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The American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia
by William James Miller
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The American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia



BY THE REV. WILLIAM JAMES MILLER, M.A., B.D.



"Of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God."—Acts 1:3.



NEW YORK THOMAS WHITTAKER

2 AND 3 BIBLE HOUSE



COPYRIGHT, 1901,

By THOMAS WHITTAKER



Preface

The writer of the following pages has long been convinced, from an experience of many years in the Ministry, that a great desideratum among Church people is a Church Dictionary, especially one not so expensive as the more costly works, and at the same time something more complete and satisfactory than a mere glossary of terms. What seems to be needed is an inexpensive, handy volume, "short enough for busy people, plain enough for common people, cheap enough for poor people," yet complete enough to give the information needed. The present work was undertaken with this object in view. It was thought "worth while"; for if words are things, then greater familiarity with the phraseology of the Church will lead to greater knowledge "of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God." What is here set forth is really a HANDY BOOK OF READY REFERENCE arranged in alphabetical order; and while some of the articles may seem to be too brief, yet the system of cross references adopted, it is believed, will throw considerable light on subjects where it is employed and thus enables the book to be kept within the limits already specified.

The title, THE AMERICAN CHURCH DICTIONARY, indicates the purpose as well as those for whom it is written. In preparing it, the writer worked under the {3} conviction that not only is it necessary to set forth the historic facts, doctrines, terminology, customs and usages of the Church, but also to indicate the spirit of the Church as well,—the spirit that pervades all her life, her teachings and her customs, and which when once possessed makes us deeply conscious of her continuous life from the beginning, as having a history and glorious traditions.

Many sources of information have been drawn from, the thoughts of many writers have been laid under contribution, but not always was it possible to make acknowledgment, as what is here presented is the result of the writer's general reading and study. As such the work is sent forth with the hope that all who refer to its pages may find it adequate to the purpose described and realize the full meaning of St. Cyprian's word's, "He cannot have God for his Father, who has not the Church for his Mother."

W. J. M.



Dictionary and Cyclopaedia



A

Ablutions.—A term used to designate the ceremonial washing of the sacred vessels after Holy Communion, with wine and water which are reverently consumed by the Priest. These ablutions are in conformity with the Rubric which directs, "And if any of the consecrated Bread and Wine remain after the Communion, it shall not be carried out of the Church; but the Minister and other communicants shall, immediately after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the same."

Absolution.—The forgiveness of sins on earth by the Son of Man through His agents, the Bishops and Priests of the Church. Their commission is embodied in the words of the Ordination Office, "Receive the Holy Ghost for the Office and Work of a Priest in the Church of God, now committed unto thee by the Imposition of our hands. Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained." This commission contains our {6} Lord's own words to be found in St. John 20:22 and 23, and they are His commission to His Ministers. Attempts have been made to explain away these words; but it is unquestionably the office of the Holy Ghost to invest those ordained with the power of dispensing God's Word and Sacraments, and of performing what is necessary "for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the ministry, and for the edifying of the Body of Christ." (See KEYS, POWER OF).

Absolution, The.—The name given to the form of words by which a penitent person is absolved. There are two forms in the Prayer Book; the longer form being used at Morning and Evening Prayer, the shorter one being usually confined to use in the Communion Office.

Absolve.—To loose, to set free from the bondage of sin. (See ABSOLUTION, also KEYS, POWER OF).

Abstinence.—The Church makes a distinction between abstinence and fasting. Abstinence is the reduction of food for the sake of self-discipline, while fasting is going without food of any kind as a more severe act of discipline. Abstinence is to be exercised on "Other Days of Fasting" i.e., other than Ash Wednesday and Good Friday which are absolute Fasts. (See FASTS, TABLE OF; also FASTING).

Acolyte.—A word derived from the Greek, and used to designate one who serves the Priest in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. His chief duties are to arrange the elements on the Credence, to light the candles, receive the offerings and present them, and also the Bread, Wine and water, to the Priest at the proper time in the Celebration. {7}

Adult Baptism.—The rule of the Church is Infant Baptism. She brings children even in their tenderest years within her Fold and there trains them up "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." But when in England the Puritans and Anabaptists arose and prevailed, then there grew up a generation that reached maturity without having been baptized, and then it was that there arose the necessity for "The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years and able to answer for themselves." To meet such cases the present service in the Prayer Book for the Baptism of Adults was prepared and set forth in A.D. 1661. That the Church of England had no form for the Baptism of Adults previous to the year 1661 is not only an interesting fact, but it is also one of those historic side-lights which brings into bold relief what was the custom of the Church from time immemorial.

Advent.—Derived from the Latin, and means coming. The word is used of the first coming of Christ at His Birth, and of His Second Coming to judge the world. These are commemorated in the first Season of the Church Year, the Season of Advent, which begins on the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (Nov. 30) whether before or after, and continues until Christmas Day. The Advent Season is intended to be a preparation for the due observance of Christmas, is penitential in character and a time of increased devotions both public and private. The Benedicite is sung instead of the Te Deum; the Benedictus is recited in full, and the Collect for the First Sunday in Advent is used daily throughout the Season. The color for Altar hangings, etc., is purple or violet.

Advent Sunday.—A name to be found in the Prayer Book for the First Sunday in Advent. It is commonly regarded as the first day of the Church Year, and as such the Christian's New Year's Day. From the fact that the Church Year anticipates the Civil New Year by a whole month it is thought that the Church thereby teaches that the Kingdom of God should be first in our thoughts, (See ADVENT, also CHRISTIAN YEAR).

Affusion.—The pouring (which the word means) of water on the recipient of Baptism, when the Baptism is not by immersion. Questions have arisen from the very earliest ages as to the matter and form with which this Sacrament is to be administered. The original mode was undoubtedly by the descent of the person to be baptized into a stream or pool of water. The practice of immersion was not, however, regarded as an essential feature of Baptism. There can be little doubt that affusion was practiced instead of immersion, at the discretion of the Priest, in ancient as well as in modern times. The Prayer Book provides for either mode. The method is a matter of indifference, the essential point being that the candidate for Baptism come into actual contact with water while the words, "I baptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," are spoken.

Agape.—A Greek word meaning love. The name given to the "Love Feast" or social meal which the ancient Christians were accustomed to have when they came together and which was partaken of before the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. But owing to abuses, which St. Paul rebuked in writing to the {9} Corinthians, it was finally abolished. There seems to be some confusion of ideas in regard to this ancient custom as is seen in the wrong use that is made of the term LORD'S SUPPER (which see).

Agnus Dei.—Meaning "The Lamb of God." This is the name given to the prayer "O Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us," to be found in the Litany and Gloria in Excelsis. The Agnus Dei is often sung as an anthem after the Prayer of Consecration in the Holy Communion. It is also the name given to a representation of a lamb with banner as an emblem of Christ. (See EMBLEMS).

Aisle.—This term is often wrongly applied to the alleys or passageways between the pews of a church. Aisle, properly speaking, is an architectural term given to the side or wing of a church or cathedral separated from the nave by rows of pillars and arches. The word is derived from the Latin ala, meaning a wing.

Alb.—A long white linen garment worn as one of the Eucharistic Vestments. (See VESTMENTS).

Alleluia.—A Hebrew word meaning "Praise ye the Lord." Sometimes written "Hallelujah." It is used on joyous occasions such as Christmas and Easter.

All Saints' Day.—A Feast held on November 1, in commemoration of all saints of the Church who are not commemorated on other days. This Festival is very dear to the hearts of Christians. It is a day full of touching memories, when in the Holy Eucharist we memorialize before God the lives not only of Martyrs and Confessors and the great army of valiant {10} and faithful souls in every age and clime, but also of those dear to us by ties of kindred and affection,—fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, little children and noble youth—who "having finished their course in faith do now rest from their labors." It is thus we have brought home to us, as in no other way, the meaning and reality of "The Communion of Saints." Amid the solemnities of worship "and memorial we thus learn that the living and the dead are bound together by ties that are eternal, ties that no change of time can break, because before God they are one in the Mystical Body of Christ. (See DIPTYCHS).

Almanac, Church.—An annual publication setting forth the dates and times of the Holy Days and Seasons of the Church's year, with the table of Lessons, directions concerning the Church colors and other information about the Church, such as the organization of the Dioceses, number of communicants; clergy list, the General Convention and other organizations; also, the list of the American Bishops, both living and departed. In fact a well-edited Church Almanac is so full of information no intelligent communicant can afford to be without one, as a guide and help to his devotions throughout the year. (See CALENDAR).

Alms Bason.—A shallow dish or plate, usually made of some precious metal, in which the offerings of the people are received and placed on the Altar.

Alpha and Omega.—The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. They are used of our Lord to set forth His eternal and divine Nature, as in Revelation I:II, "I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last." In their Greek form these letters are used {11} in the symbolism and decoration of the Church, either separately or as a monogram.

Altar.—The Holy Table, of wood or stone, on which the Sacrament of the Lord's Body and Blood is offered to God as a "Sacrifice of Praise and Thanksgiving." "Altar" and "Table" are used interchangeably in Holy Scripture, and both words are used in the Prayer Book for the same thing. From the very earliest times the Altar has always been the most prominent object in the Church, being placed at the end of the chancel and elevated, being approached by three or more steps. Architecturally as well as devotionally the Altar is the distinctive feature, the objective point of the building to which all else conforms. Properly speaking, the building is erected for the Altar, and not the Altar for the building. (See LORD'S TABLE).

