THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND PROGRESS CONSIDERED AS A PHASE OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION
ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY
TO MY WIFE FOR THIRTY YEARS BEST OF COMPANIONS IN BOTH WORK AND PLAY
The present volume, as well as the companion volume of Readings, arose out of a practical situation. Twenty-two years ago, on entering Stanford University as a Professor of Education and being given the history of the subject to teach, I found it necessary, almost from the first, to begin the construction of a Syllabus of Lectures which would permit of my teaching the subject more as a phase of the history of the rise and progress of our Western civilization than would any existing text. Through such a study it is possible to give, better than by any other means, that vision of world progress which throws such a flood of light over all our educational efforts. The Syllabus grew, was made to include detailed citations to historical literature, and in 1902 was published in book form. In 1905 a second and an enlarged edition was issued,  and these volumes for a time formed the basis for classwork and reading in a number of institutions, and, though now out of print, may still be found in many libraries. At the same time I began the collection of a series of short, illustrative sources for my students to read.
It had been my intention, after the publication of the second edition of the Syllabus, to expand the outline into a Text Book which would embody my ideas as to what university students should be given as to the history of the work in which they were engaged. I felt then, and still feel, that the history of education, properly conceived and presented, should occupy an important place in the training of an educational leader. Two things now happened which for some time turned me aside from my original purpose. The first was the publication, late in 1905, of Paul Monroe's very comprehensive and scholarly Text Book in the History of Education, and the second was that, with the expansion of the work in education in the university with which I was connected, and the addition of new men to the department, the general history of education was for a time turned over to another to teach. I then began, instead, the development of that introductory course in education, dealing entirely with American educational history and problems, out of which grew my Public Education in the United States.
The second half of the academic year 1910-11 I acted as visiting Lecturer on the History of Education at both Harvard University and Radcliffe College, and while serving in this capacity I began work on what has finally evolved into the present volume, together with the accompanying book of illustrative Readings. Other duties, and a deep interest in problems of school administration, largely engaged my energies and writing time until some three years ago, when, in rearranging courses at the university, it seemed desirable that I should again take over the instruction in the general history of education. Since then I have pushed through, as rapidly as conditions would permit, the organization of the parallel book of sources and documents, and the present volume of text.
In doing so I have not tried to prepare another history of educational theories. Of such we already have a sufficient number. Instead, I have tried to prepare a history of the progress and practice and organization of education itself, and to give to such a history its proper setting as a phase of the history of the development and spread of our Western civilization. I have especially tried to present such a picture of the rise, struggle for existence, growth, and recent great expansion of the idea of the improvability of the race and the elevation and emancipation of the individual through education as would be most illuminating and useful to students of the subject. To this end I have traced the great forward steps in the emancipation of the intellect of man, and the efforts to perpetuate the progress made through the organization of educational institutions to pass on to others what had been attained. I have also tried to give a proper setting to the great historic forces which have shaped and moulded human progress, and have made the evolution of modern state school systems and the world-wide spread of Western civilization both possible and inevitable.
To this end I have tried to hold to the main lines of the story, and have in consequence omitted reference to many theorists and reformers and events and schools which doubtless were important in their land and time, but the influence of which on the main current of educational progress was, after all, but small. For such omission I have no apology to make. In their place I have introduced a record of world events and forces, not included in the usual history of education, which to me seem important as having contributed materially to the shaping and directing of intellectual and educational progress. While in the treatment major emphasis has been given to modern times, I have nevertheless tried to show how all modern education has been after all a development, a culmination, a flowering-out of forces and impulses which go far back in history for their origin. In a civilization such as we of to-day enjoy, with roots so deeply embedded in the past as is ours, any adequate understanding of world practices and of present-day world problems in education calls for some tracing of development to give proper background and perspective. The rise of modern state school systems, the variations in types found to-day in different lands, the new conceptions of the educational purpose, the rise of science study, the new functions which the school has recently assumed, the world- wide sweep of modern educational ideas, the rise of many entirely new types of schools and training within the past century—these and many other features of modern educational practice in progressive nations are better understood if viewed in the light of their proper historical setting. Standing as we are to-day on the threshold of a new era, and with a strong tendency manifest to look only to the future and to ignore the past, the need for sound educational perspective on the part of the leaders in both school and state is given new emphasis.
To give greater concreteness to the presentation, maps, diagrams, and pictures, as commonly found in standard historical works, have been used to an extent not before employed in writings on the history of education. To give still greater concreteness to the presentation I have built up a parallel volume of Readings, containing a large collection of illustrative source material designed to back up the historical record of educational development and progress as presented in this volume. The selections have been fully cross-referenced (R. 129; R. 176; etc.) in the pages of the Text. Depending, as I have, so largely on the companion volume for the necessary supplemental readings, I have reduced the chapter bibliographies to a very few of the most valuable and most commonly found references. To add to the teaching value of the book there has been appended to each chapter a series of questions for discussion, bearing on the Text, and another series of questions bearing on the Readings to be found in the companion volume. In this form it is hoped that the Text will be found good in teaching organization; that the treatment may prove to be of such practical value that it will contribute materially to relieve the history of education from much of the criticism which the devotion in the past to the history of educational theory has brought upon it; and that the two volumes which have been prepared may be of real service in restoring the subject to the position of importance it deserves to hold, for mature students of educational practice, as the interpreter of world progress as expressed in one of its highest creative forms.
ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY Stanford University, Cal. September 4, 1920
INTRODUCTION: THE SOURCES OF OUR CIVILIZATION
PART I THE ANCIENT WORLD FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF OUR WESTERN CIVILIZATION GREECE—ROME—CHRISTIANITY
CHAPTER I. THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION I. GREECE AND ITS PEOPLE II. EARLY EDUCATION IN GREECE
CHAPTER II. LATER GREEK EDUCATION III. THE NEW GREEK EDUCATION
CHAPTER III. THE EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME I. THE ROMANS AND THEIR MISSION II. THE PERIOD OF HOME EDUCATION III. THE TRANSITION TO SCHOOL EDUCATION IV. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM AS FINALLY ESTABLISHED V. ROME'S CONTRIBUTION TO CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER IV. THE RISE AND CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY I. THE RISE AND VICTORY OF CHRISTIANITY II. EDUCATIONAL AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EARLY CHURCH III. WHAT THE MIDDLE AGES STARTED WITH
PART II THE MEDIAEVAL WORLD THE DELUGE OF BARBARISM; THE MEDIAEVAL STRUGGLE TO PRESERVE AND REESTABLISH CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER V. NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE
CHAPTER VI. EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES I. CONDITION AND PRESERVATION OF LEARNING
CHAPTER VII. EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES I. SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED
CHAPTER VIII. INFLUENCES TENDING TOWARD A REVIVAL OF LEARNING I. MOSLEM LEARNING FROM SPAIN II. THE RISE OF SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY III. LAW AND MEDICINE AS NEW STUDIES IV. OTHER NEW INFLUENCES AND MOVEMENTS
CHAPTER IX. THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES
PART III THE TRANSITION FROM MEDIAEVAL TO MODERN ATTITUDES THE RECOVERY OF THE ANCIENT LEARNING; THE REAWAKENING OF SCHOLARSHIP; AND THE RISE OF RELIGIOUS AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
CHAPTER X. THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING
CHAPTER XI. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING
CHAPTER XII. THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY
CHAPTER XIII. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS I. AMONG LUTHERANS AND ANGLICANS
CHAPTER XIV. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS II. AMONG CALVINISTS AND CATHOLICS
CHAPTER XV. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS III. THE REFORMATION AND AMERICAN EDUCATION
CHAPTER XVI. THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
CHAPTER XVII. THE NEW SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND THE SCHOOLS I. HUMANISTIC REALISM II. SOCIAL REALISM III. SENSE REALISM IV. REALISM AND THE SCHOOLS
CHAPTER XVIII. THEORY AND PRACTICE BY THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY I. PRE-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY EDUCATIONAL THEORIES II. MID-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS
PART IV MODERN TIMES THE ABOLITION OF PRIVILEGE; THE RISE OF DEMOCRACY; A NEW THEORY FOR EDUCATION EVOLVED; THE STATE TAKES OVER THE SCHOOL
CHAPTER XIX. THE EIGHTEENTH A TRANSITION CENTURY I. WORK OF THE BENEVOLENT DESPOTS OF CONTINENTAL EUROPE II. THE UNSATISFIED DEMAND FOR REFORM IN FRANCE III. ENGLAND THE FIRST DEMOCRATIC NATION IV. INSTITUTION OF CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN AMERICA V. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION SWEEPS AWAY ANCIENT ABUSES
CHAPTER XX. THE BEGINNINGS OF NATIONAL EDUCATION I. NEW CONCEPTIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE II. THE NEW STATE THEORY IN FRANCE III. THE NEW STATE THEORY IN AMERICA
CHAPTER XXI. A NEW THEORY AND SUBJECT-MATTER FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL I. THE NEW THEORY STATED II. GERMAN ATTEMPTS TO WORK OUT A NEW THEORY III. THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF PESTALOZZI IV. REDIRECTION OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
CHAPTER XXII. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN PRUSSIA I. THE BEGINNINGS OF NATIONAL ORGANIZATION II. A STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM AT LAST CREATED
CHAPTER XXIII. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN FRANCE AND ITALY I. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN FRANCE II. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN ITALY
CHAPTER XXIV. THE STRUGGLE FOR NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN ENGLAND I. THE CHARITABLE-VOLUNTARY BEGINNINGS II. THE PERIOD OF PHILANTHROPIC EFFORT (1800-33) III. THE STRUGGLE FOR NATIONAL EDUCATION IV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL SYSTEM
CHAPTER XXV. AWAKENING AN EDUCATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE UNITED STATES I. EARLY NATIONAL ATTITUDES AND INTERESTS II. AWAKENING AN EDUCATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS III. SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC INFLUENCES IV. ALIGNMENT OF INTERESTS, AND PROPAGANDA
CHAPTER XXVI. THE AMERICAN BATTLE FOR FREE STATE SCHOOLS I. THE BATTLE FOR TAX SUPPORT II. THE BATTLE TO ELIMINATE THE PAUPER-SCHOOL IDEA III. THE BATTLE TO MAKE THE SCHOOLS ENTIRELY FREE IV. THE BATTLE TO ESTABLISH SCHOOL SUPERVISION V. THE BATTLE TO ELIMINATE SECTARIANISM VI. THE BATTLE TO ESTABLISH THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL VII. THE STATE UNIVERSITY CROWNS THE SYSTEM
CHAPTER XXVII. EDUCATION BECOMES A GREAT NATIONAL TOOL I. SPREAD OF THE STATE-CONTROL IDEA II. NEW MODIFYING FORCES III. EFFECT OF THESE CHANGES ON EDUCATION
CHAPTER XXVIII. NEW CONCEPTIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS I. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION II. NEW IDEAS FROM HERBARTIAN SOURCES III. THE KINDERGARTEN, PLAY, AND MANUAL ACTIVITIES IV. THE ADDITION OF SCIENCE STUDY V. SOCIAL MEANING OF THESE CHANGES
CHAPTER XXIX. NEW TENDENCIES AND EXPANSIONS I. POLITICAL II. SCIENTIFIC III. VOCATIONAL IV. SOCIOLOGICAL V. THE SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION
CONCLUSION: THE FUTURE
LIST OF PLATES
1. THE CLOISTERS OF A MONASTERY, NEAR FLORENCE, ITALY 2. THE LIBRARY OF THE CHURCH OF SAINT WALLBERG, AT ZUTPHEN, HOLLAND 3. SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS 4. A LECTURE ON THEOLOGY BY ALBERTUS MAGNUS 5. STRATFORD-ON-AVON GRAMMAR SCHOOL 6. EDUCATIONAL LEADERS IN PROTESTANT GERMANY 7. THE FREE SCHOOL AT HARROW 8. MAP SHOWING THE SPREAD OF JESUIT SCHOOLS IN NORTHERN TERRITORY BY THE YEAR 1725 9. TWO TABLETS ON THE WEST GATEWAY AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY 10. JOHN AMOS COMENIUS (1592-1670) 11. JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI 12. FELLENBERG'S INSTITUTE AT HOFWYL 13. TWO LEADERS IN THE REGENERATION OF PRUSSIA 14. FRANCOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME GUIZOT (1787-1874) 15. JOHN POUNDS' RAGGED SCHOOL AT PORTSMOUTH 16. AN ENGLISH VILLAGE VOLUNTARY SCHOOL 17. TWO LEADERS IN THE EDUCATIONAL AWAKENING IN THE UNITED STATES 18. TWO LEADERS IN THE REORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY
LIST OF FIGURES
1. THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD 2. ANCIENT GREECE AND THE AEGEAN WORLD 3. THE CITY-STATE OF ATTICA 4. DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF ATHENS AND ATTICA, ABOUT 430 B.C. 5. A GREEK BOY 6. AN ATHENIAN INSCRIPTION 7. GREEK WRITING-MATERIALS 8. A GREEK COUNTING-BOARD 9. AN ATHENIAN SCHOOL 10. GREEK SCHOOL LESSONS 11. GROUND-PLAN OF THE GYMNASIUM AT EPHESOS, IN ASIA MINOR 12. SOCRATES (469-399 B.C.) 13. EVOLUTION OF THE GREEK UNIVERSITY 14. THE GREEK UNIVERSITY WORLD 15. THE KNOWN WORLD ABOUT 150 A.D. 16. THE EARLY PEOPLES OF ITALY, AND THE EXTENSION OF THE ROMAN POWER 17. THE PRINCIPAL ROMAN ROADS 18. THE GREAT EXTENT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 19. A ROMAN FATHER INSTRUCTING HIS SON 20. CATO THE ELDER (234-148 B.C.) 21. ROMAN WRITING-MATERIALS 22. A ROMAN COUNTING-BOARD 23. A ROMAN PRIMARY SCHOOL 24. A ROMAN SCHOOL OF RHETORIC 25. THE ROMAN VOLUNTARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, AS FINALLY EVOLVED 26. ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET 27. THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE END OF THE FOURTH CENTURY 28. A BISHOP 29. A BENEDICTINE MONK, ABBOT, AND ABBESS 30. SHOWING THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE AND THE CHURCH 31. A BODYGUARD OF GERMANS 32. THE GERMAN MIGRATIONS 33. THE KNOWN WORLD IN 800 34. A GERMAN WAR CHIEF 35. ROMANS DESTROYING A GERMAN VILLAGE 36. A PAGE OF THE GOTHIC GOSPELS 37. A TYPICAL MONASTERY OF SOUTHERN EUROPE 38. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF A MEDIEVAL MONASTERY 39. INITIAL LETTER FROM AN OLD MANUSCRIPT 40. A MONK IN A SCRIPTORIUM 41. CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE, AND THE IMPORTANT MONASTERIES OF THE TIME 42. WHERE THE DANES RAVAGED ENGLAND 43. AN OUTER MONASTIC SCHOOL 44. THE MEDIAEVAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION SUMMARIZED 45. A SCHOOL: A LESSON IN GRAMMAR 46. AN ANGLO-SAXON MAP OF THE WORLD 47. AN EARLY CHURCH MUSICIAN 48. A SQUIRE BEING KNIGHTED 49. A KNIGHT OF THE TIME OF THE FIRST CRUSADE 50. EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 51. SHOWING CENTERS OF MOSLEM LEARNING 52. ARISTOTLE 53. THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, AT PARIS 54. THE CITY-STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY 55. FRAGMENT FROM THE RECOVERED "DIGEST" OF JUSTINIAN 56. THE FATHER OF MEDICINE, HIPPOCRATES OF COS 57. A PILGRIM OF THE MIDDLE AGES 58. A TYPICAL MEDIAEVAL TOWN (PRUSSIAN) 59. THE EDUCATIONAL PYRAMID 60. TRADE ROUTES AND COMMERCIAL CITIES 61. SHOWING LOCATION OF THE CHIEF UNIVERSITIES FOUNDED BEFORE 1600 62. SEAL OF A DOCTOR, UNIVERSITY OF PARIS 63. NEW COLLEGE, AT OXFORD 64. A LECTURE ON CIVIL LAW BY GUILLAUME BENEDICTI 65. LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN, IN HOLLAND 66. A UNIVERSITY DISPUTATION 67. A UNIVERSITY LECTURE AND LECTURE ROOM 68. PETRARCH (1304-74) 69. BOCCACCIO (1313-75) 70. DEMETRIUS CHALCONDYLES (1424-1511) 71. BOOKCASE AND DESK IN THE MEDICEAN LIBRARY AT FLORENCE 72. TWO EARLY NORTHERN HUMANISTS 73. AN EARLY SIXTEENTH-CENTURY PRESS 74. AN EARLY SPECIMEN OF CAXTON'S PRINTING 75. THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO CHRISTIAN EUROPE BEFORE COLUMBUS 76. SAINT ANTONINUS AND HIS SCHOLARS 77. TWO EARLY ITALIAN HUMANIST EDUCATORS 78. GUILLAUME BUDAEUS (1467-1540) 79. COLLEGE DE FRANCE 80. JOHANN REUCHLIN (1455-1522) 81. JOHANN STURM (1507-89) 82. DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1467-1536) 83. SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL, LONDON 84. GIGGLESWICK GRAMMAR SCHOOL 85. THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN STUDIES 86. JOHN WYCLIFFE (1320?-84) 87. RELIGIOUS WARFARE IN BOHEMIA 88. SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS 89. HULDREICH ZWINGLI (1487-1531) 90. JOHN CALVIN (1509-64) 91. A FRENCH PROTESTANT (c. 1600) 92. TWO EARLY VERNACULAR SCHOOLS 93. THE FIRST PAGE OF WYCLIFFE'S BIBLE 94. LUTHER GIVING INSTRUCTION 95. JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN (1485-1558) 96. EVOLUTION OF GERMAN STATE SCHOOL CONTROL 97. A CHAINED BIBLE 98. A FRENCH SCHOOL OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 99. A DUTCH VILLAGE SCHOOL 100. JOHN KNOX (1505?