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The Biology, Physiology and Sociology of Reproduction - Also Sexual Hygiene with Special Reference to the Male
by Winfield S. Hall
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- Transcriber's Note: Inconsistent hyphenation in the original document has been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For a complete list, please see the end of this document. Text enclosed by equal signs was in bold face in the original (example: bold). -



THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION

* * * * *

Letters from Prominent Educators.

"I consider the treatment of the subject the most sane and practical that I know of, and therefore feel that I can conscientiously recommend the book most heartily. There is no subject so much hampered by ignorance, misconception and prejudice as that with which the book deals. I am sure the treatment of the matter will result in a more wholesome and healthful conception of the entire subject."—Dr. Henry F. Kallenberg, The Institute and Training School of Young Men's Christian Associations.

"Chapter four naturally brings everything to a practical focus and seems to me admirable. Chapter five, too, impressed me as very useful. The topical questions and their answers in the appendix was a very happy thought and adds materially to the value of the book."—Dr. G. Stanley Hall, President Clark University.

"I have gone through the book carefully and I am greatly pleased with it. I think it is admirably adapted to the needs and temperament of college men, and possibly all men. The topics discussed are of prime importance and interest for young men, the method of presentation is in all respects commendable, and the style is practical and concrete. The book ought to find its way into the hands of a great many young men. It should be in the hands of fathers and even mothers who have sons in the adolescent period."—Prof. M.V. O'Shea, University of Wisconsin.

"I have no hesitancy in saying that it is by far the best presentation of this very important subject that I have ever seen. It answers many important questions for which I have seen no answer elsewhere."—Prof. William R. Manning, Purdue University.

"I have heard the lecture and read the book and do not hesitate to recommend it. It is all that a young man needs to read to inform him of his duties and his perils in this matter. The ethical ideals are high and the advice sensible and wise."—Dr. Charles R. Henderson, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago.

"Some day Sexual Hygiene will have a place in the curriculum of every college. It is a subject that every college man does consider in one way or another, but often ignorantly, or under unwise guidance. Dr. Hall's book is so simple and sane as well as scientific, that I wish it might be in the hands of every college man in the country."—Dr. George A. Coe, Northwestern University.

"I consider it admirable in both conception and execution. So far as I know, it is unique in its presentation of these matters, especially on the hygienic side and shall be pleased to recommend it at every opportunity."—Dr. William T. Belfield, Bush Medical College, University of Chicago.

"The book seems to me calculated to be very useful, and should be in the hands of a large number of college undergraduates."—Dr. Isaac Sharpless, President Haverford College.

"I have read the book and had other priests read it and all concur in my opinion that it is destined to become a powerful auxiliary to our young men in their struggle for a purer life. The language is not vague, but to the point, and every young man will understand it."—Rev. A.M. Kirsch, University of Notre Dame.

"I have the strongest praise for the book as a whole—the biological foundation, directness, freedom from cant and prudery and the practical way in which the author gets to the level of his readers."—Dr. C. Judson Herrick, Denison University, Ohio.

"I have read Dr. Hall's book with the keenest curiosity and interest. Why could not such a book have been in the hands of the youth of the past generations? We should have been all the better for it. The work seems to me to be simply and plainly stated. With such apparent thoroughness and good sense, good taste, I am sure the book will commend itself to every thoughtful reader."--Dr. Chas. M. Stuart, Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois.



* * * * *

THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION

Also Sexual Hygiene with Special Reference to the Male.

by

WINFIELD S. HALL, Ph.D. (Leipzig), M.D., (Leipzig),

Professor of Physiology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago; Member of the American Physiological Society; Chairman of the Section of Pathology and Physiology, American Medical Association 1904-5; Fellow of The American Academy of Medicine, President 1905-6; Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science, Etc., Etc.

Twelfth Edition



1911

Wynnewood Publishing Co. 2421 Dearborn St., Chicago.

Copyright 1907 by Winfield S. Hall



To the YOUNG MAN, who is devoting years of his life to secure the HIGHEST DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT of those powers of BODY and MIND that are to be HIS INSTRUMENTS in solving LIFE'S PROBLEMS, this little volume is DEDICATED in the spirit of FRATERNITY.

THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE TO SIXTH EDITION.

The cordial reception given to this little book by the medical profession, by educators, and especially by the young men of the country, have by their demands for the book necessitated the appearance of new editions in such rapid succession that no far-reaching changes in the text have been possible even if they had been needed. Happily, no extensive changes have been required.

In the second edition several corrections, typographical and verbal, were made and additions made to the appendix. To the third edition the chapter on Development was added. The fourth and fifth editions received verbal changes here and added paragraphs there.

The sixth edition differs from the fifth in the addition of the author's portrait as a frontispiece, the addition of an answered question to the appendix and the listing of certain lecture topics, with press notices and letters.

The book seems to be meeting a demand for accurate information briefly and clearly stated.

THE AUTHOR.

Chicago, November 1, 1908.



FOREWORD.

Several years ago the author was asked by his students to present to them some of the facts of Sexual Physiology and Hygiene. The plea of "not a specialist in that line" was not accepted; so after a few weeks devoted to a careful study of the literature the subject was presented. It seemed to be acceptable, and other invitations followed in successive years not only from the author's own institution but from many others.

In the last few years the subject has been presented at all of the leading institutions of learning in the middle west—at some of them several times and always to large audiences.

In response to repeated requests for "a book" the author has finally prepared this brief volume in which he has endeavored to present a difficult subject in the true university spirit, frankly calling things by their right names, always keeping in close accord with the latest researches.

It is hoped that the chapter on Hygiene will in itself be a justification for the book.

WINFIELD S. HALL, December, 1906. Chicago.



CONTENTS.

Chapter I.

REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.

1. General Activities of Living Organisms 11 A. The Egoistic Activities 12 B. The Phyletic Activities 13 a. Reproduction 13 b. Support and Protection of Offspring 13 c. Support and Protection of Weaker Members of Society 15 2. Some General Principles of Biology 15 A. Sacrifice and Compensation in Egoistic Activities 15 B. Sacrifice and Compensation in the Phyletic Activities 16 a. Lower Organisms 16 b. Higher Organisms 19 C. Summary of Principles 24 a. The propagation of offspring and the protection and support of the young and defenseless, always involve sacrifice on the part of the parents and the stronger members of the race 24 b. Sacrifice made consciously for the race is, in the natural order of things, compensated 24

Chapter II.

ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE.

1. Physical Changes 28 A. General Changes in the Body 28 a. Pilosity 28 b. The Voice 29 c. Bone, Muscle and Gland 30 B. The Genital System 32 a. Structural Changes 32 b. Functional Changes 32 2. Psychical Changes 33 A. Play and Work 33 a. Sports 33 b. Productive Employment 34 B. Society 35 C. Religion 36

Chapter III.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.

1. Anatomy 39 a. The Penis 39 b. The Testes 41 c. The Spermatozoon 44 d. The Epididymis 44 e. The Seminal Vesicles 45 f. The Prostate Gland 45 2. Physiology 46 a. Urethra 46 b. Cowper's Glands 46 c. The Prostate Gland 48 d. The Seminal Vesicles 48 e. Testes 55 3. Virility 60

Chapter IV.

SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.

1. Illicit Intercourse with Women 74 a. Chancroid or Soft Chancre 78 b. Gonorrhea 79 c. Syphilis 80 2. Masturbation 84 3. Continence 90

Chapter V.

HYGIENE.

1. Diet 95 a. Choice of Food 95 b. Stimulants and Narcotics 97 c. The Dietetic Control of the Bowels 104 d. The Dietetic Control of Sleep 110 e. The Dietetic Control of the Kidneys and Skin 111 f. The Dietetic Method of Curing a Cold 111 2. Baths 112 a. The Bath for Cleanliness 112 b. The Tonic Bath 114 3. Exercise 115 4. The Hygienic Requirements of Sleep 118 5. The Control of the Thoughts 120

Chapter VI.

