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The 1993 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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This is a preliminary edition. The final first edition should be on file around midnight, October 31, 1993.

As usual, the margination in these reports may be rough, and another edition should appear, somewhat neater in appearance, as a Gutenberg volunteer will probably start work on this shortly.

To search for information on a specific country from the list below, search for *country: *Afganistan, for example. You can also search directly for one of the categories of that country as follows:

*Afghanistan, Geography *Afghanistan, People *Afghanistan, Government *Afghanistan, Economy *Afghanistan, Communications *Afghanistan, Defense Forces



Central Intelligence Agency

The World Factbook 1993

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations A Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan

B Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma Burundi

C Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic

D Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

E Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island

F Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

H Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

I Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy

J Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

K Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

L Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

M Macau Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

N Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway

O Oman

P Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the Pacific Ocean 2 Pakistan Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Q Qatar

R Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda

S Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

T Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

U Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan

V Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

W Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World

Y Yemen

Z Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe Taiwan

Appendixes A: The United Nations System B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups C: International Organizations and Groups D: Weights and Measures E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Reference Maps The World North America Central America and the Caribbean South America Europe Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe Middle East Africa Asia Commonwealth of Independent States— European States Commonwealth of Independent States—Central Asian States Southeast Asia Oceania Arctic Region Antarctic Region Standard Time Zones of the World

There have been some significant changes in this edition. Czechoslovakia has been superseded by the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia. The name of the Ivory Coast has been changed to Cote d'Ivoire and the Vatican City became the Holy See. New entries include Location, Map references, Abbreviation (often substituted for the country name), and Digraph (two-letter country code). Names is a new entry which includes long and short forms of both conventional and local names of countries as well as any former names. Most diacritical marks have been omitted. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1994 Factbook. Irrigated land is a new entry with the data separate from the Land use entry. The Disputes entry is now International disputes. The GNP/GDP entry was renamed National Product and the per capita and real growth rate data placed in separate entries. Similar changes were made in the Population and Diplomatic Representation entries.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp. avoirdupois

c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight

CY calendar year

DWT deadweight ton

est. estimate

Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States

f.o.b. free on board

FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91

FY fiscal year

GDP gross domestic product

GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91

GNP gross national product

GRT gross register ton

GWP gross world product

km kilometer

km2 square kilometer

kW kilowatt

kWh kilowatt hour

m meter

NA not available

NEGL negligible

nm nautical mile

NZ New Zealand

ODA official development assistance

OOF other official flows

PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE United Arab Emirates

UK United Kingdom

US United States

USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991

YAR Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles 2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles 2,146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1993 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1993, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1993. Major political events have been updated through June 1993.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code'' that precisely identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of Standards (US Department of Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 180 nations. The US has diplomatic relations with 174 of the 182 UN members (excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status in the UN is unclear)—the exceptions are Angola, Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Macedonia, North Korea, and Vietnam. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 7 nations that are not in the UN-Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that are administered with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and are concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%, and other official flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector whose main objective is other than development motivated or whose grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation'' refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS

182 UN members (excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status in the UN is unclear)

8 nations that are not members of the UN—Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER

1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6 Australia—Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2 Denmark—Faroe Islands, Greenland

16 France—Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

2 Netherlands—Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3 New Zealand—Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3 Norway—Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

1 Portugal—Macau

16 United Kingdom—Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

15 United States—American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4 oceans—Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1 World

266 total

note: The US Government does not recognize the four so-called independent homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa. Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy'' section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD countries, the former Soviet republics, and the East European countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars—converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate— will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at the official currency exchange rates. Because currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. One additional caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures; similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future editions of The World Factbook.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs—narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other situations may also be included that are border or frontier relevant, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the number of km 2 that is artifically supplied with water.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land—land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops—land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures—land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland land—under dense or open stands of trees; and other—any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition—the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version of The World Factbook for the foreseeable future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register—A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register—A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state—The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register—A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreignowned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship—A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register—The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and GNP/GDP methodology.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).

***

THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1993

*Afghanistan, Geography

Location: South Asia, between Iran and Pakistan Map references: Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 647,500 km2 land area: 647,500 km2 comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources may also be active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line) Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 46% forest and woodland: 3% other: 39% Irrigated land: 26,600 km2 (1989 est.) Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution, flooding Note: landlocked

*Afghanistan, People

Population: 16,494,145 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 2.45% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 43.83 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 19.33 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 158.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.41 years male: 45.09 years female: 43.71 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 6.34 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 29% male: 44% female: 14% Labor force: 4.98 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

*Afghanistan, Government

Names: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan former: Republic of Afghanistan Digraph: AF Type: transitional government Capital: Kabul Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note: there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan) Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK) Constitution: the old Communist-era constitution has been suspended; a new Islamic constitution has yet to be ratified Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a) National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI; a new northern organization consisting of resistance and former regional figures is Jonbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Rashid DOSTUM note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders Suffrage: undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50 Elections: President: last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1994); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by a national shura

