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The 1998 CIA World Factbook
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The CIA World Factbook 1998

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Countries are listed in alphabetical order. Notes and appendixes follow the country listings.

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan Juan de Nova Island Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palau Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara World Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Notes and Definitions Appendixes Appendix A: Abbreviations Appendix B: United Nations System Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements Appendix E: Weights and Measures Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names History Contributors and Copyright Information Purchase Information



AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 647,500 sq km land: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 3% other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 24,792,375 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 5,425,510; female 5,216,954) 15-64 years: 54% (male 6,978,549; female 6,494,253) 65 years and over: 3% (male 357,780; female 319,329) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.21% (1998 est.) note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 42.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 143.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.83 years male: 47.35 years female: 46.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31.5% male: 47.2% female: 15% (1995 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note-the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

National capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular-velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning government at this time, and the country remains divided among fighting factions note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north-General DOSTAM's National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan [comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar, Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan (CUNUA), Ishaq GAILANI; Writers Union of Free Afghanistan (WUFA), A. Rasul AMIN; Mellat (Social Democratic Party), leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997 chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag

@Afghanistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 18 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During the war one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 18 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. Much of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious problem throughout the country, with one estimate putting the rate at 240% in Kabul in 1996. Numerical data are likely to be either unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 53% industry: 28.5% services: 18.5% (1990)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 7.1 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Electricity-capacity: 494,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 655 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 37 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Exports: total value: $80 million (1996 est.) commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: total value: $150 million (1996 est.) commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

Debt-external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA; about $45 million in UN aid plus additional bilateral aid and aid in kind (1997) note: US provided $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1-17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note-these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar on April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Communications

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.8 million (1996 est.); note-about 60% of families own a radio

Television broadcast stations: NA note: one television station run by Jumbesh faction provides intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products-Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 33 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Afghanistan:Military

Military branches: NA; note-the military does not exist on a national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various groups

Military manpower-military age: NA years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: NA

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Afghanistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer after Burma (cultivation in 1997-39,150 hectares, a 3% increase over 1996; potential production in 1997-1,265 metric tons, a 3% increase over 1996) and a major source of hashish



ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 28,750 sq km land: 27,400 sq km water: 1,350 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 15% forests and woodland: 38% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,330,754 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 572,430; female 532,917) 15-64 years: 61% (male 941,076; female 1,086,541) 65 years and over: 6% (male 82,184; female 115,606) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.64 years male: 65.58 years female: 71.94 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63% (1955 est.)

@Albania:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular-rreth); Berat, Bulquize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Dibre (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Lac, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesia e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 24 July 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD 2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK 1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party-PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK 3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEHDIU]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Hysen SELFO]; Movement of Legality Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; PBSD; Democratic Party of the Right or PDD [Petrit KALAKULA]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Social Democratic Union Party or USdS [Teodor LACO]; Albanian United Right or DBSH

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marisa R. LINO (15 July 1996) embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirana mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20 FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Economy-overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997-which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's adult population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an 8% drop in GDP. The new government installed in July 1997 has taken strong measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 56% industry: 21% services: 23% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 40% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) by occupation: agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector 22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry 7.8%); note-includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but likely to be as high as 28%

Budget: revenues: $624 million expenditures: $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.892 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.435 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,314 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Exports: total value: $228 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, Greece, Germany, Belgium, US

Imports: total value: $879 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Debt-external: $645 million (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: $630 million pledged 1997

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1-152.28 (January 1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994), 102.06 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system: domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways: total: 670 km standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,582 GRT/54,832 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Albania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 749,633 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 609,986 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 32,367 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $42 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active in Central and Eastern Europe



ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 13% forests and woodland: 2% other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud slides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 30,480,793 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 5,923,087; female 5,709,614) 15-64 years: 58% (male 8,931,896; female 8,752,014) 65 years and over: 4% (male 542,012; female 622,170) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.14% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.51 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.93 years male: 67.78 years female: 70.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.38 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

National capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular-wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note-referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31 January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of vote-Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of November 1996) elections: National People's Assembly-last held 5 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of Nations-last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA%; seats by party-RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34, FFS 20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for Democracy and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11; Council of Nations-percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party-RND 80, FLN 10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BENHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Movement of a Peaceful Society (MSP or Hamas), Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party (PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman; Nahda Movement (Al Nahda), Abdallah DJABALLAH, president; Democratic National Rally (RND), Abdelkader BENSALAH, chairman; Movement for Democracy in Algeria (MDA), Ahmed Ben BELLA; Workers Party (PT), Louisa HANOUN; Republican Progressive Party, Khadir DRISS; Union for Democracy and Freedoms, Mouley BOUKHALAFA; Liberal Social Party, Ahmed KHELIL note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron HUME embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Economy-overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility. Progress on economic reform, a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995, and oil and gas sector expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely to maintain growth and export earnings. Continuing but gradual government efforts to attract foreign and domestic investment outside that sector seek to diversify the economy and tackle problems of high unemployment and falling living standards, problems as yet untouched by the macroeconomic turnaround.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$120.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 50% services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 7.8 million (1996 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.7 billion expenditures: $13.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.1 million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6.007 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 19.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 630 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: total value: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%, Germany 7.9% (1995 est.)