-72) 101. IGNATIUS DE LOYOLA (1491-1556) 102. PLAN OF A JESUIT SCHOOLROOM 103. AN URSULINE 104. A SCHOOL OF LA SALLE AT PARIS, 1688 105. THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS BY 1792 106. TENDENCIES IN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE, 1500 TO 1700 107. MAP SHOWING THE RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS IN AMERICA 108. HOMES OF THE PILGRIMS, AND THEIR ROUTE TO AMERICA 109. NEW ENGLAND SETTLEMENTS, 1660 110. THE BOSTON LATIN GRAMMAR SCHOOL 111. WHERE YALE COLLEGE WAS FOUNDED 112. AN OLD QUAKER MEETING-HOUSE AND SCHOOL AT LAMPETER, PENNSYLVANIA 113. NICHOLAS KOPERNIK (COPERNICUS) (1473-1543) 114. TYCHO BRAKE (1546-1601) 115. GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) 116. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) 117. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) 118. FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) 119. THE LOSS AND RECOVERY OF THE SCIENCES 120. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) 121. FRANCOIS RABELAIS (1483-1553) 122. JOHN MILTON (1608-74) 123. MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE (1533-92) 124. JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) 125. AN ACADEMIE DES ARMES 126. A SAMPLE PAGE FROM THE "ORBIS PICTUS" 127. PART OF A PAGE FROM A LATIN-ENGLISH EDITION OF THE "VESTIBULUM" 128. AUGUSTUS HERMANN FRANCKE (1663-1727) 129. A FRENCH SCHOOL BEFORE THE REVOLUTION 130. A HORN BOOK 131. THE WESTMINSTER CATECHISM 132. THOMAS DILWORTH (?-1780) 133. FRONTISPIECE TO NOAH WEBSTER'S "AMERICAN SPELLING BOOK" 134. TITLE-PAGE OF HODDER'S ARITHMETIC 135. A "CHRISTIAN BROTHERS" SCHOOL 136. AN ENGLISH DAME SCHOOL 137. GRAVEL LANE CHARITY-SCHOOL, SOUTHWARK 138. A CHARITY-SCHOOL GIRL IN UNIFORM 139. A CHARITY-SCHOOL BOY IN UNIFORM 140. ADVERTISEMENT FOR A TEACHER TO LET 141. A SCHOOL WHIPPING-POST 142. AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GERMAN SCHOOL 143. CHILDREN AS MINIATURE ADULTS 144. A PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY 145. FREDERICK THE GREAT 146. MARIA THERESA 147. MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755) 148. TURGOT (1727-81) 149. VOLTAIRE (1694-1778) 150. DIDEROT (1713-84) 151. JOHN WESLEY (1707-82) 152. NATIONALITY OF THE WHITE POPULATION, AS SHOWN BY THE FAMILY NAMES IN THE CENSUS OF 1790 153. THE STATES-GENERAL IN SESSION AT VERSAILLES 154. ROUSSEAU (1712-78) 155. LA CHALOTAIS (1701-83) 156. ROLLAND (1734-93) 157. COUNT DE MIRABEAU (1749-91) 158. TALLEYRAND (1758-1838) 159. CONDORCET (1743-94) 160. THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE 161. LAKANAL (1762-1845) 162. THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 163. THE ROUSSEAU MONUMENT AT GENEVA 164. BASEDOW (1723-90) 165. IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) 166. THE SCENE OF PESTALOZZI'S LABORS 167. FELLENBERG (1771-1844) 168. THE SCHOOL OF A HANDWORKER 169. THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA, 1740-86 170. A GERMAN LATE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY SCHOOL 171. DINTER (1760-1831) 172. DIESTERWEG (1790-1866) 173. THE PRUSSIAN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM CREATED 174. AN OLD FOUNDATION TRANSFORMED 175. COUNT DE FOURCROY (1755-1809) 176. VICTOR COUSIN (1792-1867) 177. OUTLINE OF THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE FRENCH STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM 178. EUROPE IN 1810 179. THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY, SINCE 1848 180. COUNT OF CAVOUR (1810-61) 181. OUTLINE OF THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE ITALIAN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM 182. A RAGGED-SCHOOL PUPIL 183. ADAM SMITH (1723-90) 184. THE REVEREND T. R. MALTHUS (1766-1834) 185. THE CREATORS OF THE MONITORIAL SYSTEM 186. THE LANCASTRIAN MODEL SCHOOL IN BOROUGH ROAD, SOUTH-WARE, LONDON 187. MONITORS TEACHING READING AT "STATIONS" 188. PROPER MONITORIAL-SCHOOL POSITIONS 189. ROBERT OWEN (1771-1858) 190. LORD BROUGHAM (1778-1868) 191. AN ENGLISH VILLAGE SCHOOL IN 1840 192. EXPENDITURE FROM THE EDUCATION GRANTS, 1839-70 193. LORD T. B. MACAULAY (1800-59) 194. WORK OF THE SCHOOL BOARDS IN PROVIDING SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS 195. THE ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AS FINALLY EVOLVED 196. THE FIRST SCHOOLHOUSE BUILT BY THE FREE SCHOOL SOCIETY IN NEW YORK CITY 197. "MODEL" SCHOOL BUILDING OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SOCIETY 198. EVOLUTION OF THE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 199. DATES OF THE GRANTING OF FULL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE 200. THE FIRST FREE PUBLIC SCHOOL IN DETROIT 201. THE PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL ELECTIONS OF 1835 202. THE NEW YORK REFERENDUM OF 1850 203. STATUS OF SCHOOL SUPERVISION IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1861 204. A TYPICAL NEW ENGLAND ACADEMY 205. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES 206. THE FIRST HIGH SCHOOL IN THE UNITED STATES 207. HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1860 208. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ESTABLISHED BY 1860 209. THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL LADDER 210. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF DENMARK 211. THE PROGRESS OF LITERACY IN EUROPE BY THE CLOSE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 212. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 213. THE JAPANESE TWO-CLASS SCHOOL SYSTEM 214. THE CHINESE EDUCATIONAL LADDER 215. BARON JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-73) 216. CHARLES DARWIN (1809-82) 217. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-95) 218. MAN POWER BEFORE THE DAYS OF STEAM 219. THRESHING WHEAT A CENTURY AGO 220. A CITY WATER-SUPPLY, ABOUT 1830 221. THE GREAT TRADE ROUTES OF THE MODERN WORLD 222. AN EXAMPLE OF THE SHIFTING OF OCCUPATIONS 223. THE PHILIPPINE SCHOOL SYSTEM 224. THE FIRST MODERN NORMAL SCHOOL 225. TEACHER-TRAINING IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1860 226. EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL CURRICULUM, AND OF METHODS OF TEACHING 227. AN "USHER" AND HIS CLASS 228. REDIRECTED MANUAL TRAINING 229. HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903) 230. THOMAS H. HUXLEY (1825-95) 231. A REORGANIZED KINDERGARTEN 232. THE PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 233. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TRADES IN MODERN INDUSTRY 234. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF AMERICAN CHILDREN, FOURTEEN TO TWENTY YEARS OF AGE 235. ABBE DE L'EPEE (1712-89) 236. THE REVEREND THOMAS H. GALLAUDET TEACHING THE DEAF AND DUMB 237. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS MAINTAINED BY THE STATE 238. KARL GEORG VON RAUMER (1783-1865) 239. THE ESTABLISHED AND EXPERIMENTAL NATIONS OF EUROPE 240. THE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE
In addition to the List of Readings and the Supplemental References given in the chapter bibliographies, the following works, not cited in the chapter bibliographies, will be found in most libraries and may be consulted, on all points to which they are likely to apply, for additional material:
I. GENERAL HISTORIES OF EDUCATION
1. Davidson, Thomas. History of Education. 292 pp. New York, 1900. Good on the interpretation of the larger movements of history.
*2. Monroe, Paul. Text Book in the History of Education. 772 pp. New York, 1905. Our most complete and scholarly history of education. This volume should be consulted freely. See analytical table of contents.
3. Munroe, Jas. P. The Educational Ideal. 262 pp. Boston, 1895. Contains very good short chapters on the educational reformers.
*4. Graves, F. P. A History of Education. 3 vols. New York, 1909- 13. Vol. I. Before the Middle Ages. 304 pp. Vol. II. During the Middle Ages. 314 pp. Vol. III. In Modern Times. 410 pp. These volumes contain valuable supplementary material, and good chapter bibliographies.
5. Hart, J. K. Democracy in Education. 418 pp. New York, 1918. An interpretation of educational progress.
6. Quick, R. H. Essays on Educational Reformers. 508 pp. 2d ed., New York, 1890. A series of well-written essays on the work of the theorists in education since the time of the Renaissance.
*7. Parker, S. C. The History of Modern Elementary Education. 506 pp. Boston, 1912. An excellent treatise on the development of the theory for our modern elementary school, with some good descriptions of modern practice.
II. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. Cubberley, E. P. Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education. 358 pp. New York. First ed., 1902; 2d ed., 1905. Gives detailed and classified bibliographies for all phases of the subject. Now out of print, but may be found in most normal school and college libraries, and many public libraries.
*1. Monroe, Paul, Editor. Cyclopedia of Education. 5 vols. New York, 1911-13. The most important Cyclopaedia of Education in print. Contains excellent articles on all historical points and events, with good selected bibliographies. A work that should be in all libraries, and freely consulted in using this Text. Its historical articles are too numerous to cite in the chapter bibliographies, but, due to the alphabetical arrangement and good cross-referencing, they may be found easily.
*2. Encylopaedia Britannica. 11th ed., 29 vols. Cambridge, 1910-11. Contains numerous important articles on all types of historical topics, and excellent biographical sketches. Should be consulted freely in using this Text.
*1. Barnard's American Journal of Education. Edited by Henry Barnard. 31 vols. Hartford, 1855-81. Reprinted, Syracuse, 1902. Index to the 31 vols. published by the United States Bureau of Education, Washington, 1892. A wonderful mine of all kinds of historical and educational information, and should be consulted freely on all points relating to European or American educational history.
In the chapter bibliographies, as above, the most important references are indicated with an asterisk (*).
THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
THE SOURCES OF OUR CIVILIZATION
The Civilization which we of to-day enjoy is a very complex thing, made up of many different contributions, some large and some small, from people in many different lands and different ages. To trace all these contributions back to their sources would be a task impossible of accomplishment, and, while specific parts would be interesting, for our purposes they would not be important. Especially would it not be profitable for us to attempt to trace the development of minor features, or to go back to the rudimentary civilizations of primitive peoples. The early development of civilization among the Chinese, the Hindoos, the Persians, the Egyptians, or the American Indians all alike present features which to some form a very interesting study, but our western civilization does not go back to these as sources, and consequently they need not concern us in the study we are about to begin. While we have obtained the alphabet from the Phoenicians and some of our mathematical and scientific developments through the medium of the Mohammedans, the real sources of our present-day civilization lie elsewhere, and these minor sources will be referred to but briefly and only as they influenced the course of western progress.
The civilization which we now know and enjoy has come down to us from four main sources. The Greeks, the Romans, and the Christians laid the foundations, and in the order named, and the study of the early history of our western civilization is a study of the work and the blending of these three main forces. It is upon these three foundation stones, superimposed upon one another, that our modern European and American civilization has been developed. The Germanic tribes, overrunning the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, added another new force of largest future significance, and one which profoundly modified all subsequent progress and development. To these four main sources we have made many additions in modern times, building an entirely new superstructure on the old foundations, but the groundwork of our civilization is composed of these four foundation elements. For these reasons a history of even modern education almost of necessity goes back, briefly at least, to the work and contributions of these ancient peoples.
Starting, then, with the work of the Greeks, we shall state briefly the contributions to the stream of civilization which have come down to us from each of the important historic peoples or groups or forces, and shall trace the blending and assimilating processes of the centuries. While describing briefly the educational institutions and ideas of the different peoples, we shall be far less concerned, as we progress down the centuries, with the educational and philosophical theories advanced by thinkers among them than with what was actually done, and with the lasting contributions which they made to our educational practices and to our present-day civilization.
The work of Greece lies at the bottom and, in a sense, was the most important of all the earlier contributions to our education and civilization. These people, known as Hellenes, were the pioneers of western civilization. Their position in the ancient world is well shown on the map reproduced opposite. To the East lay the older political despotisms, with their caste-type and intellectually stagnant organization of society, and to the North and West a little-known region inhabited by barbarian tribes. It was in such a world that our western civilization had its birth. These Greeks, and especially the Athenian Greeks, represented an entirely new spirit in the world. In place of the repression of all individuality, and the stagnant conditions of society that had characterized the civilizations before them, they developed a civilization characterized by individual freedom and opportunity, and for the first time in world history a premium was placed on personal and political initiative. In time this new western spirit was challenged by the older eastern type of civilization. Long foreseeing the danger, and in fear of what might happen, the little Greek States had developed educational systems in part designed to prepare their citizens for what might come. Finally, in a series of memorable battles, the Greeks, led by Athens, broke the dread power of the Persian name and made the future of this new type of civilization secure. At Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea the fate of our western civilization trembled in the balance. Now followed the great creative period in Greek life, during which the Athenian Greeks matured and developed a literature, philosophy, and art which were to be enjoyed not only by themselves, but by all western peoples since their time. In these lines of culture the world will forever remain debtor to this small but active and creative people.
The next great source of our western civilization was the work of Rome. Like the Greeks, the Romans also occupied a peninsula jutting southward into the Mediterranean, but in most respects they were far different in type. Unlike the active, imaginative, artistic, and creative Greeks, the Romans were a practical, concrete, unimaginative, and executive people. Energy, personality, and executive power were in greatest demand among them.
The work of Rome was political, governmental, and legal—not artistic or intellectual. Rome was strong where Greece was weak, and weak where Greece was strong. As a result the two peoples supplemented one another well in laying the foundations for our western civilization. The conquests of Greece were intellectual; those of Rome legal and governmental. Rome absorbed and amalgamated the whole ancient world into one Empire, to which she gave a common language, dress, manners, religion, literature, and political and legal institutions. Adopting Greek learning and educational practices as her own, she spread them throughout the then-known world. By her political organization she so fixed Roman ideas as to law and government throughout the Empire that Christianity built firmly on the Roman foundations, and the German barbarians, who later swept over the Empire, could neither destroy nor obliterate them. The Roman conquest of the world thus decisively influenced the whole course of western history, spread and perpetuated Greek ideas, and ultimately saved the world from a great disaster.
To Rome, then, we are indebted most of all for ideas as to government, and for the introduction of law and order into an unruly world. In all the intervening centuries between ancient Rome and ourselves, and in spite of many wars and repeated onslaughts of barbarism, Roman governmental law still influences and guides our conduct, and this influence is even yet extending to other lands and other peoples. We are also indebted to Rome for many practical skills and for important engineering knowledge, which was saved and passed on to Western Europe through the medium of the monks. On the other side of the picture, the recent great World War, with all its awful destruction of life and property, and injury to the orderly progress of civilization, may be traced directly to the Roman idea of world empire and the sway of one imperial government, imposing its rule and its culture on the rest of mankind.
Into this Roman Empire, united and made one by Roman arms and government, came the first of the modern forces in the ancient world—that of Christianity—the third great foundation element in our western civilization. Embracing in its early development many Greek philosophical ideas, building securely on the Roman governmental organization, and with its new message for a decaying world, Christianity forms the connecting link between the ancient and modern civilizations. Taking the conception of one God which the Jewish tribes of the East had developed, Christianity changed and expanded this in such a way as to make it a dominant idea in the world. Exalting the teachings of the fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, the future life, and the need for preparation for a hereafter, Christianity introduced a new type of religion and offered a new hope to the poor and oppressed of the ancient world. In so doing a new ethical force of first importance was added to the effective energies of mankind, and a basis for the education of all was laid, for the first time, in the history of the world.
Christianity came at just the right time not only to impart new energy and hopefulness to a decadent ancient civilization, but also to meet, conquer, and in time civilize the barbarian hordes from the North which overwhelmed the Roman Empire. A new and youthful race of German barbarians now appeared upon the scene, with resulting ravage and destruction, and anarchy and ignorance, and long centuries ensued during which ancient civilization fell prey to savage violence and superstition. Progress ceased in the ancient world. The creative power of antiquity seemed exhausted. The digestive and assimilative powers of the old world seemed gone. Greek was forgotten. Latin was corrupted. Knowledge of the arts and sciences was lost. Schools disappeared. Only the Christian Church remained to save civilization from the wreck, and it, too, was almost submerged in the barbaric flood. It took ten centuries partially to civilize, educate, and mould into homogeneous units this heterogeneous horde of new peoples. During this long period it required the strongest energies of the few who understood to preserve the civilization of the past for the enjoyment and use of a modern world.
Yet these barbarian Germans, great as was the havoc they wrought at first, in time contributed much to the stream of our modern civilization. They brought new conceptions of individual worth and freedom into a world thoroughly impregnated with the ancient idea of the dominance of the State over the individual. The popular assembly, an elective king, and an independent and developing system of law were contributions of first importance which these peoples brought. The individual man and not the State was, with them, the important unit in society. In the hands of the Angles and Saxons, particularly, but also among the Celts, Franks, Helvetii, and Belgae, this idea of individual freedom and of the subordination of the State to the individual has borne large fruit in modern times in the self-governing States of France, Switzerland, Belgium, England and the English self-governing dominions, and in the United States of America. After much experimenting it now seems certain that the Anglo- Saxon type of self-government, as developed first in England and further expanded in the United States, seems destined to be the type of government in future to rule the world.
It took Europe almost ten centuries to recover from the effects of the invasion of barbarism which the last two centuries of the Roman Empire witnessed, to save itself a little later from Mohammedan conquest, and to pick up the lost threads of the ancient life and begin again the work of civilization. Finally, however, this was accomplished, largely as a result of the labor of monks and missionaries. The barbarians were in time induced to settle down to an agricultural life, to accept Christianity in name at least, and to yield a more or less grudging obedience to monk and priest that they might thereby escape the torments of a world to come. Slowly the monasteries and the churches, aided here and there by far- sighted kings, worked at the restoration of books and learning, and finally, first in Italy, and later in the nations evolved from the tribes that had raided the Empire, there came a period of awakening and rediscovery which led to the development of the early university foundations, a wonderful revival of ancient learning, a great expansion of men's thoughts, a great religious awakening, a wonderful period of world exploration and discovery, the founding of new nations in new lands, the reawakening of the spirit of scientific inquiry, the rise of the democratic spirit, and the evolution of our modern civilization.
By the end of the eleventh century it was clear that the long battle for the preservation of civilization had been won, but it was not until the fourteenth century that the Revival of Learning in Italy gave clear evidence of the rise of the modern spirit. By the year 1500 much had been accomplished, and the new modern questioning spirit of the Italian Revival was making progress in many directions. Most of the old learning had been recovered; the printing-press had been invented, and was at work multiplying books; the study of Greek and Hebrew had been revived in the western world; trade and commerce had begun; the cities and the universities which had arisen had become centers of a new life; a new sea route to India had been found and was in use; Columbus had discovered a new world; the Church was more tolerant of new ideas than it had been for centuries; and thought was being awakened in the western world to a degree that had not taken place since the days of ancient Rome. The world seemed about ready for rapid advances in many directions, and great progress in learning, education, government, art, commerce, and invention seemed almost within its grasp. Instead, there soon opened the most bitter and vindictive religious conflict the world has ever known; western Christian civilization was torn asunder; a century of religious warfare ensued; and this was followed by other centuries of hatred and intolerance and suspicion awakened by the great conflict.
Still, out of this conflict, though it for a time checked the orderly development of civilization, much important educational progress was ultimately to come. In promulgating the doctrine that the authority of the Bible in religious matters is superior to the authority of the Church, the basis for the elementary school for the masses of the people, and in consequence the education of all, was laid. This meant the creation of an entirely new type of school—the elementary, for the masses, and taught in the native tongue—to supplement the Latin secondary schools which had been an outgrowth of the revival of ancient learning, and the still earlier cathedral and monastery schools of the Church.