*Afghanistan, Government

Executive branch: president, prime minister; Afghan leaders are still in the process of choosing a cabinet (May 1993) Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993 Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized Leaders: Chief of State: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (since 2 January 1993); First Vice President Mohammad NABI Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli (since NA) Head of Government: Prime Minister-designate Gulbaddin HIKMATYAR (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Sulayman GAILANI (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Din MOHAMMAD (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad SHAH Ahmadzai (since NA) Member of: AsDB (has previously been a member of), CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 234-3770 or 3771 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: (vacant) embassy: Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: 62230 through 62235 or 62436 note: US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989 Flag: a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag consisted of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green, with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi, which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

*Afghanistan, Economy

Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 13 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3 billion (1989 est.) National product real growth rate: NA% National product per capita: $200 (1989 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 90% (1991 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.) commodities: natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts partners: former USSR, Pakistan Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.) commodities: food and petroleum products partners: former USSR, Pakistan External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,000 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $510 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion; net official Western disbursements (1985-89), $270 million

*Afghanistan, Economy

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,019 (March 1993), 900 (November 1991), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

*Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports) Airports: total: 41 usable: 36 with permanent-surface runways: 9 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 16 Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

*Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches: the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias remain intact Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,094,481; fit for military service 2,196,136; reach military age (22) annually 153,333 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

*Albania, Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece Map references: Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 28,750 km2 land area: 27,400 km2 comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro) Coastline: 362 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with Greece Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 38% other: 22% Irrigated land: 4,230 km2 (1989) Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

*Albania, People

Population: 3,333,839 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 1.21% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 23.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73 years male: 70.01 years female: 76.21 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) Religions: Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955) total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63% Labor force: 1.5 million (1987) by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

*Albania, Government

Names: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania Digraph: AL Type: nascent democracy Capital: Tirane Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire) Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in process Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944) Political parties and leaders: there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory Elections: People's Assembly: last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime ministers of the Council of Ministers Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor) Judicial branch: Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)

*Albania, Government

Head of Government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) Member of: BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roland BIMO chancery: 1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC telephone: (202) 223-4942 FAX: (202) 223-4950 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William E. RYERSON embassy: Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2921, Tirane mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: 355-42-32875, 33520 FAX: 355-42-32222 Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

*Albania, Economy

Overview: The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy operated on the principle of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Fitful economic reforms begun during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform, were crippled by widespread civil disorder. Following its overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1992 elections, the new Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the major republics of the former Soviet Union and the US and has joined the IMF and the World Bank. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment, but not foreign ownership of real estate. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate supplies. In 1992 the government tightened budgetary contols leading to another drop in domestic output. The agricultural sector is steadily gaining from the privatization process. Low domestic output is supplemented by remittances from the 200,000 Albanians working abroad. National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: -10% (1992 est.) National product per capita: $760 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 210% (1992 est.) Unemployment rate: 40% (1992 est.) Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.) Exports: $45 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary Imports: $120 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece External debt: $500 million (1992 est.) Industrial production: growth rate -55% (1991 est.) Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,520 kWh per capita (1992)

*Albania, Economy

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route Economic aid: recipient - $190 million humanitarian aid, $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991) Fiscal year: calendar year

*Albania, Communications

Railroads: 543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986 Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highways, 10,000 km forest and agricultural cart roads (1990) Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991) Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT Airports: total: 12 usable: 10 with permanent-surface runways: 3 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 4 Telecommunications: inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1 TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

*Albania, Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops Manpower availability: males age 15-49 896,613; fit for military service 739,359; reach military age (19) annually 32,740 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: 215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

*Algeria, Geography

Location: Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia Map references: Africa, Europe Area: total area: 2,381,740 km2 land area: 2,381,740 km2 comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km Coastline: 998 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary disputes with Tunisia under discussion Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 2% other: 82% Irrigated land: 3,360 km2 (1989 est.) Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

*Algeria, People

Population: 27,256,252 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 2.34% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 30.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.35 years male: 66.32 years female: 68.41 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.96 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1% Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 57% male: 70% female: 46% Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

*Algeria, Government

Names: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir Digraph: AG Type: republic Capital: Algiers Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France) Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised February 1989 Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR; National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 30 legal parties existed Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Elections: National People's Assembly: first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating President of the High State Committee: next election to be held December 1993 Executive branch: President of the High State Committee, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

*Algeria, Government

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) Leaders: Chief of State: High State Committee President Ali KAFI (since 2 July 1992) Head of Government: Prime Minister Belaid ABDESSELAM (since 8 July 1992) Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed ZARHOUNI chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 265-2800 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186 FAX: [213] (2) 603979 consulate: Oran Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