DEVELOPMENT.

1. The Child 125 2. Maternity 128 3. Paternity 130

APPENDIX.

Answers to questions 135-149



CHAPTER I.

REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.



REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.

I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF LIVING ORGANISMS.

The casual observer, even if he watches thoughtfully the various activities of plants and animals, would hardly believe these activities capable of classification into two general classes. He notes the germination of the plant seed and its early growth, step by step approaching a stage of maturity; it blossoms, produces seed, and if it is an annual plant, withers and dies. If it is a perennial plant its leaves only, wither and die at the approach of winter, the plant passing into a resting stage from which it awakes the following spring to repeat again its annual cycle.

If he observes an animal he finds that it similarly develops to a stage of maturity, reproduces its kind, withers and dies; but incident to these general activities he notes numerous others that seem to have no relation to the activity of the plant. He sees men tilling the fields, felling the forests, building houses, factories and railroads; he sees them build hospitals, colleges and churches. Is it possible to group all of these activities of plants and animals into two general groups? A more critical view of these activities makes it evident that they are all directed either to the maintenance and protection of the individual, or the maintenance and protection of the race. Those directed towards the maintenance of self are called egoistic activities, while those directed to the maintenance of the race are called phyletic activities.

The Egoistic Activities.

The term egoistic implies that the effort is directed towards the ego or self, and includes all of those activities directed to the support, protection, defense and development of oneself. As illustrated in the plant organism, the taking of nourishment from the air and soil, the development of the stem, branches, roots and leaves, are egoistic activities. In the animal—we may take, for example, man—the egoistic activities begin with the drawing of nourishment from the mother's breast and include all those activities of early childhood usually called play, the real significance of which is to develop the neuro-muscular system and the special senses, to that condition of alertness and strength that will make the growing individual self-supporting. A very large part of the activities of the self-supporting human subject are directed towards the earning of his daily bread, and of clothing and shelter. The activities of the school and college period, devoted, as they are, almost exclusively to the development of the youth's powers, intellectual or physical, are also egoistic. Even the pursuit of pleasure and of sense gratification on the part of the individual belongs to this same group of activities.

The Phyletic Activities.

As the etymology of the term suggests, these activities are devoted to the propagation, maintenance and protection of the race.

a. Reproduction.—The most fundamental one of the activities for the maintenance of the race is reproduction. Every living organism, whether plant or animal, possesses the power to reproduce its kind. Some plants produce spores and some produce seeds. Reference was made above to the production of the flower in plants. The flower represents the reproductive organ of the plant, and the real object of the flower is to produce the seed. Animals produce eggs from which the young develop, either through a process of incubation outside of a maternal body or an analogous process within the maternal body. In the latter case the young are brought forth as living organisms.

b. Support and Protection of Offspring.—Whether we consider the plant seed, or the animal egg or newborn—in any case the parental organism must provide for the support and protection of the offspring during those stages of development when it is unable to support and protect itself.

The plant deposits in or about the seed a supply of nourishment sufficient to support it during the germinating process and until it is able to gain its own support from the soil and air. Furthermore, the plant protects the seed by means of the various seed envelopes, against the cold and moisture of winter.

In a similar way the young animal is supplied by its parents with nourishment. The young bird is incubated within the egg where a supply of nourishment is provided sufficient to develop the bones, muscles, nervous system, blood, glands and covering—all developed to a point that makes the bird able to take from the mother during the early weeks after its release from the shell, such nourishment as the mother may provide. In the meantime it must be brooded and protected in the parental nest until it is able to provide for its own protection. Similarly the young mammal is developed within the body of the maternal organism to a point where it is able to perform the primitive functions of life. For weeks, months or even years, according to the class of the animal, it must be supported and protected by its parents. The human young receives milk from its mother's breast and protection in its mother's arms during its first year, after which it continues to receive nourishment, clothing and protection under the parental roof for a period varying from eighteen to twenty years, or even longer.

c. Support and Protection of Weaker Members of Society.—Young animals are supported and protected because they are unable to support and protect themselves. If they were not thus cared for the race would become extinct. Now, there are certain individuals, orphans for example, who have, through some accident, been deprived of their natural support and protection. If these weaker members of society, not yet able to support and protect themselves, were not provided for, they would perish and become thus lost to the race. From the time of primeval man to the present, these weaker individuals of society who have been deprived of their natural protectors, have been cared for by the stronger members of society and afforded such support and protection as they may need to make them independent. In a similar way the sick and defective members of society are cared for by the strong. Thus we see that the building and maintenance of orphanages, hospitals, asylums and "homes," are activities that belong clearly to the group of phyletic or altruistic activities.

2. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY.

Sacrifice and Compensation in Egoistic Activities.

The thoughtful student is very likely to ask—Why does man till the fields? Why does man fell the forest trees? Why does he cultivate domestic animals? Why does he delve in the earth for minerals? These are all strenuous activities that require the outlay of time, talent and strength. We may say that they are sacrifices that he makes and, apparently, willingly. We have only to study the problem more closely to see that he tills the fields and cultivates his domestic animals for food; that he fells the forest trees to make for himself shelter; that he cultivates certain plants and animals to procure for himself clothing; that he delves in the earth to bring out mineral products to use in the various industries that supply various elements of his livelihood. It becomes manifest then that the egoistic activities of an organism represent sacrifice followed by compensation. The individual sacrifices in order that he may reap his reward or receive his compensation. It may be stated as a general biological truth that, nature demands sacrifice or work on the part of all living organisms; and, under normal conditions, metes out a compensation commensurate with the sacrifice made.

Sacrifice and Compensation in the Phyletic Activities.

a. Lower Organisms.—As an example of a lower organism we may take the amoeba. If one watches an amoeba under the microscope he may see it move about the field, creeping along the surface of the glass plate; throwing out a pseudopodium here; invaginating a mouth or stomach there; taking in and digesting minute plant organisms; transporting itself across the field of the microscope through the aid of improvised locomotory organs. All these activities are egoistic. The amoeba is putting forth effort to gain its sustenance; it is sacrificing energy to receive compensation in the form of support. If we continue to watch this minute organism we will find that sooner or later it goes into a resting stage which does not last long before we can observe important internal changes making themselves manifest first at the nucleus, which slowly divides into two equal portions that separate, each carrying with it about half of the protoplasm of the parent organism. As these two young amoebae lie side by side under the microscope the thoughtful student will inquire—what has become of the parent organism? Whereas at first there was one mature amoeba, now we have before us two young amoebae of the next succeeding generation. The parent organism has sacrificed its substance and its individuality absolutely and completely for the next generation.



It may be said in general that reproduction always involves a division of the parent organism. In the case of the amoeba the division is into two equal portions. In the case of some of the lower plants and animals the substance of the parent organism is divided into many equal minute spores or eggs, each of which develops a new organism.

b. Higher Organisms.—These also suffer a division of their body protoplasm. However, instead of dividing into two or more equal parts and merging their individuality immediately into the next generation, the higher organisms divide off a very small portion of their protoplasm to make an egg or seed while the parent organism lives on to produce eggs or seeds on subsequent occasions.

While the parental sacrifice in eggs or spermatozoa is minute and inconsiderable in the higher animals, the sacrifices subsequent to this initial division are incalculably greater in higher animals than in the lower organisms. We can cite no better example than the human subject. The human ovum, divided off from the maternal organism, is a minute globule of protoplasm, almost microscopic in size. The sacrifice of the mother in producing the ovum is inconsiderable, but the production of the ovum is simply the first step in the sacrifice which the maternal organism makes.

