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Inconsistencies in the numbering sequence have been retained.
The illustration descriptions have been regrouped at the end of each page. Where the description only states a color, it should be understood as an "egg color". ———————————————————————————————————-
THE BIRD BOOK
THE BIRD BOOK
ILLUSTRATING IN NATURAL COLORS MORE THAN SEVEN HUNDRED NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS; ALSO SEVERAL HUNDRED PHOTOGRAPHS OF THEIR NESTS AND EGGS
CHESTER A. REED, B. S.
GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
Copyright, 1914, by CHARLES K. REED
All rights reserved, including that of translation into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Diving Birds. Order I. Pygopodes 10 Grebes. Family Colymbidae 11 Loons. Family Gaviidae 17 Auks, Murres and Puffins. Family Alcidae 21
Long-winged Swimmers. Order II. Longipennes 35 Skuas and Jaegers. Family Stercoraridae 35 Gulls and Terns. Family Laridae 38 Skimmers. Family Rynchopidae 58
Tube-nosed Swimmers. Order III. Tubinares 59 Albatrosses. Family Diomedeidae 59 Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels. Family Procellariidae 61
Totipalmate Swimmers. Order IV. Steganopodes 72 Tropic Birds. Family Phaethontidae 72 Gannets. Family Sulidae 74 Darters. Family Anhingidae 77 Cormorants. Family Phalacrocoracidae 78 Pelicans. Family Pelecanidae 83 Man-o'-War Birds. Family Fregatidae 86
Lamellirostral Swimmers. Order V. Anseres 87 Ducks, Geese and Swans. Family Anatidae 87
Lamellirostral Grallatores. Order VI. Odontoglossae 115 Flamingoes. Family Phoenicopteridae 115
Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc. Order VII. Herodiones 115 Spoonbills. Family Plataleidae 115 Ibises. Family Ibididae 117 Storks and Wood Ibises. Family Ciconiidae 118 Herons, Bitterns, etc. Family Ardeidae 119
Cranes, Rails, etc. Order VIII. Paludicolae 127 Cranes. Family Gruidae 127 Courlans. Family Aramidae 129 Rails, Gallinules and Coots. Family Rallidae 131
Shore Birds. Order IX. Limicolae 137 Phalaropes. Family Phalaropodidae 137 Avocets and Stilts. Family Recurvirostridae 139 Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. Family Scolopacidae 140 Plovers. Family Charadriidae 161 Surf Birds and Turnstones. Family Aphrizidae 169 Oyster-catchers. Family Haematopodidae 170 Jacanas. Family Jacanidae 172
Gallinaceous Birds. Order X. Gallinae 175 Grouse, Partridges, etc. Family Odontophoridae 175 Turkeys. Family Meleagridae 178 Curassows and Guans. Family Cracidae 191
Pigeons. Order XI. Columbae 192 Pigeons. Family Columbidae 192
Birds of Prey. Order XII. Raptores 198 American Vultures. Family Cathartidae 198 Hawks, Eagles, etc. Family Buteonidae 201 Falcons, etc. Family Falconidae 218 Osprey. Family Pandionidae 225 Barn Owls. Family Aluconidae 227 Owls. Family Strigidae 227
Parrots, Paroquets. Order XIII. Psittaci 241 Parrots and Paroquets. Psittacidae 241
Cuckoos, etc. Order XIV. Coccyges 241 Cuckoos, Anis, etc. Family Cuculidae 241 Trogons. Family Trogonidae 246 Kingfishers. Family Alcedinidae 247
Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. Order XV. Pici 249 Woodpeckers. Family Picidae 249
Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc. Order XVI. Macrochires 262 Goatsuckers, etc. Family Caprimulgidae 263 Swifts. Family Micropodidae 268 Hummingbirds. Family Trochilidae 271
Perching Birds. Order XVII. Passeres 280 Cotingas. Family Cotingidae 280 Tyrant Flycatchers. Family Tyrannidae 280 Larks. Family Alaudidae 297 Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc. Family Corvidae 300 Starlings. Family Sturnidae 314 Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. Family Icteridae 314 Finches, Sparrows, etc. Family Fringillidae 324 Tanagers. Family Tangaridae 369 Swallows. Family Hirundinidae 372 Waxwings. Family Bombycillidae 375 Shrikes. Family Laniidae 376 Vireos. Family Vireonidae 378 Honey Creepers. Family Coerebidae 385 Warblers. Family Mniotiltidae 385 Wagtails. Family Motacillidae 418 Dippers. Family Cinclidae 419 Wrens. Family Troglodytidae 423 Thrashers, etc. Family Mimidae 429 Creepers. Family Certhiidae 430 Nuthatches. Family Sittidae 431 Titmice. Family Paridae 431 Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers. Family Sylviidae 433 Thrushes, Solitaires, Bluebirds, etc. Family Turdidae 442 Index 450
THE BIRD BOOK
DIVING BIRDS. Order I. PYGOPODES
GREBES. Family COLYMBIDAE
Grebes are birds having a ducklike body, but with pointed bills. Their feet, too, are unlike those of the Ducks, each toe having its separate web, and having a broad flat nail. Their wings are very small for the size of the body, making it impossible for them to rise in flight from the land. They rise from the water by running a few yards along the surface until they have secured sufficient headway to allow them to launch themselves into the air. After having risen from the water their flight is very swift and strong. On land they are very awkward and can only progress by a series of awkward hops; they generally lie flat on their breasts, but occasionally stand up, supporting themselves upon their whole tarsus. Grebes, together with the Loons, are the most expert aquatic birds that we have, diving like a flash and swimming for an incredible distance under water.
