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Spalding's Official Baseball Guide - 1913
by John B. Foster
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SPALDING'S OFFICIAL ATHLETIC LIBRARY

BASEBALL GUIDE

1913

EDITED BY

JOHN B. FOSTER

PRICE 10 CENTS

PUBLISHED BY

AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING CO., 21 Warren Street, New York City.



[Advertisement]

AMERICA'S NATIONAL GAME

By A. G. SPALDING

PRICE, $2.00 NET

A book of 600 pages, profusely illustrated with over 100 full page engravings, and having sixteen forceful cartoons by Homer C. Davenport, the famous American artist.

The above work should have a place in every public library in this country, as also in the libraries of public schools and private houses.

The author of "America's National Game" is conceded, always, everywhere, and by everybody, to have the best equipment of any living writer to treat the subject that forms the text of this remarkable volume, viz., the story of the origin, development and evolution of Base Ball, the National Game of our country.

Almost from the very inception of the game until the present time—as player, manager and magnate—Mr. Spalding has been closely identified with its interests. Not infrequently he has been called upon in times of emergency to prevent threatened disaster. But for him the National Game would have been syndicated and controlled by elements whose interests were purely selfish and personal.

The book is a veritable repository of information concerning players, clubs and personalities connected with the game in its early days, and is written in a most interesting style, interspersed with enlivening anecdotes and accounts of events that have not heretofore been published.

The response on the part of the press and the public to Mr. Spalding's efforts to perpetuate the early history of the National Game has been very encouraging and he is in receipt of hundreds of letters and notices, a few of which are here given.

ROBERT ADAMSON, New York, writing from the office of Mayor Gaynor, says:—"Seeing the Giants play is my principal recreation and I am interested in reading everything I can find about the game. I especially enjoy what you [Mr. Spalding] have written, because you stand as the highest living authority on the game."

BARNEY DREYFUSS, owner of the Pittsburg National League club:—"It does honor to author as well as the game. I have enjoyed reading it very much."

WALTER CAMP, well known foot ball expert and athlete, says:—"It is indeed a remarkable work and one that I have read with a great deal of interest."

JOHN B. DAY, formerly President of the New York Nationals:—"Your wonderful work will outlast all of us."

W. IRVING SNYDER, formerly of the house of Peck & Snyder:—"I have read the book from cover to cover with great interest."

ANDREW PECK, formerly of the celebrated firm of Peck & Snyder:—"All base ball fans should read and see how the game was conducted in early years."

MELVILLE E. STONE, New York, General Manager Associated Press:—"I find it full of valuable information and very interesting. I prize it very highly."

GEORGE BARNARD, Chicago:—"Words fail to express my appreciation of the book. It carries me back to the early days of base ball and makes me feel like a young man again."

CHARLES W. MURPHY, President Chicago National League club:—"The book is a very valuable work and will become a part of every base ball library in the country."

JOHN F. MORILL, Boston, Mass., old time base ball star.—"I did not think it possible for one to become so interested in a book on base ball. I do not find anything in it which I can criticise."

RALPH D. PAINE, popular magazine writer and a leading authority on college sport:—"I have been reading the book with a great deal of interest. 'It fills a long felt want,' and you are a national benefactor for writing it."

GEN. FRED FUNSTON, hero of the Philippine war:—"I read the book with a great deal of pleasure and was much interested in seeing the account of base ball among the Asiatic whalers, which I had written for Harper's Round Table so many years ago."

DEWOLF HOPPER, celebrated operatic artist and comedian:—"Apart from the splendid history of the evolution of the game, it perpetuates the memories of the many men who so gloriously sustained it. It should be read by every lover of the sport."

HUGH NICOL, Director of Athletics, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.:—"No one that has read this book has appreciated it more than I. Ever since I have been big enough, I have been in professional base ball, and you can imagine how interesting the book is to me."

MRS. BRITTON, owner of the St. Louis Nationals, through her treasurer, H.D. Seekamp, writes:—"Mrs. Britton has been very much interested in the volume and has read with pleasure a number of chapters, gaining valuable information as to the history of the game."

REV. CHARLES H. PARKHURST, D.D., New York:—"Although I am not very much of a 'sport,' I nevertheless believe in sports, and just at the present time in base ball particularly. Perhaps if all the Giants had an opportunity to read the volume before the recent game (with the Athletics) they might not have been so grievously outdone."

BRUCE CARTWRIGHT, son of Alexander J. Cartwright, founder of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, the first organization of ball players in existence, writing from his home at Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, says:—"I have read the book with great interest and it is my opinion that no better history of base ball could have been written."

GEORGE W. FROST, San Diego, Calif.:—"You and 'Jim' White, George Wright, Barnes, McVey, O'Rourke, etc., were little gods to us back there in Boston in those days of '74 and '75, and I recall how indignant we were when you 'threw us down' for the Chicago contract. The book is splendid. I treasure it greatly."

A.J. REACH, Philadelphia, old time professional expert:—"It certainly is an interesting revelation of the national game from the time, years before it was so dignified, up to the present. Those who have played the game, or taken an interest in it in the past, those at present engaged in it, together with all who are to engage in it, have a rare treat in store."

DR. LUTHER H. GULICK, Russell Sage Foundation:—"Mr. Spalding has been the largest factor in guiding the development of the game and thus deserves to rank with other great men of the country who have contributed to its success. It would have added to the interest of the book if Mr. Spalding could have given us more of his own personal experiences, hopes and ambitions in connection with the game."

Pittsburg Press:—"Historical incidents abound and the book is an excellent authority on the famous sport."

Philadelphia Telegraph:—"In this book Mr. Spalding has written the most complete and authoritative story of base ball yet published."

New York Herald:—"If there is anyone in the country competent to write a book on base ball it is A.G. Spalding who has been interested in the game from its early beginnings."

I.E. Sanborn, Chicago Tribune:—"'America's National Game' has been added to the Tribune's sporting reference library as an invaluable contribution to the literature of the national pastime."

O.C. Reichard, Chicago Daily News:—"It is cleverly written and presents information and dates of great value to the newspaper man of to-day!"

George C. Rice, Chicago Journal:—"I have read the book through, and take pleasure in stating that it is a complete history of the game from the beginning until the present time."

Sherman R. Duffy, Sporting Editor Chicago Journal:—"It is a most interesting work and one for which there was need. It is the most valuable addition to base ball literature that has yet been put out."

Joseph H. Vila, New York Sun:—"I have read it carefully and with much interest. It is the best piece of base ball literature I have ever seen, and I congratulate you on the work."

Tim Murnane, Sporting Editor Boston Globe:—"You have given to the world a book of inestimable value, a classic in American history; a book that should be highly prized in every home library in the country."

Francis C. Richter, Editor Sporting Life, Philadelphia:—"From a purely literary standpoint, your work is to me amazing. Frankly, I would not change a line, for the reason that the story is told in a way to grip the reader and hold his interest continually."

Los Angeles Times (editorial):—"Spalding's book has been out six months and ninety thousand copies have been sold. We understand there will be other editions. America has taken base ball seriously for at last two generations, and it is time enough that the fad was given an adequate text book."

Caspar Whitney, Editor Outdoor America, and one of the leading authorities in the world on sport:—"You have made an invaluable contribution to the literature of the game, and one none else could have made. Moreover, you've done some very interesting writing, which is a distinct novelty in such books—too often dull and uninteresting."

New York World:—"Albert G. Spalding, who really grew up with the sport, has written 'America's National Game,' which he describes as not a history, but the simple story of the game as he has come to know it. His book, therefore, is full of living interest. It is a volume generously illustrated and abounds in personal memories of base ball in the making."

New York Sun:—"There is a mass of interesting information regarding base ball, as might be expected, in Mr. Spalding's 'America's National Game.' It is safe to say that before Spalding there was no base ball. The book is no record of games and players, but it is historical in a broader sense, and the author is able to give his personal decisive testimony about many disputed points."

Evening Telegram, New York:—"In clear, concise, entertaining, narrative style, Albert G. Spalding has contributed in many respects the most interesting work pertaining to base ball, the national game, which has been written.

"There is so much in it of interest that the temptation not to put it down until it is completed is strong within the mind of every person who begins to read it. As a historical record it is one of those volumes which will go further to straighten some disputed points than all of the arguments which could be advanced in good natured disputes which might last for months."

Providence (R. I.) Tribune:—"The pictures of old time teams players and magnates of a bygone era will interest every lover of the game, and no doubt start many discussions and recollections among the old timers."

