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Spalding's Baseball Guide and Official League Book for 1895
Edited by Henry Chadwick
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[Transcriber's Note: Some portions of the original text were illegible; these portions are noted with an asterisk (*).]

[Title page]



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BASE BALL GUIDE AND OFFICIAL LEAGUE BOOK FOR 1895.

* * * * *

A Complete Hand Book Of The National Game Of Base Ball,

Containing The Full Official League Records For 1894,

Together With

The New Code Of Playing Rules As Revised By The Committee Of Rules.

Attached To Which Are Explanatory Notes, Giving A Correct Interpretation Of The New Rules.

* * * * *

A Prominent Feature Of The Guide For 1895 Is The New Championship Record; Added To Which Are The Complete Pitching Records Of 1894 And Special Chapters On The Fielding And Base Running Of 1894,

Together With

Interesting Records Of The Most Noteworthy Contests, Incidents And Occurrences Of The Eventful Season Of 1894, Occurring In The College Arenas As Well As In That Of The Professional Clubs.

* * * * *

Edited By Henry Chadwick.

Published By American Sports Publishing Company, 241 Broadway, New York



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.

The official handbook of America's national game—SPALDING'S BASE BALL GUIDE—which was first issued in 1876, has grown in size, importance and popular favor year by year, until it has become the great standard statistical and reference annual of the game throughout the base ball world; and it is now recognized as the established base ball manual of the entire professional fraternity, as well as the authorized Guide Book of the great National League, which is the controlling governmental organization of the professional clubs of the United States.

The Guide of 1895 not only records the doings of the twelve clubs of the National League for the past season, with all the official statistics, but it gives space to the championship campaigns of 1894, not only of the Minor Professional Leagues of the country, but also of those of the College clubs and of the leading organizations of the amateur class—the majority class of the entire base ball world—and in this respect the Guide has no equal, the book of 1895 being exceptionally full of the most interesting chapters of the leading events of the diamond fields of the past year, and for the first time contains many fine half-tone illustrations of all the leading clubs and players, making it the largest and most complete Guide ever issued.

Copies of the Guide will be mailed to any address upon receipt of twelve cents each. Trade orders supplied through the News Companies, or direct from the Publishers,

American Sports Publishing Company, 241 Broadway, New York.



The Guide, as hitherto, is issued under the entire editorial control of the veteran writer on sports, Mr. Henry Chadwick, popularly known as "The Father of Base Ball."

The great size of the Guide precludes the possibility of including the game record of the League campaign, as also other records of League legislation, etc., and these will be found in the "Official League Book," which contains only official League matter, as furnished by Secretary Young, including the League Constitution in full.



PREFACE.

SPALDING'S BASE BALL GUIDE for 1895 is the twentieth annual edition of the work issued under the auspices of the National League. It is also the fifteenth annual edition published under the editorship of Mr. Henry Chadwick, he having first entered upon his editorial duties on the GUIDE in 1881. Moreover, it is the fourth annual edition issued under the government of the existing major League, which League was the result of the reconstruction measures adopted during the winter of 1891-92; and this latest issue of SPALDING'S LEAGUE GUIDE in several respects, if not in all, surpasses all of its predecessors. New features are presented in its pages this year which are of special interest; the most noteworthy being the new record of every game played in the League championship series—-won, lost or drawn—-from April 19 to September 30, 1894, inclusive; the names of the opposing pitchers in each game; being a record never before published in any base ball manual, this alone making the GUIDE of 1895 a model book of reference for the whole base ball fraternity. Added to this are not only the full statistics of the League season of 1894, but also special articles on the latest scientific points of play developed in the professional arena; together with editorial comments on the leading events of the past season—-now regarded as one of the interesting features of the book—-and the scores of the model games of 1894, etc. A new chapter is "The Reference Guide," devoted to statistics valuable as references. In addition to which is the new code of rules which went into effect in April, 1895, and the editorial explanatory appendix, revised by President Young of the League; the whole making the GUIDE the model base ball manual of the period, the book being of special value, alike to the amateur class of the base ball fraternity, as to the class of professional exemplars of the game.

AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY, 241 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY.

* * * * *

WASHINGTON, D. C, March, 1895.

By authority vested in me, I do hereby certify that Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Bros, have been granted the exclusive right to publish the "OFFICIAL LEAGUE BOOK" for 1895.

N. E. YOUNG, Secretary of the National League and American Association of Professional Base Ball Clubs.



INTRODUCTION.

The decade of the nineties in League history bids fair to surpass, in exciting events, that of every preceding series of years known in the annals of professional base ball. The decade in question began with the players' revolt in 1890 and was followed up by the secession of the old American Association, a fatal movement, which ended in the death of that organization in the winter of 1891-92; the reorganization of the National League resulting in the absorption of the best half of the old Association clubs and the beginning of the experiment of governing the whole professional fraternity by one major League instead of by a dual government as before; this one powerful League being itself controlled by the laws of the "National Agreement." The cost of the amalgamation of the four American Association clubs with the National League, together with the financial losses incurred by the revolutionary period of 1890 and 1891—losses, by the way, which the players did not participate in, the clubs alone being the sufferers—left a heavy burden of debt to handicap the reconstructed National League in its efforts to recover the public confidence in professional ball playing lost by the malcontents of 1890 and 1891. But, nevertheless, the seasons of 1892 and 1893 saw the heavy indebtedness removed from the League's shoulders; and in 1894 the flourishing financial times of 1888 and 1889 were, in a measure, renewed, and for the first time since the Brotherhood revolt of 1890, the professional base ball business in 1894 became a paying investment.

It will scarcely be believed that, in the face of the financial losses incurred during the revolutionary period of 1890 and 1891, that the closing part of the season of 1894 saw another attempt made to renew the troubles of 1891, by an effort made to resuscitate the defunct American Association under the banner of "Death to the League's reserve rule," together with that of a joint attempt made to revive the old Brotherhood plan of rival League clubs in the larger base ball cities of the Union. This revolutionary effort, made by one of the promoters of the revolt of 1890, aided by two dismissed managers and a disgruntled star player itching for notoriety at any cost, led the magnates of the National League to adopt repressive measures calculated to put an end to any future revolutionary efforts of the kind, by severely punishing any League club manager or player who should prove recreant in fealty to the laws of the National Agreement, or who should join in any attempt to organize any base ball association opposed to the reserve rule, which rule over ten years' experience had proved to be the fundamental law and corner-stone of the professional base ball business. Without such a repressive law it was evident that the League would be subject to periodical attempts on the part of unscrupulous managers or players to war upon the reserve rule for blackmail purposes. The necessity for some such law was made evident by the recent efforts made to organize a new American Association on the basis of not only warring upon the reserve rule but of trespassing on the territorial rights of existing League clubs.



The League Manifesto of 1894.

The finale to the annual meeting of 1894 was the issuing of a manifesto by the National League, which was called forth by an effort at treachery in the League ranks which required prompt action for its repression. This manifesto was issued without regard to efforts to organize a new American Association, any opposition of the kind to the National Agreement clubs, with the major League at its head, being looked upon as futile, owing to the character of the men alleged to be at the head of the movement; the main incentive of the League magnates being to publicly announce what the penalty of treachery to National Agreement interests would be in the future. The manifesto in question was the work of a special committee appointed by the National League at its annual meeting in November, 1894, which consisted of Messrs. Chas. H. Byrne, H. R, Von der Horst, James A. Hart and John T. Brush.

The following is the statement drawn up by the committee, and referred to the National Board for adoption:

TO THE NATIONAL BOARD OF PROFESSIONAL BASE BALL ASSOCIATIONS:

From the year 1876, when base ball was established in this country on a substantial and responsible basis by the disbandment of the so-called National Association of Professional Base Ball Clubs and the organization of the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, down to the present time, the duty has been imposed upon some body or organization to uphold and enforce the objects for which base ball was established, to wit:

First—To perpetuate base ball as the national game of the United States, and to surround it with such safeguards as to warrant for the future absolute public confidence in its integrity and methods.

Second—To protect and promote the mutual interests of professional base ball clubs and professional base ball players.

The National League formed in 1876 found a difficult task before it in undertaking to carry out the objects above referred to. Interest in base ball was at a low ebb. Gamblers were in possession. The game was without discipline, organization or legitimate control. The sport was conducted with dishonest methods and for dishonest purposes, and had neither the respect nor confidence of the press or public. Heroic methods were absolutely necessary. At a meeting of the National League, held in Cleveland December 5, 1877, the League directors unanimously ratified the action of the Louisville club in expelling from the professional ranks James A. Devlin, W. H. Craver, A. H. Nichols and G. W. Hall "for conduct in contravention to the object of the League."