*Algeria, Economy

Overview: The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy, hydrocarbons accounting for nearly all export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, has brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since full independence in 1988. The current government has put reform, including privatization of some public sector companies and an overhaul of the banking and financial system, on hold, but has continued efforts to admit private enterprise to the hydrocarbon industry. National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $42 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: 2.8% (1992 est.) National product per capita: $1,570 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55% (1992 est.) Unemployment rate: 35% (1992 est.) Budget: revenues $14.4 billion; expenditures $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992 est.) Exports: $11.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy, France, US, Germany, Spain Imports: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990) partners: France, Italy, Germany, US, Spain External debt: $26 billion (1992 est.) Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,834 million kWh produced, 630 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing Agriculture: accounts for 10.8% of GDP (1991) and employs 22% of labor force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), -$375 million Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

*Algeria, Economy

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 22.787 (January 1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988) Fiscal year: calendar year

*Algeria, Communications

Railroads: 4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track Highways: 90,031 km total; 58,868 km concrete or bituminous, 31,163 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 oil tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker Airports: total: 141 usable: 124 with permanent-surface runways: 53 with runways over 3,659 m: 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 32 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 65 Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned

*Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,610,342; fit for military service 4,063,261; reach military age (19) annually 291,685 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

*American Samoa, Header

Affiliation: (territory of the US)

*American Samoa, Geography

Location: in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand Map references: Oceania Area: total area: 199 km2 land area: 199 km2 comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 116 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 m or depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: none Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island) Natural resources: pumice, pumicite Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 75% other: 10% Irrigated land: NA km2 Environment: typhoons common from December to March Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

*American Samoa, People

Population: 53,139 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 3.9% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73 years male: 71 years female: 75 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 4.41 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5% Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30% Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English; most people are bilingual Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980) total population: 97% male: 97% female: 97% Labor force: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

*American Samoa, Government

Names: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa Abbreviation: AS Digraph: AQ Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs Capital: Pago Pago Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US) Independence: none (territory of the US) Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967 Legal system: NA National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) Political parties and leaders: NA Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Elections: Governor: last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI was elected (percent of vote NA) House of Representatives: last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island) Senate: last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA US House of Representatives: last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate Executive branch: popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate (appointed by county village chiefs) and a lower house or House of Representatives (elected) Judicial branch: High Court Leaders: Chief of State: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) Head of Government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993)

*American Samoa, Government

Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US) Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

*American Samoa, Economy

Overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa does 80-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991) National product real growth rate: NA% National product per capita: $2,600 (1991) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990) Unemployment rate: 12% (1991) Budget: revenues $97,000,000 (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000 in grant revenue); including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91) Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6% Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7% External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 100 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990) Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat canning, handicrafts Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy farming Economic aid: $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991) Currency: US currency is used Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

*American Samoa, Communications

Railroads: none Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao Airports: total: 3 usable: 3 with permanent-surface runways: 3 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m : 1 (international airport at Tafuna) with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m: 0 note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu Telecommunications: 8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station

*American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

*Andorra, Geography

Location: Western Europe, between France and Spain Map references: Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 450 km2 land area: 450 km2 comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: none Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 56% forest and woodland: 22% other: 20% Irrigated land: NA km2 Environment: deforestation, overgrazing Note: landlocked

*Andorra, People

Population: 61,962 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 3.27% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 13.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: 25.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.22 years male: 75.35 years female: 81.34 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3% Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant) Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian Literacy: total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA% Labor force: NA

*Andorra, Government

Names: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra Digraph: AN Type: parliamentary coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers; to be changed to a parliamentary form of government Capital: Andorra la Vella Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria Independence: 1278 Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993; to take effect within 15 days Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal Elections: General Council of the Valleys: last held 12 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls) Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases

*Andorra, Government

Leaders: Chiefs of State: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata Head of Government: Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 Decmber 1989) Member of: INTERPOL, IOC Diplomatic representation in US: Andorra has no mission in the US US diplomatic representation: Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

*Andorra, Economy

Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes significantly to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Although it is a member of the EC customs union, it is unclear what effect the European Single Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free status. National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: NA% (1992 est.) National product per capita: $14,000 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% Unemployment rate: 0% Budget: revenues $119.4 million; expenditures $190 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990) Exports: $23 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture partners: France, Spain Imports: $888.7 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,570 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables Economic aid: none Currency: the French and Spanish currencies are used Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 114.59 (January 1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988) Fiscal year: calendar year

*Andorra, Communications

Highways: 96 km Telecommunications: international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

*Andorra, Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

*Angola, Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia and Zaire Map references: Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 1,246,700 km2 land area: 1,246,700 km2 comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas Land boundaries: total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km Coastline: 1,600 km Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 20 nm International disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; a ceasefire held from 31 May 1991 until October 1992, when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections; fighting has since resumed across the countryside Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April) Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 43% other: 32% Irrigated land: NA km2 Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

