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Supplementary Copyright Statutes
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Supplemental Copyright Information

As Published by The United States Copyright Office (USCO)



a. Circular 3: Copyright Notice b. Circular 15: Renewal of Copyright c. Circular 15t: Extension of Copyright Terms d. Circular 22: Highlights of Copyright Amendments Contained in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) e. WIPO Copyright Treaty

*****

United States Copyright Office

Circular 3

Copyright Notice

========================================================================

INTRODUCTION

The use of a copyright notice is no longer required under U.S. law, although it is often beneficial. Because prior law did contain such a requirement, however, the use of notice is still relevant to the copyright status of older works.

This circular discusses both the copyright notice provisions as originally enacted in the 1976 Copyright Act (title 17, U.S. Code), which took effect January 1, 1978, and the effect of the 1988 Berne Convention Implementation Act, which amended the copyright law to make the use of a copyright notice optional on copies of *works published on and after March 1, 1989*. Specifications for the proper form and placement of the notice are described in this circular.

Works published before January 1, 1978, are governed by the previous copyright law. Under that law, if a work was published under the copyright owner's authority without a proper notice of copyright, all copyright protection for that work was permanently lost in the United States.

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 (URAA) (PL 103-465) modified the effect of publication without notice for certain foreign works. Under this Act, copyright is automatically restored, effective January 1, 1996, for certain foreign works placed into the public domain because of lack of proper notice or noncompliance with other legal requirements. Although restoration is automatic, if the copyright owner wishes to enforce rights against reliance parties (those who, relying on the public domain status of a work, were already using the work before the URAA was enacted), he/she must either file with the Copyright Office a Notice of Intent to Enforce the restored copyright or serve such a notice on the reliance party.

For more information about the copyright notice under the law in effect before January 1, 1978, request Circular 96 Section 202.2, "Copyright Notice", from the Copyright Office. For more information about restoration of copyright under the URAA, request Circular 38b, "Highlights of Copyright Amendments Contained in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA)."

—————————————- USE OF THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE —————————————-

Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship." When a work is published under the authority of the copyright owner (see definition of "publication" below), a notice of copyright may be placed on all publicly distributed copies or phonorecords. The use of the notice is the responsibility of the copyright owner and does not require permission from, or registration with, the Copyright Office.

Use of the notice may be important because it informs the public that the work is protected by copyright, identifies the copyright owner, and shows the year of first publication. Furthermore, in the event that a work is infringed, if the work carries a proper notice, the court will not *give any weight to a defendant's interposition of an innocent infringement defense*—that is, that he or she did not realize that the work was protected. An innocent infringement defense may result in a reduction in damages that the copyright owner would otherwise receive.

For works first published on and after March 1, 1989, use of the copyright notice is optional. Before March 1, 1989, the use of the notice was mandatory on all published works. Omitting the notice on any work first published before that date could result in the loss of copyright protection if corrective steps are not taken within a certain amount of time. The curative steps are described in this circular under "Omission of Notice and Errors in Notice."

The Copyright Office does not take a position on whether reprints of works first published with notice before March 1, 1989, which are distributed on or after March 1, 1989, must bear the copyright notice.

WHAT IS PUBLICATION?

The 1976 Copyright Act defines publication as "the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending." An offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display also constitutes publication. The following do not constitute publication: printing or other reproduction of copies, performing or displaying a work publicly, or sending copies to the Copyright Office.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE NOT REQUIRED ON UNPUBLISHED WORKS

The copyright notice has never been required on unpublished works. However, because the dividing line between a preliminary distribution and actual publication is sometimes difficult to determine, the copyright owner may wish to place a copyright notice on copies or phonorecords that leave his or her control to indicate that rights are claimed.

An appropriate notice for an unpublished work might be: Unpublished work (C in a circle symbol) 1998 John Doe.

———————————————————————————————————— FORM OF NOTICE ———————

The form of the copyright notice used for "visually perceptible" copies—that is, those that can be seen or read, either directly (such as books) or with the aid of a machine (such as films)—is different from the form used for phonorecords of sound recordings (such as compact disks or cassettes).

VISUALLY PERCEPTIBLE COPIES

The notice for visually perceptible copies should contain three elements. They should appear together or in close proximity on the copies. The elements are:

1. *The symbol* (the letter C in a circle), or the word "Copyright", or the abbreviation "Copr."; and

2. *The year of first publication.* If the work is a derivative work or a compilation incorporating previously published material, the year date of first publication of the derivative work or compilation is sufficient. Examples of derivative works are translations or dramatizations; an example of a compilation is an anthology. The year may be omitted when a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work, with accompanying textual matter, if any, is reproduced in or on greeting cards, postcards, stationery, jewelry, dolls, toys, or useful articles; and

3. *The name of the owner of copyright in the work*, or an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation of the owner.

Example: (C in a circle symbol) 1999 Jane Doe

The "C in a circle" notice is used only on "visually perceptible" copies. Certain kinds of works, for example, musical, dramatic, and literary works, may be fixed not in "copies" but by means of sound in an audio recording. Since audio recordings such as audio tapes and phonograph disks are "phonorecords" and not "copies", the "C in a circle" notice is not used to indicate protection of the underlying musical, dramatic, or literary work that is recorded.

*The United States is a member of the Universal Copyright Convention (the UCC), which came into force on September 16, 1955. To guarantee protection for a copyrighted work in all UCC member countries, the notice must consist of the symbol (C in a circle symbol)(the word "Copyright" or the abbreviation are not acceptable), the year of first publication, and the name of the copyright proprietor. Example: (C in a circle symbol) 1999 John Doe. For information about international copyright relationships, request Circular 38a, "International Copyright Relations of the United States."

PHONORECORDS OF SOUND RECORDINGS

The copyright notice for phonorecords embodying a sound recording is different from that for other works. Sound recordings are defined as "works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken or other sounds, but not including the sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work." Copyright in a sound recording protects the particular series of sounds fixed in the recording against unauthorized reproduction, revision, and distribution. This copyright is distinct from copyright of the musical, literary, or dramatic work that may be recorded on the phonorecord.

Phonorecords may be records (such as LPs and 45s), audio tapes, cassettes, or disks. The notice should contain the following three elements appearing together on the phonorecord:

1. *The symbol* (the letter P in a circle); and

2. *The year of first publication* of the sound recording; and

3. *The name of the owner of copyright* in the sound recording, or an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation of the owner. If the producer of the sound recording is named on the phonorecord label or container and if no other name appears in conjunction with the notice, the producer's name shall be considered a part of the notice. Example: (P in a circle symbol) 1999 X.Y.Z. Records, Inc.

———————————————————————————————————— CONTRIBUTIONS TO COLLECTIVE WORKS

A "collective work" is one in which a number of contributions that are separate and independent works in themselves are assembled into a collective whole. Examples of collective works include periodicals (such as magazines and journals), encyclopedias, and anthologies.

A single copyright notice applicable to the collective work as a whole serves to indicate protection for all the contributions in the collective work, except for advertisements, regardless of the ownership of copyright in the individual contributions and whether they have been published previously.

However, a separate contribution to a collective work may bear its own notice of copyright, and in some cases, it may be advantageous to utilize the separate notice. As a practical matter, a separate notice will inform the public of the identity of the owner of the contribution. For works first published before March 1, 1989, there may be additional reasons to use a separate notice. If the owner of the collective work is not the same as the owner of an individual contribution that does not bear its own notice, the contribution is considered to bear an erroneous notice. (For the effects of a notice with the wrong name, see "Error in Name" on page 5 of this circular.) Additionally, if an individual author of contributions to a periodical wishes to make a single registration for a group of contributions published within a 12-month period, each contribution must carry its own notice. For information on this type of registration, request Form GR/CP and Information Package 104.