These men had been charged with and convicted of willfully selling a game of base ball. At first the action of the League in taking such an extreme course was strongly denounced. The League, however, foresaw that any condonation of fraud or crookedness meant death to the national game and remained firm in its position. Public opinion soon turned, and to-day it is universally conceded that the course then taken did more to establish the honesty and integrity of base ball than any action taken or legislation since enacted. From that day to this no charge of crookedness or dishonesty has been made against a professional ball player. Repeated attempts have been made to reinstate these men or those of them now living, but their expulsion was final and irrevocable.

That the League was earnest in its efforts to purify the game was further demonstrated by its action taken at a special meeting held at the Russell House, Detroit, Mich., on June 24, 1882, when Richard Higham, a League umpire, was, upon charges preferred by the Detroit club, expelled for "crooked" work as an umpire. From that day to this no such charge has ever been made against an official umpire. The rapid increase in the compensation of ball players soon opened up another avenue of trouble for the League, which needed and received prompt attention. This was flagrant and open dissipation in the ranks at home and abroad. While this was confined comparatively to a few men, the innocent suffered largely from it, and the National League was brought into disrepute. Heroic measures were again adopted, and several players were indefinitely suspended, with excellent effect. It is safe to say that to-day there is less dissipation and drunkenness in the ranks of professional ball players in proportion to their number than in any other organized or unorganized body in this country identified with outdoor sports.

The success achieved by the National League in its efforts to develop base ball as the national game became apparent in its rapid growth in popular favor, and the establishment of clubs and associations throughout the various States. It became evident soon that something must be done to foster and protect the rights and interests of these various bodies, and "that there was a recognized need of some central power in base ball to govern all associations, by an equitable code of general laws, to put the game on a prosperous and lasting basis."

To accomplish this purpose a meeting was held in the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, February 17, 1883, at which delegates were present representing the National League, the American Association, and the Northwestern League. At that meeting the so-called Tripartite Agreement was drawn up and agreed to, which substantially was an offensive and defensive alliance, embodying a mutual respect of all contracts and other obligations, and all rights of the parties to the agreement to territorial rights, players under contract or held under reserve.

The adoption of the tripartite agreement opened a new era in base ball, and it was so readily recognized as being a step in the line of progress that when the committee which drew up the agreement was called together in New York city in October, 1883, they decided to call the instrument they had framed the National Agreement of Professional Base Ball Clubs, the purpose being to open the door to all clubs, leagues and associations desiring to live under the conditions, rules and regulations of the agreement. Immediately several leagues and associations applied for the protection assured the, and readily pledged themselves to abide by the requirements designated in the agreement.

The action of the committee in framing the new national agreement was subsequently ratified by the signatures of the Presidents of the parties thereto, viz.:

The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, A. G. Mills, President, November 22, 1883.

The American Association of Base Ball Clubs, H. D. McKnight, President, December 13, 1883.

The Northwestern League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, Elias Mather, President, January 10, 1884.

The Eastern League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, William C. Sedden, President, February 19, 1884.

The fundamental principle of the national agreement as originally drawn, and which is now in operation, is a respect for territorial rights. This, in fact, is the corner stone of the structure.

It contemplates and provides for the organization of cities into leagues or associations, with one club, and one only, in each city, and a contest between the respective cities for championship honors. The interest which base ball arouses in any city is based absolutely on local pride. The essence of value to a championship is entirely to the city to which the victorious club belongs.

Experience has demonstrated that whenever and wherever territorial rights have been invaded and rival clubs established, the element of local pride is absent and interest in both destroyed. It is this which makes a respect for territorial rights a principle which we must uphold.

It is true, nevertheless, and we so declare that we will gladly welcome and shall encourage the formation of leagues and associations who desire to operate under the national agreement, and consent to abide by the fundamental principles of that document.

Reference has been made above to the difficulties and the obstacles which at times have presented themselves and which have been by severe but just methods removed.

To-day the future of base ball is confronted by a new condition, a condition which in every particular is as harmful and in many respects far more dangerous than open dishonesty or flagrant dissipation. That is, treachery within the lines. To-day, and for months past we have had men identified with professional base ball who for years have been the beneficiaries of the game, have received liberal compensation for the work they have done, earned their livelihood entirely and absolutely from the opportunities afforded them by clubs and organizations operating under the national agreement, and we find and now know that these men, during this time, have persistently been identifying themselves with schemes and combinations the objects and sole purposes of which are to weaken and perhaps destroy the splendid fabric of our national game, which it has taken years of effort, anxiety and large outlay of capital to construct.

To-day we have the confidence of the public and the press of the country in the methods and the integrity of base ball in larger measure than at any prior period in the history of our national game. It devolves upon us to continue to deserve and retain this confidence. We must endeavor to do it.

The interests of clubs and professional ball players are identical. One cannot succeed without the other. Success means mutual benefit. The moment any suspicion attaches to base ball, public confidence lost or even chilled, the occupation of the ball player is gone. We must all stand or fall together. There is no middle ground. We stand by the fundamental law, our national agreement, which guarantees protection to players as well as to clubs, or we destroy it. One road leads to the perpetuation of the national game, the other to its decline. There should be no place, no standing room in base ball for any anarchistic element which never aids in building up but is ever ready to destroy.

The time has come when some action should be taken to place this element without the pale of our ranks. The National Board, operating under the national agreement, was created to protect and guard the interests of all players, clubs and associations identified with the agreement. Any attempt to encroach upon that, to nullify or affect any of its provisions, is of direct and material concern to all alike.

The obligations of contracts, the right of reserve, and the territorial rights of clubs, associations and leagues must be upheld, and shall be, at any cost.

It is a matter of public rumor and is also a fact which has come to our knowledge that men identified with clubs, members of the national agreement, have been co-operating in the formation of clubs or organizations whose purpose is to conflict with the national agreement. In view of this knowledge, the National League and American Association of Professional Clubs in convention assembled respectfully suggests to and requests the National Board to declare A. C. Buckenberger, William Barnie and Fred Pfeffer ineligible to be employed either as manager or player or in any capacity whatever, by any club or organization operating under the national agreement, and they be forthwith suspended. Such suspension to remain in force until such time as they or either of them can satisfy the National Board that they have in no way been engaged directly or indirectly in the organization of any club, league or association formed or to be formed in conflict with the principles of the national agreement. And in the event of their failure to relieve themselves from this suspension within such time as your Board may direct, they shall be expelled and forever debarred from any connection with clubs or organizations identified with the National Agreement of Professional Base Ball Clubs.

We furthermore request that your Board take like action in the case of any player, manager, umpire or club official who in the future identifies himself with a similar movement.

C. H. BYRNE, J. T. BRUSH, JAMES A. HART, H. R. VON DER HORST, N. E. YOUNG.

The above address was submitted to the National League at its annual meeting, fully discussed and unanimously adopted.



Appended is the decision of the National Board:

To all National Agreement Clubs, Leagues, and Associations:

At a meeting of the National Board of Professional Base Ball Clubs, held in New York city November 16, 1894, a communication was received from the National League and American Association of Professional Base Ball Clubs, in convention assembled, requesting this Board to take action in the case of certain individuals heretofore identified with clubs operating under the national agreement who have been charged with treachery to their employers and the organizations with which they have been identified. The request, so presented, was supplemented by an appeal from the executive officers of the Eastern League of Base Ball Clubs and the Western League of Base Ball Clubs to take such action as was proper to protect said leagues in the rights assured them under the national agreement.

After mature consideration, and governed absolutely by a desire to comply with the letter and spirit of the requests made to this Board, and having reasonable and substantial evidence upon which to base our action.

This Board has decided to announce, and it does declare that A. C, Buckenberger, William Barnie and Fred Pfeffer are ineligible to be employed either as manager, player or in any other capacity by any club or organization identified with the national agreement, and said persons are hereby declared suspended.

This Board further declares that such suspension shall remain in force up to and including December 31, 1894, and in the event of the failure of the above named persons, or either of them, on or before the above named date, to show to this Board that he or they have been in no manner, directly or indirectly, engaged in any attempt to promote the organization of clubs, leagues or associations antagonistic to the national agreement, they shall be expelled and forever debarred from any connection with clubs or organized bodies operating under the national agreement.