1. WESTERN GREBE. Aechmophorus occidentalis.
Range.—Western parts of North America, from southern Alaska southward; east to Minnesota and south in winter to the southern parts of the United States and Mexico. Breeds from the Dakotas and northern California northward. These are the largest of the American Grebes; owing to their unusually long necks, they are frequently called "Swan Grebes." They are very timid birds and conceal themselves in the rushes on the least suspicion of danger. At times, to escape observation, they will entirely submerge their body, leaving only their head and part of the long neck visible above the water. This Grebe cannot be mistaken for any other because of the long slender neck and the long pointed bill, which has a slight upward turn. They nest abundantly in the marshes of North Dakota and central Canada. Their nests are made of decayed rushes, and are built over the water, being fastened to the rushes so that the bottom of the nest rests in the water. The nesting season is at its height during the latter part of May. They lay from three to five eggs, the ground color of which is a pale blue; this color is, however, always concealed by a thin chalky deposit, and this latter is frequently stained to a dirty white. Size 2.40 x 1.55.
2. HOLBOELL'S GREBE. Colymbus holboellii.
Range.—Throughout North America, breeding from northern United States northward and wintering from the middle to the southern portions of the United States. In regard to size this Grebe comes next to the Western, being 19 in. in length. This bird can be distinguished by the white cheeks and throat and the reddish brown foreneck. They breed abundantly in the far north placing their floating islands of decayed vegetation in the water in the midst of the marsh grass. They lay from three to six eggs of a dingy white color which have the stained surface common to Grebes eggs. Size 2.35 x 1.25.
3. HORNED GREBE. Colymbus auritus.
Range.—The whole of North America, breeding in the interior from North Dakota northwest; winters along the Gulf Coast. This species is one of the most beautiful of the Grebes, having in the breeding season buffy ear tufts, black cheeks and throat, and chestnut neck, breast and sides. They breed abundantly in the marshy flats of North Dakota and the interior of Canada. They build a typical Grebe's nest, a floating mass of decayed matter which stains the naturally white eggs to a dirty brown. The number of eggs varies from three to seven. Size 1.70 x 1.15. Data.—Devils Lake, N. Dakota, June 20, 1900. 6 eggs much stained. Nest floating in 4 ft. of water, a large mass of rotten rushes and weeds. Collector. James Smalley.
4. EARED GREBE. Colymbus nigricollis californicus.
Range.—North America west of the Mississippi, breeding from Texas to Manitoba and wintering along the Pacific Coast of the United States and from Texas southward.
Eared Grebes differ from the preceding in having the entire neck blackish. They nest very abundantly throughout the west, in favorable localities, from Texas to Minnesota and Dakota. Their nests are constructed in the same manner as the preceding varieties and are located in similar localities. As do all the Grebes when leaving the nest, they cover the eggs with the damp rushes from around the base of the nest. This is probably for the purpose of assisting incubation during their absence, by the action of the sun's rays on the wet mass. As they are nearly always thus covered upon the approach of anyone, this may be done also as a protection from discovery. They lay from three to eight bluish white eggs with the usual chalky and discolored appearance. The breeding season is at its height early in June, or earlier, in the southern portion of its range. Size 1.75 x 1.20. Data.—Artesian, S. Dakota, June 21, 1899. Nest of rushes, floating in three feet of water. Large colony in a small lake. Collector, F. A. Patton.
5. MEXICAN GREBE. Colymbus dominicus brachypterus.
Range.—Southern Texas and Lower California southward to South America, breeding throughout its range.
The Least Grebe is by far the smallest of the Grebes in this country, being but 10 in. in length; it can not be mistaken for any other, the Eared Grebe being the only species of this family found in the same localities during the summer. These little Grebes nest very abundantly along the Rio Grande Valley in Texas, the nesting season lasting from the latter part of May until well into December.
Their nests are floating piles of grass and weeds upon which they lay from three to five chalky white eggs, which are always discolored, sometimes to a deep chocolate hue. These eggs average a great deal darker in color than do any of the other Grebes. In a series of fifty sets fully half were a rich brown tint. Size 1.40 x .95.
6. PIED-BILLED GREBE. Podilymbus podiceps.
Range.—From the British provinces southward to Argentine Republic, breeding locally throughout the northern portions of its range.
The Dabchick, as this bird is called, is the most evenly distributed bird of this family. It is nowhere especially abundant, nor is it, except in a very few localities, regarded as rare. Consequently it is the best known bird of the species. They do not congregate in such large numbers as the other Grebes during the nesting season, but one or more pairs may be found in almost any favorable locality. These birds render their floating nest a little more substantial than those of the preceding varieties by the addition of mud which they bring up from the bottom of the pond; this addition also tends to soil the eggs more, consequently the eggs of this bird are, as a general rule, browner than the other Grebes with the exception of the Least. The bird may always be known by the shape of its bill which is higher than it is broad, and in the summer is white with a black band across the middle. The throat is also black at this season. They lay from five to nine eggs commencing about the middle of May. Size 1.70 x 1.18.
LOONS. Family GAVIIDAE
Loons may be likened to gigantic Grebes from which they differ externally, chiefly in the full webbed foot instead of the individually webbed toes of the Grebe, and in the sharper, more pointed and spear-like bill. These birds are similar in their habits to the Grebes, except that their homes are generally more substantially built and are placed upon a solid foundation, generally upon an island in some inland lake.
Both Loons and Grebes are literally "Water witches," being practically, and in the case of Grebes, actually, born in the water and living in it ever afterwards. Loons are strong fliers, but like the Grebes, because of their small wings they must get their first impetus from the water in order to rise; in case there is any wind blowing they also make use of this by starting their flight against it. They are very peculiar birds and the expression "crazy as a loon" is not a fanciful one, being formed from their early morning and evening antics when two or more of them will race over the top of the water, up and down the lake, all the while uttering their demoniacal laughter. They vie with the Grebes in diving and disappear at the flash of a gun.