A notice for the collective work will not serve as the notice for advertisements inserted on behalf of persons other than the copyright owner of the collective work. These advertisements should each bear a separate notice in the name of the copyright owner of the advertisement.

———————————————————————— PUBLICATIONS INCORPORATING U.S. GOVERNMENT WORKS

Works by the U.S. Government are not eligible for copyright protection. For works published on and after March 1, 1989, the previous notice requirement for works consisting primarily of one or more U.S. Government works has been eliminated. However, use of a notice on such a work will defeat a claim of innocent infringement as previously described *provided* the notice also includes a statement that identifies either those portions of the work in which copyright is claimed or those portions that constitute U.S. Government material. An example is: "(C in a circle symbol) 1998 Ann Doe. Copyright claimed in Chapters 7-10, exclusive of U.S. Government maps."

Copies of works published before March 1, 1989, that consist primarily of one or more works of the U.S. Government should have a notice and the identifying statement.

———————————————————————————————————— POSITION OF NOTICE

The copyright notice should be placed on copies or phonorecords in such a way that it gives reasonable notice of the claim of copyright. The notice should be permanently legible to an ordinary user of the work under normal conditions of use and should not be concealed from view upon reasonable examination. The Copyright Office has issued regulations, summarized below, concerning the position of the notice and methods of affixation (37 C.F.R., Part 201). To read the complete regulations, request Circular 96 Section 201.20, "Methods of Affixation and Positions of the Copyright Notice on Various Types of Works," or consult the Code of Federal Regulations in your local library.

The following locations and methods of affixation are examples of appropriate position of notice. These examples are not exhaustive.

Works Published in Book Form + Title page + Page immediately following the title page + Either side of the front or back cover + First or last page of the main body of the work *Single-leaf Works* + Front or back

Works Published as Periodicals or Other Serials + Any location acceptable for books + As part of, or adjacent to, the masthead or on the page containing the masthead + Adjacent to a prominent heading, appearing at or near the front of the issue, containing the title of the periodical and any combination of the volume and issue number and date of the issue

Works Published as Separate Contributions to Collective Works

For a separate contribution reproduced on only one page: + Under the title or elsewhere on the same page For a separate contribution reproduced on more than one page: + Under a title appearing at or near the beginning of the contribution + On the first page of the main body of the contribution + Immediately following the end of the contribution + On any of the pages where the contribution appears if the contribution consists of no more than 20 pages, the notice is reproduced prominently, and the application of the notice to the particular contribution is clear

Works Reproduced in Machine-Readable Copies + With or near the title or at the end of the work, on visually perceptible printouts + At the user's terminal at sign-on + On continuous display on the terminal l Reproduced durably on a gummed or other label securely affixed to the copies or to a container used as a permanent receptacle for the copies

Motion Pictures and Other Audiovisual Works

A notice embodied in the copies by a photomechanical or electronic process so that it ordinarily would appear whenever the work is performed in its entirety may be located: + With or near the title + With the cast, credits, and similar information + At or immediately following the beginning of the work + At or immediately preceding the end of the work The notice on works lasting 60 seconds or less, such as untitled motion pictures or other audiovisual works, may be located: + In all the locations specified above for longer motion pictures; and + If the notice is embodied electronically or photo-mechanically, on the leader of the film or tape immediately preceding the work. For audiovisual works or motion pictures distributed to the public for private use, the locations include the above, and in addition: + On the permanent housing or container

Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Works

For works embodied in two-dimensional copies, a notice may be affixed directly, durably, and permanently to: + The front or back of the copies; + Any backing, mounting, framing, or other material to which the copies are durably attached, so as to withstand normal use. For works reproduced in three-dimensional copies, a notice may be affixed directly, durably, and permanently to: + Any visible portion of the work; + Any base, mounting, or framing or other material on which the copies are durably attached.

For works on which it is impractical to affix a notice to the copies directly or by means of a durable label, a notice is acceptable if it appears on a tag or durable label attached to the copy so that it will remain with it as it passes through commerce.

For works reproduced in copies consisting of sheet-like or strip material bearing multiple or continuous reproductions of the work, such as fabrics or wallpaper, the notice may be applied: + To the reproduction itself; + To the margin, selvage, or reverse side of the material at frequent and regular intervals; or + If the material contains neither a selvage nor reverse side, to tags or labels attached to the copies and to any spools, reels, or containers housing them in such a way that the notice is visible in commerce.

———————————————————————————————————— OMISSION OF NOTICE AND ERRORS IN NOTICE ———————————————————-

The 1976 Copyright Act attempted to ameliorate the strict consequences of failure to include notice under prior law. It contained provisions that set out specific corrective steps to cure omissions or errors in notice. Under these provisions, an applicant had 5 years after publication to cure omission of notice or certain errors. Although these provisions are technically still in the law, their impact has been limited by the Berne amendment making notice optional for all works published on and after March 1, 1989. There may still be instances, such as the defense of innocent infringement, where the question of proper notice may be a factor in assessing damages in infringement actions.

Omission Of Notice

"Omission of notice" is publishing without a notice. In addition, some errors are considered the same as omission of notice. These are: + A notice that does not contain the (the letter C in a circle symbol), or the word "Copyright" or the abbreviation "Copr." or, if the work is a sound recording, the symbol P (the letter P in a circle); + A notice dated more than 1 year later than the date of first publication; + A notice without a name or date that could reasonably be considered part of the notice; + A notice that lacks the statement required for works consisting preponderantly of U.S. Government material; and + A notice located so that it does not give reasonable notice of the claim of copyright.

The omission of notice does not affect the copyright protection, and no corrective steps are required if the work was published on or after March 1, 1989. For works published between January 1, 1978, but before March 1, 1989, no corrective steps are required if:

1. The notice is omitted from no more than a relatively small number of copies or phonorecords distributed to the public; or

2. The omission violated an express written requirement that the published copies or phonorecords bear the prescribed notice.

In all other cases of omission in works published before March 1, 1989, to preserve copyright:

1. The work must have been registered before it was published in any form or before the omission occurred, or it must have been registered within 5 years after the date of publication without notice; and

2. The copyright owner must have made a reasonable effort to add the notice to all copies or phonorecords that were distributed to the public in the United States after the omission was discovered. If these corrective steps were not taken, the work went into the public domain in the United States 5 years after publication. At that time all U.S. copyright protection was lost and cannot be restored.

Error in Year

If the copyright duration depends on the date of first publication and the year given in the notice is earlier than the actual publication date, protection may be shortened by beginning the term on the date in the notice. (For later date in the notice, see "Omission of Notice.")

Example: A work made for hire is created in 1983 and is first published in 1988. However, the notice contains the earlier year of 1987. In this case, the term of copyright protection would be measured from the year in the notice, and the expiration date would be 2082, 95 years from 1987.

Error in Name

When the person named in the notice is not the owner of copyright, the error may be corrected by:

1. Registering the work in the name of the true owner;

*or*

2. Recording a document in the Copyright Office executed by the person named in the notice that shows the correct ownership. Otherwise, anyone who innocently infringes the copyright and can prove that he or she was misled by the notice and obtained a transfer or license from the person named in the notice may have a complete defense against the infringement.

———————————————————————————————————— MANDATORY DEPOSIT

All works under copyright protection and published in the United States on or after March 1, 1989, are subject to mandatory deposit whether published with or without a notice.