The modern elementary vernacular school may then be said to be essentially a product of the Protestant Reformation. This is true in a special sense among those peoples which embraced some form of the Lutheran or Calvinistic faiths. These were the Germans, Moravians, Swedes, Norwegians, Finns, Danes, Dutch, Walloons, Swiss, Scotch, Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, and the English Puritans. As the Renaissance gave a new emphasis to the development of secondary schools by supplying them with a large amount of new subject-matter and a new motive, so the Reformation movement gave a new motive for the education of children not intended for the service of the State or the Church, and the development of elementary vernacular schools was the result. Only in England, of all the revolting countries, did this Protestant conception as to the necessity of education for salvation fail to take deep root, with the result that elementary education in England awaited the new political and social and industrial impulses of the latter half of the nineteenth century for its real development.
The rise of the questioning and inferring spirit in the Italian Renaissance marked the beginnings of the transition from mediaeval to modern attitudes, and one of the most important outgrowths of this was the rise of scientific inquiry which in time followed. This meant the application of human reason to the investigation of the phenomena of nature, with all that this eventually implied. This, slowly to be sure, turned the energies of mankind in a new direction, led to the substitution of inquiry and patient experimentation for assumption and disputation, and in time produced a scientific and industrial revolution which has changed the whole nature of the older problems. The scientific spirit has to-day come to dominate all lines of human thinking, and the applications of scientific principles have, in the past century, completely changed almost all the conditions surrounding human life. Applied to education, this new spirit has transformed the instruction and the methods of the schools, led to the creation of entirely new types of educational institutions, and introduced entirely new aims and methods and purposes into the educational process.
From inquiry into religious matters and inquiry into the phenomena of nature, it was but a short and a natural step to inquiry into the nature and functions of government. This led to a critical questioning of the old established order, the rise of new types of intellectual inquiry, the growth of a consciousness of national problems, and the bringing to the front of questions of political interest to a degree unknown since the days of ancient Rome. The eighteenth century marks, in these directions, a sharp turning-point in human thinking, and the end of mediaevalism and the ushering in of modern forms of intellectual liberty. The eighteenth century, too, witnessed a culmination of a long series of progressive changes which had been under way for centuries, and the flood time of a slowly but steadily rising tide of protest against the enslavement of the intellect and the limitation of natural human liberties by either Church or State. The flood of individualism which characterized the second half of the eighteenth century demanded outlet, and, denied, it rose and swept away ancient privileges, abuses, and barriers—religious, intellectual, social, and political—and opened the way for the marked progress in all lines which characterized the nineteenth century. Out of this new spirit was to come the American and the French Revolutions, the establishment of constitutional liberty and religious freedom, the beginnings of the abolition of privilege, the rise of democracy, a great extension of educational advantages, and the transfer of the control of the school from the Church to the State that the national welfare might be better promoted thereby.
Now arose the modern conception of the school as the great constructive instrument of the State, and a new individual and national theory as to both the nature and the purpose of education was advanced. Schools were declared to be essentially civil affairs; their purpose was asserted to be to promote the common welfare and advance the interests of the political State; ministers of education began to be appointed by the State to take over and exercise control; the citizen supplanted the ecclesiastic in the organization of education and the supervision of classroom teaching; the instruction in the school was changed in direction, and in time vastly broadened in scope; and the education of all now came to be conceived of as a birthright of the child of every citizen.
Since the middle of the nineteenth century a great world movement for the realization of these new aims, through the taking-over of education from religious bodies and the establishment of state-controlled school systems, has taken place. This movement is still going on. Beginning in the nations which were earliest in the front of the struggle to preserve and extend what was so well begun by little Greece and Imperial Rome, the state- control conception of education has, in the past three quarters of a century, spread to every continent on the globe. For ages a Church and private affair, of no particular concern to government and of importance to but a relatively small number of the people, education has to-day become, with the rise and spread of modern ideas as to human freedom, political equality, and industrial progress, a prime essential to the maintenance of good government and the promotion of national welfare, and it is now so recognized by progressive nations everywhere. With the spread of the state-control idea as to education have also gone western ideas as to government, human rights, social obligations, political equality, pure and applied science, trade, industry, transportation, intellectual and moral improvement, and humanitarian influences which are rapidly transforming and modernizing not only less progressive western nations, but ancient civilizations as well, and along the lines so slowly and so painfully worked out by the inheritors of the conceptions of human freedom first thought out in little Greece, and those of political equality and government under law so well worked out by ancient Rome, Western civilization thus promises to become the dominant force in world civilization and human progress, with general education as its agent and greatest constructive force.
Such is a brief outline sketch of the history of the rise and spread and progress of our western civilization, as expressed in the history of the progress of education, and as we shall trace it in much more detail in the chapters which are to follow. The road that man has traveled from the days when might made right, and when children had no claims which the State or parents were bound to respect, to a time when the child is regarded as of first importance, and adults represented in the State declare by law that the child shall be protected and shall have abundant educational advantages, is a long road and at times a very crooked one. Its ups and downs and forward movements have been those of the progress of the race, and in consequence a history of educational progress must be in part a history of the progress of civilization itself. Human civilization, though, represents a more or less orderly evolution, and the education of man stands as one of the highest expressions of a belief in the improvability of the race of which mankind is capable.
It is such a development that we propose to trace, and, having now sketched the broader outlines of the treatment, we next turn to a filling- in of the details, and begin with the Ancient World and the first foundation element as found in the little City-States of ancient Greece.
THE ANCIENT WORLD
THE FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF OUR WESTERN CIVILIZATION GREECE—ROME—CHRISTIANITY
THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION
I. GREECE AND ITS PEOPLE
THE LAND. Ancient Greece, or Hellas as the Greeks called their homeland, was but a small country. The map given below shows the Aegean world superimposed on the States of the old Northwest Territory, from which it may be seen that the Greek mainland was a little less than half as large as the State of Illinois. Greece proper was about the size of the State of West Virginia, but it was a much more mountainous land. No spot in Greece was over forty miles from the sea. Attica, where a most wonderful intellectual life arose and flourished for centuries, and whose contributions to civilization were the chief glory of Greece, was smaller than two average-size Illinois counties, and about two thirds the size of the little State of Rhode Island.  The country was sparsely populated, except in a few of the City-States, and probably did not, at its most prosperous period, contain much more than a million and a half of people— citizens, foreigners, and slaves included.
The land was rough and mountainous, and deeply indented by the sea. The climate and vegetation were not greatly unlike the climate and vegetation of Southern California. Pine and fir on the mountain-slopes, and figs, olives, oranges, lemons, and grapes on the hillsides and plains below, were characteristic of the land. Fishing, agriculture, and the raising of cattle and sheep were the important industries. A temperate, bracing climate, short, mild winters, and a long, dry summer gave an opportunity for the development of this wonderful civilization. Like Southern California or Florida in winter, it was essentially an out-of-doors country. The high mountains to the rear, the sun-steeped skies, and the brilliant sea in front were alike the beauty of the land and the inspiration of the people. Especially was this true of Attica, which had the seashore, the plain, the high mountains, and everywhere magnificent views through an atmosphere of remarkable clearness. A land of incomparable beauty and charm, it is little wonder that the Greek citizen, and the Athenian in particular, took pride in and loved his country, and was willing to spend much time in preparing himself to govern and defend it.
THE GOVERNMENT. Politically, Greece was composed of a number of independent City-States of small size. They had been settled by early tribes, which originally held the land in common. Attica, with its approximately seven hundred square miles of territory, was an average-size City-State. The central city, the surrounding farming and grazing lands, and the coastal regions all taken together, formed the State, the citizens of which—city-residents, farmers, herdsmen, and fishermen—controlled the government. There were in all some twenty of these City-States in mainland Greece, the most important of which were Attica, of which Athens was the central city; Laconia, of which Sparta was the central city; and Boeotia, of which Thebes was the central city. Some of the States developed democracies, of which class Athens became the most notable example, while some were governed as oligarchies. Of all the different States but few played any conspicuous part in the history of Greece. Of these few Attica stands clearly above them all as the leader in thought and art and the most progressive in government. Here, truly, was a most wonderful people, and it is with Attica that the student of the history of education is most concerned. The best of all Greece was there.
The little City-States of Greece, as has just been said, were independent States, just like modern nations. While all the Greeks regarded themselves as tribes of a single family, descended from a common ancestor, Hellen, and the bonds of a common race, language, and religion tended to unite them into a sort of brotherhood, the different City-States were held apart by their tribal origins, by narrow political sympathies, and by petty laws. A citizen of one city, for example, was an alien in another, and could not hold property or marry in a city not his own. Such attitudes and laws were but natural, the time and age considered.
Sometimes, in case of great danger, as at the time of the Persian invasions (492-479 B.C.), a number of the States would combine to form a defensive league; at other times they made war on one another. The federal principle, such as we know it in the United States in our state and national governments, never came into play. At different times Athens, Sparta, and Thebes aspired to the leadership of Greece and tried to unite the little States into a Hellenic Nation, but the mutual jealousies and the extreme individualism of the people, coupled with the isolation of the States and the difficulties of intercommunication through the mountain passes, stood in the way of any permanent union.  What Rome later accomplished with relative ease and on a large scale, Greece was unable to do on even a small scale. A lack of capacity to unite for cooeperative undertakings seemed to be a fatal weakness of the Greek character.
