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THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1990 ELECTRONIC VERSION

The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of United States Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency Attn: Public Affairs Washington, DC 20505 (703) 351-2053

—————————————————————————— Table of Contents

Text (249 nations, dependent areas, and other entities) Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria

Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma Burundi

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czechoslovakia

Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Germany, Federal Republic of (West Germany) Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone Ireland Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy Ivory Coast

Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait

Laos Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Luxembourg

Macau Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway

Oman

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau) Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion Romania Rwanda

St. Helena St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Soviet Union Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay

Vanuatu Vatican City Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World

Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen} Yugoslavia

Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe

Taiwan

Appendix A: The United Nations System Appendix B: International Organizations Appendix C: Country Membership in International Organizations Appendix D: Weights and Measures Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Note: all maps will be available only in the printed version for the foreseeable future —————————————————————————— Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. In the Government section the former Branches entry has been replaced by three entries—Executive branch, Legislative branch, and Judicial branch. The Leaders entry now has subentries for Chief of State, Head of Government, and their deputies. The Elections entry has been completely redone with information for each branch of the national government, including the date for the last election, the date for the next election, results (percent of vote by candidate or party), and current distribution of seats by party. In the Economy section there is a new entry on Illicit drugs.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations)

avdp. avoirdupois c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight CY calendar year DWT deadweight ton est. estimate Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States f.o.b. free on board FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) FY fiscal year GDP gross domestic product GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany) GNP gross national product GRT gross register ton km kilometer km2 square kilometer kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour m meter NA not available NEGL negligible nm nautical mile NZ New Zealand ODA official development assistance OOF other official flows PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen} UAE United Arab Emirates UK United Kingdom US United States USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) YAR Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen}

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) as of 5 April 1990. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.

Contributors: Information was provided by the Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Navy Operational Intelligence Center and Maritime Administration (merchant marine data), Office of Territorial and International Affairs (Department of the Interior), United States Board on Geographic Names, United States Coast Guard, and others.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1990 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1990, with population growth rates estimated for mid-1990 through mid-1991. Major political events have been updated through 30 March 1990. Military age figures are average annual estimates for 1990-94.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 149 of the 159 UN members—the exceptions are Albania, Angola, Byelorussia (constituent republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}, Ukraine (constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 13 nations that are not in the UN—Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in the UN and the US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation. The US has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic representatives of their last free governments.

Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary dispute in the "Guide to International Boundaries," a map published by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry of "none" indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some instances, no short-form name exists—then the long-form name must serve for all usages.

There are 249 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS 157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are included in The World Factbook because Byelorussia and Ukraine are constituent republics of the Soviet Union) 15 nations that are not members of the UN—Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Namibia, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City

OTHER 1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS 6 Australia—Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 2 Denmark—Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 France—Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 Netherlands—Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 New Zealand—Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 Norway—Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 1 Portugal—Macau 16 United Kingdom—Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 15 United States—American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS 7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES 4 oceans—Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean 1 World === 249 total

Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does not recognize the four so-called "independent" homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

GNP/GDP methodology: GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD countries, the USSR, Eastern Europe, and a portion of the developing countries, are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP methods involve the use of average price weights, which lie between the weights of the domestic and foreign price systems; using these weights, US $100 converted into German marks by a PPP method will buy an equal amount of goods and services in both the US and Germany. One caution: the proportion of, say, military expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP is expressed in PPP dollar terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Soviet or Japanese military expenditures. Similarly, dollar figures for exports and imports reflect the price patterns of international markets rather than PPP price patterns.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs—narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land—land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops—land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures—land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland—land under dense or open stands of trees; and other—any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being fully extended.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register—A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register—A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state—The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register—A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship—A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register—The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).