New York Evening Mail:—"Were it possible to assemble the grand army of base ball fans in convention, their first act probably would be to pass a vote of thanks to Mr. A.G. Spalding for his work 'America's National Game'."

Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch:—"Never before has been put in print so much of authentic record of this distinctly national game, and it will be long, if ever, until so thoroughly interesting and useful a volume is published to cover the same field."

New Orleans Picayune:—"The pictures of old time teams, players and magnates of a bygone era will interest every lover of the game. Homer Davenport, America's great cartoonist, has contributed drawings in his inimitable style of various phases of the game."

Indianapolis Star:—"From cover to cover, the 542 pages are filled with material for 'fanning bees,' which the average 'fan' never before encountered. It is an interesting volume for anyone who follows the national pastime and a valuable addition to any library."

Buffalo News:—"No book on base ball has ever been written that is superior to this one by A.G. Spalding. The book is admirably written, yet without any frills. Many of the more notable incidents recounted in this book are having wide publication by themselves."

Brooklyn Times:—"The book is practically a compendium of the salient incidents in the evolution of professional base ball. Mr. Spalding is pre-eminently fitted to perform this service, his connection with the game having been contemporaneous with its development, as player, club owner and league director."

Washington (D. C.) Star:—"This work appeals with peculiar force to the public. Mr. Spalding's name is almost synonymous with base ball. He has worked to the end of producing a volume which tells the story of the game vividly and accurately. Taken altogether, this is a most valuable and entertaining work."

New York American:—"One of the best selling books of the season has been 'America's National Game,' by A.G. Spalding. The first edition of five thousand copies has been sold out (in two months) and a second edition of five thousand is now on the press. As a Christmas gift from father to son, it is most appropriate."

Cincinnati Enquirer:—"As a veteran of the diamond, well qualified to do so, Mr. Spalding has committed to print a professional's version of the distinctly American game. This well known base ball celebrity has a store of familiar anecdotes embracing the entire period of the game as now played and the reader will find it most interesting."

Teacher and Home, New York:—"Every live father of a live boy will want to buy this book. It is said of some of the 'best sellers' that they hold one to the end. This book holds the reader with its anecdote, its history, its pictures; but it will have no end; for no home—no American home—will be complete hereafter without it."

Buffalo Times:—"A.G. Spalding, with whose name every American boy is familiar, has been prevailed upon to commit to print events which were instrumental in guiding the destinies of the National League during the trying period of its early days. To write upon base ball in a historical manner, and yet not fall into the habit of quoting interminable statistics, is a feat that few could accomplish."

Cincinnati Times-Star:—"'America's National Game,' A.G. Spalding's great book upon the diamond sport, is now upon the market and receiving well merited attention. It tells the story as Mr. Spalding saw it, and no man has been in position to see more. When 'Al' Spalding, the sinewy pitcher of nearly forty years ago, came into the arena, the game was young, and through all the changing seasons that have seen it mature into full bloom, its closest watcher and strongest friend has been the same 'Al' Spalding."

Cincinnati Time-Star:—"The book is at once a history, a cyclopaedia and a most entertaining volume."

New York American:—"'America's National Game' tells for the first time the history of the national game of base ball."

Portland Oregonian:—"The book is of rare interest and has such personal value in the story line that one hardly knows where to begin in making quotations from it—all the stories told are so admirable."

JOHN T. NICHOLSON, Principal Public School 186, New York:—"It's a great book."

REV. W.A. SUNDAY, Evangelist:—"No one in America is better qualified to talk of base ball, from its inception to its present greatness, than A.G. Spalding."

WM. L. VEECK and ED. W. SMITH, of the Chicago American:—"We have found much enjoyment in reading the book, and it is very valuable in our work."

W.H. CONANT, Gossamer Rubber Co., Boston, Mass.:—"I have read the book with great pleasure and it produced a vivid reminiscence of the striking events in base ball, so full of interest to all lovers of the game."

JOSEPH B. MACCABE, Editor East Boston (Mass.) Argus-Advocate, and ex-President Amateur Athletic Union:—"I want to express my gratitude, as a humble follower of manly sport, for the compilation of this historic work."

JOHN A. LOWELL, President John A. Lowell Bank Note Company, Boston, Mass.:—"I have read the book with great interest and it certainly is a valuable compilation of facts relating to the history of base ball, the great national game of America. I prize it very highly."

WM. F. GARCELON, Harvard Athletic Association, Cambridge, Mass.:—"I think 'America's National Game' is not only intensely interesting but most valuable, as giving the history of the game. Better still, my nine year old boy is looking forward to the time when he can get it away from me."

GUSTAV T. KIRBY, President of the Amateur Athletic Union:—"Not only as a historical sketch of this great national game, but also as a technical dissertation on base ball as it was and is, this book will not only be of interest but of benefit to all of us Americans who are interested in sport—and what American is not interested in sport?—and being interested in sport, chiefly in base ball."

EVERETT C. BROWN, Chicago, ex-president of the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States:—"It is very seldom that any history of any sport or anything pertaining to athletics approaches the interest with which one reads a popular work of fiction, but I can truthfully say that I have read the story of the great national game with as much interest as I have read any recent work of fiction."

THOMAS F. GRAHAM, Judge Superior Court, San Francisco:—"'America's National Game' contains matter on the origin and development of base ball—the greatest game ever devised by man—that will be of the utmost interest to the base ball loving people, not only of this, but of every English speaking country; and I am sure it will perpetuate the name of A.G. Spalding to the end of time."



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL ATHLETIC LIBRARY

SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BASE BALL GUIDE

Thirty-seventh Year

1913

EDITED BY

JOHN B. FOSTER

AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY 21 Warren Street, New York



CONTENTS

A Remarkable Base Ball Tournament

A World's Series Problem

American League Averages, Official

American League Season of 1912

Base Ball Writers of the South

Base Ball Worth While?

Base Ball Playing Rules, Official Index to Playing Ready Reference Index to

Base Ball Playing Rules, Spalding's Simplified— Ball Ball Ground Balls, Providing Balls, Soiling Base Running Rules Bat, Regulation Batting Rules Benches, Players Coaching Rules Definitions, General Field for Play, Fitness of Field Rules Game, Regulation Gloves and Mitts, Regulation Ground Rules Innings, Choice of Players, Numbers and Position of Players, Substitute Pitching Rules Scoring Rules Scoring of Runs Umpires' Authority Umpires' Duties Uniforms

Club Rosters of 1912, Official

Diagram, Correct, of a Ball Field

Editorial Comment

Elementary School Base Ball Tournament

Introduction

John Tomlinson Brush

National League Season of 1912

National League Averages, Official

National Association of Professional Base Ball Leagues— American Association Appalachian League Blue Grass League Border League Canadian League Central Association Central Kansas League Central League Cotton States League Eastern Association Illinois-Missouri League Indiana-Illinois-Iowa League International League Kentucky-Ind.-Tenn. League Michigan State League "Mink" League New York State League New England League Nebraska State League North Carolina League Northwestern League Ohio and Pennsylvania League Ohio State League Pacific Coast League South Atlantic League Southeastern League Southern Association Southern Michigan Association Texas League Tri-State League Union Association Virginia League Western Canada League Western League

New Faces in the Old League

Notes

Schedules— American League International League National League Northwestern League Southern Michigan Texas League

The Spalding Base Ball Hall of Fame

The World's Series of 1912

The Umpires

NOTICE—To give adequate representation to College and School Base Ball Teams, which heretofore has not been possible in the Guide owing to lack of room, "Spalding's Official Collegiate Base Ball Annual" will be issued in February. It will contain complete college records, pictures and information exclusively pertaining to College Base Ball. Price 10 cents.



INTRODUCTION

In preparing this issue of SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BASE BALL GUIDE for the season of 1913, it has occurred to the Editor that the season of 1912, and the period which followed its completion, have been filled, with a great deal of unusual and uncommon vicissitude.

In the first place the personnel of the National League, the oldest Base Ball organization in the world, has been greatly changed by reason of death and purchase of one franchise. New owners have brought new faces into the game, and when the National League starts on this year's campaign there will be some younger but equally as ambitious men at the heads of some of the clubs.

The players have effected an organization. That, too, is an incident of interest, for it is well within the memory of the Base Ball "fans" of this day what happened when another organization was perfected in the past. For this organization it may be said that the members promise that it will be their object to bring about better deportment on the part of their own associates and that they will work their best for the advancement of Base Ball from a professional standpoint. If they do this they will be of benefit to the sport. If they work from selfish motives it is inevitable that eventually there will be a clash, as there was in the past.