N.E. YOUNG, A.H. SODEN, C.H. BYRNE,



The foregoing action was partially caused by the following communication:

NEW YORK, November 15, 1894. TO THE NATIONAL LEAGUE AND AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL BASE BALL CLUBS.

Gentlemen: We the representatives of the undersigned leagues, operating under the National Agreement of Professional Base Ball Clubs, respectfully submit the following: Your body is the recognized major base ball organization of the country, and have sole right to elect the National Board and control all bodies identified with the agreement.

It has been made known to us, and we have good and substantial reasons for believing that such knowledge is correct, that a new organization of base ball clubs is contemplated, which, of necessity, must operate without the pale of the national agreement. It appears also that it is the purpose of the new association, if it materializes, to attempt to take from our respective organizations and clubs players now held by us under the right of reservation accorded us by the national agreement. We therefore request that you, as a body, take some action to protect us, so far as possible, against all outside organizations. We trust you will give this immediate attention, and we await your action.

Respectfully,

B.B. JOHNSON, Sec. Western League, P.B.B.C. P.T. POWERS, Pres. Eastern League.



* * * * *

The Base Ball Season of 1894.

To professional base ball, as governed by the existing National League, is mainly due the great popularity our national game has achieved within the past twenty years. Of course the amateur class of the fraternity greatly outnumber the professionals; but the game could never have reached its present point of excellence in field work but for the time and attention the professional clubs were enabled to devote to its thorough development from the year of Harry Wright's famous "Red Stocking" nine of Cincinnati, in 1869, to the existing period of model professional ball playing. In the first place, the amateur clubs could never have given the game the time and labor required for its evolution which the professional clubs were enabled to do; and, moreover, not one club in a thousand could have spared the money required to fit up and keep in serviceable condition such finely equipped ball grounds as those now owned by the leading professional clubs of the National League. To these facts, too, are to be added the statement that to the National League's government of the professional class of the fraternity is due the lasting credit of sustaining the integrity of play in the game up to the highest standard; so much so, indeed, that it has reached the point of surpassing, in this most important respect, every other sport in vogue in which professional exemplars are employed. Take it for all in all, no season since the inauguration of the National League in 1876, has approached that of 1894 in the number of clubs which took part in the season's games, both in the amateur as well as the professional arena; and certainly no previous season ever saw the professional clubs of the country so well patronized as they were in 1894. Moreover, it was the most brilliant and successful season in every respect known in the annals of the college clubs of the country. In fact, there was but one drawback to the creditable success of the entire championship campaigns of 1894, and that was the unwonted degree of "hoodlumism" which disgraced the season in the professional arena, and this, we regret to say, was painfully conspicuous among the players of the National League clubs, this organization having been noted, prior to its absorption of the old American Association element in its ranks in 1892, for the reputable character of its annual struggles for championship honors. One result of the rowdy ball playing indulged in by a minority of each club team in the League was a decided falling off in the attendance of the best class of patrons of the professional clubs.

Much of the "Hoodlumism"—a technical term applicable to the use of blackguard language; low cunning tricks, unworthy of manly players; brutal assaults on umpire and players; that nuisance of our ball fields, "kicking," and the dishonorable methods comprised in the term "dirty ball playing"—-indulged in in 1894 was largely due to the advocacy of the method of the so-called "aggressive policy," which countenanced rowdy ball playing as part and parcel of the work in winning games. The most energetic, lively and exciting method of playing a game of ball can mark a professional club contest without its being disgraced by a single act of rowdyism—such as that of spiking or willfully colliding with a base runner; bellowing like a wild bull at the pitcher, as in the so-called coaching of 1893 and 1894; or that of "kicking" against the decisions of the umpire to hide faulty captaincy or blundering fielding. Nothing of this "hoodlumism" marked the play of the four-time winners of the League pennant from 1872 to 1875, inclusive, viz., the old, gentlemanly Boston Red Stockings of the early seventies, under the leadership of that most competent of all managers, Harry Wright. Yet, despite of this old time fact, if club managers do not adopt the rough's method of playing the game, as illustrated in the League arena in 1894, advocated by the class of newspaper managers of local clubs, the scribes in question go for the local team officials for not having a team with "plenty of ginger" in their work and for their not being governed by "a hustling manager." Is it any wonder, under such circumstances, that the League season of 1894 was characterized by "hoodlumism?"

But little advance was made in the way of effective team management in the League in 1894. About a third of the twelve teams of the League only were controlled by competent team managers, while at least another third were wretchedly managed, and the other third were not above the average in management. Two of the old drawbacks to the successful running of teams by professional clubs conspicuous in 1892 and 1893 marked the team management of 1894, viz., the employment of drinking players and the condoning of their costly offenses, and the interference of club presidents and directors in the work of the regular manager of the club team. There is a class of club officials in the League who, for the life of them, cannot keep from interfering with the club's legitimate manager in his running of the team. Some of them have the cool effrontery of stating that "the manager of our team is never interfered with in any way." One costly result of this club official interference is, that needed discipline of the players is out of the question, and in its absence cliqueism in the ranks of the team sets in—one set of players siding with the manager, and another with the real "boss of the team," with the costly penalty of discord in the ranks. It is all nonsense for a club to place a manager in the position with a merely nominal control of the players and then to hold him responsible for the non-success of the team in winning games. Under such a condition of things, the club manager might sign a team of costly star players and yet find himself surpassed in the pennant race by a rival manager, who, with entire control of his team, and that team composed of so-called "second-class players" or ambitious "colts," working in thorough harmony together, and "playing for the side" all the time and not for a record, as so many of the star players do, would deservedly carry off the season's honors.

Since the reconstructed National League began its new life, blundering management of teams has characterized the running of a majority of its twelve clubs, and it will continue to do so while the system of engaging players for their records merely and not for their ability in doing team work and in playing harmoniously together, is continued. Especially, too, is the plan of engaging players whose daily habits of life are at war with their ability to do first-class work in the field. Year after year are drinking offenses condoned by the club officials who run the club, and old time drunkards re-engaged for the coming season, while steady, sober players are left out in the cold. Besides this blunder, there is that of engaging half worn out stars in the place of rising young players ambitious of distinguishing themselves in the League arena. This mistake in team management was as conspicuous in 1894 as it was in 1893.

A feature of the professional base ball season of 1894 was the almost phenomenal success of the clubs—alike of the minor leagues as of the great major league itself—in battling against the serious drawback of the "hard times" of the year, which prevailed throughout the entire season. Experience shows that in the sports in vogue which have innate attractions for public patronage in times of great financial difficulties in the commercial centres of the union, the national game stands conspicuous; and the past season in this respect presented a most notable record, no such crowds of spectators ever having been seen at the leading contests of the season as in 1894.

Another feature of the past season was the interest taken in the college club contests of the spring and early summer campaign, the leading club teams giving a superior exhibition of team work play in the field to that of 1893. In fact, the national game flourished as a whole throughout the entire country in 1894 as it never had done before in the history of the game.



The League Championship Campaign of 1894.

The struggle for the League's championship pennant in 1894 was the most noteworthy one on record in one particular respect, and that was in the exciting struggle by the three leaders of the first division for the championship, which struggle began on June 20th with the Baltimores first and Boston second, and was continued on that line until New York became one of the trio on July 5th, after which date these three clubs occupied the position of first three in the race to the finish, the other nine clubs not being "in it" after July 5th. In all other respects the race for the pennant of 1894 was far from being up to the standard that should characterize the League's championship season, no less than three of the minor league pennant races being more evenly contested than was that of the great major league. From the following record of the difference in percentage points each season between the leader and tail ender it will be seen that in no less than seven of the seasons from 1881 to 1894, inclusive, were the pennant races of past seasons superior in this respect to that of 1894, that of 1891 being the smallest in difference of points on record.

Here is the record in question:

- POINTS OF POINTS OF POINTS OF YEARS. DIFFERENCE. YEARS. DIFFERENCE. YEARS. DIFFERENCE. - 1881 277 1886 493 1890 499 1882 441 1887 333 1891 223 1883 570 1888 303 1892 367 1884 400 1889 328 1893 359 1885 442 1894 418 -

Judging by the percentage figures of the twelve clubs, recorded at the end of each month's campaign of the season, the race was a one-sided one almost from the start, the Baltimore and Boston clubs being in the leading positions from the very outset of the race, the remaining ten clubs fighting for third place from April 19th to June 20th, when New York took the lead of the other nine, joining Baltimore and Boston in the struggle for the leading position.