—————————————————————————————————- THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1990 —————————————————————————————————-

Country: Afghanistan - Geography Total area: 647,500 km2; land area: 647,500 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,826 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, USSR 2,384 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: Pashtun question with Pakistan; Baloch question with Iran and Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; insurgency with Iranian and Pakistani involvement; traditional tribal rivalries

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: 12% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 39% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 15,862,293 (July 1990), growth rate 7.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 51 migrants/1,000 population (1990); note—there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are fragmentary and unreliable

Infant mortality rate: 154 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 47 years male, 46 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Afghan(s); adjective—Afghan

Ethnic divisions: 50% Pashtun, 25% Tajik, 9% Uzbek, 12-15% Hazara; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim, 15% Shia Muslim, 11% other

Language: 50% Pashtu, 35% Afghan Persian (Dari), 11% Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen), 4% thirty minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai); much bilingualism

Literacy: 12%

Labor force: 4,980,000; 67.8% agriculture and animal husbandry, 10.2% industry, 6.3% construction, 5.0% commerce, 10.7% services and other (1980 est.)

Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Afghanistan

Type: authoritarian

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular—velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note—there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

Constitution: adopted 30 November 1987

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Saur Revolution, 27 April (1978)

Executive branch: president, four vice presidents, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Meli Shura) consists of an upper house or Senate (Sena) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Wolasi Jirgah)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President (Mohammad) NAJIBULLAH (Ahmadzai) (since 30 November 1987); Chairman of the Council of Ministers Executive Committee Soltan Ali KESHTMAND (since 21 February 1989); Prime Minister Fazil Haq KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990)

Political parties and leaders: only party—the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) has two factions—the Parchami faction has been in power since December 1979 and members of the deposed Khalqi faction continue to hold some important posts mostly in the military and Ministry of Interior; nonparty figures hold some posts

Suffrage: universal, male ages 15-50

Elections: Senate—last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1991); results—PDPA is the only party; seats—(192 total, 115 elected) PDPA 115;

House of Representatives—last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results—PDPA is the only party; seats—(234 total) PDPA 184, 50 seats reserved for opposition

Communists: the PDPA claims 200,000 members (1988)

Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches of internal security have been rebuilt by the USSR; insurgency continues throughout the country; widespread anti-Soviet and antiregime sentiment and opposition on religious and political grounds

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG; suspended from OIC in January 1980

Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires MIAGOL; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771; US—Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436; note—US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

- Economy Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering some 3 million refugees and Iran perhaps 2 million. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. Official claims indicate that agriculture grew by 0.7% and industry by 3.5% in 1988.

GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 50% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $646.7 million, including capital expenditures of $370.2 million (FY87 est.)

Exports: $512 million (f.o.b., FY88); commodities—natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts; partners—mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

Imports: $996 million (c.i.f., FY88); commodities—food and petroleum products; partners—mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.2% (FY89 plan)

Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products—wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $419 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4.1 billion

Currency: afghani (plural—afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1—50.6 (fixed rate since 1982)

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

- Communications Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (USSR) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (USSR) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks

Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons

Pipelines: petroleum, oil, and lubricants pipelines—USSR to Bagram and USSR to Shindand; natural gas, 180 km

Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)

Civil air: 2 TU-154, 2 Boeing 727, assorted smaller transports

Airports: 38 total, 34 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; stations—5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Armed Forces (Army; Air and Air Defense Forces); Border Guard Forces; National Police Force (Sarandoi); Ministry of State Security (WAD); Tribal Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,880,124; 2,080,725 fit for military service; 168,021 reach military age (22) annually

Defense expenditures: 9.1% of GDP (1984) —————————————————————————— Country: Albania - Geography Total area: 28,750 km2; land area: 27,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 768 km total; Greece 282 km, Yugoslavia 486 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 15 nm

Disputes: Kosovo question with Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use: 21% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 22% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing

Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

- People Population: 3,273,131 (July 1990), growth rate 1.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Albanian(s); adjective—Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Religion: Albania claims to be the world's first atheist state; all churches and mosques were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; pre-1967 estimates of religious affiliation—70% Muslim, 20% Albanian Orthodox, 10% Roman Catholic

Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); about 60% agriculture, 40% industry and commerce (1986)

Organized labor: Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions, 610,000 members

- Government Long-form name: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Type: Communist state (Stalinist)

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular—rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Turkey); People's Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946

Constitution: 27 December 1976

Legal system: judicial review of legislative acts only in the Presidium of the People's Assembly, which is not a true court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