Works first published *before* March 1, 1989, are subject to mandatory deposit if they were published in the United States with notice of copyright. In general, within 3 months of publication in the United States, the owner of copyright or of the exclusive right of publication must deposit two copies (or, in the case of sound recordings, two phonorecords) of the work in the Copyright Office for the use or disposition of the Library of Congress.

The Copyright Office has issued regulations exempting certain categories of works entirely from the mandatory de-posit requirements and reducing the obligation for other categories. If copyright registration is sought, the same deposit may be used for the mandatory deposit and for registration. For further information about mandatory deposit, request Circular 7d, "Mandatory Deposit of Copies or Phonorecords for the Library of Congress."

———————————————————————————————————— FOR MORE INFORMATION

Information via the Internet: Frequently requested circulars, announcements, regulations, other related materials, and all copyright application forms are available via the Internet. You may access these via the Copyright Office homepage at [http://www.loc.gov/copyright].

Information by Fax: Circulars and other information (but not application forms) are available from Fax-on-Demand at (202) 707-2600.

Information by telephone: For information about copyright, call the Public Information Office at (202) 707-3000. The TTY number is (202) 707-6737. Information specialists are on duty in the Public Information Office from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. Recorded information is available 24 hours a day. Or, if you know which application forms and circulars you want, request them from the Forms and Publications Hotline at (202) 707-9100 24 hours a day. Leave a recorded message.

Information by regular mail: Write to:

Library of Congress Copyright Office Public Information Office 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

—————————————————————————————————————

REV: June 1999

Format Note: This electronic version has been altered slightly from the original printed text for presentation on the World Wide Web. For a copy of the original circular, consult the pdf version or write to Copyright Office, 101 Independence Avenue S.E., Washington, D.C. 20559-6000.

————————————————————————————————————— 04/04/2000

*****

United States Copyright Office

Circular 15

Renewal of Copyright

========================================================================

————————————————————————————————————- IMPORTANT:

+ Public Law 102-307, enacted on June 26, 1992, amended the copyright law to make renewal automatic and renewal registration optional for works originally copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977.

+ While this amendment to the current law makes renewal registration optional for works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, there are a number of incentives that encourage the filing of a renewal application, especially during the 28th year of the copyright term.

+ Public Law 105-298, enacted on October 27, 1998, amended the copyright law to add 20 years to the copyright term. ————————————————————————————————————-

————————— THE RENEWAL SYSTEM —————————

Under the 1909 copyright law, works copyrighted in the United States before January 1, 1978, were subject to a renewal system in which the term of copyright was divided into two consecutive terms. Renewal registration, within strict time limits, was required as a condition of securing the second term and extending the copyright to its maximum length.

On January 1, 1978, the current copyright law (title 17 of the United States Code) came into effect in the United States. This law retained the renewal system for works that were copyrighted before 1978 and were still in their first terms on January 1, 1978. For these works the statute provides for a first term of copyright protection lasting for 28 years, with the possibility for a second term of 47 years. The 1992 amending legislation automatically secures this second term for works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977.

+ If a copyright originally secured before January 1, 1964, was not renewed at the proper time, copyright protection expired at the end of the 28th calendar year of the copyright and could not be restored.

——————————————————————————————————— THE EFFECT OF THE 1992 AND THE 1998 AMENDMENTS ON RENEWAL OF COPYRIGHT ———————————————————————————————————

+ WORKS COPYRIGHTED BETWEEN JANUARY 1, 1964, AND DECEMBER 31, 1977, are affected by P.L. 102-307, which automatically secured the second term and made renewal registration optional, and by Public Law 105-298, which added an additional 20 years to the second term of copyright for these works. The term of copyright in works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, is now 95 years. There is no requirement to register a renewal in order to extend the original 28- year copyright term to the full term of 95 years. Although the renewal term is secured automatically, the Copyright Office does not issue a renewal certificate for these works unless a renewal application and fee are received and registered in the Copyright Office.

The benefits to making a renewal registration during the 28th year of the original term of copyright are:

1. The renewal copyright vests in the name of the renewal claimant on the effective date of the renewal registration.

For example, if a renewal registration is made in the 28th year and the renewal claimant dies following the renewal registration but before the end of the year, the renewal copyright is secured on behalf of that renewal claimant and the 67 years of renewal copyright become a part of that individual's estate.

NOTE: If the renewal registration is not made in the 28th year, the renewal copyright will vest on the first day of the renewal term in the party entitled to claim renewal as of December 31 of the 28th year.

2. The Copyright Office issues a renewal certificate, which constitutes prima facie evidence as to the validity of the copyright during the renewed and extended term and of the facts stated in the certificate.

3. The right to use the derivative work in the extended term may be affected.

For example, if an author dies before the 28th year of the original term and a statutory renewal claimant registers a renewal within the 28th year, that claimant can terminate an assignment made by the deceased author authorizing the exploitation of a derivative work. If a renewal is not made during the 28th year, a derivative work created during the first term of copyright under a prior grant can continue to be used according to the terms of the grant. Thus, an author or other renewal claimant loses the right to object to the continued use of the derivative work during the second term by failing to make a timely renewal, but any terms in the prior grant concerning payment or use, e.g., a royalty, must continue to be honored. This exception does not apply to a new derivative work, which can only be prepared with the consent of the author or other renewal claimant.

A renewal registration made after the 28th year will not confer the benefits mentioned above but will confer other benefits denied to unregistered works. For example, renewal registration establishes a public record of copyright ownership in a work at the time that the renewal was registered. The courts have discretion to determine the evidentiary weight accorded a certificate of renewal registration when registration is made after the 28th year of the copyright term. Renewal registration is a prerequisite to statutory damages and attorney's fees for published works not registered for the original term.

In cases where no original registration or renewal registration is made before the expiration of the 28th year, important benefits can still be secured by filing a renewal registration at any time during the renewal term. These benefits would include, for example, statutory damages and attorney's fees in any infringement suit for infringements occurring after the renewal registration is made. Also, it is a requirement to get into court in certain circumstances under section 411 (a), and it creates a public record both to defend against innocent infringers and to facilitate easier licensing of the work.

——————————- RENEWAL FILING PERIOD ——————————-

For works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31,1977, an application for renewal of copyright can be made:

+ within the last (28th) calendar year of the original term of copyright or + at any time during the renewed and extended term of 67 years.

To determine the filing period for renewal during the original term:

1. First, determine the date of original copyright for the work. (In the case of works originally registered in unpublished form, copyright began on the date of registration; for published works, copyright began on the date of first publication with copyright notice.)

2. Then add 28 years to the year the work was originally copyrighted.

This will determine the calendar year during which the copyright becomes eligible for renewal with a renewal filing during the original term due by December 31 of that year. An exception to this rule exists when the copyright notice in the work contains a year date earlier than the year date of first publication. In this case, the renewal filing period is computed from the year date in the copyright notice. For example, a work published January 20, 1975, contains a copyright notice reading "Copyright 1974 by Anderson Homes." Compute the 28-year original term from the year 1974.

To renew a copyright during the original copyright term, the renewal application and fee must be received in the Copyright Office during the 28th year of the original term of copyright. All terms of original copyright run through the end of the 28th calendar year making the period for renewal registration in the original term from December 31 of the 27th year of the copyright through December 31 of the following year.

Note: The Copyright Office does not notify authors or claimants when the copyrights in their works become eligible for renewal.



===================== WHO MAY CLAIM RENEWAL =====================

Renewal copyright may be claimed only by those persons specified in the law.

A. The following persons may claim renewal in all types of works except those enumerated in Paragraph B below:

1. The author, if living, may claim as the author.

2. If the author is dead, the widow or widower of the author, or the child or children of the author, or both, may claim as the widow of the author or the widower of the author and/or the child of the deceased author or the children of the deceased author.