THE PEOPLE. The Greeks were among the first of the European peoples to attain to any high degree of civilization. Their story runs back almost to the dawn of recorded history. As early as 3500 B.C. they were in an advanced stone age, and by 2500 B.C. had reached the age of bronze. The destruction of Homer's Troy dates back to 1200 B.C., and the Homeric poems to 1100 B.C., while an earlier Troy (Schliemann's second city) goes back to 2400 B.C. This history concerns the mainland of Asia Minor. By 1000 B.C. the southern peninsula of Greece had been colonized, between 900 and 800 B.C. Attica and other portions of upper Greece had been settled, and by 650 B.C. Greek colonization had extended to many parts of the Mediterranean. 
The lower part of the Greek peninsula, known as Laconia, was settled by the Dorian branch of the Greek family, a practical, forceful, but a wholly unimaginative people. Sparta was their most important city. To the north were the Ionic Greeks, a many-sided and a highly imaginative people. Athens was their chief city. In the settlement of Laconia the Spartans imposed themselves as an army of occupation on the original inhabitants, whom they compelled to pay tribute to them, and established a military monarchy in southern Greece. The people of Attica, on the other hand, absorbed into their own body the few earlier settlers of the Attic plain. They also established a monarchy, but, being a people more capable of progress, this later evolved into a democracy. The people of Attica were in consequence a somewhat mixed race, which possibly in part accounts for their greater intellectual ability and versatility. 
It accounts, though, only in part. Climate, beautiful surroundings, and contact with the outside world probably also contributed something, but the real basis underneath was the very superior quality of the people of Attica. In some way, just how we do not know, these people came to be endowed with a superior genius and the rather unusual ability to make those progressive changes in living and government which enabled them to make the most of their surroundings and opportunities, and to advance while others stood still. Far more than other Greeks, the people of Attica were imaginative, original, versatile, adaptable, progressive, endowed with rare mental ability, keenly sensitive to beauty in nature and art, and possessed of a wonderful sense of proportion and a capacity for moderation in all things. Only on such an assumption can we account for their marvelous achievements in art, philosophy, literature, and science at this very early period in the development of the civilization of the world.
CLASSES IN THE POPULATION. Greece, as was the ancient world in general, was built politically on the dominant power of a ruling class. In consequence, all of course could not become citizens of the State, even after a democracy had been evolved. Citizenship came with birth and proper education, and, before 509 B.C., foreigners were seldom admitted to privileges in the State. Only a male citizen might hold office, protect himself in the courts, own land, or attend the public assemblies. Only a citizen, too, could participate in the religious festivals and rites, for religion was an affair of the ruling families of the State. In consequence, family, religion, and citizenship were all bound up together, and education and training were chiefly for citizenship and religious (moral) ends.
Even more, citizenship everywhere in the earlier period was a degree to be attained to only after proper education and preliminary military and political training. This not only made some form of education necessary, but confined educational advantages to male youths of proper birth. There was of course no purpose in educating any others.  From Figure 4 it will be seen what a small percentage of the total population this included. Education in Greece was essentially the education of the children of the ruling class to perpetuate the rule of that class.
Attica almost alone among the Greek States adopted anything approaching a liberal attitude toward the foreign-born; in Sparta, and generally elsewhere in Greece, they were looked upon with deep suspicion. As a result most of the foreign residents of Greece were to be found in Athens, or its neighboring port city (the Piraeus), attracted there by the hospitality of the people and the intellectual or commercial advantages of these cities. After Athens had become the center of world thought, many foreigners took up their residence in the city because of the importance of its intellectual life. Foreigners, though, they remained up to 509 B.C. (See page 40.) Only rarely before this date, and then only for some conspicuous act of patriotism, and by special vote of the citizens, was a foreigner admitted to citizenship. Unlike Rome, which received those of alien birth freely into its citizenship, and opened up to them large opportunities of every kind, the Greeks persistently refused to assimilate the foreign-born. Regarding themselves as a superior people, descended from the gods, they held themselves apart rather exclusively as above other peoples. This kept the blood pure, but, from the standpoint of world usefulness, it was a serious defect in Greek life. 
Beneath both citizens and foreign residents was a great foundation mass of working slaves, who rendered all types of menial and intellectual services. Sailors, household servants, field workers, clerks in shops and offices, accountants, and pedagogues were among the more common occupations of slaves in Greece. Many of these had been citizens and learned men of other City-States or countries, but had been carried off as captives in some war. This was a common practice in the ancient world, slavery being the lot of alien conquered people almost without exception. The composition of Attica, just before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.) is shown in Figure 4. The great number of slaves and foreigners is clearly seen, even though the citizenship had by this time been greatly extended. In Sparta and in other City-States somewhat similar conditions prevailed as to numbers  but there the slaves (Helots) occupied a lower status than in Athens, being in reality serfs, tied to and being sold with the land, and having no rights which a citizen was bound to respect.
Education, then, being only for the male children of citizens, and citizenship a degree to be attained to on the basis of education and training, let us next see in what that education consisted, and what were its most prominent characteristics and results.
II. EARLY EDUCATION IN GREECE
Some form of education that would train the son of the citizen for participation in the religious observances and duties of a citizen of the State, and would prepare the State for defense against outward enemies, was everywhere in Greece recognized as a public necessity, though its provision, nature, and extent varied in the different City-States. We have clear information only as to Sparta and Athens, and will consider only these two as types. Sparta is interesting as representing the old Greek tribal training, from which Sparta never progressed. Many of the other Greek City-States probably maintained a system of training much like that of Sparta. Such educational systems stand as undesirable examples of extreme state socialism, contributed little to our western civilization, and need not detain us long. It was Athens, and a few other City-States which followed her example, which presented the best of Greece and passed on to the modern world what was most valuable for civilization.
1. Education in Sparta
THE PEOPLE. The system of training which was maintained in Sparta was in part a reflection of the character of the people, and in part a result of its geographical location. A warlike people by nature, the Spartans were for long regarded as the ablest fighters in Greece. Laconia, their home, was a plain surrounded by mountains. They represented but a small percentage of the total population, which they held in subjection to them by their military power.  The slaves (Helots) were often troublesome, and were held in check by many kinds of questionable practices. Education for citizenship with the Spartans meant education for usefulness in an intensely military State, where preparedness was a prerequisite to safety. Strength, courage, endurance, cunning, patriotism, and obedience were the virtues most highly prized, while the humane, literary, and artistic sentiments were neglected (R. I). Aristotle well expressed it when he said that "Sparta prepared and trained for war, and in peace rusted like a sword in its scabbard."
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. At birth the child was examined by a council of elders (R. I), and if it did not appear to be a promising child it was exposed to die in the mountains. If kept, the mother had charge of the child until seven if a boy, and still longer if a girl. At the beginning of the eighth year, and until the boy reached the age of eighteen, he lived in a public barrack, where he was given little except physical drill and instruction in the Spartan virtues. His food and clothing were scant and his bed hard. Each older man was a teacher. Running, leaping, boxing, wrestling, military music, military drill, ball-playing, the use of the spear, fighting, stealing, and laconic speech and demeanor constituted the course of study. From eighteen to twenty was spent in professional training for war, and frequently the youth was publicly whipped to develop his courage and endurance. For the next ten years—that is, until he was thirty years old—he was in the army at some frontier post. At thirty the young man was admitted to full citizenship and compelled to marry, though continuing to live at the public barrack and spending his energies in training boys (R. 1). Women and girls were given gymnastic training to make them strong and capable of bearing strong children. The family was virtually suppressed in the interests of defense and war.  The intellectual training consisted chiefly in committing to memory the Laws of Lycurgus, learning a few selections from Homer, and listening to the conversation of the older men.
As might naturally be supposed, Sparta contributed little of anything to art, literature, science, philosophy, or government. She left to the world some splendid examples of heroism, as for example the sacrifice of Leonidas and his Spartans to hold the pass at Thermopylae, and a warning example of the brutalizing effect on a people of excessive devotion to military training. It is a pleasure to turn from this dark picture to the wonderful (for the time) educational system that was gradually developed at Athens.
2. The old Athenian education
SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS. Athenian education divides itself naturally into two divisions—the old Athenian training which prevailed up to about the time of the close of the Persian Wars (479 B.C.) and was an outgrowth of earlier tribal observances and practices, and later Athenian education, which characterized the period of maximum greatness of Athens and afterward. We shall describe these briefly, in order.
The state military socialism of Sparta made no headway in more democratic Attica. The citizens were too individualistic, and did their own thinking too well to permit the establishment of any such plan. While education was a necessity for citizenship, and the degree could not be obtained without it, the State nevertheless left every citizen free to make his own arrangements for the education of his sons, or to omit such education if he saw fit. Only instruction in reading, writing, music, and gymnastics were required. If family pride, and the sense of obligation of a parent and a citizen were not sufficient to force the father to educate his son, the son was then by law freed from the necessity of supporting his father in his old age. The State supervised education, but did not establish it.
The teachers were private teachers, and derived their livelihood from fees. These naturally varied much with the kind of teacher and the wealth of the parent, much as private lessons in music or dancing do to-day. As was common in antiquity, the teachers occupied but a low social position (R. 5), and only in the higher schools of Athens was their standing of any importance. Greek literature contains many passages which show the low social status of the schoolmaster.  Schools were open from dawn to dark. The school discipline was severe, the rod being freely used both in the school and in the home. There were no Saturday and Sunday holidays or long vacations, such as we know, but about ninety festival and other state holidays served to break the continuity of instruction (R. 3). The schoolrooms were provided by the teachers, and were wholly lacking in teaching equipment, in any modern sense of the term. However, but little was needed. The instruction was largely individual instruction, the boy coming, usually in charge of an old slave known as a pedagogue, to receive or recite his lessons. The teaching process was essentially a telling and a learning-by-heart procedure.
