swelling and roaring as it were by fits, some hours with more violence than others, at length did beat all light from heaven, which, like an hell of darkness, turned black upon us, so much the more fuller of horror, as in such cases horror and fear use to overrun the troubled and overmastered senses of all, while (taken up with amazement) the ears lay so sensible to the terrible cries, and murmurs of the winds and distraction of our Company, as who was most armed and best prepared, was not a little shaken. . .

For four and twenty hours the storm, in a restless tumult, had blown so exceedingly, as we could not apprehend in our imaginations any possibility of greater violence, yet did we still find it, not only more terrible, but more constant, fury added to fury, and one storm urging a second, more outrageous than the former, whether it so wrought upon our fears, or indeed met with new forces. Sometimes strikes in our Ship amongst women, and passengers not used to such hurly and discomforts, made us look one upon the other with troubled hearts, and panting bosoms, our clamors drowned in the winds, and the winds in thunder. Prayers might well be in the heart and lips, but drowned in the outcries of the Officers,—nothing heard that could give comfort, nothing seen that might encourage hope. . . . .

Our sails, wound up, lay without their use, and if at any time we bore but a Hollocke, or half forecourse, to guide her before the Sea, six and sometimes eight men, were not enough to hold the whip-staffe in the steerage, and the tiller below in the Gunner room; by which may be imagined the strength of the storm, in which the Sea swelled above the Clouds and gave battle unto heaven. It could not be said to rain, the waters like whole Rivers did flood in the ayre. And this I did still observe, that whereas upon the Land, when a storm hath poured itself forth once in drifts of rain, the wind as beaten down, and vanquished therewith, not long after endureth,—here the glut of water (as if throatling the wind ere while) was no sooner a little emptied and qualified, but instantly the winds (as having gotten their mouths now free and at liberty) spake more loud, and grew more tumultuous and malignant. What shall I say? Winds and Seas were as mad as fury and rage could make them. . . . . . .

Howbeit this was not all; it pleased God to bring a greater affliction yet upon us, for in the beginning of the storm we had received likewise a mighty leak, and the ship in every joint almost having spewed out her Okam, before we were aware (a casualty more desperate than any other that a Voyage by Sea draweth with it) was grown five feet suddenly deep with water above her ballast, and we almost drowned within, whilest we sat looking when to perish from above. This, imparting no less terror than danger, ran through the whole Ship with much fright and amazement, startled and turned the blood, and took down the braves of the most hardy Mariner of them all, insomuch as he that before happily felt not the sorrow of others, now began to sorrow for himself, when he saw such a pond of water so suddenly broken in, and which he knew could not (with present avoiding) but instantly sink him. . . .

Once so huge a Sea brake upon the poop and quarter, upon us, as it covered our ship from stern to stem, like a garment or a vast cloud. It filled her brimful for a while within, from the hatches up to the spar deck. . .

Tuesday noon till Friday noon, we bailed and pumped two thousand tun, and yet, do what we could, when our ship held least in her (after Tuesday night second watch) she bore ten feet deep, at which stay our extreme working kept her one eight glasses, forbearance whereof had instantly sunk us; and it being now Friday, the fourth morning, it wanted little but that there had been a general determination, to have shut up hatches and commending our sinful souls to God, committed the ship to the mercy of the sea. Surely that night we must have done it, and that night had we then perished; but see the goodness and sweet introduction of better hope by our merciful God given unto us. Sir George Summers, when no man dreamed of such happiness, had discovered and cried, "Land!" Indeed, the morning, now three-quarters spent, had won a little clearness from the days before, and it being better surveyed, the very trees were seen to move with the wind upon the shore-side.


[3] Pronounced Strǎk'ey.


Died 1712.

JOHN LAWSON was a Scotch gentleman who came to America in 1700. In his own words: "In the year 1700, when people flocked from all parts of the Christian world, to see the solemnity of the grand jubilee at Rome, my intention being at that time to travel, I accidentally met with a gentlemen, who had been abroad, and was very well acquainted with the ways of living in both Indies; of whom having made inquiry concerning them, he assured me that Carolina was the best country I could go to; and, that there then lay a ship in the Thames in which I might have my passage." He resided in Carolina eight years. As "Gent. Surveyor-General of North Carolina," he wrote his History of North Carolina, which is an original, sprightly, and faithful account of the eastern section of the State, and contains valuable matter for the subsequent historian. It is dedicated to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, and was published in 1714.