3. If there is no surviving widow, widower, or child, and the author left a will, the author's executors may claim as the executors of the author.

4. If there is no surviving widow, widower, or child, and the author left no will or the will has been discharged, the next of kin may claim as the next of kin of the deceased author, there being no will.

B. Only in the case of the following four types of works may the copyright proprietor (owner) claim renewal:

1. Posthumous work (a work published after the author's death as to which no copyright assignment or other contract for exploitation has occurred during the deceased author's lifetime). Renewal may be claimed as proprietor of copyright in a posthumous work.

2. Periodical, cyclopedic, or other composite work. Renewal may be claimed as proprietor of copyright in a composite work.

3. Work copyrighted by a corporate body otherwise than as assignee or licensee of the individual author. Renewal may be claimed as proprietor of copyright in a work copyrighted by a corporate body otherwise than as assignee or licensee of the individual author. (This type of claim is considered appropriate in relatively few cases.)

4. Work copyrighted by an employer for whom such work was made for hire. Renewal may be claimed as proprietor of copyright in a work made for hire.

For registration in the 28th year of the original copyright term, the renewal claimant is the individual(s) or entity who is entitled to claim renewal copyright on the date the application is filed.

For registration after the 28th year of the original copyright term, the renewal claimant is the individual(s) or entity who is entitled to claim renewal copyright on December 31 of the 28th year.



=============================== HOW TO REGISTER A RENEWAL CLAIM ===============================

APPLICATION FORM

Application for renewal registration must be filed on Form RE, which is supplied by the Copyright Office on request. It is also available from the Copyright Office Website at http://www.loc.gov/copyright.

RENEWAL FEE

The filing fee for a renewal application is $45*. If several applications are submitted at the same time, a remittance for the total amount should accompany them.

————————————————————————————————————- *NOTE: Fees are effective through June 30, 2002. After that date, check the Copyright Office Website at http://www.loc.gov/copyright or call (202) 707-3000 for current fee information. ————————————————————————————————————-

All remittances should be in the form of drafts (that is, checks, money orders, or bank drafts) payable to: Register of Copyrights. Do not send cash. The Copyright Office cannot assume any responsibility for the loss of currency sent in payment of copyright fees.

Drafts must be redeemable without service or exchange fee through a U.S. institution, must be payable in U.S. dollars, and must be imprinted with American Banking Association routing numbers.

If a check received in payment of the filing fee is returned to the Copyright Office as uncollectible, the Copyright Office will cancel the registration and will notify the applicant. The fee for processing a renewal claim is nonrefundable, whether or not renewal registration is ultimately made.

ORIGINAL AND RENEWAL REGISTRATION DURING THE 28TH YEAR

An original registration can be made only during the first 28-year term of copyright protection. However, it is possible to make both an original registration and a renewal registration during the 28th year of the copyright term. This requires filing the appropriate basic application form, accompanied by deposit copies and a $30* filing fee, and a Form RE and a $45* filing fee.

RENEWAL REGISTRATION WITHOUT ORIGINAL REGISTRATION

A renewal registration may be made without making an original registration during the 28th year of the original term. A renewal application Form RE must be filed, accompanied by the Form RE Addendum, a copy of the work as first published or appropriate identifying material in accordance with the requirements of 37 CFR 202.20 and 202.21, and the filing fee. (Request Circular 96 202.17 for further information.)

The information in the Form RE Addendum is necessary to establish that copyright subsists in the original term which is capable of renewal. The deposit copy facilitates the examination of the claim to copyright which is submitted for renewal, and it is available for accession by the Library of Congress to its collections for the benefit of the nation.

A single $60* fee will be required for a renewal registration using Form RE and Form RE Addendum. Please contact the Renewals Section in the Copyright Office for more information. Phone the Renewals Section at (202) 707-8180 or fax at (202) 707-3849 or write to the Copyright Office at:

Library of Congress Copyright Office Renewals Section, LM-449 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000



============ NEW VERSIONS ============

Copyright in a new version of a previously copyrighted work (such as an arrangement, translation, dramatization, compilation, or work republished with new matter) covers only the additions, changes, or other new material appearing for the first time in that version. The copyright secured in a new version is independent of any copyright protection in material published or copyrighted earlier, and the only "authors" of a new version are those who contributed copyrightable matter to it. Thus, for renewal purposes, the person who wrote the original version upon which the new work is based cannot be regarded as an "author" of the new version, unless that person also contributed to the new matter.



===================================================== CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERIODICALS OR OTHER COMPOSITE WORKS =====================================================

SEPARATE RENEWAL FOR A SINGLE CONTRIBUTION

Separate renewal registration is possible for a work published as a contribution to a periodical, serial, or other composite work whether or not the contribution was copyrighted independently or as part of the larger work in which it appeared. Except in the cases described in the next paragraph, each contribution published in a separate issue requires a separate renewal registration.

RENEWAL FOR A GROUP OF CONTRIBUTIONS

+ Requirements for Group Renewal: A renewal registration using a single application and $45*, plus $15* for each addendum, (if required) fee can be made for a group of periodical contributions if all the following five statutory conditions are met:

1. All the works were written by the same author, who is or was an individual (not an employee for hire);

2. All of the works were first published as contributions to periodicals (including newspapers) and were copyrighted on their first publication;

3. The renewal claimant or claimants and the basis of the claim or claims are the same for all the works;

4. The renewal application and fee are received not less than 27 years after the 31st day of December of the calendar year in which all the works were first published; and

5. The renewal application identifies each work separately, including the periodical containing it and the date of first publication.

+ TIME LIMITS FOR GROUP RENEWALS: To be renewed as a group, all the contributions must have been first published during the same calendar year. For example, suppose six contributions by the same author were published on April 1, 1971; July 1, 1971; November 1, 1971; February 1, 1972; July 1, 1972; and March 1, 1973. The three 1971 copyrights can be combined and renewed on the same Form RE at any time during 1999; the two 1972 copyrights can be renewed as a group during 2000; but the 1973 copyright must be renewed by itself in 2001.



============================== NOTICE OF RENEWAL OF COPYRIGHT ==============================

The Copyright Office is frequently asked whether the notice of copyright should be changed on copies of a work issued during the renewal term. The copyright law is silent on this point, and the continued use of the original form of notice may therefore be considered appropriate. However, a notice that also refers to the fact of renewal might be regarded as more informative and, hence, preferable; for example:

Copyright 1972 Bobby Eroica Dupea Copyright Renewed 1999 by Rayette Depesto



============================== EFFECTIVE DATE OF REGISTRATION ==============================

A renewal registration is effective on the date the Copyright Office receives all the required renewal elements in acceptable form, regardless of how long it then takes to process the application and mail the certificate of registration. The time the Copyright Office requires to process an application varies, depending on the amount of material the Office is receiving. Please keep in mind that it may take a number of days for mailed material to reach the Copyright Office and for the certificate of registration to reach the recipient after being mailed by the Copyright Office.

If you file an application for renewal registration in the Copyright Office, you will not receive an acknowledgment that your application has been received, but you can expect:

+ A letter or telephone call from a copyright examiner or other staff member if further information is needed;

+ A certificate of registration to indicate the renewal has been registered;

+ If renewal registration cannot be made, a letter explaining why it has been refused.

If you want to know when the Copyright Office receives your material, send it by registered or certified mail and request a return receipt from the U.S. Postal Service. Allow at least 4-6 weeks for the return of your receipt.

If you need additional application forms for renewal registration, call (202) 707-9100 anytime, day or night, to record your request on the Copyright Office Forms and Publications Hotline. Please specify the number of forms you need.