A League pennant race—or that of a minor league, for that matter—to be up to the regulation standard, should at least show a difference in percentage figures varying, on the average, not far from 250 points; a model race, in these figures, not exceeding 200 points. But this standard has not been reached in League records for fifteen years, the best being over 223 points. Then, too, comes the record of the occupancy of the several positions of the two divisions, this, to a certain extent, showing the character of the pennant race of the season. In this regard, an evenly contested race should show a weekly change of position in each division, for one thing, and also a change from first division to second division at least once a month. A model race should see the first three positions changed weekly, the first six places at least fortnightly, and the tail end positions once a month at farthest. But what does the figures of the pennant race of the League for 1894 show? Let us glance at the; records of the occupancy of the first and second divisions in last year's pennant race. From the 22d of April to the close of the season, the Baltimore and Boston clubs were never out of the ranks of the first division clubs; nor were the Chicago, Washington and Louisville clubs ever out of those of the second division. This alone was a one-sided condition of affairs in the race. From May 1st to July 17th the Philadelphia and Pittsburgh clubs occupied positions in the first division, and the Cleveland club was in the first division from April 22d to June 27th and from July 17th to the finish, while New York was in the same division from June 29th to the close and Brooklyn from August 27th to the end of the season. On the other hand, Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati, together with Washington and Louisville, were practically out of the race from May to September.

The April campaign finished with St. Louis, Cleveland and Boston tied for first place in the race, with Philadelphia, Baltimore and Cincinnati following. Boston and Baltimore's occupancy of fourth and fifth places being the lowest each occupied during the entire season's campaign, while Cincinnati's position, tied for that of first in the race on April 20th, was the highest that club reached from April 19th to September 30th; St. Louis, as tied for first place, together with Louisville on April 20th, was the highest these three clubs reached. Baltimore was the first to reach the leading place in the race, that club being first, with the percentage figures of 1.000, on April 24th; St. Louis occupying the lead on April 28th; Cleveland on May 2d, that club occupying the leading place from that date to May 28th, when Pittsburgh jumped into first place for a short time. Boston occupied the lead for the first time on April 26th. The nearest New York got to the leading position was on April 19th, when the club was tied for first place with Boston, St. Louis and Washington. The highest position the "Phillies" reached in the pennant campaign was second place, which they occupied on May 23d. Brooklyn's highest position was reached on June 22d, when that club occupied third place. Chicago's highest was eighth place, and the only clubs which stood in the last ditch were Chicago, up to May 10th; Washington, from May to August 15th, and afterwards Louisville up to the finish of the season.

For the first time in the annals of the League, but one western club occupied a position in the first division as early in the season as July 2d, when the Pittsburgh club stood fourth in the race, following Baltimore, Boston and Brooklyn, being followed by Philadelphia and New York, Cleveland at that date being in the second division. On July 17th Cleveland replaced Brooklyn in the first division, and remained there to the finish of the race. Pittsburgh was driven into the ranks of the second division on August 21st, and failed to get back again. Baltimore had the pennant virtually in hand in August, and New York drove Boston out of the second place on September 6th, the percentage figures of the three leaders on that day showing Baltimore to be in the van with .676, New York .652, and Boston .646; with the "Phillies" fourth, the Brooklyns fifth and the Clevelands sixth, these relative positions not afterwards being changed. Neither were those of the clubs in the second division at that date, except in the case of the Cincinnati and St. Louis clubs, the team under the Boss Manager, Chris Von der Ahe beating the Brush-Comiskey combination team of Cincinnati out the very last day of the race, greatly to the disgust of the Cincinnati cranks.

A great disappointment to the Louisville cranks, whose pet club started the season with a picked team of star players, containing three ex-captains of League teams, in Pfeffer, D. Richardson and Tom Brown—was the sad falling off of that club from the position of being tied for first place with Baltimore and Boston in April, to a permanent place in the last ditch in August, a result which relieved Manager Schmelz considerably, as up to August 22nd Washington had occupied the tail end position in the race from July 9th to August 23d. Similar bad management of a club team had retired Pittsburgh from second position, on June 8th, to seventh place, on July 2d, and it was only through a wise change of managers that the club was able to retain the lead in the second division to the end of the campaign.

An incident of the campaign of 1894 was the disastrous start in the race made by the Chicago club, which occupied the tail end position in the race at the close of the April campaign and remained in the last ditch up to May 11th, after which the club gradually passed the Washington, Louisville, Cincinnati and St, Louis teams, finally occupying eighth position the last of September. The pennant race of 1894, as a whole, was a decided failure as far as an evenly contested race was concerned, the only exception in the way of an exciting struggle for the lead being that between the three leaders from July 5th to September 30th, this being the one redeeming feature of the League championship campaign of 1894.



The Contests for the Pennant in 1894.

Not since 1890 has a new candidate for League championship been successful in winning the pennant, but in 1894 another club was added to the list of League pennant winners, the interest in the annual races, of course, being thereby proportionately increased. In 1876, when the League was organized, Chicago was the first city to win League championship honors, and in 1877 Boston entered the arena of pennant winners. Next came Providence in 1879, after which a whole decade of League seasons passed without a new pennant winner being added to the above two, Detroit winning in 1887 for the first time. Next came New York in 1888, followed by Brooklyn in 1890, and now Baltimore has entered the contest arena of champion clubs, that city winning the honors in 1894. During the intervals of this period of nineteen years of League championship campaigns the Boston and Chicago clubs won the majority of pennant races; Boston carrying off the flag during the seasons of 1877, 1878, 1883, 1891, 1892 and 1893, and Chicago winning in 1876, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1885 and 1886, this latter club being the only one to win the pennant in three successive years, from 1876 to 1890 inclusive, the Bostons not being three time winners until the seasons of 1891, 1892 and 1893. That club, however, is the only one to win the championship in four successive seasons—outside of the League—since the professional championship was inaugurated in 1871, the Bostons afterwards winning in 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875. There are now in the League eight clubs out of the twelve which have yet to win a single pennant race, viz., the Philadelphia and Washington clubs of the Eastern divisions, and all six of the Western clubs. There are also but four clubs now in the League which have never reached higher than second position since the League was organized, viz., Louisville, 1877—that club's earned title to first place having been lost by the crookedness of four of its team of that year—Cincinnati in 1878, Philadelphia in 1887 and Pittsburgh in 1893, while there are two clubs now in the League which have never reached higher than third place, viz., St. Louis in 1876, and Cleveland in 1880 and 1893. The only aspirant for a position in League pennant races higher than fourth place at the close of the season now in the League is the Washington club; so there is plenty of room to win honors in 1895 if only in getting in among the six leaders by October next.



The Three Leading Clubs in the Pennant Race of 1894.

It is about time that the record of the championship campaigns of each year should be divided up, in order that the leading minority of the competing teams may be awarded the additional credit due them for obtaining positions of special distinction during each season; beginning, of course, with the winner of the pennant, and followed by the occupants of second and third positions with the three other clubs of the first division ranking in due order. By thus extending the list of honorary positions in the race an additional incentive for making extra efforts toward the close of the race is given to each one of the twelve clubs of the League at large. Thus, in the early part of the championship campaign, if two or three clubs find themselves hopelessly contending for the pennant itself, there will still be left over those of the other two honorary places in the race, viz., second and third positions, to compete for; and failing to achieve success to that extent, there will be one or other of the last three places in the first division to strive for. This opens the door to win other creditable places in the season's race to be fought for by the six clubs of the second division, instead of their losing heart in the contest, simply because, by the end of the May or June campaign, they are left without a chance of winning the pennant. It would seem to be, from this view of the case, an object of special interest for the League to award a series of honorary prizes to the players of each team attaining one or other of the three leading positions in the race of each year, in the proportion, we will say, of $3,000 for the first place, $2,000 for second and $1,000 for third. In the future the GUIDE will give special prominence, in its statistical records, to the clubs attaining second and third positions; in the race, leaving a less detailed record to the other nine clubs entering the campaign for championship honors, this change beginning with the GUIDE of 1895. We now present first in order the complete record of the Baltimore champions of 1894:



The Campaigns of the Three Leaders and of the First Division Clubs for 1894.