7. LOON. Gavia immer.
Range.—North America north of the Mexican boundary, breeding from the northern parts of the United States northward.
Unlike the Grebes, Loons do not build in colonies, generally not more than one, or at the most two pairs nesting on the same lake or pond; neither do they seek the marshy sloughs in which Grebes dwell, preferring the more open, clear bodies of water. The common Loon may be known in summer by the entirely black head and neck with the complete ribbon of black and white stripes encircling the lower neck and the narrower one which crosses the throat. The back is spotted with white. In some sections Loons build no nest, simply scooping a hollow out in the sand, while in other places they construct quite a large nest of sticks, moss and grasses. It is usually placed but a few feet from the waters edge, so that at the least suspicion the bird can slide off its eggs into the water, where it can cope with any enemy. The nests are nearly always concealed under the overhanging bushes that line the shore; the one shown in the full page illustration, however, was located upon the top of an old muskrat house. The two eggs which they lay are a very dark greenish brown in color, with black spots. Size 3.50 x 2.25. Data.—Lake Sunapee, N. H., June 28, 1895. Nest placed under the bushes at the waters edge. Made of rushes, weeds and grasses; a large structure nearly three feet in diameter. Collector, H. A. Collins.
8. YELLOW-BILLED LOON. Gavia adamsi.
Range.—Northwestern North America, along the Arctic and northern Alaskan coasts.
The Yellow-billed Loon with the exception of its whitish or yellowish bill in place of the black, is practically otherwise indistinguishable from the common Loon. It averages somewhat larger in size. This is one of the most northerly breeding birds and it is only within a very few years that anything has been learned about the breeding habits. Their nesting habits and eggs are precisely like the preceding except that the latter average a little larger. Size 3.60 x 2.25.
9. BLACK-THROATED LOON. Gavia arctica..
Range.—From northern United States northward, breeding along the Arctic Coast.
This species can be easily separated from the Loon by the gray crown and white streaks down the back of the neck. Its size, too, is about five inches shorter. The nesting habits are the same as the Loons and the eggs have rather more of an olive tint besides having the majority of spots at the larger end. Size 3.10 x 2.00.
10. PACIFIC LOON. Gavia pacifica.
Range.—Western North America along the coast chiefly, breeding from Alaska south to British Columbia. In winter, south along the coast to Mexico.
This species differs from the Black-throated only in the tint of the head reflections. The habits are the same as those of the other members of the family. They lay two eggs of a greenish brown or greenish gray hue with black spots. Size 3.10 x 1.90. Data.—Yukon River, Alaska, June 28, 1902. Nest of rubbish on an island; found by a miner.
11. RED-THROATED LOON. Gavia stellata.
Range.—Northern parts of North America, breeding from southern Canada northward in the interior on both coasts. South to the middle portions of the United States in winter.
This is the smallest of the Loon family, being twenty-five inches in length. In plumage it is wholly unlike any of the other members at all seasons of the year. In summer the back, head and neck are gray, the latter being striped with white. A large chestnut patch adorns the front of the lower part of the neck. In winter the back is spotted with white, whereas all the others are unspotted at this period. The nesting habits are identical with the other species; the ground color of the two eggs is also the same. Size 2.00 x 1.75.
PUFFINS, AUKS and MURRES. Family ALCIDAE
Puffins, Auks and Murres are all sea birds and are only found inland when blown there by some severe storm of winter. At this season numbers of them are apt to lose their bearings and may sometimes be found with their feet frozen in some of our inland ponds. Puffins are heavily built birds in appearance, but are very active both on the wing and in the water. Their wings are much larger comparatively than those of the other members of this family, so they are enabled to perform evolutions in the air, which are withheld from the others. They stand upright on the sole of the foot and are able to walk quite easily on land. Puffins have very heavy and deep but thin bills, which are entirely unlike those of any other bird and often give then the name of Parrot Auks. Puffins, Auks and Murres are otherwise recognized by the presence of but three toes which are webbed.
12. TUFTED PUFFIN. Lunda cirrhata.
Range.—Pacific Coast from Alaska southward to southern California, breeding locally throughout their range.
Tufted Puffins are the largest of the Puffins. In the breeding plumage, they are a sooty brownish or black color; the cheeks are white, and a long tuft of straw colored feathers extends back from each eye; the bill is bright red and greenish yellow. They breed commonly on the Farallones, where two or three broods are raised by a bird in a single season, but much more abundantly on the islands in the north. Their single eggs are laid in burrows in the ground or else in natural crevices formed by the rocks. The eggs are pure white or pale buff and are without gloss. They very often have barely perceptible shell markings of dull purplish color. The eggs are laid about the middle of June. Size 2.80 x 1.90. Data.—Farallone Is., May 27, 1887. Single egg laid in crevice of rocks. Collector, W. O. Emerson.
13. PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica arctica.
Range.—North Atlantic Coast, breeding from the Bay of Fundy northward. Winters from breeding range along the New England Coast.
The common Puffin has the cheeks, chin and underparts white; upper parts and a band across the throat, blackish. Bill deep and thin, and colored with red, orange and yellow. They breed in large numbers on Bird Rock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The nest is either among the natural crevices of the
rocks, or in burrows excavated in the ground by the birds. These burrows vary in length from two and a half to four or five feet. Except upon the positive knowledge of the absence of the bird, it is a hazardous thing to put the hand in one of these burrows for the bird can, and will nip the fingers, sometimes to the bone. They lay but a single egg, usually dull white and unmarked, but in some cases obscurely marked with reddish brown. Size 2.50 x 1.75. Data.—So. Labrador, June 23, 1884. Single egg laid at end of burrow in the ground. Collector, J. H. Jameson.