The last world's series which was played was the greatest special series of games which has been played in the history of the national pastime. There may have been single games and there may have been series which have attracted their full measure of interest from the Base Ball "fans," but there never has been a special series so filled with thrills and excitement as that between the New York and Boston clubs. The GUIDE this year enters into the subject thoroughly with photographs and a story of the games and feels that the readers will enjoy the account of the contests.

Some innovations have been attempted in this number of the GUIDE which should interest Base Ball readers. Attention is called to the symposium by prominent Base Ball writers which brings up a subject of interest in regard to future world's series. There are other special articles, including something about the Base Ball writers of the South, who have decided to organize a chapter of their own.

The year 1912 was one of progress and advancement on the part of Base Ball throughout the world. To-day it not only is stronger than ever as America's national game but it is making fast progress in other countries because of the attractiveness of the pastime.

The Editor of the GUIDE wishes its thousands of readers an even more enjoyable Base Ball year in 1913 than they had in 1912. This publication is now one of worldwide circulation, and carries the gospel of Base Ball, not only across the Atlantic ocean, but across the Pacific ocean as well. One of these days it may be its province to report a series for the international championship, and then Base Ball will have become the universal game of the world, a place toward which it is rapidly tending.

THE EDITOR.



EDITORIAL COMMENT

BY JOHN B. FOSTER.

PROGRESS OF AMERICA'S NATIONAL GAME

Two more nations have been conquered by the national game of the United States; a whole race has succumbed to the fascinations of the greatest of all outdoor sports. Both France and Sweden have announced their intention of organizing Base Ball leagues. That of Sweden is well under way. Indeed, they have a club in Stockholm and there are more to follow, while the French, who have gradually been awakening to the joys of athletic pastime in which they have hitherto chosen to participate in other ways, hope to have a new league by the expiration of the present summer.

There is no doubt as to their intention to play Base Ball. They are making efforts to procure suitable players from the United States to coach them and the French promoters of the sport are determined that their young men shall be given every opportunity to take advantage of the game of which they have heard so much, and have seen so little.

Last year in the GUIDE it was the pleasure of the editor to call attention to the fact that the Japanese had so thoroughly grasped Base Ball that they were bent on some day playing an American team for the international championship. It is not probable that such a series will take place within the next five years, but not improbable that it will take place within the next decade. When the Japanese learn to bat better, and with more effect, they will become more dangerous rivals to the peace of mind of the American players. They have grasped the general theory of the game amazingly well, and they field well, but they have yet to develop some of those good old fashioned "clean up" hitters in which the "fans" of the United States revel.

This season it comes to the attention of the editor of the GUIDE that more progress has been made in China in regard to Base Ball than in any fifty years preceding. True, there was not much Base Ball in the fifty years preceding, but now there is. There is a league at Hong Kong. There are Base Ball teams at Shanghai and other cities.

Dr. Eliot, former president of Harvard, who recently returned from a trip around the world, holds that Base Ball has done more to humanize and civilize the Chinese than any influence which has been introduced by foreigners, basing his statement on the fact that the introduction of the sport among the younger Chinese has exerted a tremendous restraint upon their gambling propensities.

It is a rather queer fact that where the civilizations are older in the countries of the Occident there is a greater tendency to gamble, especially among the young, than there is in the newer America. Doubtless this is largely due to the lack of athletic pastime. The young of those countries know little or nothing about simple amusements which are so popular in the United States, and acquire from their elders their knowledge of betting and taking part in games of chance, two evils which unquestionably have done much to degrade the race as a whole.

Base Ball has caught the fancy of the younger generation and the boys. Once they get a ball and a bat in their hands they are better satisfied with them than with all the gambling devices which have been bequeathed to them by a long and eminent line of forefathers.

So it would appear that the introduction of the national game of the United States into China is likely to exert a humanizing influence which shall go further than legislation or sword, and if only the missionaries had grasped earlier the wishes and the tendency of the younger element of the Chinese population, the country might be further along than it is with its progressive movement.

In the Philippine Islands the younger generation simply has gone wild over Base Ball. Progress has been noted in the GUIDE from time to time of the increase of interest but it is now at such a pitch that the boys of the islands, wherever Base Ball has been introduced, simply have deserted everything for it. They will play nothing else. The cockfights and the gambling games, which were also a part of the amusement of the younger men, have been given up. The little fellows who wear not much more than a breechclout play Base Ball. They have picked up many of the American terms and one of the most amusing of experiences is to stand outside the walls of old Manila and hear the little brown boys call: "Shoot it over. Line it out," and the like, returning to their native language, and jabbering excitedly in Filipino whenever they arrive at some point of play in which their command of English fails them.

Twenty years from now a league including cities of the Philippines, China and Japan, is by no means out of the question, and it may be that the introduction of Base Ball into all three countries will result in a better understanding between the peoples and perhaps bring all three races to a better frame of mind as relates to their personal ambitions and rivalries.

In connection with the widespread influence which Base Ball is having on both sides of the world, on the shores of the Pacific Ocean and on those of the Atlantic Ocean the editor would like to call attention to the theory which has been advanced by Mr. A.G. Spalding, the founder of the GUIDE, as to the efficacy of Base Ball for the purpose of training athletes, that has a worldwide application.

Mr. Spalding contends that Base Ball has lent no small assistance to the athletes of the United States in helping them to win premier honors at the Olympic Games since their reintroduction. Mr. Spalding was the first American Commissioner to the Olympic Games appointed to that post, the honor being conferred upon him in 1900, when the late President McKinley gave him his commission to represent the United States at Paris in 1900. Mr. Spalding, with his analytical mind has reasoned out a theory which is undoubtedly of great accuracy, and which is further corroborated by an interview given out in London—strangely enough on the same day that Mr. Spalding gave utterance to his ideas in Los Angeles—by Mr. J.E. Sullivan, American Commissioner to the Olympic Games at Stockholm last year, while returning to the United States after witnessing the triumphs of the Americans. Mr. Spalding said:

"I cannot say that I am at all surprised at the result at Stockholm. History has been repeating itself in this way ever since the celebration of the Olympic games was inaugurated at Athens. America won the victory there in 1896; she triumphed again at Paris in 1900; our athletes defeated the contestants at St. Louis in 1904; the victory was ours at London in 1908, and it was a foregone conclusion that we would win at Stockholm.

"But there is food for thought in this uninterrupted succession of triumphs. Why do our athletes always win? All other things being equal, the contestants in the country holding the event should naturally come to the front. Their numbers are always greater than those from any other country and the home grounds influence is strong. However, that advantage has not in any case prevented American success.

"Therefore there must be a cause. What is it? Measured by scale and tape, our athlete's are not so much superior as a class. The theory of 'more beef' must be discarded. We may not lay claim to having all the best trainers of the world. We must look to some other source for American prowess.

"I may be a prejudiced judge, but I believe the whole secret of these continued successes is to be found to the kind of training that comes with the playing of America's national game, and our competitors in other lands may never hope to reach the standard of American athletes until they learn this lesson and adopt our pastime.

"The question, 'When should the training of a child begin?' has been wisely answered by the statement that it should antedate his birth. The training of Base Ball may not go back quite that far, but it approaches the time as nearly as practicable, for America starts training of future Olympian winners very early in life. Youngsters not yet big enough to attend school begin quickening their eyesight and sharpening their wits and strengthening their hands and arms and legs by playing on base ball fields ready at hand in the meadows of farms, the commons of villages and the parks of cities all over the land. Base ball combines running, jumping, throwing and everything that constitutes the athletic events of the Olympian games. But above all, it imparts to the player that degree of confidence in competition, that indefinable something that enables one athlete to win over another who may be his physical equal but who is lacking the American spirit begotten of base ball.

"An analysis of the 1912 Olympian games shows that the American showed to best advantage in contests where the stress of competition was hardest. In the dashes they were supreme; in the hurdles they were in a class by themselves, and in the high jump and pole vault there was no one worthy of their steel. Whenever quick thinking and acting was required, an American was in front. Does not this fact prove that the American game of base ball enables the player to determine in the fraction of a second what to do to defeat his contestant?"

* * * * *

WHAT A SEASON OF BASE BALL COSTS

It may not be out of place to say a few words in regard to the greatly increased cost of Base Ball. There are some sensational writers whose hobby is to inform the public about the great receipts in Base Ball. Usually they exaggerate from twenty-five to thirty-five per cent.