You may photocopy blank application forms; however, photocopied forms submitted to the Copyright Office must be clear and legible on a good grade of 8-1/2 inch by 11 inch white paper suitable for automatic feeding through a photocopier. The forms should be printed, preferably in black ink, head-to-head (so that when you turn the sheet over, the top of page 2 is directly behind the top of page 1). FORMS NOT MEETING THESE REQUIREMENTS WILL BE RETURNED TO THE ORIGINATOR.

If, after reading this circular, you have additional questions about renewal of copyright, you may call the Renewals Section of the Examining Division at (202) 707-8180 or fax at (202) 707-3849 or write to the Copyright Office at this address:

Library of Congress Copyright Office Renewals Section, LM-449 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000



======================= FOR FURTHER INFORMATION =======================

INFORMATION VIA THE INTERNET: Frequently requested circulars, announcements, regulations, other related materials, and all copyright application forms are available via the Internet. You may access these via the Copyright Office homepage at http://www.loc.gov/copyright.

INFORMATION BY FAX: Circulars and other information (but not application forms) are available by Fax-on-Demand at (202)707-2600.

INFORMATION BY TELEPHONE: For general information about copyright, call the Copyright Public Information Office at (202)707-3000. The TTY number is (202)707-6737. Information specialists are on duty from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., eastern time, Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. Recorded information is available 24 hours a day. Or, if you know which application forms and circulars you want, request them from the Forms and Publications Hotline at (202)707-9100 24 hours a day. Leave a recorded message.

Information by regular mail: Write to: Library of Congress Copyright Office Publications Section, LM-455 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

——————————————————————— Library of Congress Copyright Office 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

http://www.loc.gov/copyright

REV: June 1999 — 15,000 WEB REV: June 1999 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1999-454-879/4

*****

United States Copyright Office

Circular 15t

Extension of Copyright Terms

========================================================================

======================== PURPOSE OF THIS CIRCULAR ========================

This circular will inform you of the provisions in the copyright statute affecting the duration of subsisting copyrights and give you some information with examples illustrating what these provisions mean. For works copyrighted for the first time on or after January 1, 1978, the statutory provisions governing the duration of protection are quite different and are not included in this circular. For general information about duration of copyright under the current law, request Circular 15a, "Duration of Copyright."

============================================================= EFFECT OF 1976 COPYRIGHT LAW WITH AMENDMENTS OF 1992 AND 1998 =============================================================

The Copyright Act of October 1976 (Public Law 94-553, 90 Stat. 2541, amending title 17 of the United States Code), effective January 1, 1978, has been amended to extend the term of copyright on two subsequent occasions with the passage of the Copyright Amendments Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-307, 10 6 Stat. 266, amending section 304 of title 17 of the United States Code), and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827, amending chapter 3 of title 17 of the United States Code).

Public Law 102-307, enacted on June 26, 1992, amended the copyright law to make renewal automatic and renewal registration optional for works originally copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977.

Public Law 105-298, enacted on October 27, 1998, added an additional 20 years to the overall term of copyright protection.

—2—

+ COPYRIGHTS ALREADY IN THEIR SECOND TERM ON JANYARY 1, 1978: The duration of the copyright term has automatically been prolonged to last for a total of 95 years. No further renewal registration is necessary.

+ COPYRIGHTS IN THEIR FIRST TERM ON JANUARY 1, 1978: Renewal registration was still necessary to obtain the second term for works copyrighted between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 1963. Renewal registration is optional for works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977. In both cases, the renewal copyright is longer than the term in effect before 1978. The renewal term extends the copyright for a full term of 95 years.



================================================================ COPYRIGHTS IN THEIR SECOND TERM: AUTOMATIC EXTENSION OF DURATION ================================================================

RENEWED COPYRIGHTS AUTOMATICALLY EXTENDED TO MAXIMUM OF 95 YEARS

Under the statute, copyrights that had already been renewed and were in their second term at any time between December 31, 1976, and December 31, 1977, inclusive, were automatically extended in duration. The total length of these copyrights is now 95 years from the end of the year in which they were originally secured.

EXAMPLE: A work that was first copyrighted on April 10, 1923, and renewed between April 10, 1950, and April 10, 1951, would formerly have fallen into the public domain after April 10, 1979. The current law extends this copyright through the end of 2018.

These second-term copyrights cannot be renewed again. Under the law, their extension to the maximum 95-year term is automatic and requires no action in the Copyright Office.

A SPECIAL SITUATION: COPYRIGHTS REGISTERED FOR RENEWAL BETWEEN DECEMBER 31, 1976, AND DECEMBER 31, 1977

The automatic extension also applied to copyrights that were the subject of a renewal registration between December 31, 1976, and December 31, 1977, even though their second term was not scheduled to commence until sometime in 1978.

EXAMPLE: A work was first copyrighted on July 29, 1950, and a renewal registration was made on September 1, 1977. The second term of copyright was automatically extended through the end of 2045 without the need of any further renewal.

ANOTHER SPECIAL SITUATION: COPYRIGHTS MORE THAN 56 YEARS OLD

The automatic extension applies not only to copyrights less than 56 years old but also to older copyrights that have previously been extended in duration under a series of Congressional enactments beginning in 1962. [1] As in the case of all other copyrights subsisting in their second term between December 31, 1976, and December 31, 1977, inclusive, these copyrights will expire at the end of the calendar year in which the 95th anniversary of the original date of copyright occurs, so long as the copyright was still in its renewal phase at the time Public Law 105-298 became effective. [2]

EXAMPLE: A work that was first entered for copyright on October 5, 1907, and renewed in 1935, would formerly have fallen into the public domain after October 5, 1963. The first Act extended the copyright to December 31, 1965; the second Act extended it to December 31, 1967; the third Act extended it to December 31, 1968; the fourth Act extended it to December 31, 1969; the fifth Act extended it to December 31, 1970; the sixth Act extended it to December 31, 1971; the seventh Act extended it to December 31, 1972; the eighth Act extended it to December 31, 1974; the ninth Act extended it to December 31, 1976, and the Copyright Act of 1976 finally extended the copyright through the end of 1982 (75 years from the end of the year in which the copyright was originally secured).



================================================================== COPYRIGHTS SECURED BETWEEN JANUARY 1, 1950, AND DECEMBER 31, 1963: RENEWAL WAS NECESSARY ==================================================================

Copyrights whose first 28-year term of copyright was secured between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 1963, including works protected in their first term under the Universal Copyright Convention, still had to be renewed within strict time limits in order to receive the maximum statutory duration. U.S. adherence to the Berne Convention did not alter this requirement. Renewal registration had to be made within a year period beginning on December 31 of the

—3—

27th year of the copyright and running through December 31 of the following year.

If a valid renewal registration was made at the proper time, the second term lasts for 67 years. This is 39 years longer than the 28-year renewal term provided under the 1909 law and makes the two terms of protection for the renewed copyright last for a total of 95 years. However, if renewal registration was not made within the statutory time limits, these copyrights expired at the end of their first terms and protection was lost permanently.



================================================================= COPYRIGHTS SECURED BETWEEN JANUARY 1, 1964, AND DECEMBER 31, 1977 =================================================================

The amendment to the copyright law enacted June 26, 1992, makes renewal registration optional, and the amendment enacted October 27, 1998, further extends the renewal term to 67 years. The copyright is still divided between a 28-year original term and a 67-year renewal term, but the renewal term automatically vests on December 31st of the 28th year. A renewal registration is not required to secure the renewal copyright. Certain benefits accrue to making renewal registrations, and the Copyright Office continues to accept renewal applications. See Circular 15, "Renewal of Copyright," for a discussion of the benefits of making renewal registration.