13a. LARGE-BILLED PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica naumanni.
A more northerly subspecies of the last, inhabiting the Arctic region on the Atlantic side. The bird is somewhat larger but otherwise indistinguishable from the common species. The eggs are exactly the same or average a trifle larger. Size 2.55 x 1.80. Data.—Iceland, July 6, 1900. Single egg in hole under a rock. Collector, Chas. Jefferys.
14. HORNED PUFFIN. Fratercula corniculata.
Range.—Pacific Coast from Alaska to British Columbia. The Horned Puffin differs from the common in that the blackish band across the throat extends upwards in a point to the bill. Their nesting habits are precisely the same as those of the preceding species. A single pure white egg is laid; the shell is slightly rougher than those of the others. Size 2.65 x 1.80. Data.—Round Is., Alaska, June 24, 1884. Single egg laid at end of burrow in ground; no nest. Collector, G. L. Kennedy.
15. RHINOCEROS AUKLET. Cerorhinca monocerata.
Range.—Pacific Coast, breeding from British Columbia northward and wintering southward to Lower California.
The Rhinoceros Auklet or Horned Auk has a much smaller bill than the Puffins; in the summer this is adorned at the base by a horn from which it takes its name. There are also slender plumes from above and below the eyes. Unlike the Puffins, these birds sit upon their whole tarsus.
They nest on islands of the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver northward. A single egg is laid in crevices among the rocks or in burrows in the ground. It is similar both in size and shape to that of the Puffins, but is often quite heavily blotched with brown. Size 2.70 x 1.80. Data.—Unak Is., Alaska, June 30, 1900. Egg laid in a fissure of the rocks; no nest. Collector, F. Weston.
16. CASSIN AUKLET. Ptychoramphus aleuticus.
Range.—Pacific Coast from Alaska to Lower California, breeding nearly throughout its range.
A plain appearing bird about 9 in. in length, with blackish upperparts relieved only by a white spot over the eye; breast and throat gray and belly white. This Auklet is fairly abundant on the Farallones, breeding on the lower portions of the island. The late Mr. C. Barlow says that it is found in deserted rabbit burrows and in all probability often excavates its own burrows. It also nests among the cliffs placing its eggs among the rocks in any crevice or tunnel which may offer a dark retreat during the day for they are nocturnal in their habits. The single egg which they lay is dull white in color, the inside of the shell being a pale green, which color can only be seen by holding the egg to the light. They are generally slightly nest stained. Size 1.80 x 1.30. Data.—Coronado Islands, Cal., March 23, 1897. Single egg laid on the bare ground at end of a burrow three and one-half feet long. Collector, E. A. Shives.
17. PAROQUET AUKLET.—Phaleris psittacula.
Range.—The Alaskan Coast, casually farther south in winter.
This bird is about the same size as the preceding, and the plumage is similar, except that it has no white spot over the eye, and the breast is white. It also has a slender plume extending from back of the eye. The bill is very peculiar, being quite deep and rounded and having an upward tendency. It is orange red in color. They breed very commonly on the islands of Bering Strait. Their eggs are laid in the crevices of the cliff, often several feet in and by a crooked path so that it is impossible to reach them. The single chalky white egg is laid in May. Size 2.30 x 1.45. Data.—Rocky Islet in the Aleutians, June 22, 1890. Single egg laid on bare rock in a deep crevice. Collector, Capt. S. Wilson.
18. CRESTED AUKLET. Aethia cristatella.
Range.—Alaska Coast, similar in form and plumage to the latter, except that the whole under parts are gray and it has a crest of recurved feathers. The nesting season begins in May, the birds nesting upon the same islands and in the same kinds of sites as the last species. The single egg is chalky white. Size 2.10 x 1.50. Data.—Unak Is., Alaska, July 1, 1900. Egg laid in a crevice among the rocks. Collector, F. Weston.
19. WHISKERED AUKLET. Aethia pygmaea.
Range.—The Alaska Coast.
Much smaller than the preceding; but 7.5 in. in length. Breast gray, belly white; a small tuft of recurved feathers on the forehead and slender white plumes from base of bill over the eye and from under the eye, backwards. The bill in summer is a bright vermillion color. On some of the islands of the Aleutian chain they breed quite abundantly. The nests are placed back in the crevices of the rocks, where the single white eggs are laid. Size 2.00 x 1.25.
20. LEAST AUKLET. Aethia pusilla.
Range.—North Pacific on the islands and coast of Alaska. This is the smallest of the Auklets; length 6.5 in. This species has no crest, but has the slender white plumes extending back from the eye. The entire under parts are white sparsely spotted with dusky. This species is by far the most abundant of the water birds of the extreme Northwest, and thousands of them, accompanied by the two preceding species, nest on the rocky cliffs of the islands of Bering Sea. Their nesting habits are the same as those of the other Auklets, they placing their single white egg on the bare rocks, in crevices on the cliffs. Size 1.55 x 1.10. Data.—Pribilof Is., Alaska, June 8, 1897. Single egg laid in crevice. Thousands breeding on the island.
21. ANCIENT MURRELET. Synthliboramphus antiquus.
Range.—Pacific Coast, breeding from the border of the United States, northward, and wintering south to southern California.