The fertilized ovum makes a lodgment on the inner surface of the uterus or womb and begins immediately to absorb its nourishment from the maternal organism. It soon develops a heart and blood vessels so related to the blood vessels of the mother that throughout its intra-uterine existence the mother's blood supplies the growing child all of the substance that is built up into bone, muscle, brain and glands, preparing the young child to come into the world a living, breathing, sentient organism. These draughts upon the vitality of the maternal organism are so great that they frequently result in a very sensible depletion of the mother's physical power, particularly manifest in the depletion of the blood.

During the period when the young child is developing within the body of the mother, she must make other sacrifices, viz., the withdrawal from society more closely within the four walls of her home where she busies herself many days in preparation of the wardrobe for the expected child. Then there are sacrifices incident to childbirth represented especially in the pain and travail of parturition. During the first year of the child's life in normal cases, it draws its nourishment from its mother's breast. This nourishment in turn is elaborated by the milk-secreting glands from the mother's blood—still further depleting her system. During its childhood and youth the mother prepares the food, clothing and shelter of her child at no small expense of her own time and strength. For years the mother holds herself ready to watch by the bedside of her child should he fall sick, and there is hardly a mother in the land who has not spent many nights in this vigil by the bed of her sick child.

We might turn now briefly to the consideration of the sacrifices that the father makes.

As is the case with mother so with the father, the initial sacrifice in the division of a portion of his body is too small to be considered, but in his case as in the case of the mother, the sacrifice for the coming progeny is only initiated with the act of procreation and continues through a period of fifteen, twenty or even thirty years—sometimes progressively increasing to the last. These sacrifices take the form, for the most part, of support and protection, and begin soon after conception on the part of the mother—as the pregnant woman usually requires much greater solicitude and care on the part of the husband than she does on other occasions.

The normal father, like the normal mother, holds himself in readiness to watch by the bedside of the sick child should the occasion arise, and to make other sacrifices incident to the protection and support of the child.

It is shown above that sacrifices incident to the egoistic activities receive their compensation. The question next demanding our attention is—do the sacrifices which are made incident to our phyletic activities receive a compensation? The most striking solution of this question would be a personal solution. Let any young man ask his parents if they have been compensated for all the sacrifices they have made for him. If this son is such a one as brings pride and satisfaction to the parents it is very evident what their unhesitating answer would be, viz., that they have been compensated many times over for all the sacrifices they have made. In what does such compensation consist? It can be expressed most briefly: LOVE OF OFFSPRING. This principle of love of offspring seems to be a more or less general one in the whole realm of conscious living nature. That a tree could possess this no one would suggest; that a sea urchin could possess it no one would be likely to contend. It is probably possessed by all of those animals that are conscious of sacrifices; that is, if an animal is conscious of sacrifice he is capable of being conscious of this compensation which we term, love of offspring. For organisms too low in the scale of life to be conscious of either sacrifice or love of offspring, nature seems to have arranged another scale of sacrifices and compensations—sacrifice taking the form of contention for possession of females and sacrifice in their support and protection, the recompense being the gratification incident to sexual intercourse.

That this last factor may enter, to a certain extent, as a determining factor among the higher animals cannot be questioned. The higher we get in the scale of animal life the less the part played by sexual gratification and the greater the part played by love of offspring. In some of the higher animals, especially those in which the family circle is maintained or the community life highly developed, there is frequently at work still another consideration that may play no small part in ameliorating or compensating the sacrifice incident to reproduction. Reference is here made to the expectation on the part of the parents that support and protection will be provided for them in their old age when they are unable to support or protect themselves. That this plays any great part in determining the procreation in the first place is not probable; but that it later becomes a matter of consideration is not to be doubted. However, in so far as these considerations of personal welfare enter into the compensation of the parents for the sacrifices that they have made for their offspring, in just so far do we remove these considerations from the realm of the phyletic and place them within the realm of the egoistic.

Reverting again to a discussion of the lower organisms—we have yet to consider the character and extent of the compensation which these organisms, which are unconscious of sacrifice, receive. The conscious sacrifice of higher animals receives a conscious compensation; similarly the unconscious sacrifice of lower organisms receives an unconscious compensation.

It will be remembered that the amoeba did not die, but that it was rejuvenated in its offspring. In the next and every succeeding generation there is no death, but a rejuvenation. It thus transpires that these lowly organisms enjoy immortality; or perhaps it may be better stated, that the protoplasm of these organisms enjoys immortality and this immortality is the compensation for the sacrifice which each successive individual makes unconsciously in the division of its protoplasm. This principle of biology was first discovered and formulated by the great German Biologist, Weissmann.

Summary of Principles.

a. The propagation of offspring and the protection and support of the young and defenseless always involve sacrifice on the part of the parents and the stronger members of the race.

b. Sacrifice made consciously for the race is, in the natural order of things, compensated.



CHAPTER II

ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE



ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE.

The period of a young man's life from about fifteen to twenty-five years, when he is growing from boyhood to mature adult life, is called the period of adolescence. The period of adolescence is ushered in by a series of physical and psychical changes which make a well defined initial period called puberty. The period of puberty is about two years in length, and in the average case among American boys, covers the period between the fifteenth and seventeenth years, and is completed when the youth can produce fertile semen capable of fertilizing the human ovum. It is now universally recognized, however, that when the youth reaches this point in his development, while he may be called a man, he represents manhood in its lowest terms. He has not reached either a physical or mental development or maturity which justifies him in undertaking the responsibilities incident to procreating his kind. It requires in the average case a period of eight more years to develop the young man to the full stature of adult manhood, possessing his full physical and mental powers and the strength required of one who should assume the responsibilities of parenthood, so that at the age of twenty-five in the average case the young man may be said to have reached this period of complete development and to have finished the adolescent period. We may profitably now consider more in detail some of the changes incident to this most important period.

1. PHYSICAL CHANGES.

General Changes in the Body.

a. Pilosity.—The human being belongs to the vertebrate class, mammalia, and as a member of that class he possesses over the cutaneous surface of the body, excepting the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, hair follicles which produce the hairy covering typical of mammals. A careful study of the distribution of the hair on the surface of the human body, comparing it with that of the anthropoid apes, demonstrates that the distribution is identical; and the "lay" of the hair in any one region of the human body corresponds exactly with that of the same region in the ape. For example—the hair on the forearm points outward and upward; on the upper arm down-ward and outward and so on throughout in the human and simian types. Every child comes into the world with a coat of rudimentary hair which is shed at once. Aside from the growth of hair on the head, including the brows and the lashes, the skin is quite free from any noticeable growth of hair for months or even years. Beginning at the age of puberty, however, the growth of hair is very much accelerated over the whole pilous surface of the body, particularly upon the face, in the axilla and over the pubic region. It is a generally recognized law of biology, that, at the period of sexual development, the hairy mammalian character becomes accentuated. The increase in the growth of hair at this time can have only one interpretation, viz., that the ancestors of man represented a very much higher degree of pilosity than is the case with man at the present time. It is interesting to note in this connection the almost universal attempt of men to rid the face of this hairy growth by various devices, either pulling the beard or shaving it. The origin of this custom of depilation probably dates back to the remote past and has been observed as a custom among both savages and civilized peoples.

b. The Voice.—In all animals the voice plays an important part in sexual and social relations. In many animals the voice seems to have almost no other function than as a sex call, or a communication between mates and between parents and young. The human subject illustrates this general biological principle in the profound changes which the voice undergoes at the time of puberty. These changes in the male subject consist in increasing the depth of the larynx, thereby increasing the length of the vocal cords which in turn modifies the pitch of the voice, usually about an octave, making it not only lower but much more pleasing in quality and greatly increased in volume.

c. Bone, Muscle and Gland.—Of incalculably greater importance than the changes described above though perhaps less noticeable to the casual observer, are those physical changes which the body undergoes during the first half of the period of adolescence. I refer to the growth of bone, of muscles and of those internal organs associated with nutrition.