========================================================== OTHER STATUTORY PROVISIONS AFFECTING SUBSISTING COPYRIGHTS ==========================================================

YEAR-END EXPIRATION OF COPYRIGHTTERMS

The law provides that all terms of copyright will run through the end of the calendar year in which they would otherwise expire. This affects the duration of all copyrights, including those subsisting in either their first or second term in January 1, 1978. For works eligible for renewal registration, the renewal filing period begins on December 31st of the 27th year of the copyright term and ends on December 31st of the 28th year of the copyright term.

TERMINATION OF GRANTS

For works already under statutory copyright on January 1, 1978, the law also contains special provisions allowing the termination of any grant of rights made by an author and covering any part of the period (usually 39 years) that has now been added to the end of the renewal copyright. This right to reclaim ownership of all or any part of the extended term is optional. It can be exercised only by certain persons (the author, or specified heirs of the author), and it must be exercised in accordance with prescribed conditions and within strict time limits.



================================= A CHECKLIST OF POINTS TO REMEMBER =================================

+ Copyrights already in their second term on January 1, 1978, have been automatically extended up to a maximum of 95 years without the need for further renewal.

+ Copyrights secured between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 1963, had to be renewed within a strict 1-year time limit; if not renewed they expired at the end of their 28th calendar year.

+ Copyrights secured between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, are renewed automatically even if renewal registration is not made; renewal registration is optional and if timely made, entitles the claimant to a presumption of validity and other advantages.

+ Works in the public domain cannot be protected by copyright. The 1976 Act, the 1992 amendment, and the 1998 amendment do not provide a procedure for restoring protection for works in which copyright has been lost for any reason.

+ Exception: Under the provisions of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA), certain foreign works whose U.S. copyright protection had been lost because of non-compliance with formalities of U.S. law were restored as of January 1, 1996. Such works may be registered using Form GATT. For more information, request Circular 38b, "Highlights of Copyright Amendments Contained in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA-GATT)."

+ A work published before January 1, 1964, and originally copyrighted within the past 75 years may still be protected by copyright if a valid renewal registration was made during the 28th year of the first term of the copyright. If renewed and if still valid under the other provisions of the law, the copyright will now expire 95 years from the end of the year in which it was first secured. Works published before January 1, 1923, have fallen into the public domain, but works published after that date could still be protected by copyright if the copyright was renewed by registration or automatically by law under Public Law 102-307.



======================= FOR FURTHER INFORMATION =======================

INFORMATION VIA THE INTERNET: Frequently requested circulars, announcements, regulations, other related materials, and all copyright application forms are available via the Internet. You may access these via the Copyright Office homepage at http://www.loc.gov/copyright.

INFORMATION BY FAX: Circulars and other information (but not application forms) are available by Fax-on-Demand at (202)707-2600.

INFORMATION BY TELEPHONE: For general information about copyright, call the Copyright Public Information Office at (202)707-3000. The TTY number is (202)707-6737. Information specialists are on duty from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., eastern time, Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. Recorded information is available 24 hours a day. Or, if you know which application forms and circulars you want, request them from the Forms and Publications Hotline at (202)707-9100 24 hours a day. Leave a recorded message.

Information by regular mail: Write to:

Library of Congress Copyright Office Publications Section, LM-455 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000



———— ENDNOTES

1 The enactments were Public Laws 87-668, 89-142, 90-141, 90-416, 91-147, 91-555, 92-170, 92-566, and 93-573. Their effect was to extend the second term of all renewed copyrights scheduled to expire between September 19, 1962, and December 3, 1976, through the end of 1976.

2 Works published before January 1, 1923, would have fallen into the public domain at the end of calendar year 1997. Consequently, these works do not receive the additional 20 years of copyright protection created by Public Law 105-298.



——————————————————————— U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1999-454-879/5 Library of Congress Copyright Office 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

www.loc.gov/copyright

June 1999 — 15,000 WEB REV: June 1999

*****

United States Copyright Office

Circular 22

How to Investigate the Copyright Status of a Work

========================================================================

IN GENERAL

Methods of Approaching & Copyright Investigation

There are several ways to investigate whether a work is under copyright protection and, if so, the facts of the copyright. These are the main ones:

1. Examine a copy of the work for such elements as a copyright notice, place and date of publication, author and publisher. If the work is a sound recording, examine the disk, tape cartridge, or cassette in which the recorded sound is fixed, or the album cover, sleeve, or container in which the recording is sold.

2. Make a search of the Copyright Office catalogs and other records; or

3. Have the Copyright Office make a search for you.



A Few Words of Caution About Copyright Investigations

Copyright investigations often involve more than one of these methods. Even if you follow all three approaches, the results may not be conclusive. Moreover, as explained in this circular, the changes brought about under the Copyright Act of 1976, the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 must be considered when investigating the copyright status of a work.

This circular offers some practical guidance on what to look for if you are making a copyright investigation. It is important to realize, however, that this circular contains only general information and that there are a number of exceptions to the principles outlined here. In many cases it is important to consult with a copyright attorney before reaching any conclusions regarding the copyright status of a work.

—————————————————————————- HOW TO SEARCH COPYRIGHT OFFICE CATALOGS AND RECORDS —————————————————————————-

Catalog of Copyright Entries

The Copyright Office published the Catalog of Copyright Entries (CCE) in printed format from 1891 through 1978. From 1979 through 1982 the CCE was issued in microfiche format. The catalog was divided into parts according to the classes of works registered. Each CCE segment covered all registrations made during a particular period of time. Renewal registrations made from 1979 through 1982 are found in Section 8 of the catalog. Renewals prior to that time were generally listed at the end of the volume containing the class of work to which they pertained.

A number of libraries throughout the United States maintain copies of the Catalog, and this may provide a good starting point if you wish to make a search yourself. There are some cases, however, in which a search of the Catalog alone will not be sufficient to provide the needed information. For example:

+ Because the Catalog does not include entries for assignments or other recorded documents, it cannot be used for searches involving the ownership of rights.

+ The Catalog entry contains the essential facts concerning a registration, but it is not a verbatim transcript of the registration record. It does not contain the address of the copyright claimant.

Effective with registrations made since 1982 when the CCE was discontinued, the only method of searching outside the Library of Congress is by using the Internet to access the automated catalog. The automated catalog contains entries from 1978 to the present. Information for accessing the catalog via the Internet is provided below.

Individual Searches of Copyright Records

The Copyright Office is located in the Library of Congress James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue, S.E., Washington, D.C. 20559-6000.

Most Copyright Office records are open to public inspection and searching from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time, Monday through Friday, except federal holidays.

The various records freely available to the public include an extensive card catalog, an automated catalog containing records from 1978 forward, record books, and microfilm records of assignments and related documents.

Other records, including correspondence files and deposit copies, are not open to the public for searching.

However, they may be inspected upon request and payment of a $65 per hour search fee. [1]

If you wish to do your own searching in the Copyright Office files open to the public, you will be given assistance in locating the records you need and in learning procedures for searching. If the Copyright Office staff actually makes the search for you, a search fee must be charged. The search will not be done while you wait. In addition, the following files dating from 1978 forward are now available over the Internet: COHM, which includes all material except serials and documents; COHD, which includes documents; and COHS, which includes serials.

The Internet site addresses for the Copyright Office files are: World Wide Web: www.loc.gov/copyright Telnet: locis.loc.gov

Access to LOCIS requires Telnet support. If your online service provider supports Telnet, you can connect to LOCIS through the World Wide Web or directly by using Telnet.

The Copyright Office does not offer search assistance to users on the Internet.