The Murrelets have no crests or plumes and the bills are more slender than the Auklets and are not highly colored. The ancient Murrelet or Black-throated Murrelet, as it is also called, has a gray back, white under parts and a black head and throat, with a broad white stripe back of the eye and another formed by the white on the breast extending up on the side of the neck. They breed abundantly on the islands in Bering Sea, laying one or two eggs at the end of burrows in the banks or on the ground, and in some localities in crevices on the cliffs. The eggs are a buffy white color and are faintly marked with light brown, some of these being in the shape of spots and others lengthened. Size 2.40 x 1.40. Data.—Sanak Islands, July 1, 1894. Two eggs on the ground under a tuft of grass and in a slight excavation lined with fine grass.
23. MARBLED MURRELET. Brachyramphus marmoratus.
Range.—North Pacific Coast, breeding from Vancouver Island. South in winter to southern California.
In the breeding plumage, this bird is brownish black above, barred with rusty and below is marbled with brownish gray and white. Its nesting habits and eggs are very similar to those of the Ancient Murrelet, they placing their single eggs in holes in the ground or crevices among the cliffs. Size 2.20 x 1.40. Data.—Chichagof Is., Alaska, June 18, 1898. Single egg in crevice on face of cliff. Large colony breeding in company with Ancient Murrelets.
24. KITTLITZ MURRELET. Brachyramphus brevirostris.
Range.—North Pacific Coast in the Aleutian Islands and north to Unalaska, breeding on isolated islands throughout its range. This species is very similar to the Marbled Murrelet, the chief difference being in the bill which is shorted. They have been found breeding on the same islands with the preceding species. Their single white egg is laid in crevices in the cliffs. Size 2.40 x 1.30. Data.—Sanak Is., Alaska, June 25, 1890. Nest in a hollow under a bunch of rank matted grass. Many ancient Burrelets breeding on the same Islands. Collector, Capt. Tilson.
25. XANTUS MURRELET. Brachyramphus hypoleucus.
Range.—Resident along the coast of southern and Lower California.
This bird is blackish above and entirely white below, including the sides of the head below the eye. The whole of the under surface of the wing is also white. They breed on the coast islands from Santa Barbara southward. The single egg is laid at the end of a burrow or in crevices among the rocks. It is a pale buffy white in color and thickly, but finely dotted over the whole surface with purplish brown, and with some larger spots at the larger end. Size 2.05 x 1.40. Data.—Galapagos Islands, March 2, 1901. No nest. Single egg laid in a crevice in the rocks. Collector, Rollo H. Beck.
26. CRAVERI'S MURRELET. Brachyramphus craveri.
Range.—Both coasts of Lower California, breeding chiefly on the Gulf side. Craveri Murrelet is very similar to the last except that the under surfaces of the wings are dusky. Breeds on the islands near Cape St. Lucas, burrowing in the ground as do most of the others of this species. They lay a single egg, the ground color of which is buff; they are quite heavily blotched with brownish. Size 2.00 x 1.40.
27. BLACK GUILLEMOT. Cepphus grylle.
Range.—Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, breeding from Maine northward to southern Greenland. Guillemots are larger birds than the Murrelets (length 13 inches) and their plumage is entirely different. This species in summer is entirely black except the wing coverts which are white. The bases of the greater coverts, however, are black, this generally breaking the white mirror as it is called. The under surfaces of the wings are white. Legs red. These birds breed abundantly on the rocky islands and high cliffs along the coast. Soon after the first of June the eggs are laid in the crevices of the rocks and sometimes upon the bare ledges. Two or three eggs make the set. The ground color is a pale bluish or greenish white and the markings are various shades of brown and black. Size 2.40 x 1.60. Data.—Grand Manan, June 15, 1896. Two eggs laid in a cavity back of large boulder. No nest. Collector, D. H. Eaton.
28. MANDT'S GUILLEMOT. Cepphus mandti.
Range.—North Atlantic coast, more northerly than the preceding, breeding from Labrador to northern Greenland.
The bird differs from the Black Guillemot only in having the bases of the coverts white also. The nesting habits and eggs are identical. They nest in colonies of thousands and place the eggs upon the bare rock with no attempt at nest building. Generally the eggs are in the crevices so as to be difficult to get at. Size 2.30 x 1.55. Data.—Depot Island, Hudson Bay, June 6, 1894. Two eggs laid on bare rocky ground. Collector John Comer.
29. PIGEON GUILLEMOT. Cepphus columba.
Range.—The Pacific Coast of North America, breeding from southern California northward. This bird is very similar to the Black Guillemot except that the under surfaces of the wings are dark. They breed abundantly on some of the islands of Bering Sea and a few of them nest on the Farallones. They lay their two eggs on the bare rock in dark crevices. The color is grayish or pale greenish blue and the markings are brown and black with paler shell markings of lilac. Size 2.40 x 1.60. Data.—S. Farallone Islands, Cal. Two eggs laid on gravel at the end of a burrow, about two feet from the entrance and 285 feet above the sea level. Collector, Claude Fyfe.
30. MURRE. Uria troile troille.
Range.—North Atlantic coasts and islands, breeding from Bird Rock northward. Murres are similar in form to the Guillemots, but are larger, being about 16 inches in length. Entire head and neck sooty brown; rest of upper parts grayish black except the tips of the secondaries which are white. Under parts white. These birds nest by thousands on Bird Rock and on the cliffs of Labrador. They build no nests but simply lay their single egg on the narrow ledges of cliffs, where the only guarantee against its rolling off is its peculiar shape which causes it, when moved, to revolve about its smaller end instead of rolling off the ledge. The eggs are laid as closely as possible on the ledges where the incubating birds sit upright, in long rows like an army on guard. As long as each bird succeeds in finding an egg to cover, on its return home, it is doubtful if they either know or care whether it is their own or not. The ground color of the eggs vary from white to a deep greenish blue and the markings of blackish brown vary in endless patterns, some eggs being almost wholly unspotted. Size 3.40 x 2.00. Data.—South Labrador, June 19, 1884. Single egg laid on the bare cliff. Large colony breeding. Collector, M. A. Grasar.