The first step in these profound physical changes is a rapid growth in height that makes itself manifest about the fifteenth year. It is not at all unusual for a boy to grow from four to six inches in a year. This increase in height is very largely due to a lengthening of the thigh and leg bones. In serial homology with the thigh and leg are the bones of the arm and we find that these are undergoing an increase in length commensurate with the increase of the legs. So the boy outgrows his clothes; his coat sleeves are drawn up half way to his elbows and his trousers half way to his knees. The muscles scarcely keep pace with the bones in their growth, and tend to be flabby and to lack usual tonicity. It is difficult for the youth to hold his back straight and his shoulders back; he is awkward and ungainly in his movements and becomes easily fatigued because of the condition of his muscles. But the muscles follow immediately in their development and rapidly gain volume and tonicity, filling out the arms, legs, back and shoulders with large masses of firm muscular tissue. The growth of these muscle masses changes the dimensions of the youth and he fills out in his girths as rapidly as, in the previous period, he increased in length measurements.

All of this increase in bulk can only be accomplished by increased activity of all the nutritive processes. The appetite is practically insatiable; the boy can eat three square meals in the day and lunches between meals. If he wakes up in the night he is hungry. To accomplish the digestion and absorption of this food material, the alimentary tract throughout, and particularly the stomach is greatly increased in size. To accomplish the distribution of the food (blood) the heart also is increased in size and strength. With increased bulk of muscle and increased quantity of food we have increased oxidation in the tissues. This requires increased respiration, which demand is satisfied by rapid development of the respiratory system. The thorax increases in dimensions in all directions; it becomes deeper, broader and longer. Not only does the thorax become more capacious but also more mobile and more responsive to the varying requirements of the system.

If we are interested in the biology of all these changes, we need not go far to discover the natural causes at work to produce them. Nature is preparing in the youth a home builder; it is preparing an individual who can support and protect not only himself, but also a family. This equipment in the case of primitive man must necessarily be one of bone and brawn. While under the conditions of modern society the necessity for bone and brawn is somewhat less marked, the plan of nature is no less evident and no less interesting.

The Genital System.

a. Structural Changes.—The external genitals, besides showing the pudendal pilosity referred to above, are all greatly increased in size. The penis is increased in all of its dimensions, the testes become very much increased in size, the scrotum, probably because of the increased weight of the testes, is also lengthened.

b. Functional Changes.—The testes and associated glandular bodies gradually develop the power of forming perfect semen, capable of fertilizing the human ovum. When these organs thus become capable of procreation, the period of puberty is complete.

In this connection it is important to note that the development of the testes produces a profound effect upon both the physical and mental characteristics of the young man. This effect is produced through a substance formed in the testes and reabsorbed into the body, thus gaining access to the blood where it exerts its mysterious but profound influence. Just how this affects the mind and body will be discussed in detail in a subsequent chapter.

2. PSYCHICAL CHANGES.

Play and Work.

a. Sports.—Most of the higher animals, particularly man, and all races of men, devote a large part of the energies of the adolescent period to sports or games in which individuals contend with each other or teams of individuals contend with opposing teams in games that bring into play the various powers of the neuro-muscular system: such as alertness of all the senses, readiness and correctness of judgment, agility, speed and strength of movement. Sports might be criticised by some because they represent non-productive expenditure of energy. On the other hand, no energy ever expended by man is so highly productive of so precious a material as results from manly athletic sports. The products of these games are the substances consumed by them, paradoxical as that may at first appear. The use of brain, muscle and glands and the consumption of the cell substances of these tissues results in the development of the nerve, muscle and gland cells into a condition larger, better equipped and more responsive than before such use.

Thus, athletic sports, while they make draughts upon the nerves, muscles and glands, develop all of these tissues to a high degree of efficiency. The plan of nature in this instinctive indulgence in sports must be evident. Nature is educating and developing the male animal (man) to the highest possible degree of efficiency, so that sports, instead of being non-productive, lead to the development of structures possessing a high degree of value, not only to the individual, but also to society.

Furthermore, those qualities of mind that are encouraged on the athletic field between contestants in a game are the qualities that in the later serious struggles of life make most for success.

b. Productive Employment.—Hardly less important than the influence of sports is that of productive employment for the adolescent. That the adolescent youth should not be assigned tasks that overtax his physical or mental powers goes without saying, nor should he be assigned tasks that consume so much of his time that he is unable to take an active part with his fellows in field sports. However, experience demonstrates that the youth undergoes a more wholesome all around development if he takes some active part in a productive employment, than if allowed to devote all of his energies to play. The simple fact that he is held responsible for some duty about the home or the shop develops in the youth not only a knowledge of how to do things and a sympathy with the adults who are devoting their strength largely to similar tasks, but—more important than either of these considerations—these tasks develop in him the ability to accomplish promptly and efficiently some piece of work as a duty—to do it regularly and promptly because it is a duty without any reference to a personal enjoyment in the task. If this important lesson in life is learned during the early adolescent period, it will make the path of life much less rugged than some seem to find it.

Society.

Incident to the activities of the athletic field, the youth is brought into more or less intimate contact with fellows of his kind, both of the same and of the opposite sex. While the boy of ten to fifteen delights in the forming of "cliques, gangs and crowds," the boy of seventeen delights equally in widening his circle of acquaintances. The athletic contest gives him an opportunity not only to measure his powers with those of the other young men, but also to win the respect of his young lady acquaintances. There is no doubt but that the approbation of his young lady friends for his prowess and strength as manifested in sports, serves as a strong factor in the stimulation of athletic contests and in bringing the sexes together in a purely social capacity.

Religion.

While in his social relations the young man is seeking points of tangency with those in his own plane, in his religious experience he seeks to come into relation with his God; that is, with the power that exists in the plane above his own. In the researches of Coe and of Starbuck, made several years ago they discovered the following truth and demonstrated it as a general principle: (1) A vast majority of professing Christians acknowledged their allegiance to God during the early part of the adolescent period; and (2) a vanishingly small percentage of professing Christians became so after the age of twenty-five.



CHAPTER III.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.

1. ANATOMY.

The external genitals of the human male consist of the penis and scrotum, the latter containing the testes.

The penis of the young man who has completed the stage of puberty consists (1) of the two corpora cavernosa, as they are called, or erectile bodies, called cavernosa because they contain numerous blood sinuses which when filled cause the organ to erect. (2) Between and beneath the corpora cavernosa lies the corpus spongiosum which consists principally of the urethra. Around these three cylindrical bodies there is a sheath of loose connective tissue, outside of which is the skin.

About one inch of the distal end of the organ is differentiated into a sort of head which is called the glans over which, in the young child, the skin is redoubled and called the prepuce or foreskin. The glans is covered and the prepuce is lined by mucous membrane. Over the glans the mucous membrane is red, thin and moist and possesses numerous nerve papillae. The prepuce, as stated above, usually covers the glans penis in young children and may do so throughout life. It is sometimes adherent to the glans. This is abnormal, and as soon as it is discovered the adhesions should be broken up by a physician. The normal prepuce of the adolescent male should be free from the glans and should be sufficiently loose easily to retract back of the glans, a position it is likely to take in erection. If the prepuce extends half an inch or more beyond the glans penis as a little flap of skin, or if it is constricted at the opening so that it is difficult to clear the glans or to replace the prepuce when it is once back of the glans, the condition is not normal, and should have the attention of a competent surgeon.

One can easily understand the need of a prepuce in the case of primeval man, who was practically unprotected by clothing, but in the present condition of civilized races the prepuce is certainly an unnecessary appendage, and there are several good reasons why the prepuce should be removed. This operation [circumcision] is not, in any sense, to be looked upon as a mutilation, but simply a hygienic measure made advisable, if not necessary, by the unnatural conditions under which we are now existing.

