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The 1995 CIA World Factbook
by United States Central Intelligence Agency
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To search for information on a specific country from the list below, search for @country: @Afganistan, for example. You can also search directly for one of the categories of that country as follows:

@Afganistan:Geography @Afganistan:People @Afganistan:Government @Afganistan:Economy @Afganistan:Transportation @Afganistan:Communications @Afganistan:Defense Forces



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publication Information Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan

The Bahamas Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian OceanTerritory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma Burundi

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic

Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon The Gambia Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy

Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway

Oman

Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palau Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda

Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan

Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World

Yemen

Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe

Appendices



Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995

The printed version of the Factbook is published annually in July by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the American Geophysical Union, Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information Washington, DC 20505 Telephone: [1] (703) 351-2053

US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.

This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or mail from:

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NOTES, DEFINITIONS, AND ABBREVIATIONS

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands became the independent nation of Palau. The gross domestic product (GDP) of all countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than on the old exchange rate basis. There is a new entry on Age structure and the Airports entry now includes unpaved runways. The Communications category has been restructured and now includes the entries of Telephone system, Radio, and Television. The remainder of the entries in the former Communications category-Railroads, Highways, Inland waterways, Pipelines, Ports, Merchant marine, and Airports-can now be found under a new category called Transportation. There is a new appendix listing estimates of gross domestic product on an exchange rate basis for all nations. A reference map of the Republic of South Africa is included. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1996 Factbook.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for selected international environmental agreements) avdp. — avoirdupois c.i.f. — cost, insurance, and freight CY — calendar year DWT — deadweight ton est. — estimate Ex-Im — Export-Import Bank of the United States f.o.b. — free on board FRG — Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 FSU — former Soviet Union FY — fiscal year FYROM — The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia GDP — gross domestic product GDR — German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 GNP — gross national product GRT — gross register ton GWP — gross world product km — kilometer kW — kilowatt kWh — kilowatt hour m — meter NA — not available NEGL — negligible nm — nautical mile NZ — New Zealand ODA — official development assistance OOF — other official flows PDRY — People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91 sq km — square kilometer sq mi — square mile UAE — United Arab Emirates UK — United Kingdom US — United States USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991 YAR — Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Airports: Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Paved runways have concrete or asphalt surfaces; unpaved runways have grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1995 is used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1995, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1995. Major political events have been updated through April 1995.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology) at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the Office of the Geographer at the US Department of State. The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 184 nations, including 178 of the 185 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS 184 — UN members (excluding the former Yugoslavia, which is still counted by the UN) 7 — nations that are not members of the UN—Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER 1 — Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS 6 — Australia—Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 2 — Denmark—Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 — France—Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 — Netherlands—Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 — New Zealand—Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 — Norway—Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 1 — Portugal—Macau 16 — United Kingdom—Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 14 — United States—American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS 6 — Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES 4 — oceans—Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1 — World 266 — total

Exchange rate: The official value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GDP estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars - converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate - will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. Currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: The numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn). Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. Mandrax is the Southwest Asian slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, in slang referred to as Quaaludes in North America or Mandrax in Southwest Asia Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy. Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea. Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Land use: The land surface is categorized as arable land - land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures - land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland - under dense or open stands of trees; and other - any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state. Flag of convenience register - A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register. Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Flag state maritime legislation determines how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register. Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags. Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only. Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given year. See GDP methodology, Gross domestic product (GDP), and Gross national product (GNP).

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Brazil, and Haiti.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers presented in the Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial phone call placed from the United States to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where 011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls (01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls), [34] is the country code for Spain, (1) is the city code for Madrid, 577 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial phone call placed from another country to the United States would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx where [1] is the country code for the United States, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994 as defined in the Fiscal Year entry of the Economy section for each nation. FY90-94 refers to the four fiscal years that began in calendar year 1990 and ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.



AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 647,500 sq km land area: 647,500 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clientsin country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 3% other: 39%

Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 21,251,821 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (female 4,342,218; male 4,507,141) 15-64 years: 56% (female 5,406,675; male 6,443,734) 65 years and over: 2% (female 256,443; male 295,610) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 14.47% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 120.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 152.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.37 years male: 45.98 years female: 44.72 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.21 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 29% male: 44% female: 14%

Labor force: 4.98 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Names: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Digraph: AF

Type: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol

Note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July- December 1992; President since 2 January 1993); Vice President Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA); election last held 31 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by a national shura, later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months; note - in June 1994 failure to agree on a transfer mechanism resulted in RABBANI's extending the term to 28 December 1994; following the expiration of the term and while negotiations on the formation of a new government go on, RABBANI continues in office head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers

Note: term of present government expired 28 December 1994; factional fighting since 1 January 1994 has kept government officers from actually occupying ministries and discharging government responsibilities; the government's authority to remove cabinet members, including the Prime Minister, following the expiration of their term is questionable

Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized

Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR

Note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside and their shuras (councils) are now administering most cities outside Kabul; tribal elders and religious students are trying to wrest control from them; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious students (talib)

Member of: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, NCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516 consulate(s) general: New York consulate(s): Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: none; embassy was closed in January 1989

Flag: NA; note - the flag has changed at least twice since 1992

@Afghanistan:Economy

Overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 15 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 13 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 56.7% (1991)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)

Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY90/91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP

Electricity: capacity: 480,000 kW production: 550 million kWh consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer after Burma (950 metric tons in 1994) and a major source of hashish

Economic aid: recipient: $450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; the UN provides assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railroads: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,800 km unpaved: gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)

Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports: Keleft, Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: total: 48 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 15 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Afghanistan:Communications

Telephone system: 31,200 telephones; limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; 1 public telephone in Kabul local: NA intercity: NA international: one link between western Afghanistan and Iran (via satellite)

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 radios: NA

Television: broadcast stations: several television stations run by factions and local councils which provide intermittent service televisions: NA

@Afghanistan:Defense Forces

Branches: the military still does not exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various mujahedin and former regime leaders

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,646,789; males fit for military service 3,011,777; males reach military age (22) annually 200,264 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990 est.); the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget





ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area: total area: 28,750 sq km land area: 27,400 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public sector jobs and representation in government; Albania is involved in a bilaterlal dispute with Greece over border demarcation, the treatment of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 38% other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,413,904 (July 1995 est.) note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates the population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (female 520,186; male 563,953) 15-64 years: 62% (female 1,026,321; male 1,104,371) 65 years and over: 6% (female 112,252; male 86,821) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.7 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.81 years male: 70.83 years female: 77.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955) total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63%

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987) by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

@Albania:Government

Names: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Digraph: AL

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 note: 6 members of the Democratic Party defected making the present seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20 FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-94 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies - including a strict monetary policy, public sector layoffs, and reduced social services - have improved the government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1994. A sharp fall in chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to continue in 1995, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers' remittances from Greece are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 11% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.1 billion expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)

Exports: $112 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

Imports: $621 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

External debt: $920 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 770,000 kW production: 4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,200 kWh (1994)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; 60% of the work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium production

Economic aid: recipient: $303 million (1993)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 100 (January 1995), 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Transportation

Railroads: total: 543 km line connecting Podgorica (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder completed August 1986 standard gauge: 509 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 34 km 0.950-m gauge (1990)

Highways: total: 18,450 km paved: 17,450 km unpaved: earth 1,000 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shergjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT

Airports: total: 11 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Albania:Communications

Telephone system: about 55,000 telephones; about 15 telephones/1,000 persons local: primitive; about 11,000 telephones in Tirane, the capital city intercity: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; carried through the Tirane exchange and transmitted through Italy on 240 microwave radio relay circuits and through Greece on 150 microwave radio relay circuits

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0 radios: 515,000 (1987 est.)