Now as to the expense of Base Ball. Figures at an approximate for the National League will be offered. Railroad expenses for mileage alone $300,000, including spring training trips. Hotel bills $65,000. Sleeping cars and meals en route, $80,000. Salaries to players, $480,000. Total, $875,000. Add to this $30,000 for the salaries of umpires and their traveling expenses. That makes $905,000.

Now not a penny has been appropriated thus far for the salaries of the president of the National League, the secretary and expenditures of the office nor for the salaries of the business departments of the various clubs, nor for ground rents, taxes and a dozen and one other things, to say nothing of that well-known old item "wear and tear."

The receipts of Base Ball barely cover these expenditures. The alleged profits of Base Ball mostly are fanciful dreams of those who know nothing of the practical side of the sport and are stunned when they are made acquainted with the real financial problems which confront club owners.

But the money that is contributed to the support of the game almost immediately finds its way back into public channels. Less than thirty per cent. of Base Ball clubs realize what a business man would call a fair return on the amount invested.

A well-known writer on economic topics interviewed owners of Base Ball clubs as to their income and outgo. One of the best known of the National League men took the writer into his office and spread the cash book of the club's business before him.

"You may go through it if you wish," said the owner, "but here is the balance for the last day of the year."

It read as follows: Receipts, $250,505; expenditures, $246,447.

"That's answer enough for me," said the writer. "I am through with any more essays on the affluence of Base Ball 'magnates.' I think it would be better to extend them the hand of charity than the mailed fist."

* * * * *

THE NEW ORGANIZATION OF PLAYERS

The formation of an organization on the part of the major league ball players during the closing days of the season of 1912 was looked upon with some misgivings by those who remember only too well what happened when a prior organization of ball players was formed.

In the present instance those foremost in perfecting the organization have also been foremost in asserting that the players' organization's principal aim is to co-operate with the club owners.

If this object is followed with fidelity and to its ultimate conclusion there is no necessity to fear any grave disturbances, but there is a dread—that dread which is the fear of the child that has had its hands burned by the flame, that a selfish coterie of players might obtain control of the organization, set up a policy of unscrupulous defiance and destructive opposition and retard for a moment the higher development of the game.

There is no organization, either of unscrupulous Base Ball players or unscrupulous club owners, which will ever find it possible to destroy organized Base Ball. The results that organized Base Ball have brought about will never be annihilated although grave injury could be temporarily wrought by a force defiant to tie unusual demands made by the sport to perpetuate itself successfully.

It is simply out of the question to control Base Ball as one would control the affairs of a department store. Base Ball has its commercial side, but its commercial side cannot maintain it with success. There must be a predominant factor based upon the encouragement that brings forth admiration for a high class sport. This factor can only be fostered by the ability to maintain not one, but a group of high class teams.

Any ball player imbued with the idea that the "stars" should be grouped together in the city best able to pay the highest salaries simply is an enemy to his career and to those of his fellow players.

Without some handicap to assist in the equalizing of the strength of Base Ball nines of the professional leagues there will be no prosperity for the leagues or the clubs individually. No better evidence may be cited to prove this than the fact, repeatedly demonstrated that in the smaller leagues Base Ball enthusiasts in the city best able to pay the largest salaries frequently withdraw their support of the team because "it wins all the time."

To-day Base Ball, in its professional atmosphere, is nearer an ideal sport, a better managed sport, and a more fairly and equitably adjusted sport, than it ever has been, which is manifest proof of its superior evolution. Had results been otherwise it would have retrograded and possibly passed out of existence. Carefully comparing its management with that of all other sports in history the Editor of the GUIDE believes that it is the best managed sport in the world.

It is true that improvements can be made. It is evident that there are still commercialized owners not over capitalized with a spirit of sport. It is undeniable that there are ball players not imbued with a high tone of the obligations, which they owe to their employers and to the public, but it is as certain as the existence of the game that progress has been made, and that it has not ceased to move forward.

For that reason players and owners must be guided by a sense of lofty ideals and not be led astray by foolish outbursts over trivial differences of opinion, easily to be adjusted by the exercise of a little common sense.

* * * * *

BASE BALL PLAYED IN SWEDEN

In connection with the subject of "Base Ball For All the World," for which the GUIDE expounds and spreads the gospel, the Editor would submit a very interesting letter received by him from Sweden. it reads as follows:

Westeras, Sweden, Sept. 14, 1912.

To the Editor of the GUIDE:

We hereby have the pleasure of sending you two copies of the rules, translated and issued by the Westeras Base Ball Club, into Swedish from the Spalding Base Ball Guide.

The work of getting the book out has been somewhat slow on account of that the work of translating, proofreading, etc., all had to be done on our spare time, but it is done now, and I think we have succeeded pretty well, everything considered. The books will be distributed by a well-known book firm, Bjork & Boyeson, Stockholm, and will soon be available in all the bookstores in Sweden.

We got some advance copies out just in time for the Olympic Games, and I had the pleasure of presenting some copies to Commissioner Col. Thompson, Manager Halpin and others of the American Olympic Committee.

As you know, so did we have a game of Base Ball at Stockholm with one of the Finland teams, and as it may be of some interest to you to know the preliminaries to the game, I am writing to relate how it happened.

In trying to arrange for some amusements in the evenings at the Stadium, the Olympic Committee wrote us if we would be willing to take part in a game of Base Ball at Stadium some evening during the Stadium week. As our club this year was in poor condition, on account of some of our best players being out on military duties, we hesitated at first, but then decided to risk it, knowing very well that whoever we would play against, they would not rub in to us too hard. We pointed out to the Olympic Committee that it would not be very hard to get a team of Base Ball players picked out from the American athletes taking part in the contests, but as they would not be prepared for Base Ball, suits and other needed articles had to be provided for. We were then told to get necessary things ordered, and so we did. We ordered suits from a tailor in this town, after a pattern that I got from Spalding's this spring. The suits were of gray flannel, with blue trimmings for our team and red trimmings for the American. I also ordered bats and gloves, and with the things our club already had, we were very well equipped.

The Olympic Committee, Stockholm, then received a letter from the Olympic Committee, New York, saying that if a game of Base Ball could be arranged for during the Olympian Games, they would bring two teams along on the Finland. The Olympic Committee cabled to come along, and sent us a copy of Mr. Sullivan's letter. I knew, of course, that if the game could be played by two American teams, it would be a much better game than if our team took part, and told the Olympic Committee, and wanted to withdraw, but as they did not know for sure how it would be, told us to go ahead with the arrangements just the same, and so we did, and by the time the Finland arrived, everything had been arranged for.

The Olympic Committee has selected the evening, 7 P.M., of the 10th of July, for the game, and thought that this would be suitable to the Americans, but as some of the players had to take part in the contests, Mr. Halpin would not risk them then, so it was finally decided that a game should be played the 15th, the Americans to play six innings between themselves and then six innings against us.

Well, we had a game at the training grounds. We played six innings, and Mr. Halpin was kind enough to let us have a pitcher and catcher from his men. The score was 9 to 3, and it could just as well been 9 to 0, perhaps. Well, at any rate, it was the first Base Ball game, as far as I know, that ever took place in Europe between an American team and a European team, with England possibly excepted.

Mr. Halpin said that the Americans were going to play a game the next morning between themselves, but that game did not come off. There was probably no time for it, as the Finland left Stockholm the same day. Very likely the American boys were somewhat disappointed in not being able to play between themselves, as anticipated, and perhaps I should not have pushed our game ahead, but as long as there was a Base Ball team in Sweden, it would have been strange if it had not played, and it gave our boys a chance to see how the game should be played, and they certainly did take it in. Had the game been played as it was intended and advertised, on the 10th in the Stadium, there would very likely have been a bigger crowd present, and the game would also have been more talked about in the papers, but then we will have to be satisfied as it is.

Our club has been practicing all summer, twice a week, and on the 24th of August we gave an exhibition game here at Westeras, between two teams from our club, the suits made for the Olympic Games coming in very handy. I send you herewith a clipping from a local paper describing the game, and also a picture of the two teams with myself and the umpire included.

At our game here we distributed the "Description of Base Ball," written by you and translated into Swedish, and it came of good use. Next year we intend to have our teams appear in the nearby cities around here, so as to give people a chance to see the game, and it will not be long before they will start it in Stockholm, so I think the game is bound to be popular here also,

Mr. George Wright, of Boston, was the umpire at the Stockholm games, and as he was very kind to us, we would like to send him the picture of the club, and hope that you will forward us his address.

I am, for Westeras Base Ball Club,

Yours truly,

EDWIN JOHNSON,

Electrical Engineer.