Beneath the prepuce cheesy secretions from the glands back of the head of the penis collect, and if the organ is not frequently cleansed these accumulated secretions may serve as an irritant. Such local irritation is one of the most prevalent causes of masturbation in boys.

The removal of the prepuce in young children is an exceedingly simple operation and not by any means difficult or dangerous in the adult. If the prepuce is removed the organ will need no especial care, as contact with the clothing will remove the secretions as they appear. Furthermore, the glans penis becomes less sensitive and therefore less subject to local irritation thus simplifying the young man's problems in sexual hygiene.

The penis in its flaccid state varies considerably in size, due not only to varying conditions of temperature but also to individual peculiarities. The organ may vary between 2-1/2 inches and 6 inches in length in the flaccid state and between 5 inches and 8 inches in the erected condition. The size of the generative organs is not an index of virility in the male.

The testes are the male generative glands and are described as about 1-1/2 inches in length, 1-1/4 inches in width and nearly 1 inch in thickness. The testes are contained within the scrotal sac, the outside coat of which is a thin wrinkled skin, within which are four thin coats. Next to the testes and enveloping the spermatic cord is a thin covering which is carried down into the scrotum when the testicle leaves the abdomen, where it is formed. This descent of the testes from the abdomen takes place normally in the later weeks of intrauterine life. The testes may, however, through some unusual condition, be retained and make their descent months or even years later. If the testes have not descended by the end of the age of puberty, the advice of a competent surgeon should be sought.

{ TESTICULAR { SPERMATOZOA { CONTRIBUTION. { SEMINAL GRANULES { { MUCIN AND WATER { SEMEN { VESICULAR { ALBUMIN { CONTRIBUTION. { ALKALINE SALTS { (In quantity greater { WATER { than all the rest.) { { PROSTATIC { PROTEINS { CONTRIBUTION. { ALKALINE SALTS { (Viscid and opalescent.) { WATER



The outer coat of the testis is called the tunica albuginea. [See Plate 2.] This tunic or coat sends fibrous partitions into the testis which divide the organ into lobules, each one being conical in shape with the apex directed towards the epididymis, which is that mass of blood vessels and tissues which one can feel on one side of each testis. Within these lobules the spermatozoa are formed by a complex process of cell division and cell germination upon whose description we need not enter here.

The spermatozoon may be described as the male sexual cell whose function is to fertilize the female ovum. The spermatozoon is about 1/20 of an inch in length and consists of a head, body and a vibratile tail. In the human spermatozoon the head is ovoid, appearing pear-shaped or pointed in one view and elliptical in another.

The epididymis referred to above, consists of a mass of coiled tubes and blood vessels. After the secretion passes through the tortuous coils of ciliated tubes of the epididymis, it is collected into a single tube called the vas deferens, which passes as a part of the spermatic cord from the scrotum, up through the groin and over the pubic arch into the pelvic cavity, passing down back of the bladder where it is slightly dilated into an ampulla, beyond which the duct is again contracted into a narrow tube, and the two ducts, one from either side, converge and pass into the prostate gland, where they empty into the urethra.

The seminal vesicles.—The seminal vesicles are small bladder-like organs supposed originally to contain the secreted semen collected from the testes. There are two of these vesicles, from each a small duct joins the vas deferens making up what is known as the ejaculatory duct. The two ejaculatory ducts coming together in the prostate gland open into the urethra. The seminal vesicles possess glandular walls and secrete the substance which they contain, no part of the secretion of the testes normally finding its way into the vesicles.

The prostate gland, a portion of which is homologous with the female uterus and called uterus masculinus, is situated around the neck of the bladder and is traversed not only by the urethra (prostatic portion), but also by the ejaculatory ducts. There are numerous gland ducts which—collecting the secretion of the prostate gland—open into the urethra in the prostatic portion.

Just beyond the prostate are two small glands called Cowper's Glands whose ducts enter the urethra some distance beyond the prostate, at the root of the penis.

2. PHYSIOLOGY.

In the treatment of the physiology of the various structures just described, we may well reverse the order of treatment, thus leading up step by step to a consideration of the more important organs.

a. Urethra. The canal or duct of the penis is called the urethra, and it is important in considering its physiology to remember that it has not only a double function to perform, but that the performance of one function in a measure temporarily unfits it for performance of the other and makes it necessary for a special measure of preparation.

The urinary excretion from the kidneys collecting in the urinary bladder is passed out periodically through the urethra. This same channel must transmit periodically secretions from the sexual apparatus.

b. Cowper's Glands secrete only under sexual excitement, and usually they secrete only when the sexual excitement reaches a stage which induces an erection. The secretion is composed of a clear alkaline mucus.

The purpose served in the natural economy by this alkaline mucus is a very important one and it is essential that every young man should understand it.

It will be remembered that the male urethra affords passage not only for the urine, but also for the generative products. The urine is acid in reaction and the frequent passage of urine along the urethra leaves that duct acid in reaction under usual conditions. The spermatozoa are very sensitive to acid and their vitality is seriously impaired by acid of any kind, particularly the acid of the urine. Nature has provided that the secretion from Cowper's glands should precede the generative products along the urethra, thus neutralizing the acid and insuring for the spermatozoa an alkaline passage from the body.

Besides this important function of the secretion from Cowper's glands, the slimy transparent mucus appearing at the glans penis under sexual excitement serves as a natural lubricant covering the glans of the male organ. A secretion from the female similarly prepares her organs for sexual contact so that the delicate mucous membrane, particularly of the female organs, shall not suffer abrasion.

Many young men have experienced the appearance of the secretion from Cowper's glands and wholly misunderstanding its nature have feared that they were losing some vital fluid. This misunderstanding of the nature of this fluid makes the young man especially subject to the misrepresentations of the advertising quack and charlatan who allege that he is losing vital fluid and will, if not treated, undergo general debility and loss of procreative power. This brief explanation of the significance of the secretion of Cowper's glands will protect the young man from any such misrepresentations.

c. The Prostate Gland.—That the prostate gland is intimately associated with reproduction is evident from the fact that in those male animals that have suffered castration before puberty, the prostate gland withers and practically disappears. What then is the role that this gland plays? Like Cowper's glands, it secretes only during sexual excitement. Under such excitement its ducts become gorged with a secretion peculiar to it and at the moment of the emission or the ejaculation of the semen the numerous ducts empty their contents into the urethra to be mingled with and made a part of the semen.

The secretion of the prostate is composed of a watery solution of protein and of alkaline salts and so closely similar to the secretion of the seminal vesicles that we will consider its action along with that of the secretion from the vesicles.

d. The Seminal Vesicles.The seminal vesicles secrete continuously. The secretion is composed of an aqueous solution of albumin and of alkaline salts. This secretion together with the secretion from the prostate gland is poured into the urethra at the moment of sexual orgasm; they become mixed in their transit through the urethra with the secretion from the testes. This mixture is known as semen. [See pg. 42.]

It used to be supposed that the semen was secreted wholly by the testes; that the testes were secreting continuously and that the seminal vesicles were receptacles for the gradually accumulating semen from the testes. The researches of Steinach and others have made the old theory untenable and demonstrate that the semen is a mixture from three distinct sources; that the testicles secrete their contribution to the semen only during sexual stimulation; while the seminal vesicles secreting their products continuously become periodically filled and distended.

