The 1991 CIA World Factbook
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15 October 1991

The CIA World Factbook 1991

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Table of Contents

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Text (247 nations, dependent areas, and other entities) Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria

Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma Burundi

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czechoslovakia

Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone Ireland Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy Ivory Coast

Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait

Laos Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Luxembourg

Macau Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway


Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau) Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico


Reunion Romania Rwanda

Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Soviet Union Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay

Vanuatu Vatican City Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World

Yemen Yugoslavia

Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe


Appendix A: The United Nations System Appendix B: International Organization and Group Abbreviations Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups Appendix D: Weights and Measures Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Literacy entry now includes rates for males, females, and both sexes. Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups is new and includes date established, aim, and list of members. Three maps of special interest have been added this year—republics of the Soviet Union, ethnic groups in the Soviet Union, and ethnic groups in Eastern Europe.

#Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp. avoirdupois c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight CY calendar year DWT deadweight ton est. estimate Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States f.o.b. free on board FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 FY fiscal year GDP gross domestic product GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 GNP gross national product GRT gross register ton km kilometer km2 square kilometer kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour m meter NA not available NEGL negligible nm nautical mile NZ New Zealand ODA official development assistance OOF other official flows PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE United Arab Emirates UK United Kingdom US United States USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) YAR Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

#Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.

#Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).

#Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.

#Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1991 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1991, with population growth rates estimated for mid-1991 through mid-1992. Major political events have been updated through 30 June 1991. Military age figures are average annual estimates for 1991-95.

#Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.

#Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 151 of the 159 UN members—the exceptions are Angola, Belorussia (Byelorussia; constituent republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam, Ukraine (constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 12 nations that are not in the UN—Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in the UN and the US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation. The US has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic representatives of their last free governments.

#Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary dispute in the "Guide to International Boundaries," a map published by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

#Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of:

Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that (a) are administered with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and (b) are concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%; and

Other Official Flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector whose main objective is other than development-motivated or whose grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Eximbank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms.

Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

#Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry of "none" indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some instances, no short-form name exists—then the long-form name must serve for all usages.

There are 247 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS 157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are included in The World Factbook because Belorussia (Byelorussia) and Ukraine are constituent republics of the Soviet Union) 13 nations that are not members of the UN—Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City

OTHER 1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS 6 Australia—Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 2 Denmark—Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 France—Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 Netherlands—Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 New Zealand—Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 Norway—Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 1 Portugal—Macau 16 United Kingdom—Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 15 United States—American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS 7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES 4 oceans—Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean 1 World === 247 total

Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does not recognize the four so-called "independent" homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.

#Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically.

#Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

#GNP/GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD countries, the USSR, and the East European countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars, converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate, will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at the official currency exchange rates. One caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Soviet or Japanese military expenditures; similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future editions of the Factbook.

#Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

#Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs—narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

#Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

#Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land—land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops—land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures—land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland—land under dense or open stands of trees; and other—any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

#Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

#Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

#Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition—the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

#Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version for the foreseeable future.

#Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being fully extended.

#Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register—A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register—A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state—The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register—A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship—A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register—The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

#Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

#Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

#Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

#Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

#Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).

#Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

The Handbook of Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the USSR, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.


@Afghanistan *Geography #Total area: 647,500 km2; land area: 647,500 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

#Land boundaries: 5,826 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, USSR 2,384 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Disputes: Pashtun question with Pakistan; Baloch question with Iran and Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; insurgency with Iranian and Pakistani involvement; traditional tribal rivalries

#Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

#Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

#Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

#Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution

#Note: landlocked

*People #Population: US Bureau of the Census—16,450,304 (July 1991), growth rate 5.2% (1991) and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran; note—another report indicates a July 1990 population of 16,904,904, including 3,271,580 refugees in Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran

#Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 28 migrants/1,000 population (1991); note—there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are fragmentary and unreliable

#Infant mortality rate: 164 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 43 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Afghan(s); adjective—Afghan

#Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 50%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 12-15%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and other

#Religion: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shia Muslim 15%, other 1%

#Language: Pashtu 50%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism

#Literacy: 29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7%, (1980 est.)

#Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Afghanistan

#Type: authoritarian

#Capital: Kabul

#Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular—velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note—there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)

#Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

#Constitution: adopted 30 November 1987, revised May 1990

#Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Anniversary of the Saur Revolution, 27 April (1978)

#Executive branch: president, four vice presidents, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Meli Shura) consists of an upper house or Council of Elders (Sena) and a lower house or Council of Representatives (Wolosi Jirga)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government—President (Mohammad) NAJIBULLAH (Ahmadzai) (since 30 November 1987); First Vice President Abdul Wahed SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: main party—Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA); there are other, much smaller political parties recognized by the government

#Suffrage: universal, male ages 15-50


Senate—last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1991); results—Hizbi Watan was the only party; seats—(192 total, 128 elected) Hizbi Watan 128;

House of Representatives—last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results—Hizbi Watan was the only party; seats—(234 total) Hizbi Watan 184, opposition 50; note—members may or may not be affiliated with a political party

#Communists: Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA) claims 200,000 members and no longer considers itself a Communist party

#Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches of internal security have been rebuilt by the USSR; insurgency continues throughout the country; widespread antiregime sentiment and opposition on religious and political grounds

#Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO; note—Afghanistan was suspended from the OIC in January 1980, but in March 1989 the self-proclaimed Mujaheddin Government of Afghanistan was given membership

#Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771;

US—Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436; note—US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

*Economy #Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering about 3.3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport.

#GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 92% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $306 million (FY91 est.)

#Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities—natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts;

partners—mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

#Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities—food and petroleum products;

partners—mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

#External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (FY91 plan); accounts for about 25% of GDP

#Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

#Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products—wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

#Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $322 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $465 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion

#Currency: afghani (plural—afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

#Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1—586 (March 1991)

#Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

*Communications #Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (USSR) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (USSR) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

#Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks

#Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons

#Pipelines: petroleum, oil, and lubricants pipelines—USSR to Bagram and USSR to Shindand; natural gas, 180 km

#Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)

#Civil air: 2 TU-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller transports

#Airports: 40 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; stations—5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Guard/National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), Ministry of State Security (WAD), Tribal Militia

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,049,092; 2,171,757 fit for military service; 166,135 reach military age (22) annually

Defense expenditures: $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990) % @Albania *Geography Total area: 28,750 km2; land area: 27,400 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

#Land boundaries: 768 km total; Greece 282 km, Yugoslavia 486 km

#Coastline: 362 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: Kosovo question with Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Greece

#Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

#Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

#Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

#Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing

#Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

*People #Population: 3,335,044 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)

#Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Albanian(s); adjective—Albanian

#Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

#Religion: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990 Albania began allowing private religious practice and was considering the repeal of the constitutional amendment banning religious activities; estimates of religious affiliation—Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

#Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek

#Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can read and write (1955)

#Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

#Organized labor: Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions, 610,000 members

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Albania

#Type: nascent democracy with strong Communist party influence; basic law has dropped all references to socialism

#Capital: Tirane

#Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular—rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

#Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire); People's Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946

#Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in four to six months

#Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, one deputy prime minister of the Council of Ministers

#Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State—President of the Republic Ramiz ALIA (since 22 November 1982);

Head of Government—Prime Minister of the interim Council of Ministers Ylli BUFI (since 5 June 1991);

#Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party (AWP), Ramiz ALIA, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Sali BERISHA, chairman and cofounder with Gramoz PASHKO; Albanian Republican Party, Sabri GODO; Ecology Party, Namik HOTI; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA; Agrarian Party, leader NA;

note—in December 1990 President ALIA allowed new political parties to be formed in addition to the AWP for the first time since 1944

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President—last held 30 April 1991 (next to be held spring 1992); results—President Ramiz ALIA was reelected with token opposition;

People's Assembly—last held 31 March 1991 (next to be held spring 1992); results—AWP 68%, DP 25%; seats—(250 total) preliminary results AWP 168, DP 75, Omonia 5, Veterans Association 1, other 1;

note—the AWP's votes came mostly from the countryside while the DP won majorities in the six-largest cities;

#Communists: 147,000 party members (November 1986); note—in March 1991 the Albanian Workers' Party announced that it considered itself no longer Communist but socialist


#Diplomatic representation: the Governments of the United States and Albania agreed to reestablish diplomatic relations to be effective from 15 March 1991 and to exchange diplomatic missions at the level of ambassador

#Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center below a red five-pointed star outlined in yellow

*Economy #Overview: As the poorest country in Europe, Albania's development lags behind even the least favored areas of the Yugoslav economy. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the principles of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. In recent years Albania has implemented limited economic reforms to stimulate its lagging economy, provide incentives, and decentralize decisionmaking. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and the US. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; several years of drought have hindered agricultural development. Numerical estimates of Albanian economic activity are subject to an especially wide margin of error because the government until recently did not release economic information.