* * * * *

THE NEW NATIONAL AGREEMENT

Unlimited satisfaction must be had by all who are connected with Base Ball over the greatly improved conditions by which the season of 1913 is begun under the new National Agreement. While it perhaps might be exaggerated boastfulness to affirm that Base Ball, as a professionally organized sport, has attained perfection, it is not out of reason— indeed, quite within reason—to observe that Base Ball never had such a well balanced and perfect organization as that by which it is regulated at the present time.

The principal fact of congratulation lies in the safeguards and provisions which have been thrown around the players of the minor leagues and in the equitable and just measures which have been agreed upon to provide for their future.

As a general rule it may be taken for granted that the players of the major leagues can take care of themselves. That is to say, their positions, if they are expert in their calling, and conscientious in their deportment, really take care of them.

No club owner, unless he is maliciously or foolishly inclined, will jeopardize the interests of his team by acting in a wilfully unjust manner toward a player who is cheerfully and uprightly offering his services. We may hear of occasional exceptions to this condition of things, but if these occasional exceptions chance to arise, it is inevitably certain that the owner in the long run will suffer to a greater degree than the player with whom he deals unfairly.

It is the history of Base Ball that more inequitable treatment has arisen by fifty per cent in the minor leagues than has had its origin in the major leagues. The reason for this existed almost wholly in the inability of Base Ball as a whole to bring the minor league owners to a realization of the injury that they might be doing and to extend such punishment and insist upon such regulation as were necessary to change this undesirable condition.

By the organization of the National Association of Base Ball clubs the minor leagues, for the first time in their history, placed themselves in a position where they could demand proper enforcement of regulations for the government of the sport, and by their alliance with the major league clubs, under the articles of the National Agreement, a general working basis was effected whereby compliance with rules could be insisted upon.

The result of this admirable condition of affairs is that wisdom and equity now rule where there once existed chaos and at times something akin to anarchy in sport.

At no time in the history of the game, which is so dear to the hearts of the American people, has the general legislative and executive body been so well equipped by the adoption of pertinent and virile laws to insist upon justice to all concerned as at the present moment.

The new National Agreement is an improvement upon the old and the old was a long, long step in advance of anything which had preceded it. The mere fact that club owners and leagues were so willing to adopt a system better than its predecessor wholly confutes the absurd assertions of the radical element that there is no consideration shown for the player.

To the contrary, every consideration has been shown to the player, but the latter must not confound with the consideration shown to him the idea that his interests are the only interests at stake in Base Ball. The man who is willing to furnish the sinews of war has as good standing in court as the player who furnishes the base hits and the phenomenal catches.

So perfect is the system which is being attempted to be set in force by the new National Agreement that the young man who now essays to play professional Base Ball may be assured of steady advancement in this profession and a generally improving condition if he will be as honest by his employer as he expects his employer to be honest by him.

The graduated system of assisting players, step by step, from the least important leagues to the most important is the most perfect plan of its kind that has ever been devised. There may be flaws in it, but if there are they will be remedied, and if modifications are necessary to make it more perfect there is no doubt that such modifications will be agreed upon.

As proof of what the new National Agreement may do, although it has barely had time to be considered, the editor of the GUIDE would submit the following for consideration:

Ever since the National Agreement was organized the members have always striven to aid the players in their efforts to gain the top rank in the great national game. They have had a hard proposition in handling all of the cases that have been brought to their attention, but their decisions in all cases were absolutely fair and impartial. Then the matter of the new agreement occasioned many hours of laborious work on the part of the members of the Commission, and when the instrument was finally announced it meant that all of the parties to such an agreement were satisfied and that there could be no improvement. There was one detail that covered a wide field, and that was in the matter of players; drafted by the two big leagues and later sent back to the minors. Under the old National Agreement it was possible to pick up a player by means of the annual draft from one of the Class C leagues and just before the opening of the season send him back to the club from whence he came without ever having given him a chance to land with a club in some higher organization.

Realizing that such players were not given a chance to advance in the Base Ball profession, this matter was thoroughly thrashed out and the new ruling under which all of the National Agreement clubs operate was adopted. Now it is possible for a player in any of the smaller leagues to be drafted by a major league club, and when the latter party does not care to retain possession of such a player he is first offered to the Class AA clubs. All of these clubs must waive on him before he can be dropped farther down in the list, and if such should be the case he would then be offered to the Class A clubs. In that way the player, although he is not fast enough to remain in the two major leagues, is always given a chance to advance, for if any of the clubs in those classes higher than that from which he came had grabbed him he was bound to receive an increase in salary. That meant that he had his chance to advance, and that was the sole purpose of the National Agreement in drafting such a rule.

During the past drafting season there were sixty-nine players drafted by the two major league clubs, and of that number twenty-seven have already been sent back to the minor leagues. The Class AA and A clubs claimed all of these twenty-seven, and it is more than likely that there will also be many more who will be given trials by the big league clubs during the spring training season and who may later be turned back to the minors. Of the twenty-seven players thus far sent back seventeen of them advanced in their profession, a tribute to the sagacity, wisdom and impartiality of the members of the National Commission. The decision, as announced by Chairman Herrmann of the National Commission pertaining to this return of drafted players, is as follows:

- - Clubs. League. Players. Drafted Drafted By From - - Louisville American Asso. Stansbury Louisville St. Louis N.L. Chattanooga Southern Asso. Balenti Chattanooga St. Louis A.L. Sacramento Pacific Coast Berghammer Lincoln Chicago N.L. Sacramento Pacific Coast Orr Sacramento Phila. A.L. Sacramento Pacific Coast [1]Young Harrisburg New York A.L. Sacramento Pacific Coast Drohan Kewanee Washington. Indianapolis American Asso. Berghammer Lincoln Chicago N.L. Indianapolis American Asso. Cathers Scranton St. Louis N.L. Indianapolis American Asso. Metz San Antonio Boston N.L. Indianapolis American Asso. Kernan Oshkosh Chicago A.L. New Orleans Southern Asso. Bates Newp't News Cleveland. New Orleans Southern Asso. Wilson Knoxville Cleveland. New Orleans Southern Asso. Betts San Antonio Cleveland. New Orleans Southern Asso. Drohan Kewanee Washington. New Orleans Southern Asso. Williams Newark, O Washington. Portland Pacific Coast Williams Newark, O Washington. Portland Pacific Coast Drohan Kewanee Washington. Portland Pacific Coast Bates. Newp't News Cleveland. Portland Pacific Coast Grubb Morristown Cleveland. Portland Pacific Coast Wilson Knoxville Cleveland. Portland Pacific Coast Betts San Antonio Cleveland. Milwaukee American Asso. Beall Denver Cleveland. St. Paul American Asso. Berghammer Lincoln Chicago N.L. St. Paul American Asso. Miller Harrisburg Pittsburgh. St. Paul American Asso. Booe Ft. Wayne Pittsburgh. St. Paul American Asso. House Kewanee Detroit. St. Paul American Asso. Drohan Kewanee Washington. St. Paul American Asso. Beall Denver Cleveland. St. Paul American Asso. Balenti Chattanooga St. Louis A.L. St. Paul American Asso. Agnew Vernon St. Louis A.L. Omaha Western League Wilson Knoxville Cleveland. Omaha Western League Williams Newark, O Washington. Omaha Western League Betts San Antonio Cleveland. Omaha Western League Drohan Kewanee Washington. Buffalo Internat'l League Schang Buffalo Phila. A.L. Buffalo Internat'l League Dolan Rochester Phila. A.L. Buffalo Internat'l League Cottrell Scranton Chicago N.L. Buffalo Internat'l League Clymer Minneapolis Chicago N.L. Columbus American Asso. Drohan Kewanee Washington. Rochester Internat'l League Dolan Rochester Phila. A.L. Montreal Internat'l League Connelly Montreal Washington. Toledo American Asso. Hernden [2] St. Louis. Toledo American Asso. Stevenson Oshkosh St. Louis N.L. Toledo American Asso. Bates Newp't News Cleveland. Toledo American Asso. Wilson Knoxville Cleveland. Denver Western League Heckinger Racine Chicago N.L. Denver Western League Drohan Kewanee Washington. -

1: Subject to investigation as to whether New York American League Club has title.

2: Subject to investigation as to whether St. Louis American or National League Club has title to this player and how secured.

* * * * *

A WORLD'S SERIES PROBLEM

Much discussion arose after the finish of the last world's series as to whether the adjustment of dates had worked satisfactorily. The contention was that playing off a tie game on the ground where the game had been scheduled might work some inconvenience to "fans" and result in an inequitable allotment of dates, simply to conform to custom.