Let us inquire regarding the function of this alkaline albuminous secretion from the vesicles and prostate. For what purpose does Nature prepare such a secretion? The spermatozoa frequently remain several days in the organs of the female before the ovum is found and fertilized. During these several days the spermatozoa are exerting no small amount of energy in their vigorous flagellate movement. For such an expenditure of energy they must receive nourishment and stimulation. The nourishment is supplied by the albumin and proteid of the vesicular and prostatic secretions. The stimulation is supplied by the salts also secreted by these glands. The recent researches of Loeb and others have demonstrated the importance of mineral salts in stimulating the activity of living cells. One can cite no better example of this stimulant action than the influence of these vesicular and prostatic salts upon the activity of the spermatozoa.

The vesicles and prostate may be looked upon as the commissariat of the army of spermatozoa; the vesicles accumulating a stock of supplies to be drawn upon at short notice; the prostate representing a factory where a considerable quantity of supplies can be prepared at short notice.

This periodic distention of the seminal vesicles is a matter of very considerable hygienic importance and must be thoroughly understood by every young man who would lead a normal sexual life.

These organs in common with all other organs of the body are supplied with two sets of nerves, one set passing away to the spinal cord and carrying messages which indicate the condition of the organ or the presence and character of any local stimulus; the other passing away from the spinal cord to the organ and carrying secretory and motor impulses. The secretory impulses are more or less continuous and as a result, these glands secret continuously and become periodically distended as described above. The motor impulses pass to the muscles within the walls of the vesicles, causing a strong spasmodic contraction of these muscles at the moment of emission of semen, thus throwing the contents of the vesicles into the urethra at the same moment when the epididymis the vas deferens and the ducts of the prostate are emptying their secreted contents into the urethra.

Now the sensory nerves passing from the seminal vesicles up to the erection and emission centers are stimulated by any unusual pressure within the vesicles. Unusual pressure may be caused either by distention due to accumulated secretion or by pressure upon the vesicles from over-distended rectum or bladder. It sometimes happens that two or more of these influences are acting at the same time. These impulses are most likely to be effective when the subject is asleep, and particularly if he is lying upon his back. The result of the stimulus is to cause an erection, accompanied usually by an erotic dream, the whole phenomenon culminating in an emission of the contents of the seminal vesicles and followed, of course, by a relief of the pressure which was the cause of the condition. This phenomenon has been variously called nocturnal emission, "pollution" and "dreaming-off."

Vecki, a specialist in physiology, hygiene and pathology of the sexual apparatus, says that the nocturnal emission is a normal physiological phenomenon, the object of which is to relieve pressure in the seminal vesicles, and that in normal cases it occurs in fairly regular periods, these periods varying in length with different individuals, according to their physical condition and habits, the period being two to four weeks, usually; though a considerably longer or shorter period would not be looked upon as pathological. Vecki describes the normal nocturnal emission as being accompanied by an erection, erotic dreams, and an orgasm, the subject being wholly unconscious of the condition until he is awakened at the moment of orgasm. Normally, the subject experiences on the following day a feeling of relief and well-being and should, normally, be wholly free from headache, depression or languor.

Inquiry among a large number of normal healthy men convinces the author that it is not at all unusual for these emissions to occur as infrequently as once in two months in normal healthy men. On the other hand, it is not unusual for them to occur as frequently as once in ten days or even once a week and still be within the physiological limit. However, when the emission occurs as frequently as once per week, it should be looked upon as abnormal if it is followed by depression, headache or lassitude. Cases are not unusual in which the nocturnal emission is experienced as often as three times in a week after which there will be a period of two to four weeks without an emission, followed again by very frequent emissions, and a free period. This phenomenon is an individual peculiarity, and is not to be looked upon as abnormal.

Cases of too frequent nocturnal emissions accompanied by languor and headache are usually caused by irritability or lack of tonicity of the sexual apparatus, particularly of the seminal vesicles and the ducts. This irritability and loss of tone is not infrequently caused by masturbation, though it may also be caused by excessive sexual intercourse, making itself manifest, of course, in either case, on cessation of the habit of masturbation or the excessive sexual intercourse.

Another cause of too frequent nocturnal emissions and one wholly separate from any abuse of the sexual function is irritability and mechanical irritation of the sexual apparatus—perhaps especially the membranous and prostatic portion of the urethra—caused by the presence of an excessive amount of oxalates in the urine. Oxalates occur in the urine in sharp angular crystals and would seem to be in a high degree irritating to the tender mucous membrane of the upper part of the urethra. The almost invariable presence of these crystals in excess in those cases that have not been accounted for by abuse of the sexual function leads one to adopt the plausible theory that the crystals are the cause of the irritability. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that these crystals may be simply an accompaniment of the too frequent emissions, and that the presence of oxalates in the urine may be caused by some disturbance in the nutritive processes that go on in the body, which disturbance causes not only the irritability of the sexual apparatus, but also the presence of the crystals.

When the seminal vesicles are much distended it occurs not infrequently that the passage of a hard mass of fecal material through the rectum will, by simple mechanical pressure on the seminal vesicles, force out a few drops, perhaps as much as a teaspoonful, of the contents of the vesicles. This would be called an involuntary emission, but the liquid passed out must not be looked upon as semen. It is simply the secretion of the seminal vesicles, and in losing it, one is not losing a vital fluid or a fluid, any portion of which would be reabsorbed; he is simply losing a fluid which would, in the natural course of events, have passed away within the next few days as a nocturnal emission.

These details have been explained in order that the young man may fully understand the physiology of his sexual apparatus and not be disturbed by the advertisements or the pamphlet literature of charlatans who make a business of frightening young men into the belief that in these experiences they are losing "vital fluid"—that they are victims of "lost manhood," or that they are entering into a condition of "general debility" and "impotence." As an actual fact, involuntary loss of vital fluid (spermatorrhea), is a rare case even in the practice of specialists in genito-urinary diseases, and in these rare cases, the condition is usually a result of very great excesses, sexual debauchery or one of the sequelae of venereal disease. [Read: Appendix 1, 13 and 17.]

e. Testes. No rational idea of the physiology of the testes can be given without laying down as a fundamental physiological law, that the testes secrete under sexual stimulation only. This same general principle applies to all glands, i.e., that they secrete only under the influence of some special stimulation. In harmony with that law, the testes secrete only under the influence of sexual stimulation.

The sexual stimulation may be sub-divided into two general categories, i.e., conscious sexual stimulation and subconscious sexual stimulation.

Conscious sexual stimulation is partly psychical and partly physical. The physical stimulation is produced by physical proximity of a member of the opposite sex. The physical and psychical phases of conscious sexual stimulation are so intimately interwoven that it is exceedingly difficult to discuss one without constant reference to the other, and it may be said in this connection that the psychical attitude of the two individuals of opposite sex who are brought into close physical proximity will modify very greatly their local sexual responses.

Reverting to the lower animals: when a female in rut or heat is brought into proximity to the male, there seems to be on the part of each animal a consciousness of the character and attitude of the other animal and both animals are step by step excited by various physical contacts and probably also psychical conditions to a high state of sexual excitement, leading to the natural ultimate result, coitus, in which event the sexual excitement culminates in the orgasm of the male, which empties the secreted semen into the organs of the female.

It will be easily understood that, in human subjects whose social relations permit them to indulge in coitus, close physical proximity, and various caresses lead, step by step in the normal course of nature to sexual excitement and sexual desire which culminates as described above for the lower animals.

To revert to the function of the testes, we may say that during these various stages of sexual stimulation and excitement the testes are actively secreting thousands upon thousands of nascent spermatozoa, which being released, are hurried along, partly by their own flagellate movements and partly by the action of the cilia in the ducts of the epididymis and the peristaltic contractions of the vas deferens—hurried along the vas to the ampulla. If the period of sexual excitement extends over fifteen to thirty minutes, the whole duct system from the epididymis to the ampulla becomes gorged with the secreted testicular product. This secretion consists of active motile spermatozoa, of spermatic granules and of mucus. The latter is secreted by the ducts of the epididymis and the vas deferens, the testicle itself furnishing only spermatozoa, spermatic granules and a small amount of liquid, just sufficient in quantity to float the spermatozoa out of the testes into the ducts.