He was taken captive by the Tuscarora Indians, while on a surveying trip, and was by them put to death in 1712 on the Neuse River in North Carolina, because, said they, "he had taken their land," by marking it off into sections.


History of North Carolina [rare].


(From History of North Carolina, 1714.)

The first discovery and settlement of this country was by the procurement of Sir Walter Raleigh, in conjunction with some public spirited gentlemen of that age, under the protection of queen Elizabeth; for which reason it was then named Virginia, being begun on that part called Ronoak Island, where the ruins of a fort are to be seen at this day, as well as some old English coins which have been lately found; and a brass gun, a powder horn, and one small quarter-deck gun, made of iron staves, and hooped with the same metal; which method of making guns might very probably be made use of in those days for the convenience of infant colonies. . . . . .

I cannot forbear inserting here a pleasant story that passes for an uncontested truth amongst the inhabitants of this place; which is, that the ship which brought the first colonies does often appear amongst them, under sail, in a gallant posture, which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's ship. And the truth of this has been affirmed to me by men of the best credit in the country.

A second settlement of this country was made about fifty years ago, in that part we now call Albemarl county, and chiefly in Chuwon precinct, by several substantial planters from Virginia and other plantations; who finding mild winters, and a fertile soil beyond expectation, producing everything that was planted to a prodigious increase; . . . . so that everything seemed to come by nature, the husbandman living almost void of care, and free from those fatigues which are absolutely requisite in winter countries, for providing fodder and other necessaries; these encouragements induced them to stand their ground, although but a handful of people, seated at great distances one from another, and amidst a vast number of Indians of different nations, who were then in Carolina.

Nevertheless, I say, the fame of this new discovered summer country spread through the neighboring colonies, and in a few years drew a considerable number of families thereto, who all found land enough to settle themselves in (had they been many thousands more), and that which was very good and commodiously seated both for profit and pleasure.

And, indeed, most of the plantations in Carolina naturally enjoy a noble prospect of large and spacious rivers, pleasant savannas and fine meadows, with their green liveries interwoven with beautiful flowers of most glorious colors, which the several seasons afford; hedged in with pleasant groves of the ever famous tulip tree, the stately laurels and bays, equalizing the oak in bigness and growth, myrtles, jessamines, woodbines, honeysuckles, and several other fragrant vines and evergreens, whose aspiring branches shadow and interweave themselves with the loftiest timbers, yielding a pleasant prospect, shade and smell, proper habitations for the sweet singing birds, that melodiously entertain such as travel through the woods of Carolina.

The Planters possessing all these blessings, and the produce of great quantities of wheat and indian corn, in which this country is very fruitful, as likewise in beef, pork, tallow, hides, deer skins, and furs; for these commodities the new England men and Bermudians visited Carolina in their barks and sloops, and carried out what they made, bringing them in exchange, rum, sugar, salt, molasses, and some wearing apparel, though the last at very extravagant prices.

As the land is very fruitful, so are the planters kind and hospitable to all that come to visit them; there being very few housekeepers but what live very nobly, and give away more provisions to coasters and guests who come to see them than they expend amongst their own families. . .

The easy way of living in that plentiful country makes a great many planters very negligent, which, were they otherwise, that colony might now have been in a far better condition than it is, as to trade and other advantages, which an universal industry would have led them into. The women are the most industrious sex in that place, and, by their good housewifery, make a great deal of cloth of their own cotton, wool and flax; some of them keeping their families, though large, very decently appareled, both with linens and woolens, so that they have no occasion to run into the merchants' debt, or lay their money out on stores for clothing.

. . . As for those women that do not expose themselves to the weather, they are often very fair, and generally as well featured as you shall see anywhere, and have very brisk, charming eyes which sets them off to advantage. . . . .

Both sexes are generally spare of body and not choleric, nor easily cast down at disappointments and losses, seldom immoderately grieving at misfortunes, unless for the loss of their nearest relations and friends, which seems to make a more than ordinary impression upon them. Many of the women are very handy in canoes and will manage them with great dexterity and skill, which they become accustomed to in this watery country. They are ready to help their husbands in any servile work, as planting, when the season of the weather requires expedition; pride seldom banishing good housewifery. The girls are not bred up to the wheel and sewing only, but the dairy and the affairs of the house they are very well acquainted withal; so that you shall see them, whilst very young, manage their business with a great deal of conduct and alacrity. The children of both sexes are very docile and learn any thing with a great deal of care and method, and those that have the advantages of education write very good hands, and prove good accountants, which is most coveted, and, indeed, most necessary in these parts. The young men are commonly of a bashful, sober behaviour; few proving prodigals to consume what the industry of their parents has left them, but commonly improve it.