It was asserted that the importance of the series demanded that it be a home-and-home affair, dates to alternate regularly, regardless of all ties or drawn games. To obtain opinion that is sound and practical the Editor of the GUIDE sent forth the following letter:

NEW YORK, January 31, 1913.

During the recent world's series it so happened that a tie was played in one of the cities, which compelled both teams to remain in that city for another date. Before the series was over this arrangement resulted in one club having five games on its home grounds and the other club having but three games on its home grounds.

It has seemed to some that it is unjust. It is also contended that it is unfair to the patrons of the game to schedule a contest and then not play in the city specified after some had traveled many miles to see it.

Will you please give the GUIDE your opinion as to whether a change would be advisable?

Very truly yours,

JOHN B. FOSTER, Editor Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide.

Answers were received to the request for a "symposium of opinion" as follows:

"So far as having any effect on the chances of the two teams is concerned, I don't think having to play more games on one ground than on the other makes any material difference. Where cities are sufficiently near each other for games to be alternated daily, it would perhaps be fairer to spectators to do so, irrespective of ties; yet it seems to me that a tie on one grounds should be played off the next day in the same city."

W.B. HANNA, New York Sun.

* * * * *

"In my opinion the arrangement on tie games in the post-season contests is a poor one. I saw the result of it in the series between the Cubs and White Sox last fall. Two tie games were played and the confusion and inconvenience it caused the fans was deplorable. It is unjust to the followers who support Base Ball. It is also unjust, in a small way, to the club which has to play two or more games on its opponent's field. Players when away from their home grounds, in a fall series, are more or less under a nervous strain. If there was confusion, inconvenience and difficulty in a local series as a result of a tie game, the folly of the arrangement must appear more absurd when towns like New York and Boston are involved. Dates should alternate, tie or not tie."

OSCAR C. REICHOW, Chicago Daily News.

* * * * *

"We are in receipt of your favor of the 31st nlt., and wish to thank you for the opportunity presented.

"It is our opinion that a tie game was played and it should be considered as a game. Either side had an opportunity to win and any advantage that the home club might have had was lost when it failed to break the tie.

"It is, therefore, our belief that this game should have been played in the other city.

"As to it being unfair to the patrons who had traveled so far to see the scheduled contest, there is no doubt that they were afforded a sufficient amount of amusement and excitement for their trouble, in witnessing a closely played contest."

J. G. T. SPINK, St. Louis Sporting News.

* * * * *

"It seems to me that the game should be alternated between the contending cities regardless of ties. The tie game gave Boston five games on the home grounds, while the Giants had only three. Besides, many persons, who traveled to see the games in New York, were inconvenienced."

JOHN E. WHEELER, New York Herald.

* * * * *

"I think that the scheduled programme should be played through irrespective of the results of the respective games, and any extra playing or playing-off should be done after the originally set schedule is completed."

H. P. BORCHELL, Sports Editor New York Times.

* * * * *

"I believe it would be inadvisable to change the method that now prevails. While the situation which arose last season did seem unjust to the New York club, I think the very fact that Boston had five games on its home grounds, and the Giants but three on their own diamond, was an answer to those ill-advised skeptics who are always ready to raise the cry of hippodroming.

"That same situation is not likely to again arise for a long time, and I believe the rule as it stands is a guarantee to the public of the strict honesty of the world's championship contests."

DAMON RUNYON, The New York American.

* * * * *

"A change in the rules regarding world series games would he fairer to the patrons of the sport. Here in Chicago this past fall two ties were played and, as a result, there was considerable confusion over the ticket arrangements. How much more is the case when two cities are involved? A condition which allows five games to be played in one city and only three in another is scarcely fair to the two teams. By making a schedule calling for alternate games in each city, irrespective of ties, everybody—fans and players—would get an even break."

MALCOLM MACLEAN, Base Ball Editor Chicago Evening Post.

* * * * *

"I think it might be fairer to both world's series contenders to play a regular schedule, regardless of the fact that any tie games may arise in the series. Under the old system of playing the tie off in the city where the tie game is played, it brings about a great deal of confusion. Many fans make arrangements to see a game on a certain day and are greatly disappointed when the game is played in a different city. Of course, the old rule of playing the play-off game on the same grounds as the tie game, is fair to both contesting clubs, as it is merely a matter of chance where a tie game is played."

FRED. G. LIEB, New York Press.

* * * * *

"The rules regarding the manner of scheduling games for the world's series should not be changed. There are times when they apparently work a hardship to one team or the followers of one club, but, after all, they help to throw the necessary safeguards around the contests. As for the argument for not playing off a tie game on the same grounds, thus disarranging the dates and inconveniencing the fans, patrons of the world's series games are accustomed to this, since bad weather frequently cuts into the event and causes postponements.

"In a way it does not appear fair that one club should have the privilege of playing five games at home to three games at home for its opponents. The rule of playing off a tie game on the same grounds is a fixture in Base Ball. As to the other game, this was a question of the luck of the toss of the coin.

"The fans have to trust to luck as to the number of games they will see in a world's series, this depending upon the number of games played and possibly upon the toss for a seventh battle. In 1905 the fans of Philadelphia saw only two games in a world's series with New York. In 1910 only two games were played here in the series with Chicago.

"Any time a club has three games on its own grounds in a series where four victories decide the issue either it or its followers have not much chance to raise an objection."

WILLIAM G. WEART, The Evening Telegraph.

* * * * *

"It was, of course, to the disadvantage of the Giants to be obliged to play five of the eight games in the post-season series last fall on the grounds of their opponents, but this came as a result of one tie game on the Boston grounds and being outlucked on the toss to determine where the deciding game should be played. This tie game unquestionably caused much inconvenience to patrons because of the change in the schedule made necessary because of it.

"It is not clear to me, however, just now these things can be remedied without disturbing the balance of an even break for both teams more violently than was the case last fall.

"I do not believe there will be another series just like the one of 1912, and so, in my opinion, an immediate change in the conditions governing these series would not be advisable. It is not clear to me just what changes could be made. One club or the other is bound to have the advantage of an extra game on its own grounds, providing seven games are necessary. The championship in nine out of ten contests will be decided in seven games or less.

"Then, as to having the games played according to an arbitrarily fixed schedule, so as not to inconvenience patrons—that would be out of the question, being open to the objection that it would then be possible to have every game that figures in the result of the series played on the home grounds of one of the contestants. For instance, tie games or unfavorable weather which would prevent a game being played in one city, would throw all the games to the other city where there might be no tie games nor unfavorable weather. That would mean four straight, if it so happened that the home team won the games, and the loser would never have gotten action on its own grounds. That would be considerably worse than five to three.

"So it looks to me as if the patrons would have to take their chances in the future as they have in the past."

JAMES C. O'LEABT, Boston Globe.

* * * * *

"It seems to me that it would be better to alternate (in case of a tie), as a team able to tie its opponent on a hostile field would be entitled to consideration for this performance. I am very certain, however, that the players of both clubs in the recent world's series were satisfied with an arrangement which minimized the amount of traveling they were called upon to do.

"Persons who had seen a five-inning tie game terminated by rain would hardly be satisfied. It seems to me that the rule as to alternating ball parks should be applied strictly, but only in case the tie game involved went nine innings or more."

FRANCIS EATON, Sports Editor Boston Journal.

* * * * *

"To me the feasible thing to do appears to be to insert a clause in stipulations covering all short series of a special character, such as intercity, inter-league and world's series, making it compulsory for the teams to alternate between the cities or grounds of the competing clubs."

PURVES T. KNOX, New York Evening Telegram.

* * * * *

"Why wouldn't it be a good scheme to toss up for the deciding game only in cases where an equal number of games had been played in each city, and, in cases where one city had seen more games than the other, to play the deciding game in the city which had seen the fewer games?

"I do not believe it advisable to change the commission's rule regarding postponed games. The rule now provides that, in case of a postponement, the clubs shall remain in the city in which the game was scheduled until it is possible to play. If this rule were changed and there happened to be a week of bad weather, as in 1911, the teams and many fans might be forced to travel back and forth from one town to another for a week without participating in or seeing a single game; and it might happen some time that the jump would be between St. Louis and Boston."

R. W. LARDNER, Chicago Examiner.

* * * * *

"A change in the rule governing the playing-off of tie games in the world's series should be made. The teams ought to appear in each city on the dates named in the schedule drawn up before the series starts, unless the weather interferes."

WILLIAM H. WRIGHT, New York Tribune.