Executive branch: president of the Presidium of the People's Assembly, three vice presidents, Presidium of the People's Assembly; chairman of the Council of Ministers, three deputy chairmen, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly Ramiz ALIA (since 22 November 1982);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adil CARCANI (since 14 January 1982)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Albanian Workers Party, Ramiz Alia, first secretary

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held 19 February 1987 (next to be held February 1991); results—President Ramiz Alia was reelected without opposition;

People's Assembly—last held 1 February 1987 (next to be held February 1991); results—Albanian Workers Party is the only party; seats—(250 total) Albanian Workers Party 250

Communists: 147,000 party members (November 1986)

Member of: CCC, CEMA (has not participated since rift with USSR in 1961), FAO, IAEA, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: none—the US does not recognize the Albanian Government and has no diplomatic or consular relations with Albania; there is no third-power representation of Albanian interests in the US or of US interests in Albania

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center below a red five-pointed star outlined in yellow

- Economy Overview: As the poorest country in Europe, Albania's development lags behind even the least favored areas of the Yugoslav economy. The Stalinist-type economy operates on the principles of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. In recent years Albania has implemented limited economic reforms to stimulate its lagging economy, although they do not go nearly so far as current reforms in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Attempts at self-reliance and a policy of not borrowing from international lenders—sometimes overlooked in recent years—have greatly hindered the development of a broad economic infrastructure. Albania, however, possesses considerable mineral resources and is largely self-sufficient in food. Numerical estimates of Albanian economic activity are subject to an especially wide margin of error because the government is isolated and closemouthed.

GNP: $3.8 billion, per capita $1,200; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $378 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.); commodities—asphalt, bitumen, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco; partners—Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

Imports: $255 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.); commodities—machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; partners—Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, GDR

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA

Electricity: 1,630,000 kW capacity; 4,725 million kWh produced, 1,440 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock; claims self-sufficiency in grain output

Aid: none

Currency: lek (plural—leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1—8.00 (noncommercial fixed rate since 1986), 4.14 (commercial fixed rate since 1987)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1988); line connecting Titograd (Yugoslavia) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986

Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highway and roads, 10,000 km forest and agricultural

Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa

Pipelines: crude oil, 145 km; refined products, 55 km; natural gas, 64 km (1988)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore

Merchant marine: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886 GRT/75,993 DWT; includes 11 cargo

Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—17 AM, 5 FM, 9 TV; 52,000 TV sets; 210,000 radios

- Defense Forces Branches: Albanian People's Army, Frontier Troops, Interior Troops, Albanian Coastal Defense Command, Air and Air Defense Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 882,965; 729,635 fit for military service; 33,598 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1 billion leks, 11.3% of total budget (FY88); note—conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results —————————————————————————— Country: Algeria - Geography Total area: 2,381,740 km2; land area: 2,381,740 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 82% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification

Note: second largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

- People Population: 25,566,507 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Algerian(s); adjective—Algerian

Ethnic divisions: 99% Arab-Berber, less than 1% European

Religion: 99% Sunni Muslim (state religion); 1% Christian and Jewish

Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: 52%

Labor force: 3,700,000; 40% industry and commerce, 24% agriculture, 17% government, 10% services (1984)

Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

- Government Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

Type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 31 provinces (wilayat, singular—wilaya); Adrar, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bouira, Constantine, Djelfa, El Asnam, Guelma, Jijel, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mostaganem, M'sila, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen; note—there may now be 48 provinces with El Asnam abolished, and the addition of 18 new provinces named Ain Delfa, Ain Temouchent, Bordjbou, Boumerdes, Chlef, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Mila, Naama, Relizane, Souk Ahras, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Chadli BENDJEDID (since 7 February 1979);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Mouloud HAMROUCHE (since 9 September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Front (FLN), Col. Chadli Bendjedid, chairman; Abdelhamid Mehri, secretary general; the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and as of 1 February 1990 19 legal parties existed

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held on 22 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results—President Bendjedid was reelected without opposition;

People's National Assembly—last held on 26 February 1987 (next to be held by February 1992); results—FLN was the only party; seats—(281 total) FLN 281; note—the government has promised to hold multiparty elections (municipal and wilaya) in June 1990, the first in Algerian history

Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962

Member of: AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, ASSIMER, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ILZSG, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-5300; US—Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir Brahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone p213o (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; there is a US Consulate in Oran

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

- Economy Overview: The exploitation of oil and natural gas products forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy that helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, have brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including giving public sector companies more autonomy, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and a major overhaul of the banking and financial systems. In 1988 the government started to implement a new economic policy to dismantle large state farms into privately operated units.