An interesting statistical chapter of the GUIDE of 1895 includes the comparative tables of the three leaders in the pennant race of 1894, viz., those of the Baltimore, New York and Boston clubs, the struggle between these three clubs being a decidedly attractive feature of the past season's championship campaign. The season opened on April 19th, and the close of the first day's play saw the Boston and New York clubs tied for first place, with Baltimore tied with four other clubs for second place, only eight of the twelve clubs playing on that day. By the end of the first month's campaign, on April 30th, Boston had dropped to third position; Baltimore to fifth place and New York down to ninth in the race. On May 31st, the close of the second month's campaign, Baltimore led Boston, being then in third position, and Boston in fourth, New York having pulled up to sixth place. On June 2d Baltimore jumped to first place, with Boston fifth and New York seventh. By June 9th the Bostons had got up to second place, but New York was still in the second division, Baltimore, of course, still leading in the race on that date. At the end of the third month of the season's campaign, on June 30th, Baltimore held the lead, with the percentage of victories of .712, with Boston second, having .667 in percentage figures, while New York had got back into the first division again with the figures of .564. On July 5th the "Giants" had worked up to third place, preceded by Baltimore and Boston, each with the percentage figures respectively of .679, .672 and .593, it being a close fight at this time between Baltimore and Boston, while New York was close behind. From July 5th to the finish these three clubs occupied the three leading positions in the race, the others being virtually "not in it," as far as winning the pennant was concerned. This fact alone made the pennant race of 1894 a very one-sided one, as nearly three months of the season's games remained to be played. At the end of the July campaign the record showed Boston in the van, with the percentage figures of .659, to Baltimore's .618 and New York's .613, Boston having taken the lead from Baltimore on July 24th, It was just about this time that Boston stock on the racing market was above par, it being fully expected at this time that the best the Baltimores would be likely to accomplish would be to retain second place, while New Yorkers were sanguine at this period of the contest that the "Giants" would soon lead Baltimore. The Boston champions retained first position up to July 30th, while New York tried in vain to push Baltimore out of second place. By, the close of the August campaign the Baltimores, by a brilliant rally, had replaced Boston in the lead, the record on August 31st showing Baltimore in the van with the percentage figures of .657, followed by Boston with .645, and New York close to the champions with .639. Now came a grand fight for second place on the part of New York, the Bostons, from this time to the finish failing to make the accustomed final rally which their friends had anticipated. On September 6th New York ousted Boston out of second place, at which date Baltimore led with the percentage figures of .676, followed by New York with .652, Boston's figures being .646; the rest of the clubs in the first division at that time being in the five hundreds only in percentage figures. Boston got down to .632 on September 19th, New York being then credited with .667 and Baltimore "way up" with .692. It was now Baltimore's race and New York was regarded as a fixture for second position, there being a difference in percentage points between Baltimore and Boston of no less, than 62 points on September 22d; New York then being behind Baltimore 39 points and ahead of Boston 24 points; in fact, a week before the finish, on September 30th, the positions of the three leaders were fixtures, the only interest left remaining being the struggle between Philadelphia, Brooklyn and Cleveland for fourth place. As before remarked, the chief interest in the September campaign was the expectation on the part of the majority of the patrons of the game that the Bostons would rally towards the finish and that the Baltimores would fall off during the last week or two; instead, however, it was the Boston champions who failed to play up to their old mark, while it was the Baltimores who did the rallying, and in fine style, too, under the leadership of the champion manager of the campaign of 1894.



The New Champions of 1894.

The Baltimore Club's Career.

We have the pleasure of greeting a new champion club in the League arena in the GUIDE of 1895, viz., the Baltimore club, and it is therefore a point of interest to give a brief resume of its career from the time it entered the defunct American Association in 1882 to the date of its being taken into the reconstructed National League in 1892. The Baltimore club's career in the late American Association was one thing; that of its progress since the club was taken into the National League is altogether quite a different matter. From 1882, the year of the organizing of the old American Association, up to the period of its secession from the National Agreement ranks in 1891, the Baltimore club occupied the position of being the occupant of the "last ditch" in the Association's pennant races for no less than four years, viz., in 1882, 1883, 1885 and 1886. In 1884, when twelve clubs were in the Association race of that year, the highest the Baltimore club reached was sixth position. In 1888, 1889 and 1890, the club got no higher than fifth place in the three races of those years; while the nearest it could get to first place during the decade of the eighties was in 1887, when it ended in third place, being led by St. Louis and Cincinnati. During all that period William Barnie was the club's manager. In 1892 he was superseded by Manager Hanlon; and from that date to the close of the past season, the club began to get out of its previous "slough of despond," induced by its repeated failures to win a pennant race.

Here is the club's record while in the American Association, from 1882 to 1890, inclusive, showing the positions occupied in the several pennant races of that period:

——————————————————————————— NUMBER OF CLUBS YEAR. POSITION. IN THE RACE. ——————————————————————————— 1882 Sixth (last ditch) Six. 1883 Eighth " Eight. 1884 Sixth. Twelve. 1885 Eighth (last ditch) Eight. 1886 Eighth " Eight. 1887 Third. Eight. 1888 Fifth. Eight. 1889 Fifth. Eight. 1890 Fifth. Eight. ———————————————————————————

In 1891 the Cincinnati club was ahead of the Baltimores when the former was transferred to Milwaukee, after which the "Reds" broke badly, and the Baltimores were thus enabled to get into third place. The wretched management of the Association during the year was costly in demoralization to every club in the race. Up to the date of the Cincinnati transfer, that club stood with a percentage of .619, to Baltimore's .526. During the season of 1892 the Baltimore club occupied an experimental position in the race of that year, Manager Hanlon not joining the club in 1892 until too late to get a good team together. They began the campaign of 1893 low down in the race record, but they finally pulled up among the six leaders, beating out Brooklyn in the race by 10 games to 2, as well as St. Louis, Louisville and Cleveland; but they were so badly beaten by Boston-2 games to 10-and by Pittsburgh—1 game to 11-that they finished in eighth place only. That season's experience enabled Manager Hanlon to prepare for 1894 with a better chance of success than he had had since he took the club in hand, and the effect of the improved management was made apparent before the May campaign of 1894 had ended, his team closing that month one among the three leaders. From that position the club was not afterwards removed, the team first heading the Bostons and finally taking the lead in the race, the New Yorks coming in second, ahead of the previous three-time champion club of Boston.

THE BALTIMORE CLUB'S RECORD.

Under the heading of "The Three Leaders in the Race," will be found the record of the monthly campaigns of the Baltimores and the progress made by Hanlon's team from the start to the finish in the race of 1894. We now give the detailed record of the season's campaign of the Baltimores in full.

Here is the record of the club's victories, defeats, games played and drawn, and the percentage of victories made against each individual club, as well as the grand percentage against all of the eleven opposed to the Baltimores:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L l a C i S i o N a B s l t t n u e d r h e t C . c i BALTIMORE w B e o i v s h i s o l o n e b i L n v vs. Y s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l k n a n n d h o s i e Grand Totals Total Total —————————————————————————————————————— Victories 6 4 6 8 11 35 9 6 9 10 10 10 54 89 Defeats 6 8 4 4 1 23 8 4 2 2 2 2 16 39 Games played 12 12 10 12 12 58 12 10 12 12 12 12 70 128 Drawn games 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Per cent. of Victories .500.333.400.667.917 .603 .750.600.750.833.833.833 .771 .695 —————————————————————————————————————-

It will be seen that the "Orioles," under Hanlon, did the pennant winning business up in style in 1894. Of the six Eastern clubs in the race, they tied the New York "Giants," had the best of the unfinished series with the "Phillies," took the Brooklyns into camp without difficulty, had almost a walkover with the Washingtons, and found the Boston champions the only club that got the best of them in the five series played against their Eastern adversaries, their percentage of victories against the Bostons being only .333, while their figures against the Washingtons were as high as .917. Against their six Western opponents, the Baltimores almost wiped out the St. Louis, Cincinnati and Louisville teams, each of these clubs winning but two games out of the twelve played with the "Orioles," while the best each of the Cleveland and Chicago teams could do was to win three of the twelve, the Pittsburgh "Pirates" being the only Western team to trouble them, their series with that club being unfinished, with a credit of but four victories to Pittsburgh's six. Only one game was drawn, and that with the "Phillies."