(From History of North Carolina.)

They have a third sort of feasts and dances, which are always when the harvest of corn is ended, and in the spring. The one to return thanks to the good spirit for the fruits of the earth; the other, to beg the same blessings for the succeeding year. And to encourage the young men to labour stoutly in planting their maiz and pulse, they set up a sort of idol in the field, which is dressed up exactly like an Indian, having all the Indians habit, besides abundance of Wampum and their money, made of shells, that hangs about his neck. The image none of the young men dare approach; for the old ones will not suffer them to come near him, but tell them that he is some famous Indian warrior that died a great while ago, and now is come amongst them to see if they work well, which if they do, he will go to the good spirit and speak to him to send them plenty of corn, and to make the young men all expert hunters and mighty warriors. All this while, the king and old men sit around the image and seemingly pay a profound respect to the same. One great help to these Indians in carrying on these cheats, and inducing youth to do as they please, is, the uninterrupted silence which is ever kept and observed with all the respect and veneration imaginable.

At these feasts which are set out with all the magnificence their fare allows of, the masquerades begin at night and not before. There is commonly a fire made in the middle of the house, which is the largest in the town, and is very often the dwelling of their king or war captain; where sit two men on the ground upon a mat; one with a rattle, made of a gourd, with some beans in it; the other with a drum made of an earthen pot, covered with a dressed deer skin, and one stick in his hand to beat thereon; and so they both begin the song appointed. At the same time one drums and the other rattles, which is all the artificial music of their own making I ever saw amongst them. To these two instruments they sing, which carries no air with it, but is a sort of unsavory jargon; yet their cadences and raising of their voices are formed with that equality and exactness that, to us Europeans, it seems admirable how they should continue these songs without once missing to agree, each with the others note and tune.



WILLIAM BYRD, second of the name, and the first native Virginian writer, was born at Westover, his father's estate on the James below Richmond.

The following inscription on his tomb at Westover gives a sketch of his life and services well worth preserving:

"Here lies the Honourable William Byrd, Esq., being born to one of the amplest fortunes in this country, he was sent early to England for his education, where under the care and direction of Sir Robert Southwell, and ever favoured with his particular instructions, he made a happy proficiency in polite and various learning. By the means of the same noble friend, he was introduced to the acquaintance of many of the first persons of that age for knowledge, wit, virtue, birth, or high station, and particularly contracted a most intimate and bosom friendship with the learned and illustrious Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery.

"He was called to the bar in the Middle Temple, studied for some time in the Low Countries, visited the Court of France, and was chosen Fellow of the Royal Society. Thus eminently fitted for the service and ornament of his country, he was made receiver-general of his Majesty's revenues here, was then appointed public agent to the Court and Ministry of England, being thirty-seven years a member, at last became president, of the Council of this Colony.

"To all this were added a great elegancy of taste and life, the well-bred gentleman, and polite companion, the splendid economist and prudent father of a family, with the constant enemy of all exorbitant power, and hearty friend to the liberties of his country. Nat. Mar. 28, 1674. Mort. Aug. 26, 1744. An. aetat. 70."

His daughter Evelyn was famous both in England and Virginia for her beauty, wit, and accomplishments. She died at the age of thirty, 1737.—See Century Magazine, 1891, Vol. 20, p. 163.


Westover Manuscripts: (1) History of the Dividing Line [the survey to settle the line between Virginia and North Carolina, 1728.] (2) A Journey to the Land of Eden [North Carolina, of which Charles Eden was governor 1713-19.] (3) A Progress to the Mines [Iron mines in Virginia which Ex-Governor Alexander Spotswood and others were beginning to open and work.]


His writings are among the most interesting that we have, being remarkable for their wit and culture, a certain poetic vein, a keen interest in nature, a simple religious faith, a fund of cheerful courage and good sense, and a fine consideration for others.


(From A Journey to the Land of Eden.)

When we got home, we laid the foundations of two large Citys. One at Shacco's, to be called Richmond, and the other at the Point of Appamattuck River, to be nam'd Petersburgh. These Major Mayo offered to lay out into Lots without Fee or Reward. The Truth of it is, these two places being the uppermost Landing of James and Appamattux Rivers, are naturally intended for Marts, where the Traffick of the Outer Inhabitants must Center. Thus we did not build Castles only, but also Citys in the Air.