GDP: $54.1 billion, per capita $2,235; real growth rate - 1.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 19% (1988)

Budget: revenues $17.4 billion; expenditures $22.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $8.0 billion (1988)

Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—petroleum and natural gas 98%; partners—Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US

Imports: $7.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—capital goods 35%, consumer goods 36%, food 20%; partners—France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%

External debt: $26.2 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1986)

Electricity: 4,333,000 kW capacity; 14,370 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food—grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, and cattle

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $8.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $2.7 billion

Currency: Algerian dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1—8.0086 (January 1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987), 4.7023 (1986), 5.0278 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 4,146 km total; 2,632 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,258 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track

Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous, 20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth

Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined products, 298 km; natural gas, 2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 900,957 GRT/1,063,994 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 27 cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized liquid cargo

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 147 total, 136 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m; 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 693,000 telephones; stations—26 AM, no FM, 113 TV; 1,550,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 receiver sets; 6 submarine cables; coaxial cable or radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,886,334; 3,638,458 fit for military service; 293,476 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.8% of GDP, or $974 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: American Samoa (territory of the US) - Geography Total area: 199 km2; land area: 199 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls

Natural resources: pumice and pumicite

Land use: 10% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 75% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: typhoons common from December to March

Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

- People Population: 41,840 (July 1990), growth rate 2.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 immigrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—American Samoan(s); adjective—American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: 90% Samoan (Polynesian), 2% Caucasian, 2% Tongan, 6% other

Religion: about 50% Christian Congregationalist, 20% Roman Catholic, 30% mostly Protestant denominations and other

Language: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages) and English; most people are bilingual

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 10,000; 48% government, 33% tuna canneries, 19% other (1986 est.)

Organized labor: NA

Note: about 65,000 American Samoans live in the States of California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii

- Government Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa

Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government—Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20 January 1989); Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not US citizens

Elections: Governor—last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results—Peter T. Coleman was elected (percent of vote NA);

Senate—last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results—senators elected by county councils from 12 senate districts; seats—(18 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives—last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1990); results—representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats—(21 total, 20 elected and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's Island);

US House of Representatives—last held 19 November 1988 (next to be held November 1990); results—Eni R. F. H. Faleomavaega elected as a nonvoting delegate

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Note: administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not citizens of the US

- Economy Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa does 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector economy, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries are the second-largest employer, exceeded only by the government. Other economic activities include meat canning, handicrafts, dairy farming, and a slowly developing tourist industry. Tropical agricultural production provides little surplus for export.

GNP: $190 million, per capita $5,210; real growth rate NA% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1986)

Budget: revenues $90.3 million; expenditures $93.15 million, including capital expenditures of $4.9 million (1988)

Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—canned tuna 93%; partners—US 99.6%

Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—building materials 18%, food 17%, petroleum products 14%; partners—US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 1,720 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies of raw tuna)

Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas

Aid: $20.1 million in operational funds and $5.8 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1989)

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications Railroads: small marine railroad in Pago Pago harbor

Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved

Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m (international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on Ta'u and Ofu

Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US —————————————————————————— Country: Andorra - Geography Total area: 450 km2; land area: 450 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 56% meadows and pastures; 22% forest and woodland; 20% other

Environment: deforestation, overgrazing

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 51,895 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 18 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Andorran(s); adjective—Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; 61% Spanish, 30% Andorran, 6% French, 3% other

Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic

Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and Castilian

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: Principality of Andorra

Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called verguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular—parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and usage

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)

Judicial branch: civil cases—Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); criminal cases—Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)

Leaders: Chiefs of State—French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Louis DEBLE; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government—Josep PINTAT Solans (since NA 1984)

Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council of the Valleys—last held 11 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(28 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: negligible

Member of: CCC, UNESCO

Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US; US—includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain (mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone p34o (3) 319-9550