Imports: total value: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%, Germany 5.6% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $33 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $420 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1-58.969 (January 1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,772 km standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways: total: 102,424 km paved: 70,570 km (including 608 km of expressways) unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 928,965 GRT/1,094,104 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 50 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 24 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 86 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 40 under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Algeria:Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 7,949,708 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 4,871,931 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 347,952 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)

@Algeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya



AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 199 sq km land: 199 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 70% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 62,093 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 12,575; female 11,824) 15-64 years: 56% (male 17,513; female 17,477) 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,364; female 1,340) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.74% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.31 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.03 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.47 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.23 years male: 70.95 years female: 79.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type: NA

National capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three political districts

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997) and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997) cabinet: NA elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor of American Samoa; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID (independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats-20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs who serve four-year terms) elections: House of Representatives-last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 1998); Senate-last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - NA; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 1998); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party; Republican Party

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Economy-overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. According to one observer, attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, may be held back in 1998 by the financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$150 million (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA %

Labor force: total: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget: revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in grant revenue) expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 33,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 105 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports: total value: $318 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6%

Imports: total value: $418 million (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 12,000 (1994 est.)

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@American Samoa:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@American Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none



ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 450 sq km land: 450 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 125 km border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 56% forests and woodland: 22% other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 64,716 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 4,819; female 4,474) 15-64 years: 73% (male 25,448; female 22,028) 65 years and over: 13% (male 4,041; female 3,906) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.48 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.45 years male: 80.54 years female: 86.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA

@Andorra:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers

National capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular-parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971); note-each coprince is represented by a veguer (French: Jean-Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish: Francesc BADIA Battalla) head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994) cabinet: Executive Council designated by the executive council president elections: executive council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held February 2001) election results: percent of vote by party-UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party-UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) two civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by the coprinces alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal des Cortes presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers, and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND [Oscar RIBAS Reig]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Andorran National Coalition or CNA [Antoni CERQUEDA Gispert]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UDO note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent Representative to the UN) chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX: (343) 205-7705; note-Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $138 million expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 35,000 kW (1992)

Electricity-production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh; note-Andorra exports most of its electricity to France and Spain

Agriculture-products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports: total value: $47 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture partners: France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports: total value: $1 billion (1995) commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1-153.94 (January 1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Andorra:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none



ANGOLA

Introduction

Current issues: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire between the government and (UNITA) lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when UNITA refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the country. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is generally holding, but military tensions and banditry persist. The peace accord provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the Angolan armed forces and the government. A Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April 1997 and military integration was declared complete in June 1997, although UNITA filled fewer than half of the military positions allocated to the rebels. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996 and all UN military components are scheduled to depart by 30 June 1998 except for through 1998.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which 220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province, Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 23% forests and woodland: 43% other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment-current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography-note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

@Angola:People

Population: 10,864,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,471,108; female 2,401,631) 15-64 years: 52% (male 2,864,152; female 2,831,209) 65 years and over: 3% (male 137,432; female 158,980) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.79 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 132.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.86 years male: 45.6 years female: 50.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republica de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

National capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular-provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) head of government: Prime Minister Fernando Franca VAN DUNEM (since 8 June 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president and answerable to the Assembly election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party-MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity government in April 1997 note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu" chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda mailing address: International mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; Pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418 FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy-overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of more than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources-gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and large oil deposits-Angola will need to implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production and higher oil prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 56% services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 92% (mid-1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 2.783 million economically active by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 617,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 18.62 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 185 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Exports: total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US 70%, EU

Imports: total value: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing; substantial military supplies partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt-external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $451 million (1994)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1-265,000 (August 1997), 201,994 (November 1996) note: the exchange rate is set by the National Bank of Angola (BNA); adjusted by BNA on 19 July 1997 at 265,000 kwanzas per US$1; black market rate was then 360,000 kwanzas per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still in place from the civil war (1997 est.) narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways: total: 72,626 km paved: 18,157 km unpaved: 54,469 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 252 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 220 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 32 914 to 1,523 m: 101 under 914 m: 82 (1997 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,476,766 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,246,349 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 105,283 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states



ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 91 sq km land: 91 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment-current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,147 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 1,558; female 1,511) 15-64 years: 65% (male 3,713; female 3,545) 65 years and over: 7% (male 359; female 461) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.25% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.37 years male: 74.39 years female: 80.43 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995) head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA [Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy-overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on high-class tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$75 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,200 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.6% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 4,400 (1992) by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.5 million (1993) expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of $740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports: total value: $1.8 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt partners: NA

Imports: total value: $52.7 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: NA partners: NA

Debt-external: $8.5 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 890

Telephone system: domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none



ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 14 million sq km land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.) note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment-current issues: in 1995 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when measurements were first taken

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note-there are seasonally staffed research stations; Summer (January) population-over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90); Winter (July) population-over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90); Year-round stations-42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91); Summer-only stations-over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note-the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties

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