————————————————- SEARCHING BY THE COPYRIGHT OFFICE ————————————————-

In General

Upon request, the Copyright Office staff will search its records at the statutory rate of $65 [1] for each hour or fraction of an hour consumed. Based on the information you furnish, we will provide an estimate of the total search fee. If you decide to have the Office staff conduct the search, you should send the estimated amount with your request. The Office will then proceed with the search and send you a typewritten report or, if you prefer, an oral report by telephone. If you request an oral report, please provide a telephone number where you can be reached from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time.

Search reports can be certified on request for an extra fee of $65 per hour. [1] Certified searches are most frequently requested to meet the evidentiary requirements of litigation.

Your request and any other correspondence should be addressed to :

Library of Congress Copyright Office Reference and Bibliography Section, LM-451 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

Tel: (202) 707-6850 Fax: (202) 252-3485 TTY:(202) 707-6737

What the Fee Does Not Cover

The search fee does not include the cost of additional certificates, photocopies of deposits, or copies of other Office records. For information concerning these services, request Circular 6, "Obtaining Access to and Copies of Copyright Office Records and Deposits."

Information Needed

The more detailed information you can furnish with your request, the less expensive the search will be. Please provide as much of the following information as possible:

+ The title of the work, with any possible variants + The names of the authors, including possible pseudonyms + The name of the probable copyright owner, which may be the publisher or producer + The approximate year when the work was published or registered + The type of work involved (book, play, musical composition, sound recording, photograph, etc.) + For a work originally published as a part of a periodical or collection, the title of that publication and any other information, such as the volume or issue number, to help identify it + The registration number or any other copyright data

Motion pictures are often based on other works such as books or serialized contributions to periodicals or other composite works. *If you desire a search for an underlying work or for music from a motion picture, you must specifically request such a search. You must also identify the underlying works and music and furnish the specific titles, authors, and approximate dates of these works.*

Searches Involving Assignments and Other Documents Affecting Copyright Ownership

For the standard hourly search fee, the Copyright Office staff will search its indexes covering the records of assignments and other recorded documents concerning ownership of copyrights. The reports of searches in these cases will state the facts shown in the Office's indexes of the recorded documents but will offer no interpretation of the content of the documents or their legal effect.



———————————- LIMITATIONS ON SEARCHES ———————————-

In determining whether or not to have a search made, you should keep the following points in mind:

NO SPECIAL LISTS. The Copyright Office does not maintain any listings of works by subject or any lists of works that are in the public domain.

CONTRIBUTIONS NOT LISTED SEPARATELY IN COPYRIGHT OFFICE RECORDS. Individual works such as stories, poems, articles, or musical compositions that were published as contributions to a copyrighted periodical or collection are usually not listed separately by title in our records.

NO COMPARISONS. The Copyright Office does not search or compare copies of works to determine questions of possible infringement or to determine how much two or more versions of a work have in common.

TITLES AND NAMES NOT COPYRIGHTABLE. Copyright does not protect names and titles, and our records list many different works identified by the same or similar titles. Some brand names, trade names, slogans, and phrases may be entitled to protection under the general rules of law relating to unfair competition. They may also be entitled to registration under the provisions of the trademark laws. Questions about the trademark laws should be addressed to the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, Washington, D.C. 20231. Possible protection of names and titles under common law principles of unfair competition is a question of state law.

NO LEGAL ADVICE. The Copyright Office cannot express any opinion as to the legal significance or effect of the facts included in a search report.

SOME WORDS OF CAUTION

Searches Not Always Conclusive

Searches of the Copyright Office catalogs and records are useful in helping to determine the copyright status of a work, but they cannot be regarded as conclusive in all cases. The complete absence of any information about a work in the Office records does not mean that the work is unprotected. The following are examples of cases in which information about a particular work may be incomplete or lacking entirely in the Copyright Office:

+ Before 1978, unpublished works were entitled to protection under common law without the need of registration.

+ Works published with notice prior to 1978 may be registered at any time within the first 28-year term.

+ Works copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, are affected by the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, which automatically extends the copyright term and makes renewal registrations optional.

+ For works under copyright protection on or after January 1, 1978, registration may be made at any time during the term of protection. Although registration is not required as a condition of copyright protection, there are certain definite advantages to registration. For further information, request Circular 1, "Copyright Basics."

+ Since searches are ordinarily limited to registrations that have already been cataloged, a search report may not cover recent registrations for which catalog records are not yet available.

+ The information in the search request may not have been complete or specific enough to identify the work.

+ The work may have been registered under a different title or as part of a larger work.

Protection in Foreign Countries

Even if you conclude that a work is in the public domain in the United States, this does not necessarily mean that you are free to use it in other countries. Every nation has its own laws governing the length and scope of copyright protection, and these are applicable to uses of the work within that nation's borders. Thus, the expiration or loss of copyright protection in the United States may still leave the work fully protected against unauthorized use in other countries.

OTHER CIRCULARS

For further information, request Circular 6, "Obtaining Access to and Copies of Copyright Office Records and Deposits"; Circular 15, "Renewal of Copyright"; Circular 15a, "Duration of Copyright"; and Circular 15t, "Extension of Copyright Terms," from:

Library of Congress Copyright Office Publications Section, LM-455 101 Independence Avenue, S.E. Washington, D.C. 20559-6000

You may call the Forms and Publications Hotline (202) 707-9100 at any time, day or night, to leave a recorded request for forms or circulars. Requests are filled and mailed promptly.



—————————————————————————- IMPACT OF COPYRIGHT ACT ON COPYRIGHT INVESTIGATIONS —————————————————————————-

On October 19, 1976, the President signed into law a complete revision of the copyright law of the United States (title 17 of the United States Code). Most provisions of this statute came into force on January 1, 1978, superseding the copyright act of 1909. These provisions made significant changes in the copyright law. Further important changes resulted from the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, which took effect March 1, 1989; the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-307) enacted June 26, 1992, which amended the renewal provisions of the copyright law; and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-298) enacted October 27, 1998, which extended the term of copyrights for an additional 20 years.

If you need more information about the provisions of either the 1909 or the 1976 law, write or call the Copyright Office. For information about the Berne Convention Implementation Act, request Circular 93, "Highlights of U.S. Adherence to the Berne Convention." For information about renewals, request Circular 15, "Renewal of Copyright." For information about the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, request SL-15, "New Terms for Copyright Protection." Copies of the law are now $14.00 each. Request "Copyright Law, Circular 92," (stock number is changed to 030-002-00195-1) from:

Superintendent of Documents P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954

Tel: (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2250

For copyright investigations, the following points about the impact of the Copyright Act of 1976, the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, and the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992 should be considered:



A Changed System of Copyright Formalities

Some of the most sweeping changes under the 1976 Copyright Act involve copyright formalities, that is, the procedural requirements for securing and maintaining full copyright protection. The old system of formalities involved copyright notice, deposit and registration, recordation of transfers and licenses of copyright ownership, and United States manufacture, among other things. In general, while retaining formalities, the 1976 law reduced the chances of mistakes, softened the consequences of errors and omissions, and allowed for the correction of errors.

The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 reduced formalities, most notably making the addition of the previously mandatory copyright notice optional. It should be noted that the amended notice requirements are not retroactive.

The Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, enacted June 26, 1992, automatically extends the term of copyrights secured between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977, making renewal registration optional. Consult Circular 15, "Renewal of Copyright," for details. For additional information, you may contact the Renewals Section.