For the earlier years there were two schools which boys attended—the music and literary school, and a school for physical training. Boys probably spent part of the day at one school and part at the other, though this is not certain. They may have attended the two schools on alternate days. From sixteen to eighteen, if his parents were able, the boy attended a state-supported gymnasium, where an advanced type of physical training was given. As this was preparatory for the next two years of army service, the gymnasia were supported by the State more as preparedness measures than as educational institutions, though they partook of the nature of both.
EARLY CHILDHOOD. As at Sparta the infant was examined at birth, but the father, and not a council of citizens, decided whether or not it was to be "exposed" or preserved. Three ceremonies, of ancient tribal origin, marked the recognition and acceptance of the child. The first took place five days after birth, when the child was carried around the family hearth by the nurse, followed by the household in procession. This ceremony, followed by a feast, was designed to place the child forever under the care of the family gods. On the tenth day the child was named by the father, who then formally recognized the child as his own and committed himself to its rearing and education. The third ceremony took place at the autumn family festival, when all children born during the preceding year were presented to the father's clansmen, who decided, by vote, whether or not the boy or girl was the legitimate and lawful child of Athenian parents. If approved, the child's name was entered on the registry of the clan, and he might then aspire to citizenship and inherit property from his parent (R. 4).
Up to the age of seven both boys and girls grew up together in the home, under the care of the nurse and mother, engaging in much the same games and sports as do children anywhere. From the first they were carefully disciplined for good behavior and for the establishment of self-control (R. 3). After the age of seven the boy and girl parted company in the matter of their education, the girl remaining closely secluded in the home (women and children were usually confined to the upper floor of the house) and being instructed in the household arts by her mother, while the boy went to different teachers for his education. Probably many girls learned to read and write from their mothers or nurses, and the daughters of well- to-do citizens learned to spin, weave, sew, and embroider. Music was also a common accomplishment of women. 
THE SCHOOL OF THE GRAMMATIST. A Greek boy, unlike a modern school child, did not go to one teacher. Instead he had at least two teachers, and sometimes three. To the grammatist, who was doubtless an evolution from an earlier tribal scribe, he went to learn to read and write and count. The grammatist represented the earliest or primary teacher. To the music teacher, who probably at first taught reading and writing also, he went for his instruction in music and literature. Finally, to the palaestra he went for instruction in physical training (R. 3).
Reading was taught by first learning the letters, then syllables, and finally words.  Plaques of baked earth, on which the alphabet was written, like the more modern horn-book (see Figure 130), were frequently used.  The ease with which modern children learn to read was unknown in Greece. Reading was very difficult to learn, as accentuation, punctuation, spacing between words, and small letters had not as yet been introduced. As a result the study required much time,  and much personal ingenuity had to be exercised in determining the meaning of a sentence. The inscription shown in Figure 6 will illustrate the difficulties quite well. The Athenian accent, too, was hard to acquire.
The pupil learned to write by first tracing, with the stylus, letters cut in wax tablets, and later by copying exercises set for him by his teacher, using the wax tablet and writing on his knee. Still later the pupil learned to write with ink on papyrus or parchment, though, due to the cost of parchment in ancient times, this was not greatly used. Slates and paper were of course unknown in Greece.
There was little need for arithmetic, and but little was taught. Arithmetic such as we teach would have been impossible with their cumbrous system of notation.  Only the elements of counting were taught, the Greek using his fingers or a counting-board, such as is shown in Figure 8, to do his simple reckoning.
GREAT IMPORTANCE OF READING AND LITERATURE. After the pupil had learned to read, much attention was given to accentuation and articulation, in order to secure beautiful reading. Still more, in reading or reciting, the parts were acted out. The Greeks were a nation of actors, and the recitations in the schools and the acting in the theaters gave plenty of opportunity for expression. There were no schoolbooks, as we know them. The master dictated and the pupils wrote down, or, not uncommonly, learned by heart what the master dictated. Ink and parchment were now used, the boy making his own schoolbooks. Homer was the first and the great reading book of the Greeks, the Iliad and the Odyssey being the Bible of the Greek people. Then followed Hesiod, Theognis, the Greek poets, and the fables of Aesop.  Reading, declamation, and music were closely interrelated. To appeal to the emotions and to stir the will along moral and civic lines was a fundamental purpose of the instruction (R. 5). A modern writer well characterizes the ancient instruction in literature in the following words:
By making the works of the great poets of the Greek people the material of their education, the Athenians attained a variety of objects difficult of attainment by any other one means. The fact is, the ancient poetry of Greece, with its finished form, its heroic tales and characters, its accounts of peoples far removed in time and space, its manliness and pathos, its directness and simplicity, its piety and wisdom, its respect for law and order, combined with its admiration for personal initiative and worth, furnished, in the hands of a careful and genial teacher, a material for a complete education such as could not well be matched even in our own day. What instruction in ethics, politics, social life, and manly bearing could not find a fitting vehicle in the Homeric poems, not to speak of the geography, the grammar, the literary criticism, and the history which the comprehension of them involved? Into what a wholesome, unsentimental, free world did these poems introduce the imaginative Greek boy! What splendid ideals of manhood and womanhood did they hold up for his admiration and imitation! From Hesiod he would learn all that he needed to know about his gods and their relation to him and his people. From the elegiac poets he would derive a fund of political and social wisdom, and an impetus to patriotism, which would go far to make him a good man and a good citizen. From the iambic poets he would learn to express with energy his indignation at meanness, feebleness, wrong, and tyranny, while from the lyric poets he would learn the language suitable to every genial feeling and impulse of the human heart. And in reciting or singing all these, how would his power of terse, idiomatic expression, his sense of poetic beauty and his ear for rhythm and music be developed! With what a treasure of examples of every virtue and vice, and with what a fund of epigrammatic expression would his memory be furnished! How familiar he would be with the character and ideals of his nation, how deeply in sympathy with them! And all this was possible even before the introduction of letters. With this event a new era in education begins. The boy now not only learns and declaims his Homer, and sings his Simonides or Sappho; he learns also to write down their verses from dictation, and so at once to read and to write. This, indeed, was the way in which these two (to us) fundamental arts were acquired. As soon as the boy could trace with his finger in sand, or scratch with a stylus on wax, the forms of the letters, and combine them into syllables and words, he began to write poetry from his master's dictation. The writing-lesson of to-day was the reading, recitation, or singing-lesson of to-morrow. Every boy made his own reading book, and, if he found it illegible, and stumbled in reading, he had only himself to blame. The Greeks, and especially the Athenians, laid the greatest stress on reading well, reciting well, and singing well, and the youth who could not do all three was looked upon as uncultured. Nor could he hide his want of culture, since young men were continually called upon, both at home and at more or less public gatherings, to perform their part in the social entertainment. 
[Illustration: FIG. 9. AN ATHENIAN SCHOOL From a cup discovered at Caere, signed by the painter Duris, and now in the Museum of Berlin.
A LESSON IN MUSIC AND LANGUAGE Explanation: At the right is the paidagogos; he is seated, and turns his head to look at his pupil, who is standing before his master. The latter holds a writing-tablet and a stylus; he is perhaps correcting a task. At the left a pupil is taking a music lesson. On the wall are hung a roll of manuscript, a folded writing- tablet, a lyre, and an unknown cross-shaped object.
A LESSON IN MUSIC AND POETRY Explanation: At the right sits, cross- legged, the paidagogos, who has just brought in his pupil. The boy stands before the teacher of poetry and recites his lesson. The master, in a chair, holds in his hand a roll which he is unfolding, upon which we see Greek letters. Above these three figures we see on the wall a cup, a lyre, and a leather case of flutes. To the bag is attached the small box containing mouthpieces of different kinds for the flutes. Farther on a pupil is receiving a lesson in music. The master and pupil are both seated on seats without backs. The master, with head erect, looks at the pupil who, bent over his lyre, seems absorbed in his playing. Above are hanging a basket, a lyre, and a cup. On the wall is an inscription in Greek.]
THE MUSIC SCHOOL. The teacher in this school gradually separated himself from the grammatist, and often the two were found in adjoining rooms in the same school. In his functions he succeeded the wandering poet or minstrel of earlier times. Music teachers were common in all the City- States of Greece. To this teacher the boy went at first to recite his poetry, and after the thirteenth year for a special music course. The teacher was known as a citharist, and the instrument usually used was the seven-stringed lyre. This resembled somewhat our modern guitar. The flute was also used somewhat, but never grew into much favor, partly because it tended to excite rather than soothe, and partly because of the contortions of the face to which its playing gave rise. Rhythm, melody, and the feeling for measure and time were important in instruction, whose office was to soothe, purge, and harmonize man within and make him fit for moral instruction through the poetry with which their music was ever associated. Instead of being a distinct art, as with us, and taught by itself, music with the Greeks was always subsidiary to the expression of the spirit of their literature, and in aim it was for moral-training ends.  Both Aristotle and Plato advocate state control of school music to insure sound moral results. Inferior as their music was to present-day music, it exerted an influence over their lives which it is difficult for an American teacher to appreciate.
The first lessons taught the use of the instrument, and the simple chants of the religious services were learned. As soon as the pupil knew how to play, the master taught him to render the works of the great lyric poets of Greece. Poetry and music together thus formed a single art. At thirteen a special music course began which lasted until sixteen, but which only the sons of the more well-to-do citizens attended. Every boy, though, learned some music, not that he might be a musician, but that he might be musical and able to perform his part at social gatherings and participate in the religious services of the State. Professional playing was left to slaves and foreigners, and was deemed unworthy a free man and a citizen. Professionalism in either music or athletics was regarded as disgraceful. The purpose of both activities was harmonious personal development, which the Greeks believed contributed to moral worth.