#GNP: $4.1 billion, per capita $1,250; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

#Exports: $378 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities—asphalt, bitumen, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;

partners—Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

#Imports: $255 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities—machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners—Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, GDR

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA

#Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

#Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock; claims self-sufficiency in grain output

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA (1988) $5.8 million

#Currency: lek (plural—leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

#Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1—8.00 (noncommercial fixed rate since 1986), 4.14 (commercial fixed rate since 1987)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Yugoslavia) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986

#Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highway and roads, 10,000 km forest and agricultural (1990)

#Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

#Pipelines: crude oil, 145 km; refined products, 55 km; natural gas, 64 km (1988)

#Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore

#Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886 GRT/75,993 DWT

#Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: stations—17 AM, 1 FM, 9 TV; 246,000 TVs (1990); 210,000 radios

*Defense Forces #Branches: Albanian People's Army, Albanian Coastal Defense Command, Air and Air Defense Force, Frontier Troops, Interior Troops

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 900,723; 743,594 fit for military service; 33,497 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GDP (FY90); note—conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results % @Algeria *Geography Total area: 2,381,740 km2; land area: 2,381,740 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

#Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

#Coastline: 998 km

#Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

#Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

#Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

#Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

#Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification

#Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

*People #Population: 26,022,188 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

#Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 57 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Algerian(s); adjective—Algerian

#Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

#Religion: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

#Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

#Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987)

#Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture 24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984)

#Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

*Government #Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

#Type: republic

#Capital: Algiers

#Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayat, singular—wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

#Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

#Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976

#Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State—President Chadli BENDJEDID (since 7 February 1979);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since 6 June 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Front (FLN), Chadli BENDJEDID, president; Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Abassi MADANI; the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and as of 31 December 1990 over 30 legal parties existed

#Suffrage: universal at age 18


President—last held on 22 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results—President BENDJEDID was reelected without opposition;

National People's Assembly—last held on 26 February 1987 (next were to be held 27 June 1991 but postponed indefinitely because of civil unrest); results—FLN was the only party; seats—(281 total) FLN 281; note—the government held multiparty elections (municipal and wilaya) in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results—FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating

#Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962


#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-5300;

US—Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; there is a US Consulate in Oran

#Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

*Economy #Overview: The exploitation of oil and natural gas products forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, have brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including giving public-sector companies more autonomy, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking and financial systems, but to date has made little progress.

#GDP: $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.6% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)

#Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—petroleum and natural gas 98%;

partners—Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US

#Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%;

partners—France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%

#External debt: $26.6 billion (December 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate -3% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum

#Electricity: 5,156,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

#Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food—grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep,and cattle

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $8.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion

#Currency: Algerian dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1—13.581 (January 1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987), 4.7023 (1986), 5.0278 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 4,146 km total; 2,632 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,258 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track

#Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous, 20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth

#Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined products, 298 km; natural gas, 2,948 km

#Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

#Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,063,994 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker

#Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 145 total, 134 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 66 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 693,000 telephones; stations—26 AM, no FM, 113 TV; 1,550,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 receiver sets; 6 submarine cables; coaxial cable or radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,142,818; 3,780,873 fit for military service; 293,175 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $857 million, 1.8% of GDP (1991) % @American Samoa (territory of the US) *Geography Total area: 199 km2; land area: 199 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 116 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

#Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls

#Natural resources: pumice and pumicite

#Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 75%; other 10%

#Environment: typhoons common from December to March

#Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

*People #Population: 43,052 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

#Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 8 immigrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—American Samoan(s); adjective—American Samoan

#Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 2%, other 6%

#Religion: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

#Language: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages) and English; most people are bilingual

#Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)

#Labor force: 11,145; government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other 19% (1986 est.)