30a. CALIFORNIA MURRE. Uria troille californica.
Range.—Pacific Coast, breeding from the Farallones north to Alaska.
This Pacific form of the common Murre is the most abundant breeding bird on the Farallones. Their eggs are used in enormous numbers for commercial purposes and these islands being located, as they are, within easy distance from San Francisco, thousands of dozens of the eggs are sold yearly, chiefly to bakeries. Although continually robbed, their numbers have not as yet diminished to any great extent. They lay but a single egg on the bare ledge. Individual eggs are indistinguishable from the last species but in a large series the ground color averages brighter. They show the same great difference in color and markings. The first set is laid in May, but owing to their being so often molested, fresh eggs can be found during August. Data.—Farallones, July 4, 1895. Single egg laid on bare cliff. Collector, Thos. E. Slevin.
31. BRUNNICH MURRE. Uria lomvia lomvia.
Range.—North Atlantic Coast, breeding range the same as the common Murre.
This species differs from the common Murre in having a shorter and thicker bill, the base of the cutting edge of which is less feathered. They breed on the same islands in company with the common Murre and their eggs are indistinguishable. Data.—Coast of South Labrador. Single egg laid on ledge of cliff. About three hundred birds in the colony.
31a. PALLAS MURRE. Uria lomvia arra.
Range.—The Pacific coasts and islands.
This is the Pacific form of Brunnich Murre. Its breeding range is more northerly than that of the California variety. Countless thousands of them breed on the islands off the coast of Alaska, their breeding habits and eggs being the same as the more southern form.
32. RAZOR-BILLED AUK. Alca torda.
Range.—North Atlantic coast, breeding from Bird Rock northward and wintering south to the Middle States on the coast.
The Razor-billed Auk is in form similar to the Murres, but the bill is very different, being deep and thin, and with the upper mandible rounded at the tip. Entire upper parts black shading to brownish on the throat. Under parts and tips of secondaries, white; line from eye to bill and another across the middle of the bill, white. They nest in large numbers on Bird Rock in company with the Murres and in still greater numbers off the coast of Labrador. Their eggs are not placed in as exposed positions as the Murres, being generally behind boulders or in crevices. This is necessary because, not being of the pear-shaped form of the Murres, they would be very apt to be dislodged if commonly placed on the narrow ledges. The eggs vary endlessly in marking but do not show the differences in ground color that the Murres do. The color is white, grayish or buffy. But one egg is generally laid, although two are sometimes found. Size 3.00 x 2.00. Data.—Bay of Fundy. June 17, 1891. Single egg laid on bare rock in a crevice under loose rocks. Collector, A. C. Bent.
33. GREAT AUK. Plautus impennis.
Range.—Formerly the whole of the North Atlantic coasts. Now extinct.
These great auks formerly dwelt in large numbers on the islands of the North Atlantic, but owing to their lack of the powers of flight and the destructiveness of mankind, the living bird has disappeared from the face of the earth. Although they were about thirty inches in length, their wings were even smaller than those of the Razor-billed Auk, a bird only eighteen inches in length. Although breeding off the coast of Newfoundland, they appeared winters as far south as Virginia, performing their migration by swimming alone. The last bird appears to have been taken in 1844, and Funk Island, off the coast of Newfoundland, marks the place of their disappearance from our shores. There are about seventy known specimens of the bird preserved, and about the same number of eggs. The immediate cause of the extinction of these birds was their destruction for food by fishermen and immigrants, and later for the use of their feathers commercially. The single egg that they laid was about 5.00 x 3.00 inches, the ground color was buffy white, and the spots brownish and blackish. The markings varied in endless pattern as do those of the smaller Auk. There are but two real eggs (plaster casts in imitation of the Auks eggs are to be found in many collections) in collections in this country, one in the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, and the other in the National Museum, at Washington. Through the kindness of Mr. Witmer Stone, of the Academy of Natural Science, we are enabled to show a full-sized reproduction from a photograph of the egg in their collection.
34. DOVEKIE. Alle alle.
Range.—Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and East Arctic oceans, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering as far south as the Middle States. The little Dovekie or Sea Dove is the smallest member of the family, being only 8 inches in length, and is the only member of the sub-family allinae. The form is very robust and the bill is short and stout. In summer the plumage is black above; the throat and upper breast are sooty brown, and the under parts are white, as are also the tips of the secondaries and edges of the scapulars. They nest in large numbers on the Rocky cliffs of islands in the East Arctic. Their single pale greenish blue egg is placed in a crevice of the rocks. Size 1.80 x 1.25. Data.—Greenland, June 8, 1893. Single egg laid in a crevice of a sea cliff.
LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. Order II. LONGIPENNES SKUA AND JAEGERS. Family STERCORARIIDAE
Skuas and Jaegers are birds having a Gull or Tern-like form and with a hooked bill, the base of which is covered with a scaly shield. They have webbed feet and are able to swim and dive, but they commonly get their living by preying upon the Gulls and Terns, overtaking them by their superior speed and by their strength and ferocity forcing them to relinquish their food. The Jaegers especially are one of the swiftest and most graceful birds that fly.
35. SKUA. Megalestris skua.
Range.—Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, chiefly on the European side; rare on the Atlantic coast of North America.
Skuas are large (22 inches in length) and very powerfully built birds, having the general form of a Gull. Their whole plumage is a dingy brownish black color, palest below. Breeds in Iceland and possibly on some of the islands in Hudson Strait. The nest is a hollow on the ground in the marsh grass and is lined with grass. The two eggs which they lay have an olive greenish ground, spotted with dark brown. Size 2.75 x 1.90.