* * * * *

"Drawn games are as unavoidable as rainy days in world's series, but not as frequent. They operate the same in their effect on the contest for the world's pennant and in causing confusion among the patrons by disarranging the schedule. It would be manifestly unjust if, after a rain postponement, the competing teams did not remain and play the game off before playing elsewhere. That might result in playing all of the games in one city. Since drawn games are treated like postponed games in the regular season, and are of infrequent occurrence in world's series, any other arrangement than the present does not seem advisable. The patrons, who should be considered always, would be among the first to object if each team did not have an equal show to win. In the last series only four games that counted were played in Boston and three in New York and if New York had won the toss for the deciding game the situation would have been reversed. It would be manifestly fairer to play the seventh game if necessary in some neutral city."

L. E. SANBORN, Chicago Tribune.



NEW FACES IN THE OLD LEAGUE

BY JOHN B. FOSTER.

Not for some time has there been such a turning over of the leaves of history in the National League as during 1912-13, and because of this there are many new faces peering out of the album. There have also been changes in the minor circuits and one prominent change in the American League.

The death of John T. Brush removed from Base Ball a dean of the National League. Wise in the lore of the game, a man more of the future than of the present, as he always foresaw that which some of his contemporaries were less alert in perceiving, it meant no easy task to be his successor.

Prior to the death of Mr. Brush there was a great deal of curious and some idle speculation as to his ultimate successor in case of decease, or, in the event of his retirement because of bodily weariness. One or two went so far as to say that upon his death Andrew Freedman would return to prominence in Base Ball, because he was the real owner of the New York club. Once and for all the writer would like to put the personal stamp of absolute denial on the repeated statements made by certain individuals in New York and Chicago that Andrew Freedman retained the control of the New York club after John T. Brush was reported to have purchased it.

Mr. Freedman retained nothing of the kind. Not that Mr. Brush objected to him as a partner, but when Mr. Brush purchased the stock he purchased the control outright, although he did request Mr. Freedman to hold a few shares and not give up his personal interest in Base Ball, for Mr. Freedman had a great liking for the game in spite of his stormy career. The assertions that Mr. Freedman was the real owner and Mr. Brush the nominal owner were made with malicious intent, of which the writer has proof, and through a desire, if possible, to combat the popularity and the success of the Giants.

This digression has been made to call attention to the fact that while rumor was plentiful as to the future control of the Giants Mr. Brush was carefully "grooming" a young man—his son-in-law, Mr. H. Hempstead—to take his place.

To a few it was known that Mr. Hempstead was acquiring such experience and information as would be necessary to assume the control of an undertaking which has grown so big as the organization of the Giants in New York. The business details of the club have quadrupled and the cares and anxieties of the man at the head have increased in proportion.

The Giants, as successful as they have been under the control of John T. Brush and John J. McGraw, the men who have been the executive heads in both the business and the playing departments of the game, are as susceptible to reverses as if they were the lowliest club in the organization. It is only by constant and severe application that the club's affairs may be kept at the best pitch.

Mr. Hempstead brings to Base Ball the advantage of youth, a keen business sagacity developed beyond his years, coolness, a disposition that is sunny and not easily ruffled, and a reputation for unvarying fairness and the highest type of business and sport ideals. Quite a list of qualities, but they are there.

If characteristics of that description fail to maintain the high standard of the New York club, then it will be due to the fact that our standards of business deportment have turned topsy-turvy.

William H. Locke is the new president and part owner of the Philadelphia club. He and Mr. Hempstead are the "junior" presidents of the league. There is no necessity for the Editor of the GUIDE to enter into any long and fulsome praise as to William H. Locke.

His career speaks for itself and he speaks for himself. A young man of the finest attributes, he has brought nothing to the mill of Base Ball to grind except that which was the finest and the cleanest grain.

The writer has known Mr. Locke almost, it seems, from boyhood and esteems him for his worth, not only as one who has administered the affairs of Base Ball with skill and intelligence, but as one who wrote of Base Ball with understanding and excellent taste, for it must not be forgotten that Mr. Locke is a newspaper graduate into the ranks of the great sport the affairs of which fill a little corner of the hearts of so many of America's citizens.

Perhaps no young man ever left a newspaper office to become a Base Ball president with more good wishes behind him than William H. Locke. He served his apprenticeship as secretary of the Pittsburgh club and he served it well. He is a high class, delightful young man, every inch of him, and Philadelphia will soon become as proud of him as Pittsburgh is now.

Still another newspaper writer has been claimed from the desk by the National League. He is Herman Nickerson, formerly sporting editor of the Boston Journal, who is now the secretary of the Boston National League club.

"Nick" is known from one end of the National League circuit to the other as one of the most solid and substantial of the writing force, and also as one of the most demure and modest. In addition to his great fund of information on Base Ball topics he is an author, and "The Sword of Bussy," a book which was published during the winter, is even more clever than some of the author's best Base Ball yarns, and that is saying a great deal in behalf of a man wedded to Base Ball.

Another change in the National League was the selection of Frank M. Stevens of New York, as one of the Board of Directors of the New York National League club.

This brings into Base Ball one of New York's cleverest and brightest young business men, one who is forging so rapidly to the front in business circles in the big metropolis that many an older head goes to him for advice. Mr. Stevens knows a lot about Base Ball, which is of even greater importance in the game, and is not afraid to swing any venture that will put with fairness a championship team into the big city. He is a son of Harry M. Stevens, whom everybody knows, rich and poor alike.

In the American League the death of Mr. Thomas D. Noyes, president of the Washington club, a young man who left behind naught but friends, left a vacancy in the organization which was filled by the selection of Mr. Benjamin S. Minor.

The new president of the club has had practical experience in Base Ball and perhaps plenty of it, as almost everybody has had in Washington, but he is a wideawake, progressive and ambitious man, who is of just the type to keep Base Ball going, now that it has struck its gait in the national capital, and the future of the sport looks all the brighter for his connection with it.



THE UMPIRES

The umpires are always with us, and the umpire problem has been a vexation of Base Ball since the beginning of Base Ball time, yet neither the umpires, the public, the club owners nor the league officials need be discouraged, for it was fully proved in 1912 that umpiring, as a fine art, has advanced a step nearer perfection. We may well doubt that perfection in its every quality shall ever be achieved, but we may all feel sanguine that it is possible to realize better results.

It is true that some men make better umpires than others, exactly as some men make better ball players than others, but it is also true that if the men who find it the hardest task to become the most expert umpires would be given a little more encouragement they might be a little more successful.

To the staff of umpires of the National League and the American League it is but fair to render a compliment for their work of last season. Some of them made mistakes but the general average of work on the part of the judges of play was excellent.

There was less tendency on the part of the umpires to render their decisions without being in a position to follow the play correctly. They were occasionally willing to concede that they might have been wrong when an analysis of the play was brought to their attention and they were firm in asserting discipline without becoming overheated on their own account.

To the mind of the Editor of the GUIDE, in the general light of observation, the most serious blunders committed by the umpires in 1912 were in making decisions before the play took place. This did happen and more than once. To illustrate, by an example, the Editor of the GUIDE had exhibited to him some photographs taken during 1912 in which a player had been "waved out" before he actually had arrived at the base. Granting the desire of the umpires to be alert and ready to render decisions promptly, it is equally apparent that giving decisions in advance of the completion of plays is likely to imbue the spectators with an idea that the umpire is either partisan or incompetent.

Young umpires, in their haste to "make good" in the major leagues, are apt to overdo rather than fail to be on time.

While it is not a pleasant subject to discuss, it is a fact that some umpires had been accustomed to use the very language to players on the field that they were presumed in their official capacity as umpires to correct. The writer knows of instances where this took place.

It has ever been the policy of the GUIDE to stand for clean and high class Base Ball. Twenty per cent. more women attend ball games now than did ten years ago. Eighty per cent. more women spectators are likely to attend five years from now. To encourage their attendance every effort should be made to eliminate all disgraceful conversation on the field. Wherever it may be ascertained that an umpire has used profane or vulgar language on the field the editor of the GUIDE believes that he should be fined and punished as sternly as an offending player.

It is contended that the position of the umpire has been rendered more arduous by reason of the world's series. The argument is advanced that the players are more intractable, by reason of their eagerness to play in the post-season games. That argument would be stronger were it not for the fact that some of the worst disturbances emanate from the players of the clubs that have no chance to play in the world's series.

As a general rule two good reasons may be advanced for disputes on the part of players.

First: Desire to "cover up" the player's own blunder.

Second: General "cussedness."