The additional details of the record follows:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L l a C i S i o N a B s l t t n u e d r h e t C . c i BALTIMORE w B e o i v s h i s o l o n e b i L n v vs. Y s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l k n a n n d h o s i e Grand Totals Total Total —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 5 7 Series lost 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Series tied 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Series unfinished 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 "Chicago" victories 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 "Chicago" defeats 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 Won by 1 run 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 3 2 2 9 11 Lost by 1 run 1 1 1 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 1 0 4 7 Single figure victories 2 1 2 4 3 12 6 1 2 7 5 7 28 40 Single figure defeats 5 3 2 1 0 11 1 3 1 0 1 1 7 18 Double figure victories 4 3 4 4 8 23 3 5 8 3 5 2 26 49 Double figure defeats 1 5 2 3 1 12 2 1 2 2 1 1 9 21 Home victories 5 1 4 5 5 20 6 4 7 8 6 6 37 57 Home defeats 1 4 2 2 1 10 1 1 0 1 0 0 3 13 Victories abroad 1 2 3 3 6 15 3 2 2 2 4 4 17 32 Defeats abroad 5 4 2 2 0 13 2 3 3 1 2 2 13 26 —————————————————————————————————————-

It will be seen that the Baltimores "shut out" but one Eastern team and not a single Western opponent, while they themselves were "Chicagoed" once by each, viz., by New York and Louisville, the tail ender's "shut out" being annoying. Only two of their contests with the Eastern teams were won by a single run, but they won three games against the Eastern teams by one run. They lost seven games by a single run, three of them in the East and four against Western adversaries. No less than forty of their games were won by single figure scores, viz., 12 against Eastern teams and 28 against Western opponents. They lost a total of but 18 single figure games. Their double figure victories were no less than 49, against but 21 double figure defeats. They won 57 home victories against 32 abroad, the defeats being 18 at home to 26 abroad. Take it all in all, the Baltimores did splendid work in the box, the field and at the bat, the only drawback to their creditable season's campaign being too much kicking and rowdy ball playing, in the latter of which McGraw was the principal offender.

The Records of the New York and Boston Clubs of 1894.

The New York club's team entered the campaign of 1894 decidedly handicapped. The club had excellent material at command wherewith to make up a strong team; but the manager had great difficulty at first in getting it into team work condition, he being hampered by the interference of the class of scribe managers of League cities who are very confident of their ability to run a club team better, on paper, than the actual manager can on the field. Then, too, a minority of these journalists seem to delight in getting up sensations which lead to discord in the ranks of a team; as they have their pet players on the teams, as well as those they have a special grudge against; moreover, the directors of the club were at times, in the early part of the season, not in accord with the manager in his methods of selecting players, and in appointing them to special positions. Finally the experience of April and May taught the club officials that if much more of the interference racket was continued, the result would be a permanent place in the second division, inasmuch as on May 24th, the club stood no higher than eighth place, with but little likelihood at that time of getting any higher. By June, however, an improved condition of affairs in running the team was manifested; the scribe managers were ignored, the manager was given more control of the team, and by the close of the June campaign the New York club was in the first division, and by the end of July were among the three leaders, where they remained until the end of the race.

The club was fortunate in being able to make its team unusually strong in its battery players. The very profitable and liberal investment made by Director Wheeler, in the purchase of the release of Meekin and Farrell, was a potent factor in enabling the club to reach the high position it did, both of these model players, in their respective positions, proving to be a great accession to the strength of the club's team. Another valuable acquisition to their team was that noted college player, young Murphy, he proving to be the most valuable utility man in the club, and an equal of Ward in team-work batting. By the closing month of the campaign the team had been trained up to the point of working together in more harmony, besides doing better team-work in their batting than any previous players of the club had ever before exhibited. Moreover, the team, during 1894, manifested greater rallying power at the finish in a game than ever before, they fully equaling the Bostons in this respect; in fact, this past season they excelled the champions in securing the lead in the latter part of a contest, a very important factor in winning pennants. THE NEW YORK CLUB'S RECORD.

The record of the club for 1894 giving the victories and defeats scored, with the total of games played, and the percentage of victories against each club is as follows:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a a B s l t t n u l d r h e t C . c i NEW YORK t B e o i v s h i s i o l o n e b i L n v vs. m s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l e n a n n d h o s i e Totals Totals —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 6 6 5 7 10 34 9 8 11 7 7 12 54 Defeats 6 6 7 5 10 26 3 4 1 5 5 0 18 Games Played 12 12 12 12 12 60 12 12 12 12 12 12 72 Per cent. of Victories .500 .500 .417 .583 .833 .567 .750 .667 .917 .583 .583 1.00 .750 —————————————————————————————————————-

The above record shows that the "Giants" defeated Brooklyn and Washington in the Eastern series of games, and tied with Boston and Baltimore, they losing to the "Phillies" only. Against the Western clubs they won every series, excelling both Baltimore and Boston in this latter respect, as the Baltimores failed to get the best of the Pittsburghs, and the Bostons were tied with the St. Louis. Then, too, the "Giants" excelled the other two leading clubs in shutting out Louisville in no less than thirteen successive games, one game being thrown out. In addition they took Anson's "Colts" into camp in eleven out of twelve games, and defeated the Washingtons in ten games out of the twelve of the series.

The record of the series of games won, lost, tied and unfinished, together with that of the "Chicago" victories and defeats, and the single and double figure games of the New York and Boston clubs is as follows:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a a B s l t t n u l d r h e t C . c i NEW YORK t B e o i v s h i s i o l o n e b i L n v vs. m s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l e n a n n d h o s i e Grand Totals Totals Totals —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 8 Series lost 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Series tied 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Series unfinished 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 "Chicago" victories 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 4 5 "Chicago" defeats 0 2 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 Single figure victories 5 4 2 3 7 21 7 7 8 5 4 7 38 59 Single figure defeats 2 4 4 2 1 13 1 1 0 5 5 0 12 25 Double figure victories 1 2 3 4 3 13 2 1 3 2 3 5 16 29 Double figure defeats 4 2 3 3 1 13 2 3 1 0 0 0 6 19 —————————————————————————————————————-

The foregoing table shows that the New York club won eight out of the eleven series, they losing but one—that with Philadelphia -and tieing two, one with Baltimore and one with Boston. In "Chicago" games they won five and lost four, and in single figure games they won 59 and lost but 25, while in double figure games they won 29 only and lost but 19.

THE BOSTON CLUB'S RECORD.

The Boston club, in 1894, after being League pennant winners three years in succession, was obliged to fall back to third place in the past year's pennant race, after a hard fight for first place in the race from April to September, that club standing in first place on April 26th and also on the 29th of August, they varying their position but little during that period. Hitherto, in the races of 1891, '92 and '93, the Bostons were noted for their rallying powers, not only in the latter part of a game, but especially in the closing month of each season. It will be remembered, that in 1892, though they had to succumb to Cleveland in the last part of the divided campaign of that year, they rallied handsomely and easily won the championship in the world's series of that year. This year, however, they went back on their record badly, in failing to attend to the rallying business in the last month of the campaign, the result being that they not only lost the pennant, but had to submit to being forced into third place in the race. The question as to "why this was thusly" is not easy to answer. It may be said, for one thing, that the loss of the valuable services of the veteran Bennett, was one drawback to their success, and the failure of a majority of their pitchers, another; their only really successful "battery" team being Nichols and Ganzel. Then, too, they lost ground in playing, as well as in popularity, by the kicking and noisy coaching profanities of a minority of their team; that kind of "hustling" in a team having become played out as a winning factor in the game in 1894. It must not be forgotten, however, that the Boston club, in 1894, encountered stronger teams in New York and Baltimore than ever before; moreover, they were troubled considerably by the strong opposition of the St. Louis club's team, the only club to score three straight victories from them during the season. That the club had the material to do better than they did, goes without saying; it was a failure in its running that did the business, chiefly.

Here is the record of the victories, defeats, games played, and percentage of victories against each club for the past season of 1894:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a N a B s l t t n u l e d r h e t C . c i BOSTON t w e o i v s h i s i l o n e b i L n v vs. m Y p k g l u c o n i o o h l t a r a u a l r r i y o n g g i t l e k a n n d h o s i e Totals Totals —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 8 6 6 6 9 35 9 8 7 6 8 10 48 Defeats 4 6 6 6 3 25 3 4 5 6 4 2 24 Games Played 12 12 12 12 12 60 12 12 12 12 12 12 72 Per cent. of Victories .667 .500 .500 .500 .250 .583 .250 .667 .583 .500 .667 .833 .667 —————————————————————————————————————-

The Bostons, in 1894, took the Baltimore and Washington teams into camp without difficulty, but the best they could do against New York, Philadelphia and Brooklyn, was to tie each series. Against the Western clubs, it will be seen, the only club that troubled them was the St. Louis Browns. Four series tied out of the eleven they played was an unusual record for the ex-champions. In victories, they did better against the West than against the East, by 48 victories to 35; in defeats, however, the result was more even, viz., 25 to 24.