At the moment of sexual orgasm occurs what is known as, the emission of semen. In this act the whole contents of the ampulla, vas deferens and ducts of the epididymis, the contents of the seminal vesicles, and the contents of the ducts of the prostate gland are all poured out by spasmotic muscular contractions into the urethra and by contraction of the walls of the urethra, ejected from that tube through the mouth of the urethra. Thus, in the act of emission, there is an intimate mixing together of the three contributions to the semen, i.e., the testicular, vesicular and prostatic.

Sub-conscious Sexual Stimulation.—Sub-conscious sexual stimulation is not accompanied by erection or any mental or physical manifestation of sexual excitement.

When a sexually mature individual is brought into more or less intimate relations with a sexually mature individual of the opposite sex under conditions where the secondary sexual qualities may have free and unrestricted play, there can be no reasonable doubt that both individuals experience a sub-conscious sexual stimulation which will influence them both physically and psychically through sub-conscious response of their sexual apparatus. One can easily imagine, for example, that a young man may meet upon the skating rink in winter a young lady for whom he has a very sincere admiration and respect; she on the other hand entertains for him a similar admiration and respect. They may skate together the whole afternoon and converse upon politics, art or philosophy, the young woman feeling herself swung along—almost actually carried on her companion's strong arm. The whole experience is, in the highest degree, pleasurable and exhilarating to her, yet she may be conscious of absolutely no sexual stimulation. On the other hand, the young man experiences most exalted pleasure in the company of his young lady friend—through the pressure of her hand upon his arm, the lithe, graceful movement of body and limbs, the smile, the light in the eye and the soft voice. All of these give him an exquisite pleasure that he will be unable to analyze, even if he were inclined to do so.

In his case, as in the case of the young woman, there has been absolutely no conscious sexual stimulation; in the case of neither individual has there been a thought of sex as such or of their sexual apparatus, yet without a shadow of doubt, the sexual organs of both individuals have been more or less active during this period—they have been subject to sub-conscious sexual stimulation.

In the case of the male, his testes have been awakened into an activity of probably considerably less degree than in the case of conscious sexual stimulation, and during this activity of the gland a certain amount of the secretion has been formed.

The most natural question at this point is—What becomes of this secretion? It is not likely that any great number of spermatozoa are released, those that are probably make their way along the vasa deferentia to the ampullae. The liquid secretion of the testes probably does not leave the testes but is reabsorbed. While there are many features of this mysterious influence of the testes which have never yet been cleared up, this seems certain, that the testes elaborate what may be called an internal secretion, and that the elaboration of this internal secretion is influenced by such stimulation as has just been described above, under the head of sub-conscious sexual stimulation.

An internal secretion is a secretion formed by a gland, to be poured into the blood or lymph system, while an external secretion is poured out through ducts to the exterior. The thyroid and adrenal glands form internal secretions only, which secretions, poured into the blood and lymph, profoundly affect the nutrition of the body. The salivary glands and gastric glands form external secretions only; which, when poured upon the food, digest it. The liver, pancreas and testes form both external and internal secretions. The external secretion of the testes is that which is poured out in a sexual emission, as described above; the internal secretion of the testes consists of substances formed by the testes of sexually mature individuals, which substances, poured into the blood, profoundly affect the development of the individual and his whole physical and psychical character.

VIRILITY.

The best example that can be cited of the effect of this internal secretion is the male of the horse kind.

Most young men have seen either at horse shows or upon farms or ranches pedigreed stallions. No person can see one of these splendid animals without admiring, if not actually standing in awe of his inimitable physical force, beauty of form and grace and power of action. He is a physical ideal of the horse kind. What is the source of his strength and beauty?

The physical features that one notes peculiar to the stallion are, first, the great breadth and depth of chest, great mass of shoulder and hip muscles, and the high arched neck, fiery eye and luxuriant mane and tail. Second, the functional features next noticeable are the greater alertness and evident physical exuberance as manifested especially in the gait and the frequent whinnying. The thoughtful observer at the horse show or on the ranch cannot but compare these animals with the gelding.

Two colts on the ranch may be full brothers,—from the same pedigreed stallion and the same pedigreed dam. At the age of two years these two young horses may be as alike as two peas in a pod. One of these promising young animals is chosen, because of some commendable peculiarity of temperament or action, to remain unmutilated, as a procreator of his kind upon the ranch. The other is subjected to the veterinarian's knife and ecraseur and deprived of the testes,—the male sexual glands. From the day of this operation these two animals (in every respect alike, except that one is unmutilated while the other is deprived of the glands mentioned above) develop along radically different lines. The stallion develops during his third year into the noble animal described above. This third year is his period of puberty and the changes which he undergoes physically and psychically are closely parallel to the changes which the human subject undergoes during his period of puberty. The gelding, on the other hand, develops into an animal that is in every respect a neuter. Physically this animal develops a body almost identical with that of the female of the same species. Temperamentally the gelding is a patient, plodding, beast of burden, and though under good grooming he may show considerable life, while under the control of his driver, he seldom shows any interest in other members of the horse family, either male or female, and in the pasture or on the ranch his neutral sex temperament is ever apparent. While he may contend mildly for a place at the feeding trough, he never essays the defense of any weaker members of the herd, and one stallion would put a hundred like him to flight.

The thoughtful observer of this phenomenon cannot help wondering what has made this radical difference in the development of these two animals. The solution is not far to seek. From the beginning of puberty to the beginning of senile decay, the stallion derives from the testes what is referred to above as an internal secretion.

Physiologists have endeavored to determine exactly what substance formed by the testes is reabsorbed into the lymph and blood. It may be a substance called spermin, but whatever the substance is, the physiologists agree that the testes form some substance which is absorbed by the blood and lymph, is carried to the brain and spinal cord and there produces these profound effects indicated above. So we have discovered the source of the stallion's strength and beauty.

What is true of the horse is true of man. The young man at puberty begins to receive from his testes the internal secretion which leads to the development of his full manly powers. The sum total of the qualities peculiar to manhood has been called VIRILITY. For want of a better word, this term has been applied to the sum total of the male qualities of any animal whatsoever, so that the male qualities of the stallion are also compassed in the term virility.

The thoughtful and inquiring young man will naturally wish to know at this point if this lesson from the beast of the field can be applied in all its details to the human subject; if man, without any artificial or unnatural means would develop a full and complete virility; if like the horse, he can maintain a strict continence for months or even years without suffering any abatement of virility and of physical powers in general. The unequivocal answer of the medical profession to these questions would be in the affirmative.

An exact parallel to the gelding referred to above can be found in the eunuch of the Orient. If the human male is castrated before puberty he develops into a being as different from a virile man as the gelding is different from the stallion;—a being whose physique resembles in many respects that of a woman, and whose temperament manifests qualities of cringing servility and lack of initiative.

The external secretion of the testes differs from the internal secretion in containing spermatozoa; it may be that there are other differences. It is, however, generally believed that one or more of the substances found in the external secretion appear in the internal secretion. If this is true, it must be evident that excessive sexual indulgence or masturbation can draw away from the system this precious vital substance that is necessary to produce or maintain the virility.

It cannot be assumed that the condition of virility once attained will necessarily always continue—it must be maintained. To be maintained, this vital substance produced by the testes must be continuously absorbed into the blood. When once the man or boy understands this, it must be evident to him that he has, to a certain extent, the making or marring of his own virility; that it is not simply an inexhaustible endowment of nature; but, like such a natural resource as a forest or a coal mine, may be exhausted and will be exhausted if not husbanded carefully.