Altar Cross.—The cross surmounting the Altar, made usually of polished brass or of some precious metal. The Altar Cross is handed down to us from the Primitive Church, so that to-day wheresoever the English or the American flag waves there "the Altar and the Cross" are set up. The Cross is placed over the middle of the Altar, in the most sacred and prominent part of the Church, "in order that the holy symbol of our Faith may be constantly before the eyes of all who worship therein, to shine through the gloom of this world and point them to the skies."

Altar Lights.—Two candles in candlesticks placed on the retable of the Altar and lighted at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; frequently called Eucharistic Lights. They are used to symbolize our Lord as {12} the Light of the world in His two Natures, Human and Divine. The symbolical use of lighted tapers in Divine Service is of primitive antiquity and their use is being generally restored in both the English and American branches of the Church. This is evidenced by the table in the Tourist's Church Guide for 1898, in which it appears that in 1882 there were 581 churches in which the Altar Lights were used, while in 1898 the number had increased to 4,334. (See LIGHTS ON THE ALTAR).

Altar Linen.—The linen pieces used in decorating the Altar for the celebration of the Holy Communion are so called. There is first the "fair white linen cloth," the width of the top of the Altar, and falling over the ends fifteen or twenty inches ending with a fringe. It is usually embroidered with five crosses to represent the five wounds of our Lord. Other pieces are the Corporal to cover the middle part of the Altar and on which are placed the Paten and Chalice during the Celebration; the "fair linen cloth," or thin lawn veil required by the rubric to cover the elements after consecration; the Purificators, and also the Pall,—each of which is described under its proper title (which see).

Altar Rail.—The railing enclosing the Sanctuary in which the Altar stands, and at which the communicants kneel in receiving the Holy Communion, is called, in the Institution Office the Altar Rail. Supposed to have been first introduced by Archbishop Laud as a protection of the Altar against the lawlessness and irreverence of the Puritans.

Altar Vessels.—(See VESSELS, SACRED). {13}

Ambulatory.—The name given to the passageway running around and back of the Altar, being a continuation of the aisles of the church. Generally used for processionals to and from the choir.

Amen.—A Hebrew word meaning "so be it," or "so it is," as it is used at the end of prayers, hymns or Creed. It signifies approval of, or assent to, what has gone before. The use of the "Amen" in Public Worship emphasizes the Priesthood of the Laity, as for example, in the consecration of the elements in the Holy Communion, while the celebrating Priest stands before God offering to Him this holy Oblation, he does it in company with all the faithful, and to signify their cooperation with him in this great act they say "Amen," adopting his words and acts as their own. In the early Church the "Amen" was said with such heartiness, an ancient writer describes it as sounding "like a clap of thunder." (See RESPONSIVE SERVICE).

American Church, The.—The name, and one that is growing in popularity, that is generally given to the body legally known as "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America."

The term "American Church" is descriptive of "The Holy Catholic Church" having this land and people as the field of its operations. When our Lord commanded His Apostles to go forth and make disciples of all nations, and they went forth to carry out this command, they gave to every nation to which they came the Church in its completeness with powers of perpetuity. To every nation were given the Christian Faith, the Apostolic Ministry, the Sacraments and the Christian Worship or Liturgy. Hence there {14} sprung up national Churches, all equal and having union with one another in these four essentials of Christian Truth and Order. The Episcopal Church in the United States by reason of its origin, history and character is to be regarded as one of these national churches and the name which is to embody this idea will no doubt be found and set forth by the proper ecclesiastical authority in due time. It is difficult to say just how the name "Protestant Episcopal" came into use, but it has always been a hindrance to our growth because it requires so much to be said in explanation, which is always a disadvantage. Meantime the name "American Church" is coming more and more into general use, as it is clear, definite and historic, following the analogy of the naming of the ancient national churches.

The Episcopal Church in the United States is the daughter of the ancient, historic. Catholic and Apostolic Church of England, is partaker of the same life and the inheritor with the mother Church of the same worship, rites, customs, doctrines and traditions, and, therefore, its position, likewise, is ancient and historic, Catholic and Apostolic. (See ANGLICAN CHURCH, also ANGLICAN COMMUNION).

The history of the Church in America covers a period of more than three hundred years, and its first beginnings on these shores are full of interest. We refer to a few of them. From an old chronicle it is learned that in the year 1578, on the shores of Frobisher's Straits, "Master Walfall celebrated a Communion upon land, at the partaking whereof were the Captain and many others with him. The celebration {15} of the Divine Mystery was the first signs, seals and confirmation of Christ's Passion and Death ever known in these quarters."

It is a remarkable and interesting fact that the Book of Common Prayer was first used in the territory now covered by the United States, not on the Atlantic coast as one would naturally suppose, but on the Pacific coast, on the shores of Drake's Bay, California. This took place on St. John Baptist's Day, June 24th, 1579, the officiating minister having been the Rev. Francis Fletcher, chaplain to Francis Drake. The place where this service was held has been marked by a handsome cross, known as the "Prayer Book Cross," erected by Bishop Nichols through the munificence of the late Geo. W. Childs, of Philadelphia.

In the course of time, settlements were made along the Atlantic coast and evidence is given of the Church's services being held at very early dates. In A.D. 1607, the first permanent settlement was effected in Virginia. In May of that year, under the Rev. Robert Hunt, a Priest of the Church of England, services began to be held regularly and a church building was erected at Jamestown. This was thirteen years before the "Pilgrim Fathers" landed on Plymouth Rock. The Church was planted in all the colonies and included a greater portion of the population. But in time other religious bodies were also established and as these organizations had everything necessary for their growth and development they grew and prospered. With the {16} Church it was far different. For more than one hundred and fifty years it existed on these shores an Episcopal Church without an Episcopate. There could be no confirmations and no ordinations to the ministry unless candidates were willing to take the long and perilous voyage to England. The result was the supply of clergy fell off, and children, although baptized, yet because they could not be confirmed, finally wandered away to other folds.

Repeated efforts were made to secure the consecration of a Bishop for the Church in America, but owing to political and ecclesiastical complications this was not possible until after the Revolutionary War. In A.D. 1784, on November 14th, the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., was consecrated in Aberdeen, Scotland, by the Scottish Bishops, for the Church in Connecticut and as the first Bishop in America. On February 4th, 1787, the Rev. William White, D.D., of Pennsylvania, and the Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D., of New York, were consecrated Bishops by the two Archbishops of the Church of England and the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Peterborough, in Lambeth Palace, London. A few years later, viz., on September 19th, 1790, the Rev. James Madison, D.D., of Virginia, was consecrated in England by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London and the Bishop of Rochester. By the consecration of these four Bishops abroad the American Church secured the Episcopate from the ancient and Apostolic sources, and thus gained the power of perpetuating itself. The significance of this may be seen when we reflect that the ancient canons of the Church require that not less than three Bishops shall unite in the consecration of a Bishop. This enactment is designed to provide against any possible defect in the succession of any one of the {17} consecrating Bishops. We thus see how careful the Church has always been in conferring this great office, and how particular the American Church was to meet every ecclesiastical requirement according to the ancient order and traditions.

It may be interesting to note that the first Bishop consecrated on American soil was the Rt. Rev. Thomas John Claggett, the first Bishop of Maryland, in whose consecration all four of the American Bishops united. This took place in Trinity Church, New York, September 17th, 1792. From that time to the present, the American Episcopate has increased greatly by reason of the growing needs of the Church in this rapidly developing country. More than two hundred Bishops have been consecrated for the work of the Church in the United States and for its missions in the foreign field.

The growth of the Church itself, likewise, has been remarkable when we consider the disadvantages under which it labored in those early days and the bitter prejudice against it which even yet is not wholly done away. To-day there is not a State or a Territory which is not under the pastoral care of a Bishop, many of the states having several Dioceses each with its Bishop at its head. The quiet, persistent loyalty to the Truth "as this Church hath received the same," the reasonable terms of admission to her fold, the missionary zeal and enterprise, the practical work enlisting so largely the labors and cooperation of the laity, the far-reaching influence on the religious thought of the day, the proposal of the terms for Christian Unity, the multiplying of services and the more {18} frequent communions, all manifest her inner and outward growth and demonstrate the reality and high purpose of her Mission to this land and nation. (See GROWTH OF THE CHURCH.)

Amice.—One of the Eucharistic Vestments. (See VESTMENTS).

Anaphora.—The Greek name for the Offering or, Oblation in the Holy Eucharist and is usually applied to that portion of the Office beginning with "Lift up your hearts" and including the Prayer of Consecration. All that precedes this is called the PROANAPHORA (which see).

Andrew, Feast of Saint.—A Holy Day of the Church observed on November 30, and is of very ancient date. It is known to have been observed since A.D. 360. St. Andrew was of Bethsaida in Galilee and the brother of St. Peter. He was the first who found the Messiah and brought others to Him. It was this fact in his life that suggested to the young men of the American Church the organization of "THE BROTHERHOOD OF ST. ANDREW" (which see). St. Andrew was the first called to be a disciple and Apostle, with St. Peter. After the dispersion of the Apostles, St. Andrew is said to have carried the Gospel to what is now called Turkey in Asia and also to Russia and was the first founder of the Russian Church, as St. Paul was of the English Church. After laboring in Turkey in Europe, he suffered martyrdom at Patras, A.D. 70, being crucified on a cross the shape of the letter X, to which his name has been given. As St. Andrew is greatly reverenced in Scotland, the St. Andrew's cross was made a part of the national banner {19} of Great Britain on the union of Scotland with England in 1707. The St. Andrew's cross (Scotland) with the cross of St. Patrick (Ireland) and the cross of St. George (England) were made in 1801 to form the present Union Jack so dear to the English nation. In ecclesiastical art St. Andrew is represented holding in his hand a cross saltire, or else leaning upon it.