(From A Progress to the Mines.)

Then I came into the Main County Road, that leads from Fredericksburgh to Germanna, which last place I reacht in Ten Miles more. This famous Town consists of Colo. Spotswood's enchanted Castle on one Side of the Street, and a Baker's Dozen of ruinous Tenements on the other, where so many German Familys had dwelt some Years ago; but are now remov'd ten Miles higher, in the Fork of Rappahannock, to Land of their Own. There had also been a Chappel about a Bow-Shot from the Colonel's house, at the End of an Avenue of Cherry Trees, but some pious people had lately burnt it down, with intent to get another built nearer to their own homes.

Here I arriv'd about three o clock, and found only Mrs. Spotswood at Home, who receiv'd her Old acquaintance with many a gracious Smile. I was carry'd into a Room elegantly set off with Pier Glasses, the largest of which came soon after to an odd Misfortune. Amongst other favourite Animals that cheer'd this Lady's Solitude, a Brace of Tame Deer ran familiarly about the House, and one of them came to stare at me as a Stranger. But unluckily Spying his own Figure in the Glass, he made a spring over the Tea Table that stood under it, and shatter'd the Glass to pieces, and falling-back upon the Tea Table, made a terrible Fracas among the China. This Exploit was so sudden, and accompany'd with such a Noise, that it surpriz'd me, and perfectly frighten'd Mrs. Spotswood. But twas worth all the Damage to shew the Moderation and good humour with which she bore this disaster.

In the Evening, the noble Colo. came home from his Mines, who saluted me very civilly, and Mrs. Spotswood's Sister, Miss Theky, who had been to meet him en Cavalier, was so kind too as to bid me welcome. We talkt over a Legend of old Storys, supp'd about 9, and then prattl'd with the Ladys, til twas time for a Travellour to retire. In the mean time I observ'd my old Friend to be very Uxorious, and exceedingly fond of his Children. This was so opposite to the Maxims he us'd to preach up before he was marryed, that I cou'd not forbear rubbing up the Memory of them. But he gave a very good-natur'd turn to his Change of Sentiments, by alleging that whoever brings a poor Gentlewoman into so solitary a place, from all her Friends and acquaintance, wou'd be ungrateful not to use her and all that belongs to her with all possible Tenderness.

We all kept Snug in our several apartments till Nine, except Miss Theky, who was the Housewife of the Family. At that hour we met over a Pot of Coffee, which was not quite strong enough to give us the Palsy. After Breakfast the Colo. and I left the Ladys to their Domestick Affairs, and took a turn in the Garden, which has nothing beautiful but 3 Terrace Walks that fall in Slopes one below another. I let him understand, that besides the pleasure of paying him a Visit, I came to be instructed by so great a Master in the Mystery of Making of Iron, wherein he had led the way, and was the Tubal Cain of Virginia. He corrected me a little there, by assuring me he was not only the first in this Country, but the first in North America, who had erected a regular Furnace. . . That the 4 Furnaces now at work in Virginia circulated a great Sum of Money for Provisions and all other necessarys in the adjacent Countys. That they took off a great Number of Hands from Planting Tobacco, and employ'd them in Works that produced a large Sum of Money in England to the persons concern'd, whereby the Country is so much the Richer. That they are besides a considerable advantage to Great Britain, because it lessens the Quantity of Bar Iron imported from Spain, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, and Muscovy, which us'd to be no less than 20,000 Tuns yearly. . .

Then I inquired after his own Mines, and hoped, as he was the first that engaged in this great undertaking, that he had brought them to the most perfection. . . He said it was true His works were of the oldest Standing; but that his long absence in England, and the wretched Management of Mr. Greame, whom he had entrusted with his Affairs, had put him back very much. That what with Neglect and Severity, above 80 of his Slaves were lost while he was in England, and most of his Cattle starved. That his Furnace stood still great part of the time, and all his Plantations ran to ruin. That indeed he was rightly serv'd for committing his Affairs to the care of a Mathematician, whose thoughts were always among the Stars. That nevertheless, since his return, he had apply'd himself to rectify his Steward's Mistakes, and bring his Business again into Order. That now he contriv'd to do every thing with his own People, except raising the Mine and running the Iron, by which he had contracted his Expence very much. Nay, he believ'd that by his directions he cou'd bring sensible Negroes to perform those parts of the work tolerably well. . . Our Conversation on this Subject continued till Dinner, which was both elegant and plentifull.