36. POMARINE JAEGER. Stercorarius pomarinus.
Range.—Northern Hemisphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle, more commonly in the Old World.
In the breeding plumage, this Jaeger has the crown and face blackish; back and sides of head, throat and under parts pure white, except the pointed stiffened feathers of the neck which are yellow. Back, wings and tail blackish, the latter with the two middle feathers lengthened about four inches beyond the rest of the tail, and broad to the tips, which are twisted so that the feathers are vertical. They breed throughout the Arctic regions, but not as commonly in America as the following species. The nest is on the ground in the marsh grass and is made of grass and moss. They lay two and rarely three eggs of an olive brown or greenish color. These are spotted with brown and black. Size 2.20 x 1.70.
37. PARASITIC JAEGER. Stercorarius parasiticus.
Range.—Northern Hemisphere, wintering south to South America.
The Parasitic Jaeger is very similar to the Pomarine except that the central tail feathers are pointed and are straight instead of twisted. It is an abundant bird in Alaska, breeding from the Aleutian Chain northward.
They locate their nests in the highest parts of marshy places, the nest itself being only a depression in the ground lined with grass and moss. The two eggs have an olive greenish or brownish ground and are marked with various shades of brown and black. Size 2.15 x 1.65.
38. LONG-TAILED JAEGER. Stercorarius longicaudus.
Range.—Arctic America; south in winter to South America.
The long-tailed Jaeger is, according to length, the largest of the Jaegers, being 21 in. long; this is, however, due to the long sharp pointed central pair of tail feathers, which extend about eight inches beyond the others, and from the most noticeable distinguishing point from the former species. The plumages that have been described are the light phases; all the Jaegers have a dark phase in which the plumage is a nearly uniform sooty brown, lightest below.
The Long-tailed Jaegers are the most numerous in Alaska and are even more graceful in flight than are the Gulls and Terns, floating, skimming, sailing, plunging, and darting about with incredible swiftness and ease. Like the others of this family, they pilfer their food from the Gulls, and are also very destructive to young birds and eggs. Their eggs are either laid on the bare ground or in a slight depression, scantily lined with grasses. The eggs are indistinguishable from those of the preceding species except that they average a trifle smaller. Size 2.10 x 1.50.
GULLS and TERNS. Family LARIDAE
Gulls are webbed footed birds having a slight hook to the end of the upper mandible. Their plumage is generally a silvery gray above and white below. They nest in large colonies, some on the islands of fresh water inland, but mostly on the sea coast. They procure their food from the surface of the water, it consisting mostly of dead fish and refuse matter, and crustacea which they gather from the waters edge. When tired they rest upon the surface of the water, where they ride the largest waves in perfect safety.
Terns are birds of similar plumage to the Gulls, but their forms are less robust and the bills are generally longer and sharply pointed. Their food consists chiefly of small fish which they secure by hovering above the water, and then plunging upon them. They are less often seen on the surface of the water than are the Gulls.
39. IVORY GULL. Pagophila alba.
Range.—Arctic regions; south in winter to the northern border of the United States.
The little Snow Gull, as it is often called, is eighteen inches in length. In the breeding season the plumage is entirely white; the bill is tipped with yellow and there is a red ring around the eye. These Gulls nest in large colonies in the Arctic Regions, placing their nests on the high rocky cliffs. The nest is made of grass, moss and rubbish, and the three eggs are laid during June. The eggs are olive color and the markings are dark brown.
40. KITTIWAKE. Rissa tridactyla trydactyla.
Range.—North Atlantic and Arctic regions, breeding from the Gulf of the St. Lawrence northward and wintering south to the Great Lakes and Long Island.
The Kittiwake is sixteen inches in length, has a pearly gray mantle, black tips to the primaries, and remainder of plumage white. Its hind toe is very small being apparently wanting in the eastern form, while in the Pacific it is more developed. These are very noisy Gulls, their notes resembling a repetition of their name. They are very common in the far north, placing nests on the ledges of high rocky cliffs, often in company with Murres and Auks. They gather together a pile of sticks, grass and moss, making the interior cup-shaped so as to hold their two or three eggs. Large numbers of them breed on Bird Rock, they occupying certain ledges while the Gannets and Murres, which also breed there, also have distinct ledges on which to make their homes. The breeding season is at its height during June. The eggs are buffy or brownish gray and are spotted with different shades of brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data.—So. Labrador, June 15, 1884. Three eggs. Nest made of seaweed and moss, placed on ledge of cliff. Many Murres nesting on other ledges.
40a. PACIFIC KITTIWAKE. Rissa tridactyla pollicaris.
Range.—Coast of the North Pacific, wintering south to California.
The Pacific Kittiwake breeds in immense rookeries on some of the islands in Bering Sea. They are well distributed over Copper Island where they nest in June and July, choosing the high ledges which overhang the sea. The nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same as those of the common Kittiwake.
41. RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. Rissa brevirostris.
Range.—Northwestern coasts, breeding in high latitudes.
This Kittiwake is similar to the preceding, with the exception that the legs are bright red, the mantle is darker, and the bill is shorter. This species was found by Dr. Leonard Stejneger to be a very abundant nesting bird on islands in Bering Sea, selecting steep and inaccessible rocks and ledges on which to build its nest. Their nesting habits are precisely the same as the Pacific Kittiwake, but they most often nest in separate colonies, but can be distinguished readily when nesting together by the darker mantles when on the nest and the red legs when flying. Grass, moss and mud are used in the nest. The ground color of the eggs is buffy or brownish, and the spots are dark brown and lilac. Size 2.15 x 1.50.