Angels.—(See HOLY ANGELS.) It is also to be noted that the term "Angels" is used in the New Testament for the Bishops of the Church, as in the Epistles to the seven Churches of Asia (Rev. 2 and 3) which are addressed, "unto the angel of the Church of———", i.e., the Bishop.

Anglican Church, The.—The name given to the Church of England as being the Church of the Anglo-Saxon race. The Church was introduced into Britain as early as A.D. 61, probably by St. Paul and it has continued there the same organization ever since, and the Church of the whole English nation until within the last 300 years, when divers and sundry religious bodies have sprung up. Thus the English nation from that early period of the Church's first introduction into Britain down to the present time, has never been without the Orthodox Faith; the Apostolic Ministry in three orders—Bishops, Priests and Deacons; the Sacraments and the ancient Liturgy. Moreover, the Church of England has always affirmed her own national integrity and independence and although overcome and brought into subjection to a foreign power, and finally regained her former independence—yet throughout all she has ever retained the four essentials of Christian Truth and Order mentioned, and thus {20} demonstrates that she is a true branch of the Church founded by Christ, and as such Catholic and Apostolic. For one to say that the Church of England was founded by Henry VIII, or to say that it is a "schism from the Roman Church" shows great ignorance of even the plainest facts of history. The following statement, from a secular paper, the Providence (R. I.) Journal is worth reprinting: "It is still quite usual even for intelligent persons to misunderstand the purposes of the English Reformers, and the result of the English Reformation. . . . The supremacy of Rome has never been borne patiently by the English people, whose church organization was established long before Rome took the trouble to interfere with it; and several English kings had quarreled before Henry the Eighth's time with the Holy See. What the English Reformers wanted, and what they accomplished under Elizabeth, was Reform within the Church. It was on the continent that Protestantism without the Church, built up a new ecclesiastical organization. All this, it may be, is a matter only of historical value to the busy nineteenth century. But even if facts in a historical aspect are of small importance to an intensely practical generation, it is as well to have these facts right as wrong." (See UNDIVIDED CHURCH).

Anglican Communion, The.—The term used to designate the churches that are in communion with the Church of England and hold the same Faith, Order and Worship. Under this term are included the Church of England, the Church of Ireland, the Church of Scotland, the Churches in British North America, the West Indies, Australia, South Africa and in all the English colonies {21} throughout the world wherever established. The Episcopal Church in the United States is also included in the Anglican Communion, being identical with the Church of England as is set forth in the Preface to the Prayer Book, in which it is declared, "This Church is far from intending to depart from the Church of England in any essential point of doctrine, discipline and worship; or further than local circumstances require." The Anglican Communion is one of the most powerful forces in our modern religious world. From statistics we learn that it has a larger membership than any other religious body among English-speaking people. The following Table taken from the New York World Almanac for 1901 gives some idea of

THE RELIGION OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE.

Episcopalians 29,200,000 Methodists of all descriptions 18,650,000 Roman Catholics 15,500,000 Presbyterians of all descriptions 12,250,000 Baptists of all descriptions 9,230,000 Congregationalists 6,150,000 Free Thinkers 5,250,000 Lutherans, etc 2,800,000 Unitarians 2,600,000 Minor religious sects 5,500,000 Of no particular religion 17,000,000 —————- English-speaking population 124,130,000

Anglo Catholic—The Historic or Catholic Church exists to-day in three main branches or Communions, viz.: The Eastern or Greek Church, the Roman Church, and the Anglican. The term "Anglo Catholic" is used to describe the Historic Church of the {22} English-speaking people as being Catholic and Apostolic, and as having an unquestioned descent from the Church founded by Christ and His Apostles. (See ANGLICAN CHURCH; ANGLICAN COMMUNION, and also AMERICAN CHURCH).

Anointing the Sick.—The anointing of the sick with oil as recommended in St. James 5:14 and 15, has generally prevailed in the Universal Church and came to be called "Extreme Unction." There was an office for its use in the Prayer Book of 1549, but it was omitted in subsequent revisions because its use in most parts of the Church had become mechanical and confined to dying persons. The rite has been restored in some places on the authority of individual Bishops as a Scriptural practice. A Scottish Bishop calls it "the lost pleiad of the Anglican firmament," and says, "one must at once confess and deplore that a distinctly Scriptural practice has ceased to be commanded in the Church of England, for no one can doubt that a sacramental use of anointing the sick has been from the beginning."

Annunciation, The.—A Feast of the Church held on March 25th, to commemorate the visit of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary, to announce to her the Incarnation of the Son of God, his message to her being, "Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favor with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shall call His Name Jesus." The Feast of the Annunciation has been observed from the very earliest times, sermons being still extant which were preached on this day as early as A.D. 446. It is still observed with great {23} solemnity; Proper Psalms are appointed, being the 89th, 131st, 132d, and 138th, also Proper Lessons, as well as Collect, Epistle and Gospel. The Church color for Altar and other hangings is white. It is to be noted that the Feast of the Annunciation is placed among the DAYS OF OBLIGATION (which see).

Antependium.—The name given to the covering hanging in front of the lectern, pulpit or Altar, and being the color of the Church Season. The Altar hanging is usually called the Frontal.

Anthem.—Originally the same as Antiphon; "anthem" being simply the Anglicized form of the word. Later, the terms "anthem" and "antiphon" came to stand for two different ideas. Anthem is any musical setting of words bearing upon the services of the day, other than a hymn or canticle, although the canticles are sometimes called anthems, as in the rubric before the Venite in the Morning Prayer. The rubric in the Evening Prayer provides for an anthem after the Collect beginning, "Lighten our darkness." Antiphon has come to mean a verse of Scripture which is sung wholly or in part before and after the Psalms or Canticles, and designed to strike the key-note of the teaching of the day.

Antiphon.—(See ANTHEM).

Antiphonal.—The alternate singing or chanting by two sides of the choir and congregation, each taking a verse in turn. This mode of rendering the music of the Church is of very ancient origin; it prevailed in the ancient Jewish worship as the antiphonal structure of the Psalms indicates. It is a reproduction of the heavenly worship as described by Isaiah, "And one {24} cried unto another and said." It seems to be also a practical following out of the admonition, "teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs." (Col. 3:16.)

Apocalypse.—The name given to the last book of the Bible; a Greek word meaning Revelation. The book of the Revelation was written by St. John Evangelist about A.D. 96 or 97. Its purpose is set forth by Bishop Wordsworth as follows: "The Apocalypse is a manual of consolation to the Church in her pilgrimage through this world to the heavenly Canaan of her rest."

Apocrypha.—This is the name given to certain books generally bound with the Old and New Testament Scriptures which the Sixth Article of Religion describes as "The other books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine." They are called Apocryphal for the reason that while they are usually bound up with the Bible, yet they are not regarded as canonical. Apocrypha is a Greek word meaning hidden, secret or unknown. Several of the Lessons are taken from the Apocryphal Books, and the Benedicite, which is sung as an alternate to the Te Deum, is taken from one of them, namely, "The Song of the Three Children."

Apostle.—One who is sent; messenger; ambassador. The name given to our Lord's twelve commissioned disciples who were thus made "the original fountain of ministerial authority and capacity pouring forth twelve streams, and from whom were to flow all the branches of that river whose streams should make {25} glad the city of God by carrying to it the blessings of His grace." (See BISHOP).

Apostles' Creed.—The shorter form of the Creed as set forth in the Prayer Book is called the Apostles' Creed because it was generally believed to have been composed by the Apostles themselves before they separated and left Jerusalem. However true or untrue this old tradition may be, it is quite certain that this "Form of sound words" embodies the "Apostles' Doctrine," or teaching, and each article finds its corresponding statement in the Bible. It is the oldest form of the Creed that has come down to us and contains a brief summary of the fundamental Truths of the Christian Religion. (See ORTHODOX.) There are twelve articles grouped into three paragraphs each setting forth what is to be believed concerning each Person of the Blessed Trinity. In other words the Apostles' Creed is what we believe concerning the Name into which we are baptized. It is, therefore, the Creed of the Baptismal Office and is recited in the Daily Services, while the longer Creed, commonly called the Nicene, is reserved for the Eucharistic Office.

Apostolate.—The office and dignity of an Apostle; the whole body of Bishops throughout the world.

Apostolic Fathers.—(See FATHERS, THE).