The afternoon was devoted to the ladys, who shew'd me one of their most beautiful Walks. They conducted me thro' a Shady Lane to the Landing, and by the way made me drink some very fine Water that issued from a Marble Fountain, and ran incessantly. Just behind it was a cover'd Bench, where Miss Theky often sat and bewail'd her Virginity. Then we proceeded to the River, which is the South Branch of Rappahannock, about 50 Yards wide, and so rapid that the Ferry Boat is drawn over by a Chain, and therefore called the Rapidan. At night we drank prosperity to all the Colonel's Projects in a Bowl of Rack Punch, and then retired to our Devotions.


(From The Dividing Line.)

1728, March.—Tis hardly credible how little the Bordering inhabitants were acquainted with this mighty Swamp, notwithstanding they had liv'd their whole lives within Smell of it. Yet, as great Strangers as they were to it, they pretended to be very exact in their Account of its Demensions, and were positive it could not be above 7 or 8 Miles wide, but knew no more of the Matter than Star-gazers know of the Distance of the Fixt Stars. At the Same time, they were Simple enough to amuse our Men with Idle Stories of the Lyons, Panthers, and Alligators, they were like to encounter in that dreadful Place.

In short, we saw plainly there was no Intelligence of this Terra Incognita to be got, but from our own Experience. For that Reason it was resolv'd to make the requisite Disposition to enter it next Morning. We alloted every one of the Surveyors for this painful Enterprise, with 12 Men to attend them. . . . . . .

Besides this Luggage at their Backs, they were oblig'd to measure the distance, mark the Trees, and clear the way for the Surveyors every step they went. It was really a Pleasure to see with how much Cheerfulness they undertook, and with how much Spirit they went thro' all this Drudgery. . . . . . . . . .

Altho' there was no need of Example to inflame Persons already so cheerful, yet to enter the People with the better grace, the Author and two more of the Commissioners accompanied them half a Mile into the Dismal. The Skirts of it were thinly Planted with Dwarf Reeds and Gall-Bushes, but when we got into the Dismal itself, we found the Reeds grew there much taller and closer, and, to mend the matter, was so interlac'd with bamboe-briars, that there was no scuffling thro' them without the help of Pioneers. At the same time, we found the Ground moist and trembling under our feet like a Quagmire, insomuch that it was an easy Matter to run a Ten-Foot-Pole up to the Head in it, without exerting any uncommon Strength to do it.

Two of the Men, whose Burthens were the least cumbersome, had orders to march before, with their Tomahawks, and clear the way, in order to make an Opening for the Surveyors. By their Assistance we made a Shift to push the Line half a Mile in 3 Hours, and then reacht a small piece of firm Land, about 100 Yards wide, Standing up above the rest like an Island. Here the people were glad to lay down their Loads and take a little refreshment, while the happy man, whose lot it was to carry the Jugg of Rum, began already, like AEsop's Bread-Carriers, to find it grow a good deal lighter. . . . . . .

Since the Surveyors had enter'd the Dismal, they had laid Eyes on no living Creature: neither Bird nor Beast, Insect nor Reptile came in View. Doubtless, the Eternal Shade that broods over this mighty Bog, and hinders the sun-beams from blessing the Ground, makes it an uncomfortable Habitation for any thing that has life. Not so much as a Zealand Frog cou'd endure so Aguish a Situation.

It had one Beauty, however, that delighted the Eye, tho' at the Expense of all the other Senses; the Moisture of the Soil preserves a continual Verdure, and makes every Plant an Evergreen, but at the same time the foul Damps ascend without ceasing, corrupt the Air, and render it unfit for Respiration. Not even a Turkey-Buzzard will venture to fly over it, no more than the Italian Vultures will over the filthy Lake Avernus, or the Birds of the Holy Land over the Salt Sea, where Sodom and Gomorrah formerly stood.

. . . . . . . . .

How they Slept in the Dismal Swamp.—They first cover'd the Ground with Square Pieces of Cypress bark, which now, in the Spring, they cou'd easily Slip off the Tree for that purpose. On this they Spread their Bedding; but unhappily the Weight and Warmth of their Bodies made the Water rise up betwixt the Joints of the Bark, to their great Inconvenience. Thus they lay not only moist, but also exceedingly cold, because their Fires were continually going out. . . . . . . .