It is a well known fact in the medical profession that the ovaries of the female exert upon her development an influence analogous to that which the testes exert on the development of the male. For that reason, a surgeon should, under no condition, remove both ovaries (sexual glands) unless they are diseased in such a way as to necessitate their complete removal in order to save the life of the individual. If a woman of twenty-five were to suffer the loss of both ovaries, she would go very early into a condition of senile decay. If a female before puberty is deprived of both ovaries, it leads her to develop masculine physical characteristics and her temperament is wholly lacking in those characteristics which, summed up, might, for the want of a better term, be called FEMININITY.



CHAPTER IV.

SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.



SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.

No rational or acceptable system of sexual hygiene for the human male can be worked out without constant reference to the lower ranks of the mammalian class and to primitive social conditions.

In our study of the anatomy and physiology of the sexual apparatus of the human male, it must have become evident that man has many things in common with other mammals, and that no adequate knowledge of man's physical or psychical attributes can be obtained without a study of similar phases of life among related animals.

All of the changes which Nature introduced into the physical and psychical development of the adolescent male were of a character to equip the individual for the maintenance and protection of a wife and children. This development has been reached by the time the young man is twenty-one to twenty-three years of age, when, in the average case, he would be able, so far as concerns his physique and temperament, to establish and maintain a home. The fact that his adolescent development is complete by the age of twenty-five, and that he has, by the time he arrives at that age, grown into the full stature of all his physical and mental powers, may certainly be interpreted as nature's indication that his home-building should be begun not later than the twenty-fifth year. This means, then, that young men ought, if possible, to marry as young as twenty-five.

But the conditions of society at the present time are such that a large proportion of the young men, particularly those who are preparing for any of the learned professions (theology, medicine, law, pedagogy, etc.) are hardly through their professional courses by the time they reach that age, and most of them feel that they must make a start in their profession before they assume the responsibilities of supporting a home. This means that a large proportion of them marry as late as thirty years of age.

If we consider now those commercial, financial and industrial vocations which involve considerable preparation in technical institutions or a long apprenticeship (engineering, pharmacy, manufacturing chemists, banking, journalism, etc., etc.) we find that the young man is hardly able to establish such a home as most such young men feel that they must maintain on any salary that they receive before they are twenty-eight to thirty years old. This consideration applies particularly to college and university men, as, almost without exception, these men are preparing for some of the above mentioned professions or vocations.

Now the conditions of college life, the field sports and athletics, together with the social conditions, tend to develop in college circles a body of most virile young men. The problem which now confronts us is: How may these young men live a hygienic life under these unnatural circumstances?

If a man becomes able to procreate his kind at seventeen but is hardly able to marry before he is thirty he must solve the problem as to what his attitude shall be regarding matters of sex. The earlier this problem is solved the better it is for the young man. Unfortunately, a large proportion of young men do not realize that they have any problem in this field to solve until circumstances, more or less accidental, have already established in them a mental attitude and, perhaps, a habit of life that may not be either wholesome or wise.

From what has preceded, it must be evident that from the early months of the period of puberty, through the adolescent and adult period, even until some progress is made in the senile period, every normal male will experience sexual desires. It has been shown that these particular experiences are linked, more or less intimately, with the condition of the sexual apparatus; but whatever the cause, we are confronted with the question, What shall be done about it?

When a man experiences a sexual desire does it necessarily follow that the desire must be satisfied? Some have reasoned that the muscles of the arm, if not exercised, wither and become weak, therefore the sexual desires, if not exercised will become weak, and the sexual apparatus, if it does not exercise its function, must become withered and atrophied. While this course of reasoning may seem rational and the conclusion may seem tenable, it is well known to physiologists and sociologists that the reasoning is fallacious; the fallacy rests in the premises. It was assumed above that the activity of the sexual glands was comparable with that of muscles.

We must not lose sight of the fact that the male sexual glands are continuously active, and in this continuous activity get their exercise. This activity develops them and keeps them physically perfect after the onset of the period of puberty. Their activity consists very largely in the formation of an internal secretion, the office of which is to develop in the male the highest possible state of virility. Nor must we lose sight of the fact that every procreative act is performed at a sacrifice of some of this vital fluid on the part of the male. A wanton sacrifice of vital fluid either in the act of self abuse or in excessive venery is not justifiable under any consideration; nor may these acts, under any circumstances, be looked upon as sustaining to the gland a relation similar to that which muscular exercise sustains to muscle tissue.

In the light of these facts every normal man would admit that frequent masturbation or excessive sexual intercourse, in wedlock or out, should certainly not be recommended as a method of developing the sexual apparatus.

Most men, however, raise the question: "Is any indulgence or any artificial means for satisfying the sexual inclination to be discouraged?" This inclination comes to us in the course of nature. Man in the primitive state would seek a mate as soon as he felt this inclination; would fight for the possession of her as soon as he had reached a sufficient stage of muscular development, and once in possession of his mate, would take her to his perch in the trees or to his cave. In his primitive home he would follow his sexual inclination, impregnate his wife and protect her against all dangers.

Under our present social conditions the young man experiences all these desires the same as his primitive ancestor, but he may not be able to choose a mate and begin with her the building of a home for a whole decade after he experiences the desire to do so. What is the solution?

It must be evident that the solution lies in the acceptance of one or another of three alternatives—either the young man may seek illicit intercourse with women to satisfy his sexual desire, or he may adopt some artificial measure, such as masturbation (self abuse) or, finally, he may lead what is known as a continent life. By continence we mean to adopt neither one of the first two alternatives mentioned, but to leave the care of the sexual apparatus wholly with Nature.

We may now consider these three alternatives in turn.

1. ILLICIT INTERCOURSE WITH WOMEN.

By illicit intercourse with women we mean, sexual intercourse out of wedlock. The term applies either to intercourse between any man and a prostitute, between an unmarried man and a married woman, between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman or between a married man and a married woman not his wife. The term, illicit intercourse, applies to all sexual intercourse that is illegal.

In our discussion of the young man's problem, we may confine our consideration particularly to intercourse with professional prostitutes and with clandestines, or women who are willing to accept the sexual embrace for their own gratification or for money.

In this phase of sexual gratification, it is assumed that the woman has these relations with various men. We purposely eliminate from this discussion the deliberate seduction of pure girls for the purpose of sexual gratification, as such seduction is a heinous offense against the victim and against society, for which offense the man is legally responsible. We are here discussing not the crimes of men, but their vices.

The question that the young man naturally asks is—"Why should society hold these relations as a vice when the woman, who is party to the act, gives her free consent, perhaps even soliciting the relation, and has given herself up to this sort of a life, either as a sole occupation (prostitute) or as an auxiliary occupation (clandestine) to supplement a wage on which she may not be able to live in luxury?"

The answer to this question is not far to seek. Women so occupied have, as a rule, made themselves incapable of maternity. They are outcasts from society, unfortunately exerting a most harmful influence on all those who come into relation with them. Furthermore, they are centers for the dissemination of venereal diseases which wreck the health of all those who become infected. But for the uncontrolled passions of men, there would be no such women. So while we, individually, as men, may not be responsible for the ruin of any one woman, we must confess that men as a class are responsible for this condition of prostitution and clandestine intercourse. An overwhelming majority of women would, if following their inclinations, seek these relations in wedlock only and for procreation only. But many a young woman, under promise of marriage, sometimes even under a bogus marriage, is brought into a condition of hypnotism or into a mental state that puts her in the power of the man whom she loves and respects. If he deceives her and betrays her, continuing such betrayal until the victim becomes pregnant, he will, in the average case, leave her to bear her child in shame, while he slips away to other scenes of activity. We cannot wonder then, that the girl—deserted, humiliated, crushed by the one in whom she reposed absolute confidence; cast out of society, perhaps thrust from the protection of her own father's roof—gives up the struggle and says—"What's the use?"

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