The following is the club's record of series won, lost, tied and unfinished, together with the "Chicago" victories and defeats, and the single and double figure victories and defeats scored by the club in 1894:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a N a B s l t t n u l e d r h e t C . c i BOSTON t w e o i v s h i s i l o n e b i L n v vs. m Y p k g l u c o n i o o h l t a r a u a l r r i y o n g g i t l e k a n n d h o s i e Grand Totals Totals Totals —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 5 7 Series lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Series tied 0 1 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 Series unfinished 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 "Chicago" victories 0 2 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 "Chicago" defeats 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Single figure victories 4 4 4 3 0 15 2 7 2 0 3 5 19 34 Single figure defeats 1 4 1 3 2 11 1 1 1 5 2 1 11 22 Double figure victories 4 2 2 3 9 20 7 1 5 6 5 5 29 49 Double figure defeats 3 2 5 3 1 14 2 3 4 1 2 1 13 27 —————————————————————————————————————-

The club won but seven of the eleven series played in 1894, though they did not lose a series, no less than four being tied. In "Chicago" games they won but 3, but did not lose a single game by a "shut out." By way of comparison, we give below the records of the same three clubs in 1893, when the three leaders in the race were Boston. Pittsburgh and Cleveland, and the three leaders of the Eastern teams were Boston, Philadelphia and New York, the Baltimores that year being eighth only. Singularly enough, all three clubs did better against their Eastern confreres in 1893 than against the Western clubs.

Here are the three club records of 1893

RECORDS OF 1893.

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a N a B s l t t n u l e d r h e t C . c i BOSTON t w e o i v s h i s i l o n e b i L n v vs. m Y p k g l u c o n i o o h l t a r a u a l r r i y o n g g i t l e k a n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 10 8 8 8 7 41 7 4 8 10 6 10 45 Defeats 2 4 4 4 5 19 5 6 3 2 6 2 24 Games played 12 12 12 12 12 60 12 10 11 12 12 12 72 Per cent. of Victories .853 .667 .667 .667 .583 .680 .583 .400 .727 .833 .500 .833 .652 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a a B s l t t n u l d r h e t C . c i NEW YORK t B e o i v s h i s i o l o n e b i L n v vs. m s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l e n a n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 8 4 7 6 7 32 6 4 5 8 6 7 36 Defeats 4 8 5 6 5 28 6 8 7 4 6 5 36 Games played 12 12 12 12 12 60 12 12 12 12 12 12 72 Per cent. of Victories .667 .333 .583 .500 .583 .533 .500 .333 .417 .667 .500 .417 .500 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L l a C i S i o N a B s l t t n u e d r h e t C . c i BALTIMORE w B e o i v s h i s o l o n e b i L n v vs. Y s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l k n a n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 4 2 5 10 7 28 8 1 5 9 4 5 32 Defeats 8 10 7 2 5 32 4 11 7 3 8 5 38 Games played 12 12 12 12 12 60 12 12 12 12 12 10 70 Per cent. of Victories .383 .167 .417 .833 .583 .467 .667 .083 .417 .750 .333 .560 .475 —————————————————————————————————————-

To show what the new rivals—the New York and Baltimore clubs—did in the two past seasons combined, we give the figures of the double records of 1893 and 1894:

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a a B s l t t n u l d r h e t C . c i NEW YORK t B e o i v s h i s i o l o n e b i L n v vs. m s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l e n a n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 14 10 12 13 17 66 15 12 16 13 15 19 90 Defeats 10 14 12 11 7 51 9 12 8 11 9 5 54 Games played 24 24 24 24 24 120 24 24 24 24 24 24 144 Per cent. of Victories .383 .417 .500 .542 .708 .550 .625 .500 .667 .542 .625 .792 .625 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L l a C i S i o N a B s l t t n u e d r h e t C . c i BALTIMORE w B e o i v s h i s o l o n e b i L n v vs. Y s p k g l u c o n i o t h l t a r a u a l r o i y o n g g i t l k n a n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 10 6 11 18 18 63 17 7 14 14 18 15 85 Defeats 14 18 11 6 6 55 7 15 10 10 5 7 54 Games played 24 24 22 24 24 118 24 22 24 24 23 22 139 Per cent. of Victories .417 .250 .500 .750 .534 .708 .708 .318 .583 .583 .783 .682 .612 —————————————————————————————————————-

In this combined record New York leads Baltimore, the poor season's work of 1893 by the Baltimores more than offsetting the honors they won in 1894.



The Campaigns of the Other Nine Clubs of 1894.

THE PHILADELPHIA CLUB'S CAMPAIGN.

At the end of the first day's contests, on April 19th, four clubs were tied for first place as victors, and four others were tied next in order as losers, the third four of the twelve clubs of the League not playing until the 20th of April. At the end of the first week's play in the April campaign the "Phillies" stood fourth in the race, they being headed by Boston, Cleveland and St. Louis, respectively, and followed by Baltimore and Cincinnati, all of which six clubs were in the first division, the Pittsburgh, New York, Louisville, Washington, Brooklyn and Chicago following in order in the second division; the difference in percentage figures between the leader and tail ender being 833 points, as the Chicago team had not then won a single game out of six played, and the Brooklyns but one, while the "Phillies" had won 5 out of 7, they starting off well, Boston, Cleveland and St. Louis having won 5 out of 6 played. By the end of the April campaign the "Phillies" stood in fourth place, being led by St. Louis, Cleveland and Boston, the other first division clubs being Baltimore and Cincinnati. During the May campaign the "Phillies" fluctuated between fifth place on May 9th up to second position on May 16th, finally finishing the May campaign a poor fifth on May 31st, with Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Baltimore and Boston in advance of them, and New York close at their heels. In June the "Phillies" began to do a little better, and by June 18th, they had pulled up to second place, with Baltimore in the van and Boston close behind the "Quakers." Then once more they fell back in the race, the close of the June campaign seeing them in fifth place, and in the rear of Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn and Pittsburgh, with New York within a few points of them. During July this "up-hill and down-dale" method of racing was continued until July 23d, when they were driven into the ranks of the second division clubs, they occupying seventh place on that date, the end of the July campaign seeing the team in seventh place, with a percentage of victories of .526, Boston, Baltimore, New York, Cleveland, Brooklyn and Pittsburgh being the six first division clubs. During the August campaign the "Phillies" got back into the first division ranks, and on the 21st of that month were in fourth place, which position they retained to the end of that month's campaign. They tried in vain to get higher, but could not do so, and on the last day of the season they stood a bad fourth, the next club above them leading them by 75 points in percentage figures, and by eleven games.

The following is the Philadelphia club's record of victories and defeats scored, with the total number of games played, and the percentage of victories against each club, and also the record of the series won, lost, tied and unfinished, together with the "Chicago" victories and defeats, and the single and double figure victories and defeats scored by the club during 1894:

THE PHILADELPHIA CLUB'S RECORD.

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. W P C L B a C i S i o a N B s l t t n u l e r h e t C . c i PHILADELPHIA t w B o i v s h i s i o o n e b i L n v vs. m Y s k g l u c o n i o o t l t a r a u a l r r o y o n g g i t l e k n n n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 4 7 6 7 8 32 5 8 5 5 8 8 39 Defeats 6 5 6 5 4 26 7 4 7 7 2 3 30 Games played 10 12 12 12 12 58 12 12 12 12 10 11 69 Per cent. of Victories .400 .583 .500 .583 .667 .552 .417 .667 .417 .417 .800 .727 .585 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS.

W P C L B a C i S i o a N B s l t t n u l e r h e t C . c i PHILADELPHIA t w B o i v s h i s i o o n e b i L n v vs. m Y s k g l u c o n i o o t l t a r a u a l r r o y o n g g i t l e k n n n d h o s i e Grand Totals Totals Totals —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 6 Series lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 3 3 Series tied 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Series unfinished 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 "Chicago" victories 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 3 3 "Chicago" defeats 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Single figure victories 2 4 3 3 3 15 3 3 1 2 2 2 13 28 Single figure defeats 2 2 5 5 3 12 2 3 0 3 3 0 10 22 Double figure victories 2 3 3 4 5 17 2 5 4 3 6 6 26 43 Double figure defeats 4 3 1 0 1 8 5 1 7 4 2 3 22 30 —————————————————————————————————————-

The above table shows that the Philadelphia team in their games with their Eastern opponents had but little difficulty in defeating the Washingtons, besides getting the best of both New York and Brooklyn in the race. But they lost to Baltimore and tied with Boston. With the Western teams they did not do so well, as they only won three out of the six series, they winning easily with Cincinnati by 8 to 2 in won games, while they had but little difficulty with Louisville and Pittsburgh. They lost with Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis by 5 to 7 each in won games.