We could get no Tidings yet of our Brave Adventurers, notwithstanding we despacht men to the likeliest Stations to enquire after them. They were still Scuffleing in the Mire, and could not Possibly forward the Line this whole day more than one Mile and 64 Chains. Every Step of this Day's Work was thro' a cedar Bog, where the Trees were somewhat Smaller and grew more into a Thicket. It was now a great Misfortune to the Men to find their Provisions grow less as their Labour grew greater. . . . Tho' this was very severe upon English Stomachs, yet the People were so far from being discomfited at it, that they still kept up their good Humour, and merrily told a young Fellow in the Company, who lookt very Plump and Wholesome, that he must expect to go first to Pot, if matters shou'd come to Extremity.

This was only said by way of Jest, yet it made Him thoughtful in earnest. However, for the present he return'd them a very civil answer, letting them know that, dead or alive, he shou'd be glad to be useful to such worthy good friends. But, after all, this Humourous Saying had one very good effect; for that younker, who before was a little enclin'd by his Constitution to be lazy, grew on a Sudden Extreamly Industrious, that so there might be less Occasion to carbonade him for the good of his Fellow-Travellers.


(From History of the Dividing Line.)

1729, November.—By the Strength of our Beef, we made a shift to walk about 12 Miles, crossing Blowing and Tewaw-homini Creeks. And because this last Stream receiv'd its Appellation from the Disaster of a Tuscarora Indian, it will not be Straggling much out of the way to say something of that Particular Nation.

These Indians were heretofore very numerous and powerful, making, within time of Memory, at least a Thousand Fighting Men. Their Habitation, before the War with Carolina, was on the North Branch of Neuse River, commonly call'd Connecta Creek, in a pleasant and fruitful Country. But now the few that are left of that Nation live on the North Side of MORATUCK, which is all that Part of Roanok below the great Falls, towards ALBEMARLE Sound.

Formerly there were Seven Towns of these Savages, lying not far from each other, but now their Number is greatly reduc'd. . . . . . . .

These Indians have a very odd Tradition amongst them, that many years ago, their Nation was grown so dishonest, that no man cou'd keep any Goods, or so much as his loving Wife to himself. That, however, their God, being unwilling to root them out for their crimes, did them the honour to send a Messenger from Heaven to instruct them, and set Them a perfect Example of Integrity and kind Behaviour towards one another.

But this holy Person, with all his Eloquence and Sanctity of Life, was able to make very little Reformation amongst them. Some few Old men did listen a little to his Wholesome Advice, but all the Young fellows were quite incorrigible. They not only Neglected his Precepts, but derided and Evil Entreated his Person. At last, taking upon Him to reprove some Young Rakes of the Conechta Clan very sharply for their impiety, they were so provok'd at the Freedom of his Rebukes, that they tied him to a Tree, and shot him with Arrows through the Heart. But their God took instant Vengeance on all who had a hand in that Monstrous Act, by Lightning from Heaven, & has ever since visited their Nation with a continued Train of Calamities, nor will he ever leave off punishing, and wasting their People, till he shall have blotted every living Soul of them out of the World.

SECOND PERIOD ... 1750-1800.



HENRY LAURENS, one of the patriot-fathers of our country, was born in Charleston, South Carolina. He was educated in his native city, and, becoming a merchant, amassed a fortune in business. In 1771 he travelled with his children in Europe in order to educate them. Returning home he became in 1775 a member of the Provincial Congress, and on Hancock's resignation, president of the Continental Congress. He was appointed in 1779 minister to Holland, and on his way was captured by the British and confined in the Tower fifteen months. He became acquainted with Edmund Burke while in London. He was twice offered pardon if he would serve the British Ministry, but of course he declined. During this imprisonment, his son John, called the "Bayard of the Revolution" for his daring bravery, was killed in battle.

After his release, being exchanged for Lord Cornwallis, he was appointed one of the ministers to negotiate peace in 1782. His health was so impaired by the cruel treatment of his jailers, that he could take no further active part in affairs, and he passed the rest of his life in the retirement of his plantation. On his death, his body was burned, according to his express will, the first instance, in this country, of cremation.

His daughter Martha married Dr. David Ramsay, the historian.


Political Papers [some of which have been published by the South Carolina Historical Society].

These are of great value in a study of the Revolutionary times.


(From Narrative of his Confinement in the Tower.)