*Angola, People

Population: 9,545,235 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 2.67% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 45.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 18.96 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 148.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.26 years male: 43.26 years female: 47.35 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 6.54 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22% Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.) Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu dialects Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% Labor force: 2.783 million economically active by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

*Angola, Government

Names: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republic de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola Digraph: AO Type: transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system Capital: Luanda Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal) Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991 Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975) Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose EDUARDO DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, remains a legal party despite its returned to armed resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National Assembly Other political or pressure groups: Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), NZZIA Tiago, leader note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections were held in late September 1992 with disputed results; further elections are being discussed Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacrao) Leaders: Chief of State: President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) Head of Government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992)

*Angola, Government

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: none representation: Jose PATRICIO, Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States address: Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States, 1899 L Street, NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038 telephone: (202) 785-1156 FAX: (202) 785-1258 US diplomatic representation: director: Edmund DE JARNETTE liaison office: Rua Major Kanhangolo, Nes 132/138, Luanda mailing address: CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); USLO Luanda, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch) telephone: [244] (2) 34-54-81 FAX: [244] (2) 39-05-15 note: the US maintains a liaison office in Luanda accredited to the Joint Political Military Commission that oversees implementation of the Angola Peace Accords; this office does not perform any commercial or consular services; the US does not maintain diplomatic relations with the Government of the Republic of Angola Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

*Angola, Economy

Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal fighting continues to severely affect the nonoil economy, and food needs to be imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural resources in addition to oil, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and imbalances throughout the economy. National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.1 billion (1991 est.) National product real growth rate: 1.7% (1991 est.) National product per capita: $950 (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,000% (1992 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues $2.1 billion; expenditures $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1991 est.) Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: oil, liquefied petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military deliveries partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain External debt: $8 billion (1991) Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output Electricity: 510,000 kW capacity; 800 million kWh produced, 84 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: petroleum; mining diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold;, fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar cane, manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food imports Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,105 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million

*Angola, Economy

Currency: 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 kwei Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1 -4,000 (black market rate was 17,000 on 30 April 1993) Fiscal year: calendar year

*Angola, Communications

Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable Pipelines: crude oil 179 km Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 oil tanker Airports: total: 302 usable: 173 with permanent-surface runways: 32 with runways over 3,659 m: 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 57 Telecommunications: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high frequency radio used extensively for military links; 40,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Angola, Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,204,155; fit for military service 1,109,292; reach military age (18) annually 94,919 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Anguilla, Header

Affiliation: (dependent territory of the UK)

*Anguilla, Geography

Location: in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto Rico Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total area: 91 km2 land area: 91 km2 comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 61 km Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm International disputes: none Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) Irrigated land: NA km2 Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

*Anguilla, People

Population: 7,006 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 0.64% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 24.26 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 8.28 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -9.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.89 years male: 71.1 years female: 76.7 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan Ethnic divisions: black African Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12% Languages: English (official) Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984) total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% Labor force: 2,780 (1984) by occupation: NA

*Anguilla, Government

Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla Digraph: AV Type: dependent territory of the UK Capital: The Valley Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK) Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK) Constitution: 1 April 1982 Legal system: based on English common law National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Elections: House of Assembly: last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1 Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly Judicial branch: High Court Leaders: Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Alan W. SHARE (since August 1992) Head of Government: Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March 1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980) Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK) Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

*Anguilla, Economy

Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism. Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry. National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $47.4 million (1991 est.) National product real growth rate: 6.5% (1991 est.) National product per capita: $6,800 (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1991 est.) Unemployment rate: 5% (1988 est.) Budget: revenues $13.8 million; expenditures $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.) Exports: $1.4 million (f.o.b., 1987) commodities: lobster and salt partners: NA Imports: $10.3 million (f.o.b., 1987) commodities: NA partners: NA External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 862 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: tourism, boat building, salt Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry, fishing (including lobster) Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38 million Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976) Fiscal year: NA

*Anguilla, Communications

Highways: 60 km surfaced Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point Airports: total: 3 usable: 2 with permanent-surface runways: 1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport) with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 0 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 0 Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint Martin

*Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Antarctica, Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle Map references: Antarctic Region Area: total area: 14 million km2 (est.) land area: 14 million km2 (est.) comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US note: second-smallest continent (after Australia) Land boundaries: none, but see entry on International disputes Coastline: 17,968 km Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International Disputes International disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west, where, because of floating ice, Antarctica is unapproachable from the sea Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) Irrigated land: 0 km2

*Antarctica, Geography

Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; a circumpolar ocean current flows clockwise along the coast as do cyclonic storms that form over the ocean; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level ever recorded over Antarctica; active volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

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