#Organized labor: NA

#Note: about 65,000 American Samoans live in the States of California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii

*Government #Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa

#Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US

#Capital: Pago Pago

#Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

#Independence: none (territory of the US)

#Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

#National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

#Executive branch: President of the US, governor, lieutenant governor

#Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

#Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government—Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20 January 1989); Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)

#Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not US citizens


Governor—last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results—Peter T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA);

Senate—last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results—senators elected by county councils from 12 senate districts; seats—(18 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives—last held NA November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results—representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats—(21 total, 20 elected and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's Island);

US House of Representatives—last held 19 November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results—Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate

#Communists: none

#Member of: IOC, SPC

#Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

#Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

#Note: administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not citizens of the US

*Economy #Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa does 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries are the second-largest employer, exceeded only by the government. Other economic activities include meat canning, handicrafts, dairy farming, and a slowly developing tourist industry.

#GNP: $190 million, per capita $5,210; real growth rate NA% (1985)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989)

#Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1986)

#Budget: revenues $51.2 million; expenditures $59.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)

#Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities—canned tuna 93%;

partners—US 99.6%

#Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities—building materials 18%, food 17%, petroleum products 14%;

partners—US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies of raw tuna)

#Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas

#Economic aid: $21,042,650 million in operational funds and $5,948,931 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)

#Currency: US currency is used

#Exchange rates: US currency is used

#Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

*Communications #Railroads: none

#Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved

#Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u

#Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m (international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on Ta'u and Ofu

#Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; stations—1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US % @Andorra *Geography Total area: 450 km2; land area: 450 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers

#Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

#Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

#Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 56%; forest and woodland 22%; other 20%

#Environment: deforestation, overgrazing

#Note: landlocked

*People #Population: 53,197 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

#Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 16 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Andorran(s); adjective—Andorran

#Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

#Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic

#Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and Castilian

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: none

*Government #Long-form name: Principality of Andorra

#Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called verguers

#Capital: Andorra la Vella

#Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular—parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

#Independence: 1278

#Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and usage

#Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

#Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council

#Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)

#Judicial branch: civil cases—Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); criminal cases—Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)


Chiefs of State—French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government—Oscar RIBAS Reig (since NA January 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party

#Suffrage: universal at age 18


General Council of the Valleys—last held 11 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(28 total) number of seats by party NA

#Communists: negligible


#Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US;

US—includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain (mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550

#Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania which do not have a national coat of arms in the center lar to the

*Economy #Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.

#GDP: $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: none

#Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

#Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986);


partners—France, Spain

#Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities—consumer goods, food;

partners—France, Spain

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,800 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, smuggling, banking

#Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

#Economic aid: none

#Currency: French franc (plural—francs) and Spanish peseta (plural—pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

#Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.1307 (January 1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1—95.20 (January 1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05 (1986), 170.04 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 96 km

#Telecommunications: international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain % @Angola *Geography Total area: 1,246,700 km2; land area: 1,246,700 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

#Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

#Coastline: 1,600 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 20 nm

#Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; on 31 May 1991 Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty that calls for multiparty elections between September and November 1992, an internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside military assistance

#Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

#Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

#Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

#Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and woodland 43%; other 32%

#Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification

#Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

*People #Population: 8,668,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

#Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 46 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Angolan(s); adjective—Angolan

#Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%

#Religion: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)

#Language: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects

#Literacy: 42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

#Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)

*Government #Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola

#Type: in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

#Capital: Luanda

#Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular—provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

#Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

#Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991

#Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate multipartyism and increased use of free markets

#National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

#Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do Povo)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)


Chief of State and Head of Government—President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)

#Political parties and leaders: only one party exists—the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party (MPLA), Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS—although others are expected to form as legalization of a multiparty system proceeds; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) lost to the MPLA and Cuban military support forces in the immediate postindependence struggle, but is to receive recognition as a legal party

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held between September and November 1992


#Diplomatic representation: none

#Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

*Economy #Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80 to 90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is the most lucrative sector of the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. In recent years, however, the impact of fighting an internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural resources, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and imbalances throughout the economy.

#GDP: $7.9 billion, per capita $925; real growth rate 2.0% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23.2% (1988)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.)

#Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—oil,liquified petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton;

partners—US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France

#Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military deliveries;

partners—US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil

#External debt: $7.0 billion (1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output

#Electricity: 506,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal products

#Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, tobacco; food crops—cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food imports

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1,005 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

#Currency: kwanza (plural—kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei

#Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1—29.62 (fixed rate since 1976)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks; sections of the Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency

#Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth

#Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

#Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km

#Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda

#Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

#Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 315 total, 183 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban links; 40,300 telephones; stations—17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,080,837; 1,047,500 fit for military service; 92,430 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Anguilla (dependent territory of the UK) *Geography Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2

#Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 61 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

#Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

#Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

#Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster

#Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds

#Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

#Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

*People #Population: 6,922 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Anguillan(s); adjective—Anguillan

#Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

#Religion: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

#Language: English (official)

#Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can read and write (1984)

#Labor force: 2,780 (1984)

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: dependent territory of the UK

#Capital: The Valley

#Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

#Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

#Constitution: 1 April 1982

#Legal system: based on English common law

#National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

#Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Brian G. J. CANTY (since NA 1989);

Head of Government—Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March 1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)

#Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald WEBSTER; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS

#Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Assembly—last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

#Communists: none

#Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB

#Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

#Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

*Economy #Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.

#GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate 8.2% (1988 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)

#Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

#Budget: revenues $10.4 million; expenditures $11.0 million, including capital expenditures of $1.1 million (1989 est.)

#Exports: $NA;

commodities—lobster and salt;


#Imports: $NA;


partners —NA

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 870 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including lobster)

#Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38 million

#Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1—2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

#Fiscal year: NA

*Communications #Highways: 60 km surfaced

#Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point

#Civil air: no major transport aircraft

#Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of 1,100 m (Wallblake Airport)

#Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; stations—3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of Saint Martin

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK % @Antarctica *Geography Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US; second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: see entry on Disputes

#Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: see entry on Disputes

#Disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil has noted possible Latin claims; the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and 150o west

#Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has most moderate climate; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

#Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

#Natural resources: none presently exploited; coal and iron ore; chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; pastures 0%; meadows and forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

#Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise around the coast, as does a circumpolar ocean current; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in April 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to its lowest level ever over Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica); other seismic activity rare and weak

#Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

*People #Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research stations varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population—4,120; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 16, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, USSR 565 (1989-90);

Winter (July) population—1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 21, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, USSR 313 (1989-90);

Year-round stations—42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, France 1, Germany 2, Greenpeace 1, India 2, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 1, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, USSR 6 (1990-91);

Summer only stations—34 total; Argentina 1, Australia 3, Chile 5, Finland 1, Germany 4, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US 3, USSR 5 (1989-90)

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, established for at least 30 years a legal framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and deferral of legal questions regarding territorial claims. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings—the last meeting was held in Madrid (Spain) in April 1991.

Consultative (voting) members include seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and nonclaimant nations. The US and other nations have made no claims, but have reserved the right to claim territory. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are—Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are—Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and the USSR.

Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis, are—Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), and Switzerland (1990).

Antarctic Treaty Summary:

Article 1—area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for peaceful scientific and logistics purposes;

Article 2—freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue;

Article 3—free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies;

Article 4—does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force;

Article 5—prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes;

Article 6—includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60o 00%19 south, but that the water areas be covered by international law;

Article 7—treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given;

Article 8—allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states;

Article 9—frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations;

Article 10—treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;

Article 11—disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ;

Articles 12, 13, 14—deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations.

Other agreements: more than 150 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include—Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected by some signatories and is likely to be replaced in 1991 by a comprehensive environmental protection agreement that defers minerals development for a long period.

*Economy #Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Exploitation of mineral resources is unlikely because of technical difficulties, high costs, and objections by environmentalists.

*Communications #Airports: 37 total; 27 usable; none with permanent hard-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

*Defense Forces Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given % @Antigua and Barbuda *Geography Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda

#Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 153 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

#Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

#Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

#Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59%

#Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural harbors

#Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

*People #Population: 63,917 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

#Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Antiguan(s); adjective—Antiguan

#Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin

#Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic

#Language: English (official), local dialects

#Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)

#Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

#Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association (ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: parliamentary democracy

#Capital: Saint John's

#Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

#Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

#Constitution: 1 November 1981

#Legal system: based on English common law

#National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

#Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor since 1976);

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