Apostolic Succession—"The fundamental principle of the Christian Ministry is, that it is derived from our Blessed Lord Himself, from whom it is perpetuated by Episcopal Ordination," and just this is what is meant by Apostolic Succession. The Apostolic Succession is simply the evidence of the fact that the Christian Ministry has never failed to exist since {26} the time when our Lord commissioned it and sent it forth. It is often called the doctrine of the Apostolic Succession, but it is more of a fact than a doctrine; a fact substantiated by the history of the Church, as much so as the succession of the Kings and Queens of England is a fact known of all men acquainted with the history of the English nation. For this reason we have the statement in the Preface to the Ordinal: "It is evident unto all men diligently reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church,—Bishops, Priests and Deacons." The Christian Church has not been left without its records; its history is as well marked on the pages of history as that of any other kingdom or organization. (See EPISCOPACY; EPISCOPATE; BISHOP, also MINISTRY),

Apse.—An architectural term descriptive of the semicircular or polygonal shape in which the Chancel is frequently built. From a Greek word meaning a joining; also a bow, an arch, a vault.

Apsidal.—Pertaining or relating to an apse; like an apse, as apsidal chancel.

Archbishop—A Bishop who presides over a province of Dioceses; an official title, but not an Order.

Archdeacon.—A term introduced from the Church of England and applied to a Priest who presides over an Archdeaconry or Convocation; or to one who is the General Missionary of a Diocese, or of a prescribed district in a Diocese of the American Church.

Articles of Religion, XXXIX—Certain statements of doctrine set forth by the English Church in a time of great controversy to define her position as differing {27} from Rome on the one hand and from Protestantism on the other. They are called Articles of Religion as distinguished from the Articles of the Faith, which are contained in the Creed and recited in the services of the Church. The Thirty-nine Articles were set forth in the year 1562, then revised as they now stand in 1571 and were adopted with the exception of the Twenty-first Article, by the American Church in 1801. They are published as an appendix to the Prayer Book.

Ascension Day.—A Feast observed with great solemnity forty days after Easter in commemoration of our Lord's Ascension into Heaven. It is also called Holy Thursday. St. Augustine, A.D. 395, calls this one of the Festivals which are supposed to have been instituted by the Apostles themselves, so that it must have been generally observed in his time. In the system of the Church, Ascension Day is regarded as one of the very highest Festivals set apart in honor of our Lord. Proper Psalms, Proper Lessons and Proper Preface in the Communion service place it on the same footing as Christmas Day, Easter and Whitsun Day. The services are usually brightened with special music; the Altar is decked with flowers and white hangings as symbolical of the joy which characterizes the Celebration. Ascension Day is preceded by the ROGATION DAYS (which see), as days of preparation for its due observance; it is also one of the Days OF OBLIGATION (which see).

Ascription—The words used at the end of a sermon, beginning, "And now to God the Father," etc. During the Ascription the people stand and at the end respond, Amen. {28}

Ash Wednesday—The first day of Lent; one of the two absolute Fast Days of the Church, the other being Good Friday. In ancient times the first day of Lent was called Caput Jejunii, i.e., "Head of the Fast," because Lent began on that day. It was also called Dies Cinerum, i.e., "Day of Ashes," from the custom of placing ashes on the head of penitents who presented themselves before the Bishop on this day. Ash Wednesday is a day of deep devotion, of prayer, fasting, self-examination and confession of sin. The public services are most solemn; the Proper Lessons, and Proper Psalms, the Collect, Epistle and Gospel, together with the Penitential Office to be especially used on this day, all mark it as a day of "weeping, fasting and praying." The Psalms appointed are the seven Penitential Psalms, viz., the 6th, 32d, and 38th, used at Morning Prayer; the 51st used in the Penitential Office, and 102d, 130th and 143d read at Evening Prayer. (See PENITENTIAL PSALMS.) The Church color for Ash Wednesday is purple or violet.

Assistant Minister.—A Priest or Deacon appointed to assist or help the Rector of a Parish in his work is thus called. Lately the term "Curate" has been employed to designate the Assistant Minister of a Parish.



B



Banners.—On festal occasions banners are often carried in choir processionals "to signify yet more clearly the progress and future triumph of the Church, {29} according to that description of her in the Song of Solomon: 'Who is she that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?'"

Banns of Marriage.—The word "Bann" is derived from the Saxon word bannen, meaning, to proclaim. The term "Banns of Marriage," means, therefore, the publication of intended marriages, and are published for three Sundays before the event, in the Church where the ceremony is to take place. The publishing of the Banns in the Church of England is required by law. In the American Prayer Book, provision is made for the publishing of the Banns of Marriage, but as it is not required by law the custom has fallen into disuse.

Baptism, Adult.—(See ADULT BAPTISM).

Baptism, Holy.—One of the two great Sacraments ordained by Christ as generally (universally) necessary to salvation. Holy Baptism is the initiatory rite by which we are admitted into the fellowship of Christ's Religion, admitted into His Church. Baptism is a covenant made between God and man; of this covenant the Christian name, which was then given us, is the reminder; reminding us of our new relationship with God. The grace conferred in Holy Baptism is threefold, (1) Regeneration, or the New Birth (See REGENERATION); (2) Admission into the Spiritual Kingdom, or the Holy Catholic Church, and (3) The forgiveness of all our sins, for in the Nicene Creed we confess, "I acknowledge one Baptism for the Remissions of sins." The vows of Holy Baptism are three in number, (1) To Renounce, (2) to Believe and (3) to Obey. These cover "the Whole Duty of Man," {30} and it is by the use of the Means of Grace with diligent Prayer that he is enabled to keep them and to grow into the likeness of Christ, whose member he is because incorporated into Him by Holy Baptism. The outward, visible sign or form in Baptism is water, with the unfailing use of the words, "In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." This effects a valid Baptism.

Baptism, Conditional.—As Holy Baptism can take place only once in any individual life, the Church has always been most careful that it should not be repeated. But it sometimes happens that grave doubts arise as to the validity of one's Baptism, or the fact of Baptism is only a matter of conjecture. In such cases the Church has provided for conditional, or hypothetical Baptism. The form is, "If thou art not already baptized, (name) I baptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." In such a case if the Baptism has already taken place and was valid, the hypothetical Baptism passes for naught, but if it were not valid or had not taken place, the hypothetical Baptism is effective.

Baptism, Infant.—(See INFANT BAPTISM).

Baptism, Private.—The proper place for the administration of Holy Baptism is in the church, and the Church warns her people "that without great and reasonable cause and necessity, they procure not their children to be baptized at home in their houses." But when need shall compel them so to do, she provides for the emergency by the service entitled, "The Ministration of Private Baptism of Children in Houses," as set forth in the Prayer Book. In this office no {31} provision is made for Sponsors. The child is to be brought afterwards into the Church to the intent that the congregation may be certified of the true Form of Baptism privately before used. Then it is publicly received and the Sponsors answer for the child and become responsible for its Christian training, publicly before the congregation.

Baptismal Regeneration.—(See REGENERATION, also NEW BIRTH).

Baptismal Shell.—A scallop shell, either real or made of precious metal, used by the Priest for pouring the water on the head of the candidate in Holy Baptism.

Baptistry.—A portion of a church set apart for the administration of Holy Baptism. Sometimes the Baptistry was erected as a separate building or attached to a church or cathedral, specially adapted for Baptism by immersion.

Barnabas, Feast of Saint.—A Holy Day of the Church observed on June 11th. St. Barnabas was born at Cyprus, but was a Jew of the tribe of Levi. His original name was Joses, but after our Lord's Ascension he was called Barnabas, meaning the "Son of Consolation." (Acts 4:36.) He stands out in the New Testament Scriptures as one who is ever helpful, which may have suggested his new name; thus he sold his land, giving the money to the Apostles in order that the necessities of the infant Church might be met. So also he stood sponsor, so to speak, for St. Paul, vouching for the sincerity of his conversion. Having thus brought him to the Apostles and securing his recognition as an Apostle we find that he was {32} associated with St. Paul for about fourteen years in his missionary journeys. After the separation of the Apostles nothing is recorded of St. Barnabas, but tradition tells us that he returned to Cyprus, spending the remainder of his life among his countrymen, and that he suffered martyrdom, being stoned to death by the unbelieving Jews at Salamis. St. Barnabas is said to have left an Epistle which bears his name and which is still extant. It is regarded by many scholars as genuine, but by many others its authenticity is regarded as very doubtful. In ecclesiastical art St. Barnabas is represented as holding St. Matthew's Gospel; as being stoned; as pressing a stone to his breast; as being burned to death; with an open book and staff; with three stones; with a fire near him.

Bartholomew, Feast of St.—Observed on August 24th, in commemoration of the life and virtues of the Apostle St. Bartholomew. In Holy Scripture there is the mere mention of the name of this Apostle, but it is thought that Bartholomew and Nathanael are one and the same person. The reason for this supposition lies in the fact that St. John in his Gospel never mentions Bartholomew, while he often speaks of Nathanael, and the other Evangelists, though they mention Bartholomew, never take notice of Nathanael. From this fact, it is supposed that the same person is designated by these two names. If St. Bartholomew is the same person as Nathanael, then it is he whom our Lord described as "an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." St. Bartholomew is thought to have preached the Gospel in Northern India, where he is said to have left a Hebrew copy of St. Matthew's {33} Gospel. He afterwards went to Armenia. He suffered martyrdom in Albanopolis, by being crucified with his head downwards. In ecclesiastical art, St. Bartholomew is variously represented with a knife and book; with a knife in his hand and the devil under his feet; also as healing a Princess of Armenia.

Bason.—(See ALMS BASON).

Belfry.—That part of the steeple in which a bell is hung. Sometimes a separate tower is built, in a room of which the bell is placed. The old name was campanile, from campana, a bell. The most remarkable of the campaniles is that at Pisa, commonly called the "Leaning Tower."