THE PALAESTRA; GYMNASTICS. Very unlike our modern education, fully one half of a boy's school life, from eight to sixteen, was given to sports and games in another school under different teachers, known as the palaestra. The work began gradually, but by fifteen had taken precedence over other studies. As in music, harmonious physical development and moral ends were held to be of fundamental importance. The standards of success were far from our modern standards. To win the game was of little significance; the important thing was to do the part gracefully and, for the person concerned, well. To attain to a graceful and dignified carriage of the body, good physical health, perfect control of the temper, and to develop quickness of perception, self-possession, ease, and skill in the games were the aims—not mere strength or athletic prowess (R. 2). Only a few were allowed to train for participation in the Olympian games.
The work began with children's games, contests in running, and ball games of various kinds. Deportment—how to get up, walk, sit, and how to achieve easy manners—was taught by the masters. After the pupils came to be a little older there was a definite course of study, which included, in succession: (1) leaping and jumping, for general bodily and lung development; (2) running contests, for agility and endurance; (3) throwing the discus,  for arm exercise; (4) casting the javelin, for bodily poise and cooerdination of movement, as well as for future use in hunting; (5) boxing and wrestling, for quickness, agility, endurance, and the control of the temper and passions. Swimming and dancing were also included for all, dancing being a slow and graceful movement of the body to music, to develop grace of motion and beauty of form, and to exercise the whole human being, body and soul. The minuet and some of our folk- dancing are our nearest approach to the Greek type of dancing, though still not like it. The modern partner dance was unknown in ancient Greece.
The exercises were performed in classes, or in small groups. They took place in the open air, and on a dirt or sandy floor. They were accompanied by music—usually the flute, played by a paid performer. A number of teachers looked after the boys, examining them physically, supervising the exercises, directing the work, and giving various forms of instruction.
THE GYMNASIAL TRAINING, SIXTEEN TO EIGHTEEN. Up to this point the education provided was a private and a family affair. In the home and in the school the boy had now been trained to be a gentleman, to revere the gods, to be moral and upright according to Greek standards, and in addition he had been given that training in reading, writing, music, and athletic exercises that the State required parents to furnish. It is certain that many boys, whose parents could ill afford further expense for schooling, were allowed to quit the schools at from thirteen to fifteen. Those who expected to become full citizens, however, and to be a part of the government and hold office, were required to continue until twenty years of age. Two years more were spent in schooling, largely athletic, and two years additional in military service. Of this additional training, if his parents chose and could afford it, the State now took control.
[Illustration: FIG. II. GROUND-PLAN OF THE GYMNASIUM AT EPHESOS, IN ASIA MINOR Explanation: A, B, C, pillared corridors, or portico; D, an open space, possibly a palaestra, evidently intended to supply the peristylium; E, a long, narrow hall used for games of ball; F, a large hall with seats; G, in which was suspended a sack filled with chaff for the use of boxers; H, where the young men sprinkled themselves with dust; I, the cold bath; K, where the wrestling-master anointed the bodies of the contestants; L, the cooling-off room; M, the furnace-room; N, the vapor bath; 0, the dry- sweating apartment; P, the hot bath; Q, Q', rooms for games, for the keepers, or for other uses; R, R', covered stadia, for use in bad weather; S, S, S, S, S, rows of seats, looking upon T, the uncovered stadium; U, groves, with seats and walks among the trees; V, V', recessed seats for the use of philosophers, rhetoricians, and others.]
For the years from sixteen to eighteen the boy attended a state gymnasium, of which two were erected outside of Athens by the State, in groves of trees, in 590 B.C. Others were erected later in other parts of Greece. Figure 11 shows the ground plan of one of these gymnasia, and a study of the explanation of the plan will reveal the nature of these establishments. The boy now had for teachers a number of gymnasts of ability. The old exercises of the palaestra were continued, but running, wrestling, and boxing were much emphasized. The youth learned to run in armor, while wrestling and boxing became more severe. He also learned to ride a horse, to drive a chariot, to sing and dance in the public choruses, and to participate in the public state and religious processions.
Still more, the youth now passed from the supervision of a family pedagogue to the supervision of the State. For the first time in his life he was now free to go where he desired about the city; to frequent the streets, market-place, and theater; to listen to debates and jury trials, and to witness the great games; and to mix with men in the streets and to mingle somewhat in public affairs. He saw little of girls, except his sisters, but formed deep friendships with other young men of his age.  Aside from a requirement that he learn the laws of the State, his education during this period was entirely physical and civic. If he abused his liberty he was taken in hand by public officials charged with the supervision of public morals. He was, however, still regarded as a minor, and his father (or guardian) was held responsible for his public behavior.
THE CITIZEN-CADET YEARS, EIGHTEEN TO TWENTY. The supervision of the State during the preceding two years had in a way been joint with that of his father; now the State took complete control. At the age of eighteen his father took him before the proper authorities of his district or ward in the city, and presented him as a candidate for citizenship. He was examined morally and physically, and if sound, and if the records showed that he was the legitimate son of a citizen, his name was entered on the register of his ward as a prospective member of it (R. 4). His long hair was now cut, he donned the black garb of the citizen, was presented to the people along with others at a public ceremony, was publicly armed with a spear and a shield, and then, proceeding to one of the shrines of the city, on a height overlooking it, he solemnly took the Ephebic oath:
I will never disgrace these sacred arms, nor desert my companion in the ranks. I will fight for temples and public property, both alone and with many. I will transmit my fatherland, not only not less, but greater and better, than it was transmitted to me. I will obey the magistrates who may at any time be in power. I will observe both the existing laws and those which the people may unanimously hereafter make, and, if any person seek to annul the laws or to set them at naught, I will do my best to prevent him, and will defend them both alone and with many. I will honor the religion of my fathers. And I call to witness Aglauros, Enyalios, Ares, Zeus, Thallo, Auxo, and Hegemone.
He was now an Ephebos, or citizen-cadet, with still two years of severe training ahead of him before he could take up the full duties of citizenship. The first year he spent in and near Athens, learning to be a soldier. He did what recruits do almost everywhere—drill, camp in the open, learn the army methods and discipline, and march in public processions and take part in religious festivals. This first year was much like that of new troops in camp being worked into real soldiers. At the end of the year there was a public drill and inspection of the cadets, after which they were sent to the frontier. It was now his business to come to know his country thoroughly—its topography, roads, springs, seashores, and mountain passes. He also assisted in enforcing law and order throughout the country districts, as a sort of a state constabulary or rural police. At the end of this second year of practical training the second examination was held, the cadet was now admitted to full citizenship, and passed to the ranks of a trained citizen in the reserve army of defense, as does a boy in Switzerland to-day (R. 4).
RESULTS UNDER THE OLD GREEK SYSTEM. Such was the educational system which was in time evolved from the earlier tribal practices of the citizens of old Athens. If we consider Sparta as representing the earlier tribal education of the Greek peoples, we see how far the Athenians, due to their wonderful ability to make progress, were able to advance beyond this earlier type of preparation for citizenship (R. 5). Not only did Athens surpass all Greece, but, for the first time in the history of the world, we find here, expressing itself in the education of the young, the modern western, individualistic and democratic spirit, as opposed to the deadening caste and governmental systems of the East. Here first we find a free people living under political conditions which favored liberty, culture, and intellectual growth, and using their liberty to advance the culture and the knowledge of the people (R. 6).
Here also we find, for the first time, the thinkers of the State deeply concerned with the education of the youth of the State, and viewing education as a necessity to make life worth living and secure the State from dangers, both within and without. To prepare men by a severe but simple and honest training to fear the gods, to do honest work, to despise comfort and vice, to obey the laws, to respect their neighbors and themselves, and to reverence the wisdom of their race, was the aim of this old education. The schooling for citizenship was rigid, almost puritanical, but it produced wonderful results, both in peace and in war.  Men thus trained guided the destinies of Athens during some two centuries, and the despotism of the East as represented by Persia could not defeat them at Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea.
THE SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE CURRICULUM. The simplicity of the curriculum was one of its marked features. In a manner seldom witnessed in the world's educational history, the Greeks used their religion, literature, government, and the natural activities of young men to impart an education of wonderful effectiveness.  The subjects we have valued so highly for training were to them unknown. They taught no arithmetic or grammar, no science, no drawing, no higher mathematics, and no foreign tongue. Music, the literature and religion of their own people, careful physical training, and instruction in the duties and practices of citizenship constituted the entire curriculum.
It was an education by doing; not one of learning from books. That it was an attractive type of education there is abundant testimony by the Greeks themselves. We have not as yet come to value physical education as did the Greeks, nor are we nearly so successful in our moral education, despite the aid of the Christian religion which they did not know. It was, to be sure, class education, and limited to but a small fraction of the total population. In it girls had no share. There were many features of Greek life, too, that are repugnant to modern conceptions. Yet, despite these limitations, the old education of Athens still stands as one of the most successful in its results of any system of education which has been evolved in the history of the world. Considering its time and place in the history of the world and that it was a development for which there were nowhere any precedents, it represented a very wonderful evolution.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Why are imaginative ability and many-sided natures such valuable characteristics for any people?
2. Why is the ability to make progressive changes, possessed so markedly by the Athenian Greeks, an important personal or racial characteristic?
3. Are the Athenian characteristics, stated in the middle of page 19, characteristics capable of development by training, or are they native, or both?