About 11 o'clock at night I was sent under a strong guard, up three pair of stairs in Scotland Yard, into a very small chamber. Two king's messengers were placed for the whole night at one door, and a subaltern's guard of soldiers at the other. As I was, and had been for some days, so ill as to be incapable of getting into or out of a carriage, or up or down stairs, without help, I looked upon all this parade to be calculated for intimidation. My spirits were good and I smiled inwardly. The next morning, 6th October, from Scotland Yard, I was conducted again under guard to the secretary's office, White Hall. . . I was first asked, by Lord Stormont, "If my name was Henry Laurens." "Certainly, my Lord, that is my name." . . . . His Lordship then said, "Mr. Laurens, we have a paper here" (holding the paper up), "purporting to be a commission from Congress to you, to borrow money in Europe for the use of Congress." . . . I replied, "My Lords, your Lordships are in possession of the paper, and will make such use of it as your Lordships shall judge proper." I had not destroyed this paper, as it would serve to establish the rank and character in which I was employed by the United States. . . . . From White Hall, I was conducted in a close hackney coach, under the charge of Colonel Williamson, a polite, genteel officer, and two of the illest-looking fellows I had ever seen. The coach was ordered to proceed by the most private ways to the Tower. It had been rumored that a rescue would be attempted. At the Tower the Colonel delivered me to Major Gore, the residing Governor, who, as I was afterwards well informed, had previously concerted a plan for mortifying me. He ordered rooms for me in the most conspicuous part of the Tower (the parade). The people of the house, particularly the mistress, entreated the Governor not to burthen them with a prisoner. He replied, "It is necessary. I am determined to expose him." This was, however, a lucky determination for me. The people were respectful and kindly attentive to me, from the beginning of my confinement to the end; and I contrived, after being told of the Governor's humane declaration, so to garnish my windows by honeysuckles, and a grape-vine running under them, as to conceal myself entirely from the sight of starers, and at the same time to have myself a full view of them. Governor Gore conducted me to my apartments at a warder's house. As I was entering the house, I heard some of the people say, "Poor old gentleman, bowed down with infirmities. He is come to lay his bones here." My reflection was, "I shall not leave a bone with you."

I was very sick, but my spirits were good, and my mind foreboding good from the event of being a prisoner in London. Their Lordships' orders were: "To confine me a close prisoner; to be locked up every night; to be in the custody of two wardens, who were not to suffer me to be out of their sight one moment, day or night; to allow me no liberty of speaking to any person, nor to permit any person to speak to me; to deprive me of the use of pen and ink; to suffer no letter to be brought to me, nor any to go from me," etc. As an apology, I presume for their first rigor, the wardens gave me their orders to peruse. . .

And now I found myself a close prisoner, indeed; shut up in two small rooms, which together made about twenty feet square; a warder my constant companion; and a fixed bayonet under my window; not a friend to converse with, and no prospect of a correspondence. . . .

September 23d.—For some time past I have been frequently and strongly tempted to make my escape from the Tower, assured, "It was the advice and desire of all my friends, the thing might be easily effected, the face of American affairs was extremely gloomy. That I might have eighteen hours' start before I was missed; time enough to reach Margate and Ostend; that it was believed there would be no pursuit," etc., etc. I had always said, "I hate the name of a runaway." At length I put a stop to farther applications by saying, "I will not attempt an escape. The gates were opened for me to enter; they shall be opened for me to go out of the Tower. God Almighty sent me here for some purpose. I am determined to see the end of it."



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S life is so well known, it is so simple, so grand, that a few words can tell it, and yet volumes would not exhaust it. His mother's remark, "George was always a good son," sums up his character; and his title, "Father of his Country," sums up his life-work.

He was born at Pope's Creek, Westmoreland County, Virginia, and became a surveyor, being employed in that capacity at the early age of sixteen by Lord Fairfax, governor of Virginia. He joined the English troops sent under General Braddock against the French in 1756, and his bravery and good sense in this expedition gained him great renown. In 1775 he was made commander-in-chief of the American forces against the English and he conducted the war of the Revolution to a successful issue in 1783. He was the first president of the United States, being elected in 1789, and again in 1793, declining a third term in 1797. He retired to private life at Mt. Vernon, his home in Virginia. Here he died, and here he lies buried, his tomb being a shrine of pilgrimage for all his countrymen and admirers.

Innumerable monuments rise all over our land commemorating his virtues and pointing him out as a model for the youth of America. One of the finest is that at Richmond, designed by Crawford, an equestrian statue in bronze, surrounded by colossal figures of Jefferson, Mason, Patrick Henry, Lewis, Marshall, and Nelson. The marble statue by Houdon in the Capitol at Richmond is considered the best figure of Washington; it was done from life in 1788. Other noble memorials are the Column at Baltimore, and the great obelisk at Washington City, called the Washington Monument, the latter designed by Robert Mills, of South Carolina, and intended originally to have a colonnade around the base containing the statues of the illustrious men of our country.