Benedic, anima mea.—The canticle beginning, "Praise the Lord, O my soul," which the Latin words mean. It consists of the first four and the last three verses of the 103d Psalm and is used as an alternate to the Nunc Dimittis. It is not set forth in the English Prayer Book as a canticle.

Benedicite.—The Benedicite is taken from the Apocryphal Book of "The Song of the Three Children" and has been used from very ancient times as a hymn in Christian Worship. St. Chrysostom, A.D. 425, spoke of it as "that wonderful and marvelous song which from that day to this has been sung everywhere throughout the world, and shall yet be sung by future generations." An analysis of this hymn shows it to be not simply a haphazard enumeration of the "works of the Lord," but a fine grouping of them in classes to which they belong. The Prelude, contained in the first verse, is a call to all the works of the Lord to "praise Him and magnify Him forever." {34} Then beginning with the angels as God's ministers we find four great divisions or classifications as follows:

I. The Heavens, verses 2 to 8.

II. Mid Air, verses 8 to 18.

III. The Earth, verses 18 to 26.

IV. All Mankind, from verse 26 to the end; this last division being a call to mankind in general—the people of Israel, Priests and servants of the Lord, Spirits and Souls of the Righteous, and all "holy and humble men of heart," to praise the Lord and magnify Him forever,—followed in Christian Worship by the Gloria Patri, as an act of high praise of the holy, blessed and adorable Trinity, made known to us by the Revelation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

The Benedicite was first placed in the English Prayer Book in the year 1549, to be sung as an alternate to the Te Deum. It is usually sung during Advent and Lent.

Benediction.—A Blessing, such as that given at the end of the Communion Office and in the Marriage Service.

It is also the act of setting apart for sacred use that which is to be used in the services of the Church. Reverential instinct teaches that it is unbecoming to transfer from the shop to the Altar or Church articles designed for holy use without first being set apart for such purpose. Hence it is usual to bless by some appropriate service Altar furniture, linen and other objects for holy use, that they may be set apart from all unhallowed and common uses. Such is the meaning of the consecration of our churches, and when new articles are added it seems but fitting {35} that they also should be set apart for sacred use, and this is done by an office of Benediction. The Benediction can only be pronounced by a Bishop or Priest.

Benedictus.—The canticle beginning "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel," used after the Second Lesson at Morning Prayer. It is the song uttered by Zacharias on the naming of St. John Baptist and is found in St. Luke I:68-80. The Benedictus has been used as a responsory canticle to the Gospel Lessons from very ancient times as the daily memorial of the Incarnation. As such it is the proper respond to the Second Lesson, the Jubilate being simply an alternate, to be used when the Benedictus occurs in the Lesson for the day. During Advent it is to be sung entire; at other times only four verses may be used.

Betrothal.—That portion of the Marriage Service in which the man and the woman join hands and give their troth (i.e., truth or promise of fidelity) each to the other. This is the Marriage Vow and is usually said at the foot of the chancel steps, the marriage proper (with the ring) taking place at the Altar Rail.

Bible, The English.—The English Version of the Bible as we now have it, commonly called the "Authorized Version" was set forth A. D. 1611. It was the work of many hands and of several generations. The translation made by William Tyndale, A.D. 1525, is regarded as the foundation or primary version, as the versions that followed were substantially reproductions of it. Three successive stages may be recognized in the work of translation; (1) The publication of the Great Bible in 1540; (2) The Bishop's Bible of 1568 and 1572 in the reign of Elizabeth, and (3) The publication {36} of the King's Bible in 1611 in the reign of James I. Thus the form in which the English Bible has now been read for more than 300 years was the result of various revisions made between 1525 and 1611. This old and familiar version of the Bible was revised A.D. 1881 by a large body of English and American scholars, but their revision has never become very popular. (See LECTIONARY, also SCRIPTURES IN PRAYER BOOK).

Bidding Prayer.—The 55th canon of the English Church in 1603 enjoined a Bidding Prayer in the form of an Exhortation to be used before all sermons, each petition or exhortation beginning, "Let us pray for," or "Ye shall pray for," to which the people responded. The term "Bidding" is from the old Saxon word "Bede," meaning prayer. The Litany and, also, the Prayer for the Church Militant in the Communion Office bear some resemblance to the Bidding Prayer, especially in the enumeration of the objects prayed for. The Bidding Prayer is now very rarely used, although attempts have been made to revive its use, especially in purely preaching services.

Biretta.—A black cap of peculiar shape worn by the clergy in outdoor processions and services and sometimes in Church. When worn by a Bishop the color is purple.

Bishop.—The highest of the three Orders of the Sacred Ministry (Bishops, Priests and Deacons). It is derived from the Greek word Episcopos, the transition being, Episcopus, Biscop, Bishop; the "p" melting into "b." The word means overseer. The functions of a Bishop are to rule his Diocese, ordain to the Ministry, administer Confirmation, consecrate Church {37} buildings, etc. The Bishops are the successors of the Apostles and bear the same office. That they are not now called Apostles will appear from the following statement: "When the Apostles, in anticipation of their approaching death, appointed their successors in the superintendence of the several churches which they had founded, as Timothy at Ephesus and Titus at Crete, the title of Apostolos was reserved by way of reverence to those who had been personally sent by Christ Himself; Episcopos was assigned to those who succeeded them in the highest office of the Church, as overseers of Pastors as well as of flocks; and Presbuteros became the distinctive appellation of the second order, so that after the first century, no writer has designated the office of one of this second order by the term Episcope. This assertion cannot be controverted, and its great significance is self-evident." (See HOLY ORDERS, EPISCOPACY, also MINISTRY).

Bishop's Charge—Title I, Canon 19, Sec. IX of the Canons of the General Convention makes the following provision: "It is deemed proper that every Bishop of this Church shall deliver, at least once in three years, a charge to the Clergy of his Diocese, unless prevented by reasonable cause. And it is also deemed proper that, from time to time, he shall address to the people of his Diocese Pastoral Letters on some points of Christian doctrine, worship or manners." In his charge the Bishop has opportunity to speak on great questions of the day and to emphasize that which he deems to be for the best interests of the Church. In addition to his charge, the Bishop is required to make an Annual Address to his Diocese in council {38} assembled, in which he reviews the State of the Diocese, and sets forth his official acts for the year.

Bishop Coadjutor—When a Bishop of a Diocese, by reason of old age or other permanent cause of infirmity, or by reason of extent of territory, is unable to discharge his Episcopal duties, one Bishop may be elected by and for the Diocese to assist him in his work. The title of such assistant is "Bishop Coadjutor." In case of the death of the Bishop, the Bishop Coadjutor succeeds him in his office and becomes Bishop of the Diocese.

Bishop, Election of.—The provisions made by the general canons of the American Church for the election of a Bishop are as follows: The Bishop of a Diocese is elected by the Clergy and Laity of the Diocese in council assembled. (The method of election is different in different Dioceses.) On a Bishop being chosen, certificates of his election and also testimonials of his being worthy must be signed by a constitutional majority of the convention by whom he is elected. These, together with the approbation of his testimonials by the House of Deputies in General Convention and its consent to his consecration are then presented to the House of Bishops. If the House of Bishops consent to his consecration, the Presiding Bishop notifies the Bishop-elect of such consent. If the Bishop-elect accepts, the Presiding Bishop then takes order for his consecration, either by himself and two other Bishops, or by three Bishops whom he may appoint for that purpose. In case the election takes place during a recess of the General Convention and more than three months before the meeting of the {39} next General Convention, then the above certificates of election and testimonials must be submitted to the Standing Committees of the different Dioceses. If a majority of the Standing Committees consent to the proposed consecration, the Presiding Bishop is notified of the fact, and the same is communicated to all the Bishops of this church in the United States (except those whose resignations have been accepted), and if a majority of the Bishops consent to the consecration, the Presiding Bishop takes order for the consecration of the Bishop-elect. It is further ordered that "no man shall be consecrated a Bishop of this Church until he shall be thirty years old."

Bishop, Missionary—A Bishop elected by the House of Deputies of the General Convention, on nomination by the House of Bishops, and consecrated to exercise Episcopal functions in States or Territories, or parts thereof, not organized into Dioceses. Missionary Bishops are in the same manner nominated, elected and consecrated for the work of the Church in foreign fields.

Bishop, The Presiding.—(See PRESIDING BISHOP).

Bishop, Resignation of.—(See JURISDICTION, RESIGNATION OF).

Bishop's Visitation.—Title I, Canon 19, Sec. X of the general canons of the American Church provides that, "Every Bishop in this Church shall visit the Churches within his Diocese at least once in three years, for the purpose of examining the state of his Church, inspecting the behavior of his Clergy, administering the Apostolic rite of Confirmation, ministering the word, and, if he think fit, administering {40} the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper to the people committed to his charge." It is usual, however, for the American Bishops to visit the Parishes of their Dioceses at least once a year.

Bishopric.—The office or jurisdiction of a Bishop.

Black.—One of the Church colors; to be used only on Good Friday and at funerals. This usage applies to the Stole as well as to the Altar hangings. (See CHURCH COLORS).