Television: broadcast stations: 9 televisions: 255,000 (1987 est.)

@Albania:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 919,085; males fit for military service 755,574; males reach military age (19) annually 33,323 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 330 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 2,381,740 sq km land area: 2,381,740 sq km comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 2% other: 82%

Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 28,539,321 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41% (female 5,678,879; male 5,885,246) 15-64 years: 56% (female 7,887,885; male 8,033,508) 65 years and over: 3% (female 557,636; male 496,167) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 29.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.01 years male: 66.94 years female: 69.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 57% male: 70% female: 46%

Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

@Algeria:Government

Names: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Digraph: AG

Type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be held by the end of 1995 head of government: Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - suspended since 1992 National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (provincial and municipal) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed

Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79 consulate(s): none (Oran closed June 1993)

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $97.1 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,480 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $14.3 billion expenditures: $17.9 billion (1995 est.)

Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990) partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

External debt: $26 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 35% of GDP (including hydrocarbons)

Electricity: capacity: 5,370,000 kW production: 18.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1993) and employs 22% of labor force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar

Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $375 million

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 42.710 (January 1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Transportation

Railroads: total: 4,733 km standard gauge: 3,576 km 1.435-m gauge (299 km electrified; 215 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,157 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways: total: 95,576 km paved: concrete, bituminous 57,346 km unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 38,230 km

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1

Airports: total: 139 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 20 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 24 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 41

@Algeria:Communications

Telephone system: 822,000 telephones; excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south local: NA intercity: 12 domestic satellite links; 20 additional satellite links are planned international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT earth station

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0 radios: 5.2 million

Television: broadcast stations: 18 televisions: 1.6 million

@Algeria:Defense Forces

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,124,894; males fit for military service 4,373,272; males reach military age (19) annually 313,707 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1994)



AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 199 sq km land area: 199 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 75% other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas of the island water supplies come from roof catchments natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March international agreements: NA

Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 57,366 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.82% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 36.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.91 years male: 71.03 years female: 74.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English; most people are bilingual

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980) total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97%

Labor force: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa:Government

Names: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa

Abbreviation: AS

Digraph: AQ

Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island) Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991 est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $2,600 (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget: revenues: $97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000 in grant revenue); expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: capacity: 30,000 kW production: 90 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,505 kWh (1993)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat canning, handicrafts

Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy farming

Economic aid: recipient: $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)

Currency: 1 United States dollar = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports: Aanu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 4 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 3 note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephone system: 8,399 telephones; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services local: NA intercity: NA international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) and 1 COMSAT earth station

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 radios: NA

Television: broadcast stations: 1 televisions: NA

@American Samoa:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US



ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 450 sq km land area: 450 sq km comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 56% forest and woodland: 22% other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches international agreements: NA

Note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 65,780 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (female 5,503; male 5,985) 15-64 years: 70% (female 21,873; male 24,334) 65 years and over: 12% (female 4,020; male 4,065) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.52 years male: 75.65 years female: 81.66 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Andorra:Government

Names: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra

Digraph: AN

Type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chiefs of state: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); note - COURTOIS is to become French ambassador to Libreville and his replacement has not been announced; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata (since NA); two permanent delegates (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar General Nemesi MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA) head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE (since 21 December 1994) elected by Parliament, following resignation of Oscar RIBAS Reig cabinet: Executive Council; designated by the executive council president

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys: (Consell General de las Valls); elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); yielded no clear winner; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE note: there are two other small parties

Member of: ECE, IFRCS (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO

Diplomatic representation in US: Andorra has no mission in the US

US diplomatic representation: Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra:Economy

Overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect the European Single Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free status.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $760 million (1992 est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $14,000 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $138 million expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)

Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture partners: France, Spain

Imports: $NA commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: capacity: 35,000 kW production: 140 million kWh consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking

Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995), 5,5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 132.61 (January 1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways: total: 96 km paved: NA unpaved: NA