There are players who make honest objection on the excitement of the moment from sheer desire to win, but their lapses from Base Ball etiquette are so few and far between that their transgressions usually may be forgiven with some grace.

The Editor of the GUIDE would offer one suggestion to league presidents and umpires; it is this: whenever two possible plays occur in conjunction, instruct the chief umpire always to turn to the spectators and inform them which player is out.

For instance, if a player is at bat and another on the bases and two are out and an attempt is made to steal second, as the chief umpire calls the batter out on strikes the public should be clearly informed that the batter is out. If the play looks close at second base the crowd frequently believes the runner has been called out and resents it accordingly. In line with the same play, when the runner is called out and the fourth ball at the same time is called on the batter, the chief umpire should turn to the spectators and to the press box and make it clearly understood that the batter has been given a base on balls. It saves a great deal of annoyance and fault finding.

By the way, although it has been said elsewhere, the Editor of the GUIDE would beg the indulgence of repetition by stating that the work of the umpires during the world's series of 1912 was one of the finest exhibitions of its kind ever seen on a ball field, and somehow it seemed as if the players, would they but deport themselves during all series as they did during the world's series might find that there are more good umpires in the world after all than bad ones.



BASE BALL WRITERS OF THE SOUTH

While the Base Ball writers of the cities which comprise the Southern Association have no organized membership similar to the Base Ball Writers' Association of the major leagues and the organizations which are best known as the class AA leagues, they are a clever, hard-working group of young men, who have labored in season and out of season, not only to build up Base Ball but to build it up on the right lines.

Experience of more than a quarter of a century has most abundantly proved that the standard of Base Ball has steadily been elevated. It needs no compilation of fact nor any dogmatic assertion on the part of the Editor of the GUIDE to attest that fact. It is a present condition which speaks for itself. The general tone of the players is far higher than it was and there has come into evidence a marked improvement in the spirit of the men who own Base Ball clubs. In the earlier history of the sport there was a tendency to win by any means that did not actually cross the line of dishonesty. Later there came a season when the commercial end of the game tended to encroach upon the limits of the pastime. This has been repressed in the last two seasons and to-day the morale of Base Ball is of a higher type than it ever has been in the history of the pastime.

It is a high class sport in the main, managed by high class, men for high class purposes.

Going through the early stages of building up a successful league, which, by the way, is the severest of all tasks, and even now at intervals confronted with changes in the league circuit, the Southern writers have steadily been sowing the seeds of high class Base Ball and they have seen results prior to this date, for Base Ball has become popular and has been handsomely and loyally supported in sections in which fifteen years ago it would have been considered impossible to achieve such results.

It is true that business reverses and adverse conditions have had at times their effect upon Base Ball in the South and possibly may produce similar results again, but the admirable offset to this fact is that none of these conditions at any time has daunted the spirit and the resolution of the young men who have zealously been preaching the cause of clean and healthy Base Ball.

Very likely to their zeal, their courage, their tact and their ability it is possible to ascribe the increase in good ball players which is making itself manifest in the South. More high class and attractive athletes are coming from the Southern states in these days than ever was the case before. Base Ball is very glad to have them. When a representative major league team is made up of players who represent every section in the Union, engaged for their skill, it seems as if Base Ball has become nearer an ideal and a national pastime than ever before in the history of the sport.

To the Southern writers the members of the Base Ball Writers Association and those of the organizations patterned on like lines send greeting.



BASE BALL WORTH WHILE?

One of the foremost divines in the East who has a deep concern in Base Ball and Base Ball players is Rev. Dr. Reisner, pastor of the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, of New York City. Throughout the season he attends the games and is greatly interested in the work of the players. He knows Base Ball well, and in addition to that he knows the environment of Base Ball players and their character and endeavor as well as any person in the United States.

It is Dr. Reisner's custom each year to preach a sermon to the Base Ball players and their friends in his church in New York, and the building always is filled to listen to his discourse. In view of the interest which he takes in the national game and because of his excellent knowledge as to the general details of the sport, the Editor of the GUIDE asked him to say a few words to the ball players of the United States through the medium of this publication, and he has graciously consented to do so in the following pithy and straightforward talks:

BY THE REV. CHRISTIAN F. REISNER, NEW YORK.

The Bible is the Spalding book of rules for the game of life. James B. Sullivan, beloved by all athletes, gave me these rules for athletes: "Don't drink, use tobacco or dissipate. Go to bed early and eat wholesome food!" The boozer gets out of the game as certainly as the bonehead.

I have interviewed scores of the most noted players. Every one had a religious training. Many are church members. All avoid old-time drinking, as our fathers did smallpox.

Mathewson belongs to the high type now being generally duplicated. He is a modern masculine Christian. Base Ball demands brains as well as brawn. Minds muddled by licentiousness and liquor are too "leady" for leaders. Hotheadedness topples capable players.

I am proud to style scores of Base Ball players, I know, as gentlemen. They are optimists. Defect is unrecognized. Team work makes them brotherly. Bickerings break a Baseballist. Every member of the team gives himself wholly to the game. Jeers are as harmless as cheers.

Every minute he does his best. He sleeps only at night. To do these things the player must follow Bible rules. If he keeps it up life's success is certain. Governor Tener and Senator Gorman proved it. No wonder "Billy" Sunday wrote me "I would not take a million dollars for my experience on the ball field."

It taught him how to knock the Devil out of the box.

Base Ball is invaluable to America. It thrills and so rests tired nerves. It brings the "shut-in" man into God's healing out-o'-doors. While yelling he swallows great draughts of lung-expanding, purifying air and forgets the fear of "taking cold."

He is pulled out of self-centeredness, while shouting for another. He stands crowd jostling good-naturedly or gets his cussedness squeezed out. He chums up with any one with easy comments and so gets out of his shell and melts again into a real human.

Base Ball absolutely pulls the brain away from business. It emphasizes the value of decency and gives healthy and high toned recreation to millions. If kept clean its good-doing cannot be measured. Nothing is worth while that does not do that.



THE SPALDING BASE BALL HALL OF FAME

(From Spalding's Official Base Ball Record.)

New faces enter into the Spalding Base Ball "Hall of Fame" this year. The object of this "Hall of Fame" is not necessarily to portray the very top men of each department of the national game, for it frequently happens in these days, when players take part in only a few innings now and then, that they become entitled to mention in the records, although they do not bear the real brunt of the work.

In the "Hall of Fame" will be found the men who might well be termed the "regulars." Day in and day out they were on the diamond, or ready to take their place on the diamond, if they were not injured.

NATIONAL LEAGUE.

First of all, Daubert has earned his place at first base for the season of 1912. Threatening in other years to become one of the group of leading players, he performed so well in the season past that there is no doubt as to his right.

There is a new player at second base. The regularity with which Egan of Cincinnati performed for the Reds earned him a place as the banner second baseman.

At third base the honor goes to J.R. Lobert, the third baseman of the Philadelphia club. In this particular instance Lobert was crowded, not for efficiency, but in the number of games played by Byrne, third baseman of Pittsburgh, and Herzog, third baseman of New York. In the matter of chances undertaken on the field, Herzog surpassed both Lobert and Byrne, but, in justice to Lobert, the honor seems to be fairly deserved by him.

John H. Wagner, the brilliant veteran of the Pittsburgh club, fought his way to the position of shortstop in 1912. His fielding was better than that of his rivals and at times he played the position as only a man of his sterling worth can play.

Owing to the fact that the able secretary of the National League, John A. Heydler, has compiled two methods of comparing pitchers, the "Hall of Fame" in the National League this year will include two faces. They are those of Hendrix of the Pittsburgh club and Tesreau of the New York club. The former won the greater percentage of games under the old rule in vogue of allotting percentage upon victories. Tesreau, however, under a new rule which classifies pitchers by earned runs, easily led the league. The editor of the RECORD is very much inclined toward Mr. Heydler's earned run record; in fact, has suggested a record based upon the construction of making every pitcher responsible for runs and computing his average upon the percentage of runs for which he is responsible. That places Tesreau in the front row, with Mathewson second.

There are two catchers who run a close race for the "Hall of Fame" in 1912. They are Meyers of New York and Gibson of Pittsburgh. Meyers caught by far the larger number of games, and, basing the work of catcher upon the average chances per game, seems to lead his Pittsburgh rival. Both men are sterling performers, and Meyers is an instance of the greatest improvement on the part of a catcher of any member of the major leagues.

For the position of leading outfielder, all things considered, Carey of Pittsburgh is selected for the "Hall of Fame." Not only did he play in the greatest number of games of any outfielder, but his general work in the outfield was sensational.

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