Blessed Virgin Mary.—The title which the Church has always given to the Mother of our Lord, and by which all devout churchmen speak of her of whom the angel declared, "Blessed art thou among women." "Not even the glorified Saints who have attained to the purity and bliss of Heaven are raised to higher blessedness and purity than that saintly maiden was whom Elizabeth was inspired to call 'the Mother of my Lord.' This sanctity of the Blessed Virgin through her association with her Divine Son has always been kept vividly in view by the Church."

The perpetual Virginity of the lowly Mother of our Lord has always been a very strong tradition among all devout Christians; a belief which is prompted by reverence for the great mystery of the Incarnation, and confirmed by the universal consent of the Church. The term "brethren" of our Lord, which occurs in the New Testament means simply kindred, according to the Jewish use of the word.

Two days are set apart to the honor of the Blessed Virgin, viz., The Feast of the Annunciation, March 25th, and the Feast of the Purification, February 2d. (See articles on these Festivals.) {41}

Blessing of Peace, The.—The Benediction at the end of the Communion Service, beginning, "The Peace of God," etc. This beautiful Benediction is peculiar to the Anglican Liturgy, both as to form and place. Reverence and a devout mind will not permit any one to leave the Church before this Blessing is pronounced.

Board of Managers.—The executive committee which has charge of the general Missions of the American Church, and which, when the Board of Missions is not in session, exercises all the corporate powers of THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY (which see).

Board of Missions.—The legislative branch of THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY (which see) and which holds its sessions during the General Convention.

Bounden Duty.—It is thus the Prayer Book expresses the obligation of all the Confirmed to attend and participate in the Holy Communion whenever it is celebrated. The words occur in the Prayer of Consecration.

Bowing.—The late Canon Liddon, in one of his sermons, said, "The reverence of the soul is best secured when the body, its companion and instrument, is reverent also." This truth pervades all the Church's worship. Besides kneeling and standing, bowing, also, was always and is still customary in the devotions of the true disciple. Thus in regard to bowing towards the Altar, the 7th canon of the English Church of 1640, which enjoins the custom, declares, "doing reverence and obeisance both at their coming in and going out of churches, chancels, or chapels was a most {42} ancient custom of the Primitive Church in the purest times." Bowing at the Name of Jesus is a very old and Scriptural custom according to the spirit of St. Paul's words in Phil. 2:10. "At the Name of Jesus every knee should bow," and is enjoined by the 18th canon of 1604 in these words, "When in the time of divine service the Lord Jesus shall be mentioned, due and lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present." Bowing at the Glorias was first introduced about 325 A.D. as a protest against Arianism, a heresy which denied the Divinity and coequality of God the Son.

Breaking of the Bread—One of the New Testament Names for the HOLY COMMUNION (which see) and one of the four marks of the Church's unbroken continuity. (Acts 2:42.)

Brotherhood of St. Andrew.—The name of an organization of men in the Church, the object of which is the spread of Christ's Kingdom among men. The members have two rules for their guidance (1) The Rule of Prayer; to pray daily that the object of the Society may be accomplished, and (2) The Rule of Service; to make an earnest effort each week to bring at least one man within the hearing of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This organization has proved to be very popular and has grown rapidly in power and influence. It began as a Parish organization in St. James' Church, Chicago, in 1883, and proved to be so effective in winning men to the service of the Church, that other parishes heard of it; took up the same line of work; so that there are now 1,173 active chapters with a membership of 12,000 men. The Brotherhood has also been organized in {43} Canada, in England, Scotland, and even in Australia, and in every place it is proving to be a great help and blessing to the Church. This work was prompted by the example of the Apostle St. Andrew. (See ANDREW, FEAST OF ST.)

Burial.—The Burial Office set forth in the Prayer Book is intended for the Church's own people, and therefore it cannot be used over an unbaptized adult, because not being baptized he is not a member of the Church. It cannot be used over an excommunicated person because he has been cut off from the Church's privileges. It cannot be used over one who has committed suicide, even if a member of the Church, for by this act he has voluntarily removed himself "from the sphere of its sanctions," and to whom all branches of the Church as well as our own have ever denied the use of this Office. The reason for these prohibitions may be learned when we consider that the Burial Office is founded on the fact of our incorporation into Christ's Mystical Body, on which is founded our hope of the General Resurrection. The whole service is colored by this belief and is illustrated and confirmed by the Lesson read from St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, setting forth the doctrine that our Lord's Incarnation is the source of all spiritual life and, therefore, the source of eternal life in the world to come.

The proper place for the use of the Burial Office is the Church and it ought not to be used in houses except for great cause.

Burse.—A square pocket or case, in which the corporal and pall are kept when not in use. {44}



C



Calendar.—The word "calendar" is derived from the Latin word calo, meaning, to reckon. From this the first day of every Roman month was called Calends, hence Calendar. Calendars are known to have been in use at a very early date. One is still extant that was formed as early as A.D. 336, and another drawn up for the Church in Carthage dates from A.D. 483. The origin of Christian Calendars is clearly coeval with the commemoration of martyrs, which began at least as early as the martyrdom of Polycarp, A.D. 168. The Church Calendar is set forth in the introductory portion of the Prayer Book, consisting of several Tables giving the Holy Days of the Church with their Proper Lessons, and also the ordinary days of the year with the Daily Lessons. It is well to note that the Calendar as thus set forth is the detailed law of the Church for the daily Worship of God. There is so much stated and implied in this law it is well worth our careful study, and the reader is referred to this introductory portion of the Prayer Book. (See CHRISTIAN YEAR).

Candidate.—The name commonly given to one who is preparing for Holy Baptism or Confirmation. The name is also applied to one who seeks admission to the Sacred Ministry, and is therefore enrolled as a "Candidate for Holy Orders."

Candlemas.—A popular name for the Feast of the Purification, observed on February 2d, from the custom of lighting up churches with tapers and lamps in remembrance of our Lord having been declared {45} on this day by Simeon to be "a light to lighten the Gentiles." (St. Luke 2:25-32.)

Canon.—A Greek word meaning rule, and in the usage of the Church has various applications, as follows:

1. THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE means those books of Scripture which the Church has received or accepted as inspired, and therefore declares them to be canonical, to distinguish them from profane, apocryphal or disputed books.

2. CANON LAW means the body of ecclesiastical laws enacted by the Church for the rule and discipline of its clergy and people. There are ecumenical canons, including the Apostolic canons of unknown date, and the canons of the undisputed General Councils; the canons of the English Church which are regarded as binding in this country where they do not conflict with enactments of the American Church; the General canons of the American Church, and the Diocesan canons enacted by the various Dioceses.

3. THE CANON OF THE LITURGY, by which is meant the rule for the celebration of the Holy Communion by which it is always to be offered. This includes the Prayer of Consecration, which was formerly called the "Canon of the Mass."

4. CANON, the name given to a clergyman connected with a cathedral; an officer of the cathedral staff; a member of the cathedral chapter.

Canonical—Pertaining, or according to the Canons.

Canonical Hours.—Seven stated hours appointed for devotional exercises, viz., Nocturns, Matins with Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, and Vespers with {46} Compline. Each of the Seven Hours is said to commemorate some point in the Passion of our Lord, as set forth in the old rhyme,

"At mattins bound, at prime reviled, Condemned to death at tierce, Nailed to the Cross at sexts, at nones His blessed side they pierced.

"They take Him down at vesper-tide In grave at compline lay: Who thenceforth bids His Church observe The sevenfold hours alway."

Canonical Residence.—By this is meant that every clergyman of the American Church is connected with some one or other of the various Dioceses, and is always under some Bishop. His canonical residence begins with his ordination, or from the Bishop's acceptance of his letter of transfer from one Diocese to another. (See DIMISSORY LETTER).

Canticle.—A word derived from the Latin canticulus, meaning a little song, from cantus a song. The term is applied to the detached Psalms and Hymns used in the services of the Church, such as the Venite, Benedictus, Magnificat, etc.

Cantoris.—Derived from cantor, meaning a singer, and is used to designate the north side of the choir, where the precentor sits. Architecturally and ecclesiastically, the Altar is always regarded as the east whether it is so in reality or not. North side, therefore, is the left of the Altar as we face it.

Cardinal Virtues.—(See VIRTUES, THE CARDINAL).

Cassock.—A long black coat, fastened in front and {47} reaching to the feet, worn by the clergy with or without robes and signifying separation from the world. The cassock is also worn by choristers and choirmen under their surplices.

Catechism.—A short instruction set forth in the Prayer Book, "to be learned by every person before he be brought to be confirmed by the Bishop." The word "catechism" is derived from a Greek word, and means literally an instruction by word of mouth of such a kind as to draw out a reply. As it now stands, the catechism is really an "Unfinished Fragment." It was begun in 1549, under Edward VI. It was afterwards gradually enlarged, the commandments being given in full in 1552; the section on the Two Sacraments was added in 1604, and the "Duty towards my neighbor" was revised in 1662. The Catechism, as set forth in the Prayer Book, shows five general divisions, (1) The Christian Covenant; (2) The Christian Faith; (3) The Christian Duty; (4) The Christian Prayer or Worship, and (5) The Christian Sacraments or Means of Grace. The rubric at the end of the catechism provides that "The minister of every Parish shall diligently, upon Sundays and Holy Days, or on some other convenient occasions, openly in the Church, instruct or examine so many children of his Parish sent unto him, as he shall think convenient, in some part of this Catechism." The object of this rubric is that the minister may have opportunity to prepare the younger members of his flock for Confirmation. The Catechism from its comprehensive exposition of duty and doctrine and its simple, familiar style of question and answer is well adapted for the purpose. And on {48} all the five points enumerated the children of the Parish may be duly instructed in their preparation for Holy Confirmation, if parents and guardians will be guided by the next rubric which directs them to send their children to the Minister for instruction.