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flag of Chad which does not have a national coat of arms in the center; also similar to the flag of Romania which has a national coat of arms featuring a mountain landscape below a red five-pointed star and the words REPUBLICA SOCIALISTA ROMANIA at the bottom

- Economy Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—electricity; partners—France, Spain

Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—NA; partners—France, Spain

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,800 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, smuggling, banking

Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

Aid: none

Currency: French franc (plural—francs) and Spanish peseta (plural—pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1—109.69 (January 1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05 (1986), 170.04 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 96 km

Telecommunications: international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain —————————————————————————— Country: Angola - Geography Total area: 1,246,700 km2; land area: 1,246,700 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 20 nm

Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures; 43% forest and woodland; 32% other

Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification

Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

- People Population: 8,534,483 (July 1990), growth rate 2.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 158 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 46 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Angolan(s); adjective—Angolan

Ethnic divisions: 37% Ovimbundu, 25% Kimbundu, 13% Bakongo, 2% Mestico, 1% European

Religion: 47% indigenous beliefs, 38% Roman Catholic, 15% Protestant (est.)

Language: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects

Literacy: 41%

Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; 85% agriculture, 15% industry (1985 est.)

Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)

- Government Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola

Type: Marxist people's republic

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular—provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 and 11 August 1980

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law, but being modified along socialist lines

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party (MPLA-Labor Party), Jose Eduardo dos Santos; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), lost to the MPLA with Cuban military support in immediate postindependence struggle, now carrying out insurgency

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections: none held to date

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

- Economy Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the population, but accounts for only 10-20% of GDP. Oil production is the most lucrative sector of the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. In recent years, however, the impact of fighting an internal war has severely affected the economy and food has to be imported.

GDP: $5.0 billion, per capita $600; real growth rate 9.2% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1986 est.)

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—oil, coffee, diamonds, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton; partners—US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military deliveries; partners—US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil

External debt: $3.0 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 506,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, mining (phosphate rock, diamonds), fish processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, food processing, building construction

Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, tobacco; food crops—cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas, and other local foodstuffs; disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food imports

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $263 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $903 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $1.3 billion

Currency: kwanza (plural—kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1—29.62 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks; sections of the Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency

Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km

Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda

Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 317 total, 184 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 60 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban links; 40,300 telephones; stations—17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense; paramilitary forces—People's Defense Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard, Popular Vigilance Brigades

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,049,295; 1,030,868 fit for military service; 90,877 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Anguilla (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2

Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobsters

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds

Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

- People Population: 6,883 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Anguillan(s); adjective—Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 80%

Labor force: 2,780 (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 April 1982

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Geoffrey O. WHITTAKER (since NA 1987);

Head of Government—Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March 1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile Gumbs; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald Webster; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor Banks

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Assembly—last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

Communists: none

Member of: Commonwealth

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.

GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,350 (1988 est.); real growth rate 8.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $9.0 million; expenditures $8.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities—lobsters and salt; partners—NA

Imports: $NA; commodities—NA; partners —NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 3,000 kW capacity; 9 million kWh produced, 1,300 kWh per capita (1988)

Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including lobster)

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $33 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1—2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications Highways: 60 km surfaced

Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of 1,100 m (Wallblake Airport)

Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; stations—3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of St. Martin

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Antarctica - Geography Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US; second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: see entry on Disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: see entry on Disputes

Disputes: Antarctic Treaty suspends all claims; sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil claims a Zone of Interest; the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and 150o west

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than Antarctic Peninsula in the west; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 5,000 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, and the scientific research areas of Graham Land and Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline

Natural resources: coal and iron ore; chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and hydrocarbons have been found in small quantities along the coast; offshore deposits of oil and gas

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other (98% ice, 2% barren rock)

Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise around the coast; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in October 1987 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, has dwindled to its lowest level ever over Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island)

Note: the coldest continent

- People Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research stations varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population—3,330; Argentina 179, Australia 216, Brazil 36, Chile 124, China 62, France 46, FRG 9, GDR 15, India 59, Italy 121, Japan 52, NZ 251, Poland 19, South Africa 102, South Korea 17, UK 72, Uruguay 47, US 1,250, USSR 653 (1986-87);