State Papers, Addresses, Letters—12 volumes.

Washington's writings are like his character, simple, clear, sensible, without any pretensions to special culture or literary grace. These extracts show his modesty, his love of truth, and his general good sense. See under Madison, Weems, and Henry Lee.


I hope I shall always possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain, what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an "honest man."—Moral Maxims.


To persevere in one's duty and be silent is the best answer to calumny.—Moral Maxims.


Labour to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire,—conscience.—Rule from the Copy-book of Washington when a school boy.


[Delivered in Congress, 16 June, 1775.]

Mr. President: Though I am truly sensible of the high honor done me, in this appointment, yet I feel great distress, from a consciousness that my abilities and military experience may not be equal to the extensive and important trust. However, as the Congress desire it, I will enter upon the momentous duty, and exert every power I possess in their service, and for the support of the glorious cause. I beg they will accept my most cordial thanks for this distinguished testimony of their approbation.

But, lest some unlucky event should happen, unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room, that I, this day, declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.

As to pay, Sir, I beg leave to assure the Congress, that, as no pecuniary consideration could have tempted me to accept this arduous employment, at the expense of my domestic ease and happiness, I do not wish to make any profit from it. I will keep an exact account of my expenses. Those, I doubt not, they will discharge, and that is all I desire.


[Letter to Dr. John Cochran, West Point, 16 August, 1779.]

Dear Doctor: I have asked Mrs. Cochran and Mrs. Livingston to dine with me to-morrow; but am I not in honor bound to apprise them of their fare? As I hate deception, even where the imagination only is concerned, I will. It is needless to premise, that my table is large enough to hold the ladies. Of this they had ocular proof yesterday. To say how it is usually covered, is rather more essential; and this shall be the purport of my letter.

Since our arrival at this happy spot, we have had a ham, sometimes a shoulder of bacon, to grace the head of the table; a piece of roast beef adorns the foot; and a dish of beans, or greens, almost imperceptible, decorates the centre. When the cook has a mind to cut a figure, which I presume will be the case to-morrow, we have two beef-steak pies, or dishes of crabs, in addition, one on each side of the centre dish, dividing the space and reducing the distance between dish and dish to about six feet, which without them would be near twelve feet apart. Of late he has had the surprising sagacity to discover, that apples will make pies; and it is a question, if, in the violence of his efforts, we do not get one of apples, instead of having both of beef-steaks. If the ladies can put up with such entertainment, and will submit to partake of it on plates, once tin but now iron (not become so by the labor of scouring), I shall be happy to see them; and am, dear Doctor, yours, etc.


[From a Letter to Bushrod Washington.—Newburgh, 15 Jan., 1783.]

Remember, that it is not the mere study of the law, but to become eminent in the profession of it, that is to yield honor and profit. The first was your choice; let the second be your ambition. Dissipation is incompatible with both; the company, in which you will improve most, will be least expensive to you; and yet I am not such a stoic as to suppose that you will, or to think it right that you should, always be in company with senators and philosophers; but of the juvenile kind let me advise you to be choice. It is easy to make acquaintances, but very difficult to shake them off, however irksome and unprofitable they are found, after we have once committed ourselves to them. The indiscretions, which very often they involuntarily lead one into, prove equally distressing and disgraceful.

Be courteous to all, but intimate with few; and let those few be well tried before you give them your confidence. True friendship is a plant of slow growth, and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation.

Let your heart feel for the distresses and afflictions of every one, and let your hand give in proportion to your purse; remembering always the estimation of the widow's mite, but, that it is not every one who asketh, that deserveth charity; all, however, are worthy of the inquiry, or the deserving may suffer.

Do not conceive that fine clothes make fine men, any more than fine feathers make fine birds. A plain, genteel dress is more admired, and obtains more credit, than lace and embroidery, in the eyes of the judicious and sensible.


Union and Liberty.—Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

The unity of government which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence; the support of your tranquillity at home; your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But, as it is easy to foresee, that from different causes, and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed; it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens by birth, or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have, in a common cause, fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess, are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here, every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole. . . . .

. . . While then every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts, greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighbouring countries not tied together by the same government; which their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues, would stimulate and imbitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which under any form of government are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is, that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other. . . . .

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