Catechumen.—The name given to a convert of the early Church who was being instructed in Christian doctrine preparatory to Holy Baptism.

Cathedral.—The word "cathedral," derived from the Greek word cathedra, meaning a seat, is the name given to the Church where the Bishop's seat or throne is. As such, it is the chief church in the Diocese and the centre of the Bishop's work. Around it are gathered the educational and charitable institutions of the Diocese. It is the centre of Diocesan activities and of the mission work carried on by the Cathedral clergy under the direction of the Bishop. Of the Cathedral as an institution a recent writer has said: "It must be granted that a Cathedral in its origin was nothing more than a missionary creation, where the Bishop of a partly unevangelized country placed his seat with his council of clergy grouped around him, whose duty was to go forth into the surrounding districts with the message of the Gospel, to plant smaller churches which should be subordinate or parochial centres, and to return again periodically to the Diocesan church as headquarters, for the counsel, direction and inspiration of their chief." (See DIOCESE).

Catholic.—The word "Catholic" was very early adopted as descriptive of the Church founded by our Lord and His Apostles. It means universal, or embracing all. In this sense the Church is catholic in {49} these three things, (1) It is for all people; (2) It teaches all the Gospel, and (3) It endures throughout all ages. This distinguishes the Christian Church from the old Jewish Church which was but temporal, local, national.

Again, the word Catholic is used as being descriptive of the orthodoxy of any particular Church or individual as being in agreement with the one, undivided Church which has expressed itself in the Ecumenical or General Councils.

The word is, also, used to describe that which is believed on the Authority of the Church, as for example, the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity is a catholic doctrine because it is the universally accepted teaching of the Church and having the sure warrant of Holy Scripture.

Thus we learn that the word catholic is a very significant term and sets forth the real nature of the Church and her teachings. It enables us to test our own orthodoxy, to know whether we are loyal and true, in accord with "the Faith once delivered to the Saints," and, without doubt, will save us from being "carried away with every blast of vain doctrine."

This word, then, so greatly misunderstood, so wrongly used, yet meaning what it does, ought to be used with thoughtful care. For intelligent Churchmen the term "Catholic Church" should not mean, nor be used to mean, simply the Roman Church, but rather that glorious body in which we declare our belief when we say in the Creed, "I believe in the Holy Catholic Church."

Celebrant.—He who celebrates the Holy Eucharist {50} whether Bishop or Priest, is so called. A deacon cannot celebrate or administer the Holy Communion.

Ceremonies.—(See RITES AND CEREMONIES).

Chalice.—The cup, made of precious metal, in which the wine is consecrated at the Holy Communion and from which it is received by the communicants. Derived from the Latin word calix, genitive, calicis, meaning, a cup. (See VESSELS, SACRED).

Chalice Veil.—A square of silk embroidered and fringed, varying in color according to the Church Season. It is used for covering the chalice when empty.

Chancel.—That part of the Church building set apart as the place of the Clergy and others who minister in the Church service. It includes the Sanctuary where the Holy Communion is celebrated and the choir where the other offices are said. The Chancel was formerly, and is even now in many places, divided from the Nave by a screen or lattice work (cancelli) and is raised by steps above the level of the body of the Church.

Chancellor.—An officer of the Diocese, learned in the law, whose duty it is to act as the legal counselor of the Bishop and of the Standing Committee in matters affecting the interests of the Church, as his professional counsel may be asked or required. Chancellor is also the title of a Cathedral officer; the name is also given to the head of a University.

Chantry.—A small chapel attached to a Parish Church where the daily offices are said, e. g., the chantry of Grace Church, New York. Anciently the chantry was an endowed chapel. {51}

Chasuble.—The vestment worn by the celebrant at the Holy Eucharist. For full description see VESTMENTS.

Childermas.—The old English popular name for HOLY INNOCENTS DAY (which see).

Chimere.—The garment worn by a Bishop, now usually of black satin, but formerly of scarlet. It has lawn sleeves attached to it which properly belong to the rochet, the white vestment worn underneath. The derivation of the name is unknown.

Choir.—Properly speaking the word "choir" is an architectural term used only of Cathedrals and is that part of the building which in parish churches is called the chancel. It is usually separated from the cathedral nave by a screen. The term is also used to designate the body of singers appointed to render the music of the Church services.

Choir, The Vested.—(See SURPLICED CHOIR).

Choral Service.—(See EVEN SONG, also INTONE and PLAIN SONG.)

Christian.—In the 11th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the 26th verse, we read, "And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." As the result of the persecutions which arose about St. Stephen, some of the disciples who had to flee for their lives came to Antioch. In time there grew up a church there, a mixed society of Jews and Gentiles, and the citizens of Antioch naturally asked, "What are they?" "What name do they bear?" "What is their object?" While they were acquainted with the Jews and their peculiarities, they saw that this was not a Jewish organization, for it embraced Gentiles as well. When {52} they learned that the one bond which held this society together was their belief in a Messiah, a Christ, the people of Antioch, who were celebrated for their fertility in nicknames, called the members of this society, Christians. Without doubt the name was given in ridicule. It did not spread widely at first; it is only twice used in the Bible and each time as a word of reproach. But as often happens with names thus conferred, this was a name to remain forever; a name that was to be powerful and far-reaching; a name that was to stand for all that is lovely, noble and beautiful in human life. Such is the origin of the name we bear. We are Christians because we know no other name but that of Christ and no other bond but that of union with Christ. We are made Christians in our Baptism, for we are then brought into union with Christ and made members of His Body. The old word Christen, meaning to baptize, really means to Christian, that is, to make Christian by incorporating us into Christ.

Christian Name.—(See NAME, CHRISTIAN.)

Christian Unity.—(See UNITY, CHURCH).

Christian Year, The.—The Church's Year of Festivals and Fasts is called the Christian Year because as Bishop Cosin says, "the Church does not number her days, or measure her seasons, so much by the motion of the sun, as by the course of our Saviour; beginning and counting her year with Him who, being the true Sun of Righteousness, began now to rise upon the world."

The Christian Year is one of our richest possessions and has been handed down to us from the most ancient {53} times. By it the Church regulates her Public Worship, makes generous provision for the reading of the Bible and for us, her people, it is the measure of our coming up to the House of God. By means of it we connect the passage of time with the great facts of Redemption and thus are enabled to so number our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom. An examination of its structure reveals the fact that it insures the Scriptural setting forth of the Gospel, not in part, but in all its fulness. Its principal divisions are as follows:

I. ADVENT, the Coming of Christ; the Season includes four Sundays.

II. CHRISTMAS, Incarnation and Birth of Christ.

III. EPIPHANY, the Manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles: Season variable and may include six Sundays.

IV. SEPTUAGESIMA or the PRE-LENTEN SEASON; three Sundays: why God the Son came to earth; consciousness of sin.

V. LENT, including HOLY WEEK, GOOD FRIDAY, and EASTER EVEN; Penitence and Amendment of life; Redemption by the Blood of Christ.

VI. EASTER, the Risen Life; teaching of the Great Forty Days.

VII. ASCENSION, the Hope of Glory.

VIII. WHITSUN TIDE, the Gift of the Holy Ghost.

IX. The TRINITY SEASON, the completed Revelation; the moralities of the Gospel.

In addition to these great divisions or seasons, there are the Holy Days dotting the Calendar—SAINTS' DAYS commemorating the grace given unto God's {54} faithful servants, and other Holy Days each having its special Scriptural teaching. (See FASTS, TABLE OF, also FEASTS.)

The value of the Christian Year cannot be too highly estimated, for after all has been said, the fact remains, that no better instructor in the truths of the Bible can be found than what is commonly called THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.

Christmas Day.—Christmas is preeminently a Church Festival, and observed on December 25th. On this day the Church celebrates with joy, gladness and exultation the Nativity of her Lord, who became Incarnate (i.e., took our nature upon Him) and was born of a pure Virgin. As the angels at His Birth, so mankind ever since has hailed the Day of His Nativity with exceeding great joy. The Puritans strove with all their ardor to destroy it, but happily did not succeed. The argument used against it, that the Birthday of the Child Jesus is not known, and, therefore, cannot be preserved, does not prevail against the universal longing to celebrate in some way this great event. We are not surprised, therefore, to find that from the very earliest period Christmas was observed. St. Chrysostom, in the fourth century, speaks of it as being even then of great antiquity. In one of his Epistles he mentions that Julius I, about A.D. 350, had caused strict inquiry to be made and had confirmed the observance of Christmas on December 25th.

Christmas has always been observed with several celebrations of the Holy Eucharist, three at least taking place; one at midnight, another at early dawn and the third at midday. The growing devotion of the {55} American Church has demanded this celebration of Christmas and, therefore, at the last revision of the Prayer Book a second Collect, Epistle and Gospel for this day was inserted. It is customary to decorate our churches on Christmas with evergreen as symbolical of the eternal nature of our Lord; to deck the Altar with white symbol of joy and purity, and in some places with lighted candles to typify our Lord as the Light of the world.