Tel: (202) 707-8180 Fax: (202) 707-3849

Automatic Copyright

Under the present copyright law, copyright exists in original works of authorship created and fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly, or indirectly with the aid of a machine or device. In other words, copyright is an incident of creative authorship not dependent on statutory formalities. Thus, registration with the Copyright Office generally is not required, but there are certain advantages that arise from a timely registration. For further information on the advantages of registration, write or call the Copyright Office and request Circular 1, "Copyright Basics."

Copyright Notice

The 1909 Copyright Act and the 1976 Copyright Act as originally enacted required a notice of copyright on published works. For most works, a copyright notice consisted of the symbol (C in a circle), the word "Copyright," or the abbreviation "Copr.," together with the name of the owner of copyright and the year of first publication. For example: "(C in a circle symbol) Joan Crane 1994" or "Copyright 1994 by Abraham Adams."

For sound recordings published on or after February 15, 1972, a copyright notice might read "1994 XYZ Records, Inc." See below for more information about sound recordings.

For mask works, a copyright notice might read "(C in a circle symbol) SDR Industries." Request Circular 100, "Federal Statutory Protection for Mask Works," for more information.

As originally enacted, the 1976 law prescribed that all visually perceptible published copies of a work, or published phonorecords of a sound recording, should bear a proper copyright notice. This applies to such works published before March 1, 1989. After March 1, 1989, notice of copyright on these works is optional. Adding the notice, however, is strongly encouraged and, if litigation involving the copyright occurs, certain advantages exist for publishing a work with notice.

Prior to March 1, 1989, the requirement for the notice applied equally whether the work was published in the United States or elsewhere by authority of the copyright owner. Compliance with the statutory notice requirements was the responsibility of the copyright owner. Unauthorized publication without the copyright notice, or with a defective notice, does not affect the validity of the copyright in the work.

Advance permission from, or registration with, the Copyright Office is not required before placing a copyright notice on copies of the work or on phonorecords of a sound recording. Moreover, for works first published on or after January 1, 1978, through February 28, 1989, omission of the required notice, or use of a defective notice, did not result in forfeiture or outright loss of copyright protection. Certain omissions of, or defects in, the notice of copyright, however, could have led to loss of copyright protection if steps were not taken to correct or cure the omissions or defects. The Copyright Office has issued a final regulation (37 CFR 201.20) that suggests various acceptable positions for the notice of copyright. For further information, write to the Copyright Office and request Circular 3, "Copyright Notice", and Circular 96, Section 201.20, "Methods of Affixation and Positions of the Copyright Notice on Various Types of Works."

Works Already in the Public Domain

Neither the 1976 Copyright Act, the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, the Copyright Renewal Act of 1992, nor the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 will restore protection to works that fell into the public domain before the passage of the laws. However, the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (NAFTA) and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) may restore copyright in certain works of foreign origin that were in the public domain in the United States. Under the copyright law in effect prior to January 1, 1978, copyright could be lost in several situations. The most common were publication without the required notice of copyright, expiration of the first 28-year term without renewal, or final expiration of the second copyright term. The Copyright Renewal Act of 1992 automatically renews first term copyrights secured between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977.

Scope of Exclusive Rights Under Copyright

The present law has changed and enlarged in some cases the scope of the copyright owner's rights. The new rights apply to all uses of a work subject to protection by copyright after January 1, 1978, regardless of when the work was created.

———————————————— DURATION OF COPYRIGHT PROTECTION ————————————————

Works Originally Copyrighted On or After January 1, 1978

A work that is created and fixed in tangible form for the first time on or after January 1, 1978, is automatically protected from the moment of its creation and is ordinarily given a term enduring for the author's life plus an additional 70 years after the author's death. In the case of "a joint work prepared by two or more authors who did not work for hire," the term lasts for 70 years after the last surviving author's death. For works made for hire and for anonymous and pseudonymous works (unless the author's identity is revealed in the Copyright Office records), the duration of copyright will be 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is less. Works created before the 1976 law came into effect but neither published nor registered for copyright before January 1, 1978, have been automatically brought under the statute and are now given federal copyright protection. The duration of copyright in these works will generally be computed in the same way as for new works: the life-plus-70 or 95/120-year terms will apply. However, all works in this category are guaranteed at least 25 years of statutory protection.

Works Copyrighted Before January 1, 1978

Under the law in effect before 1978, copyright was secured either on the date a work was published with notice of copyright or on the date of registration if the work was registered in unpublished form. In either case, copyright endured for a first term of 28 years from the date on which it was secured. During the last (28th) year of the first term, the copyright was eligible for renewal. The copyright law extends the renewal term from 28 to 67 years for copyrights in existence on January 1, 1978.

However, for works copyrighted prior to January 1, 1964, the copyright still must have been renewed in the 28th calendar year to receive the 67-year period of added protection. The amending legislation enacted June 26, 1992, automatically extends this second term for works first copyrighted between January 1, 1964, and December 31, 1977. For more detailed information on the copyright term, write or call the Copyright Office and request Circular 15a, "Duration of Copyright," and Circular 15t, "Extension of Copyright Terms."



———————————————————————————- WORKS FIRST PUBLISHED BEFORE 1978: THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE ———————————————————————————-

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE

In investigating the copyright status of works first published before January 1, 1978, the most important thing to look for is the notice of copyright. As a general rule under the previous law, copyright protection was lost permanently if the notice was omitted from the first authorized published edition of a work or if it appeared in the wrong form or position. The form and position of the copyright notice for various types of works were specified in the copyright statute. Some courts were liberal in overlooking relatively minor departures from the statutory requirements, but a basic failure to comply with the notice provisions forfeited copyright protection and put the work into the public domain in this country.

ABSENCE OF COPYRIGHT NOTICE

For works first published before 1978, the complete absence of a copyright notice from a published copy generally indicates that the work is not protected by copyright. For works first published before March 1, 1989, the copyright notice is mandatory, but omission could have been cured by registration before or within 5 years of publication and by adding the notice to copies published in the United States after discovery of the omission. Some works may contain a notice, others may not. The absence of a notice in works published on or after March 1, 1989, does not necessarily indicate that the work is in the public domain.

UNPUBLISHED WORKS. No notice of copyright was required on the copies of any unpublished work. The concept of "publication" is very technical, and it was possible for a number of copies lacking a copyright notice to be reproduced and distributed without affecting copyright protection.

FOREIGN EDITIONS. In the case of works seeking ad interim copyright [2], copies of a copyrighted work were exempted from the notice requirements if they were first published outside the United States. Some copies of these foreign editions could find their way into the United States without impairing the copyright.

ACCIDENTAL OMISSION. The 1909 statute preserved copyright protection if the notice was omitted by accident or mistake from a "particular copy or copies." Unauthorized Publication. A valid copyright was not secured if someone deleted the notice and/or published the work without authorization from the copyright owner.

SOUND RECORDINGS. Reproductions of sound recordings usually contain two different types of creative works: the underlying musical, dramatic, or literary work that is being performed or read and the fixation of the actual sounds embodying the performance or reading. For protection of the underlying musical or literary work embodied in a recording, it is not necessary that a copyright notice covering this material appear on the phonograph records or tapes on which the recording is reproduced. As noted above, a special notice is required for protection of the recording of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds that were fixed on or after February 15, 1972. Sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972, are not eligible for federal copyright protection. The Sound Recording Act of 1971, the present copyright law, and the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 cannot be applied or be construed to provide any retroactive protection for sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972. Such works, however, may be protected by various state laws or doctrines of common law.

THE DATE IN THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE

If you find a copyright notice, the date it contains may be important in determining the copyright status of the work. In general, the notice on works published before 1978 must include the year in which copyright was secured by publication or, if the work was first registered for copyright in unpublished form, the year in which registration was made. There are two main exceptions to this rule.

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