THE BROOKLYN CLUB'S CAMPAIGN.

The Brooklyn club opened the season's campaign on April 19th, and at the close of the first day's play, stood tied with Baltimore, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh for fifth place, they standing as low as eleventh position on April 23d. During the May campaign they made but little headway in the race, as, up to May 22d they had got no higher than seventh place. After that they got into the first division for a few days, but at the end of the May campaign they were tied with New York for sixth place; Pittsburgh, on May 31st, being in the van, with Cleveland and Baltimore second and third, Pittsburgh's percentage figures being .710 at this date; the "Orioles" being followed by Boston and Philadelphia. The Brooklyns began the June campaign by leading New York and taking up a position in the first division, occupying sixth place, next to Boston, then in fifth position. By June 19th they had reached fourth place, and they closed their June campaign in third position, Baltimore leading, with Boston second. During the early part of July the Brooklyns fell back to sixth place, and the "Giants" jumped into third position. On July 31st the Brooklyns stood fifth only, and they began falling lower the first week in August, and on the fourth of that month were back in the second division ranks, and after that date "the subsequent proceedings interested them no more," as far as the three leading positions were concerned. They remained in seventh place up to August 21st when they got back into the first division, and on August 31st they were in fifth place. During September there was a close fight between Cleveland and Brooklyn for that position, but finally the Brooklyns retained it at the finish by the percentage figures of .534 to .527, a lead of but seven points. The Brooklyn team made but a poor record against their Eastern team rivals in 1894, but were more successful against the Western clubs. They won but one series in the East, and that was against the tail-end Washingtons, Baltimore, New York and Philadelphia beating them out in the race, while they tied the Bostons. Against the Western clubs they won in three series; tied with two others, and had the series with Cleveland, but they only won four series out of the eleven.

The following tables show the Brooklyn club's record of victories and defeats scored, with the total number of games played and the percentage of victories against each club; also, the record of the series won, lost, tied and unfinished, together with the "Chicago" victories and defeats, and the single and double figure victories and defeats scored by the club during the season of 1894:

THE BROOKLYN CLUB'S RECORD.

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a N a s l t t n u l e d h e t C . c i BROOKLYN t w B e i v s h i s i o l n e b i L n v vs. m Y s p g l u c o n i o o t h t a r a u a l r r o i o n g g i t l e k n a n d h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 4 5 6 5 9 29 6 7 6 8 6 8 41 Defeats 8 7 6 7 3 31 5 5 6 4 6 4 30 Games Played 12 12 12 12 12 60 11 12 12 12 12 12 71 Per cent. of Victories .388 .417 .500 .452 .750 .483 .545 .583 .500 .667 .509 .667 .577 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS WESTERN CLUBS P h i W P C L B l a C i S i o a N a s l t t n u l e d h e t C . c i BROOKLYN t w B e i v s h i s i o l n e b i L n v vs. m Y s p g l u c o n i o o t h t a r a u a l r r o i o n g g i t l e k n a n d h o s i e Grand Total Total Total —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 4 Series lost 1 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Series tied 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 3 Series unfinished 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 "Chicago" victories 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3 "Chicago" defeats 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 Single figure victories 1 2 3 5 3 14 4 3 5 3 1 4 20 34 Single figure defeats 3 3 4 3 1 14 2 2 2 3 3 1 13 27 Double figure victories 3 3 3 0 6 15 2 4 1 5 5 4 21 36 Double figure defeats 5 4 2 4 2 17 3 3 4 1 3 3 18 35 —————————————————————————————————————-



THE CLEVELAND CLUB'S CAMPAIGN.

The Cleveland club did not begin their opening campaign until April 20th, and then in the ranks of the second division; but they soon, jumped to the front, and by the end of the April campaign they stood a tie for first place with Boston and St. Louis, with the percentage figures of .750 each. They opened the May campaign by pushing Boston out of first place, and they retained the leading position from May 2d to the 28th, they reaching the high percentage of .867 on May 10th—the highest of the season. On Decoration Day Pittsburgh went to the front, with the percentage of .700 to Cleveland's .692, and they retained that position to the close of the May campaign. During June the Clevelands fell off, and by the 21st of that month they had got down to fifth place in the race, and by the end of the June campaign had been driven into the ranks of the second division, they then occupying seventh place with a percentage of .549; Pittsburgh, on June 30th, being the only Western team in the first division. This fact alone showed a one-sided race up to that date.

The Clevelands did not get back into the first division until July 17th, and after that they never left it. During August they battled well for third place, but could get no higher than fourth position, where they stood up to August 21st, when they began to fall off, and on August 31st they were down to sixth place. This position they were forced to keep all through September up to the finish of the race.

The Cleveland team managed to win two of their series with the Eastern clubs, viz., with Washington and Philadelphia, but were badly whipped by the three leaders; they managed, however, to make a close fight of it with their old antagonists of Brooklyn, the latter winning the series by a single game only.

With their Western rivals the Clevelands won every series but one, viz., that with the Pittsburgh club, thereby winning the championship of the West for 1894, as Boston did the championship of the East. Then, too, the Clevelands were the only Western club remaining in the first division at the close of the season; so they had some consolation in the race in excelling their Western rivals, all of whom they beat out in the race, even if they failed to win the pennant or to get among the three leaders in the race. Moreover, they excelled all the Western teams in team work in the field and at the bat, as they did the Brooklyns and Washingtons of the Eastern division.

Here is their record:

THE CLEVELAND CLUB'S RECORD. —————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS. WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a i S i o a N a B s t t n u l e d r h t C . c i CLEVELAND t w B e o i s h i s i o l o n b i L n v vs. m Y s p k g u c o n i o o t h l t r a u a l r r o i y o g g i t l e k n a n n h o s i e Totals Total —————————————————————————————————————- Victories 3 3 3 7 5 8 29 4 10 9 8 8 39 Defeats 9 9 9 5 6 4 42 8 2 3 3 3 19 Games Played 12 12 12 12 11 12 71 12 12 12 11 11 58 Per cent. of Victories .250 .250 .250 .583 .455 .667 .408 .333 .883 .750 .727 .727 .672 —————————————————————————————————————-

—————————————————————————————————————- EASTERN CLUBS WESTERN CLUBS. P h i W P C L B l a i S i o a N a B s t t n u l e d r h t C . c i CLEVELAND t w B e o i s h i s i o l o n b i L n v vs. m Y s p k g u c o n i o o t h l t r a u a l r r o i y o g g i t l e k n a n n h o s i e Grand Total Total Total —————————————————————————————————————- Series won 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 4 6 Series lost 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 Series tied 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Series unfinished 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 "Chicago" victories 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 3 1 1 5 7 "Chicago" defeats 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 Single figure victories 1 1 1 2 3 4 12 3 7 7 4 6 27 39 Single figure defeats 6 7 2 3 4 4 26 5 1 1 2 1 10 36 Double figure victories 2 2 2 5 2 4 17 1 3 2 4 2 12 29 Double figure defeats 3 2 7 2 2 0 16 3 1 2 1 2 9 25 —————————————————————————————————————-



The Second Division Clubs.

THE PITTSBURGH CLUB'S CAMPAIGN.

The Pittsburgh club opened the April campaign in the ranks of the second division, the end of the month seeing the team in seventh place, three other Western teams leading them on April 30th. During May they got into the first division, and May 21st they were among the three leaders, with Cleveland and Baltimore first and second in the race. At the end of the May campaign they had rallied as well, and had pulled up to first place, with the percentage figures of .710 to Cleveland's .679 and Baltimore's .654, Boston, Philadelphia and New York being the next three. In June, the Pittsburghs fell off in the race, and by the 11th of that month they were down to fifth place, then pulled up again after touching sixth position, and on June 30th stood fourth, they then being headed by Baltimore, Boston and Brooklyn, with Philadelphia and New York in their rear. In July they fell off badly, and on the 20th of that month they had been driven out of the first division. At the end of the July campaign they stood sixth in the race. They got a step higher the early part of August, but the end of that month's campaign saw the club once more in the ranks of the second division, and they struggled in vain to get out of the company of the six tail-enders, the end of the race seeing the club in seventh place with the percentage figures of .500, Cleveland leading them by 27 points.

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