Church.—The word used in Holy Scripture for Church is ecclesia, from the Greek word ek-kaleo, meaning to call out. An ecclesia, therefore, is a body called out. The Rev. Francis J. Hall has given the following explanation, "The Church is called the ecclesia because her membership consists of those who are called of God, and adopted as His children and heirs of everlasting life. The name teaches that the origin of the church was due, not to any human act of organization, but to Divine operations and a Divine ingathering of the elect. The mark by which the elect are distinguished in Holy Scripture is membership of the Church by Baptism, although ultimate salvation requires further conditions." The use of the term ecclesia came originally from the calling out of Israel from Egypt; "out of Egypt have I called my Son;" this is the first use of the word. The true conception of the Church is a body called out from the world, and set apart to the service of God, as such it is called the Kingdom of God, over which God reigns and in which they who are called serve Him. (See UNITY, CHURCH; KINGDOM OF GOD; CHURCH CATHOLIC; also ANGLICAN CHURCH). {56}

Church Building Fund.—A very important and helpful organization exists in the American Church known as "The American Church Building Fund Commission." It was established October 25th, 1880, by the General Convention and consists of all the Bishops, and one clergyman and one layman from each Diocese and Missionary Jurisdiction appointed by the Bishop thereof, and of twenty members-at-large appointed by the Presiding Bishop. Its object is to create by an annual offering from every congregation, as recommended by the General Convention, and by individual gifts, a Fund of One Million Dollars, portions of the principal to be loaned, and of the interest given, to aid the building of churches wherever needed. In order to hold property and carry on the work of loaning money on mortgage in a safe and legal manner, it was necessary to organize a corporation and this was done under the laws of the State of New York, the title of the organization being that given above. This commission is one of the most efficient agencies in Church extension; many a mission through its aid being enabled to erect a House of Worship, which otherwise would have had to give up in despair and abandon all hopes of having the Church's worship and administration of the Sacraments.

Church Catholic, The.—The kingdom of Christ, partly visible here on earth, partly invisible behind the veil. The Church Catholic embraces three great divisions:

I. THE CHURCH MILITANT, here on earth, struggling, fighting (which militant means) against sin to overcome it. {57}

II. THE CHURCH EXPECTANT where the soul abides after death in a state of expectancy of the final Resurrection; called, also, the INTERMEDIATE STATE (which see).

III. THE CHURCH TRIUMPHANT in Heaven where the soul reunited to the body has its perfect consummation and bliss in God's eternal and everlasting glory.

Church Chronology.—Under this head may be given certain dates and events which may be regarded as "Turning Points" in the history of the Christian Church:

EVENT. DATE.

Day of Pentecost, Birthday of the Church A.D. 33

Death of St. John at Ephesus 97

The Ten great Persecutions of Christians 64-313

I. General Council, at Nicea 325

II. General Council, at Constantinople 381

III. General Council, at Ephesus 431

IV. General Council, at Chalcedon 451

Leo the Great revised the Roman Liturgy 492

V. General Council, at Constantinople 553

Gregory the Great revised the Roman Liturgy 590

St. Augustine came to England 595

VI. General Council, at Constantinople 681

Venerable Bede died at Yarrow, England 735

Alfred the Great founded Oxford University 887

Final Separation of Church in East and West 1054

Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, revised English Liturgy 1081

Crusades began 1095

Bible divided into chapters 1252

Wickliffe and his work 1377-1384

First book printed, a Latin Bible, at Mentz 1450

Martin Luther and his work 1517-1546

John Calvin 1530-1564 {58}

English Reformation 1534-1559

First English Prayer Book set forth 1549

Present authorized version of the Bible 1611

Present English Prayer Book set forth 1662

Church introduced into America 1578-1607

Bishop Seabury consecrated in Scotland first American Bishop 1784

Three additional Bishops consecrated in England for American Church 1787-1790

Name changed to Protestant Episcopal 1789

American Prayer Book set forth Oct. 16, 1789

American Prayer Book revised 1883-1892

Church Club.—Throughout the American Church there are a number of Church Clubs composed of laymen, associated together for the purpose of discussing problems of Church work and belief and studying out more thoroughly what this Church teaches and what its history is. In some of these clubs eminent Bishops and other clergy and laymen are invited to deliver lectures which are afterwards printed in book form. The Church Club has done much to raise up a class of intelligent and well-informed Churchmen who are proving to be a great help and blessing to the Church.

Church Colors.—Also called Liturgical colors. From the most ancient times it has been customary to deck the Church's Altar with hangings of rich material which vary in color with the Church Season. As commonly used at the present time the Church colors are five in number, viz., white, red, violet, green and black. Their use may be briefly set forth as follows: White is used on all the great Festivals of our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of those Saints who did not suffer martyrdom; it is also the color for All Saints' Day, and the Feast of St. Michael and All {59} Angels; white is the symbol of joy and purity. Red is used on the Feasts of Martyrs, typifying that they shed their blood for the testimony of Jesus; it is also used at Whitsun Tide, symbolizing the cloven tongues of fire in the likeness of which the Holy Ghost descended on the Apostles. Violet is the penitential color and is used in Advent, Lent, the Ember and Rogation Days, on the Feasts of the Holy Innocents, etc. Green is the ordinary color for days that are neither feasts nor Fasts as being the pervading color of nature; it is chiefly used during the Epiphany Tide and the long period of the Trinity Season. Black is made use of at funerals and on Good Friday. This use of the colors applies to the stole as well as to the Altar hangings. The black stole is always out of place, incongruous, except at funerals and on Good Friday. Where they are used, the cope, chasuble, maniple, dalmatic and tunic also vary with the Season in the same manner. The use of the Church colors, besides "decking the place of His Sanctuary" is also most helpful to the devotions of the people, in that it teaches them by the eye the various Seasons of the Church's joy or mourning.

Church Congress.—An organization of the Clergy and Laity in the American Church having for its object the general discussion of living questions of the day and the application of Revealed Truth to the needs of our modern life. It was organized in 1874 on the model of the English Church Congress which, no doubt, suggested such an organization for the Church in the United States. It is not a legislative body, but rather an "Open Court" for the free {60} exchange of views. Meetings are held annually and an elaborate programme of subjects is prepared for each meeting, with appointed essayists and speakers, and volunteer speakers are permitted. The proceedings of each Congress are published in book form, of which the Rev. Dr. Wildes for so many years the General Secretary says, "The proceedings, addresses and speeches of the several sessions embodied in annual reports form a thesaurus of ripe learning, vigorous thought and eloquent utterance upon great questions of the times, of which the Episcopal Church may well be proud. To the student in Theology and its cognate topics, no less than to clergymen and thoughtful laymen, these volumes will be found most valuable."

Church Militant.—(See CHURCH CATHOLIC, THE).

Church Missions House.—This is a name that ought to be familiar to every American Churchman. It is the name given to the handsome building which is the headquarters of "The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America." For many years the headquarters of the Society were in rented rooms in the Bible House, New York City. By special offerings given for the purpose by many generous Churchmen, the Society was provided with the means to erect this beautiful and spacious building. The corner-stone was laid on the southeast corner of Fourth Avenue and Twenty-Second Street in New York City on October 3, 1892. The building was occupied by the Society on New Year's Day, 1894, and on the 25th of the same month, St. Paul's Day, the building was formally dedicated. "Thus after more than {61} seventy years, during which the Society had been a tenant, the Society, representing our whole Church, was established in its own beautiful home." The Church Mission House is a perfect beehive of Church work. Here all the leading interests of the Church are centred. In its spacious, well-lighted rooms are the offices of the Missionary Society. Here, too, are the headquarters of the Woman's Auxiliary, the American Building Fund Commission, the officers of the General Convention, of the General Clergy Relief Fund, the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, the Girls' Friendly Society and other Church agencies. Here, too, in its beautiful Chapel the noontide prayers are daily offered for the spread of the Gospel of Christ throughout the world. The Church Missions House is well worth a visit by those who are visiting New York even for only a few days. (See DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY).

Church Temperance Society.—This Society was organized in 1881, and has for its object the promotion of temperance in its strict meaning. Its adult membership combines those who temperately use and those who totally abstain from intoxicating liquors as beverages. It works on the lines of moral as well as legal suasion, and its practical objects are: 1. Training the young in habits of temperance. 2. Rescue of the drunkard. 3. Restriction of the saloon by legislation, and 4. Counteractive agencies, such as coffee-houses, working-men's clubs, reading-rooms and other attractive wholesome resorts. The Church Temperance Legion deals with boys, seeking to induce them to keep sober, pure, and reverent from the {62} earliest years of manhood and it endeavors to perpetuate those habits in men.

Church Wardens.—The name given to two officers of a parish usually distinguished by the titles, Senior and Junior. In some Dioceses they are elected directly by the people of the parish at the same time the Vestrymen are elected. In other Dioceses they are appointed by the newly elected Vestry. The Senior Warden is usually appointed by the Rector and the Junior Warden is elected by the Vestry. It is the special duties of the Wardens to see that the Church edifice is kept from unhallowed use; that it be kept clean and in good repair, duly lighted and warmed; to provide a sufficient supply of books and ecclesiastical vestments to be used in the public ministrations by the Minister, and to provide proper elements for the celebration of the Holy Communion and preserve due order during service. In the absence of the Rector one of the Wardens presides at Parish and Vestry meetings.

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