Winter (July) population—1,148 total; Argentina 149, Australia 82, Brazil 11, Chile 59, China 16, France 32, FRG 9, GDR 9, India 17, Japan 37, NZ 11, Poland 19, South Africa 15, UK 61, Uruguay 10, US 242, USSR 369 (1986-87);

Year-round stations—43 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 1, France 1, FRG 1, GDR 1, India 1, Japan 2, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 1, South Korea 1, UK 6, Uruguay 1, US 3, USSR 8 (1986-87);

Summer only stations—26 total; Argentina 3, Australia 3, Chile 4, Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, South Africa 2, US 4, USSR 6 (1986-87)

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, established, for at least 30 years, a legal framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and suspension of territorial claims. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings—the 14th and last meeting was held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in October 1987.

Consultative (voting) members include claimant nations (they claim portions of Antarctica as national territory and some claims overlap) and nonclaimant nations (they have made no claims to Antarctic territory, although the US and USSR have reserved the right to do so and do not recognize the claims of others); the year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are—Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant nations are—Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), FRG (1981), GDR (1987), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, Poland (1977), South Africa, Uruguay (1985), US, and the USSR.

Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis, are—Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Finland (1984), Greece (1987), Hungary (1984), Netherlands (1987), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Peru (1981), Romania (1971), South Korea (1986), Spain (1982), and Sweden (1984).

Antarctic Treaty Summary: Article 1—area to be used for peaceful purposes only and military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific purposes; Article 2—freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3—free exchange of information and personnel; Article 4—does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5—prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6—includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60o 00' south, but that the water areas be covered by international law; Article 7—treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8—allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9—frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations and acceding nations given consultative status; Article 10—treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11—disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14—deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations.

Other agreements: Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals; a mineral resources agreement is currently undergoing ratification by the Antarctic Treaty consultative parties

- Economy Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Exploitation of mineral resources will be held back by technical difficulties, high costs, and objections by environmentalists.

- Communications Airports: 39 total; 25 usable; none with permanent surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given —————————————————————————— Country: Antigua and Barbuda - Geography Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use: 18% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures; 16% forest and woodland; 59% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural harbors

Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

- People Population: 63,726 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Antiguan(s); adjective—Antiguan

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin

Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic

Language: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: 90% (est.)

Labor force: 30,000; 82% commerce and services, 11% agriculture, 7% industry (1983)

Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association (ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor since 1976);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA 1976); Deputy Prime Minister Lester BIRD (since NA 1976)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. Bird, Sr., Lester Bird; United National Democratic Party (UNDP), Dr. Ivor Heath

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives—last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held 1994); results—percentage of vote by party NA; seats—(17 total) ALP 15, UNDP 1, independent 1

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM), a small leftist nationalist group led by Leonard (Tim) Hector; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel Thomas

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, ISO, OAS, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edmund Hawkins LAKE; Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan Consulate in Miami; US—the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Roger R. GAMBLE; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's (mailing address is FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

- Economy Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period 1983-87, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of 8%. Tourism's contribution to GDP, as measured by value added in hotels and restaurants, rose from about 14% in 1983 to 17% in 1987, and stimulated growth in other sectors—particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. During the same period the combined share of agriculture and manufacturing declined from 12% to less than 10%. Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors of the economy.

GDP: $353.5 million, per capita $5,550; real growth rate 6.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $77 million; expenditures $81 million, including capital expenditures of $13 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $30.4 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—petroleum products 46%, manufactures 29%, food and live animals 14%, machinery and transport equipment 11%; partners—Trinidad and Tobago 40%, Barbados 8%, US 0.3%

Imports: $302.1 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil; partners—US 27%, UK 14%, CARICOM 7%, Canada 4%, other 48%

External debt: $245.4 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1987)

Electricity: 49,000 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 1,410 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and livestock sector; other crops—bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $40 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1—2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane

Highways: 240 km

Ports: St. John's

Merchant marine: 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,315 GRT/501,552 DWT; includes 50 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 8 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 1 short-sea passenger; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 2,440 m

Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; stations—4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Arctic Ocean - Geography Total area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack which averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (USSR) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals, whales)

Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage

Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between North America and the USSR; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western USSR; floating research stations operated by the US and USSR

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