Ports: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Communications

Telephone system: 17,700 telephones; digital microwave network local: NA intercity: NA international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 radios: NA

Television: broadcast stations: 0 televisions: NA

@Andorra:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain



ANGOLA

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Zaire

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,246,700 sq km land area: 1,246,700 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 20 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 43% other: 32%

Irrigated land: NA km2

Environment: current issues: population pressures contributing to overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest attributable to the international demand for tropical timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola:People

Population: 10,069,501 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (female 2,208,307; male 2,274,533) 15-64 years: 53% (female 2,641,259; male 2,685,543) 65 years and over: 2% (female 136,573; male 123,286) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.1 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 142.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.28 years male: 44.18 years female: 48.49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28%

Labor force: 2.783 million economically active by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola:Government

Note: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975; a cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November 1994; the cease-fire is generally holding but most provisions of the accord remain to be implemented.

Names: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republica de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola

Digraph: AO

Type: transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) head of government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): first nationwide, multiparty elections were held 29-30 September 1992 with disputed results

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, is a legal party despite its history of armed resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National Assembly

Other political or pressure groups: Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of largest faction (FLEC-FAC) note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Goncalves Martins PATRICIO embassy: 1819 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 400 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Edmund T. DE JARNETTE embassy: 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Luanda, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch) telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418 FAX: [244] (2) 347-884

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80%-90% of the population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Despite the signing of a peace accord in November 1994 between the Angola government and the UNITA insurgents, sporadic fighting continues and many farmers remain reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food requirements must still be imported. Angola has rich natural resources - notably gold, diamonds, and arable land, in addition to large oil deposits - but will need to observe the cease-fire, implement the peace agreement, and reform government policies if it is to achieve its potential.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: -1% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $620 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% average per month (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines, substantial military deliveries partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

External debt: $11.7 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output

Electricity: capacity: 620,000 kW production: 1.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 189 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products

Agriculture: cash crops - bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cane, manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe

Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 900,000 (official rate 25 April 1995), 1,900,000 (black market rate 6 April 1995), 600,000 (official rate 10 January 1995), 90,000 (official rate 1 June 1994), 180,000 (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16 December 1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884 (July 1993); 550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Transportation

Railroads: total: 3,189 km; note - limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war narrow gauge: 2,879 km 1.067-m gauge; 310 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways: total: 73,828 km paved: bituminous-surface 8,577 km unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved earth 35,901 km

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 1

Airports: total: 289 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6 with paved runways under 914 m: 93 with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 33 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 126

@Angola:Communications

Telephone system: 40,300 telephones; 4.1 telephones/1,000 persons; high frequency radio used extensively for military links; telephone service limited mostly to government and business use local: NA intercity: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter routes international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio: broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0 radios: NA

Television: broadcast stations: 6 televisions: NA

@Angola:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,315,717; males fit for military service 1,166,082; males reach military age (18) annually 100,273 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 31% of GDP (1993)



ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 91 sq km land area: 91 sq km comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October) international agreements: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 7,099 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (female 1,129; male 1,115) 15-64 years: 60% (female 2,101; male 2,126) 65 years and over: 8% (female 362; male 266) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.66% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.09 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.03 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.1 years male: 71.32 years female: 76.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984) total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95%

Labor force: 4,400 (1992) by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

@Anguilla:Government

Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Digraph: AV

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992) head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)

cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly: elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA); Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS

Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

@Anguilla:Economy

Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism and construction. Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $49 million (1993 est.)

National product real growth rate: 7.5% (1992)

National product per capita: $7,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.8 million expenditures: $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.)

Exports: $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: lobster and salt partners: NA

Imports: $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: NA partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: capacity: 2,000 kW production: 6 million kWh consumption per capita: 862 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism, boat building, salt

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry, fishing (including lobster)

Economic aid: recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways: total: 105 km (1992 est.) paved: 65 km unpaved: gravel and earth 40 km

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