42. GLAUCOUS GULL. Larus hyperboreus.
Range.—Arctic regions, south in winter to Long Island, the Great Lakes, and San Francisco Bay.
This Gull shares with the Great Black-backed Gull the honor of being the largest of the Gulls, being 28 inches in length. Mantle light gray; it is distinguished by its size and the primaries, which are white to the tips. A powerful bird that preys upon the smaller Gulls and also devours the young and eggs of smaller birds.
They nest on the ground on the islands and shores of Hudson Bay, Greenland, etc. The nest is made of seaweed, grass and moss and is generally quite bulky. The two or three eggs are laid in June. They are of various shades of color from a light drab to a brownish, and are spotted with brownish and black. Size about 3.00 x 2.20.
42.1. POINT BARROW GULL. Larus barrovianus.
Range.—Northwest coast from Bering Sea to Point Barrow.
This species is almost identical with the Glaucus Gull, averaging perhaps a trifle smaller. Its standing as a distinct species is still questioned and has not yet been decided satisfactorily. Early in June their nests are built on remote islands in Bering Sea. These nests are the same as the last species, large piles of vegetation, hollowed on top for the reception of the eggs. The eggs have the same variations in color and markings as the Glaucus Gull. Size 3.00 x 2.10. Data.—Herschel Is., Alaska, July 1, 1900. Nest made of seaweed and grass; placed on the ground. Three eggs. Collector, Rev. I. O. Stringer.
43. ICELAND GULL. Larus leucopterus.
Range.—Arctic regions, south in winter to the Middle States.
This Gull in appearance is precisely like the two preceding ones but is considerably smaller; 24 inches in length. A very common bird in the north, breeding in colonies of thousands on many of the islands. It is regarded as one of the most common of the larger Gulls in Bering Sea and also nests commonly in Hudson Bay and Greenland, as well as in the Eastern Hemisphere. They nest indifferently on high rocky cliffs or on low sandy islands. Except when the eggs are laid in a sandy depression in the soil, quite bulky nests are made of seaweed and moss. The eggs are laid about the first of June; they number two to three and have a ground color of brownish or greenish brown and are blotched with umber. Size 2.80 x 1.83. Data.—Mackenzie Bay, Arctic America. June 18, 1899. Nest made of seaweed and grass on an island in the bay.
44. GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL. Larus glaucescens.
Range.—North Pacific coast, breeding from British Columbia northwards and wintering from the same country to southern California.
This Gull is very like the preceding except that the primaries are the same color as the mantle, and are tipped with white. Length about 27 inches. Not so northerly distributed a bird as the previous ones, and consequently better known. They breed in large numbers both on the high rocky cliffs of the islands along the coast and on the low sandy islands of the Aleutian Chain. On Copper Island they breed on the inaccessible cliffs overhanging the water. As in the case of the Iceland Gull, when the nests are on the cliffs, a large nest of seaweed is made, whereas if they are on the ground, especially in sandy places no attempt is made at nest-building. The eggs have a greenish brown ground color and dark brown spots. Size 2.75 x 2.05. Data.—West Coast of Vancouver Island. June 20, 1896. Three eggs; nest made of seaweed. Located on a low ledge. Collector, Dr. Newcombe.
45. KUMLIEN'S GULL. Larus Kumlieni.
Range.—North Atlantic coast, breeding in Cumberland Sound and wintering as far south as Long Island.
This bird differs from the Glaucous-winged only in the pattern of the gray markings of the primaries and in having a little lighter mantle. It is quite common in its breeding haunts where it places its nest high up on the ledges of the cliffs. The eggs are not different apparently from glaucescens.
46. NELSON'S GULL. Larus nelsoni.
Range.—Coast of Alaska.
Plumage exactly like that of Kumlien Gull and questionably a new species. The nests and eggs are not to be distinguished from the preceding.
47. GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. Larus marinus.
Range.—North Atlantic on both the American and European sides; breeds from Nova Scotia northward and winters south to the Great Lakes and the Middle States.
The largest of the Gulls (thirty inches long) and unlike any other. The mantle is dark slaty black, and the primaries are black with white tips. The bill is very large and powerful and quite strongly hooked. They are quite abundant birds in their range, and are very quarrelsome, both among themselves and other species. They do not breed in as large colonies as do the other Gulls, half a dozen pairs appropriating a small island to the exclusion of all other birds. They are very rapacious birds and live to a great extent, especially during the breeding season, upon the eggs and young of other birds such as Ducks, Murres and smaller Gulls. They place their nests upon the higher portions of sandy islands. They are made of grasses and seaweed. The three eggs are laid early in June; they are grayish or brownish, spotted with brown and lilac. Size 3.00 x 2.15. Data.—South Labrador, June 21, 1884. Three eggs. Nest on a small island off the coast; of grasses and moss.
48. SLATY-BACKED GULL.—Larus schistisagus.
Range.—North Pacific and Arctic Oceans.
This Gull, which is similar to the Great Black-backed, but is smaller and has a lighter mantle, does not breed in any considerable numbers on the American side of the Pacific. It nests in June on some of the islands in Bering Sea and probably more commonly farther north. They often nest in company with other species, placing their small mounds of seaweed on the ground on the higher parts of the islands. The full set contains three eggs of grayish or brownish color, spotted with dark brown or black. Size 2.90 x 2.00. Data.—Harrowby Bay, N. W. T. Canada, June 11, 1901. Nest of grass, roots and mud and lined with dry grass; on point making into the bay. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish.
49. WESTERN GULL. Larus occidentalis.
Range.—Pacific Coast, breeding from southern California to British Columbia.
This bird, which is the most southerly distributed of the larger Gulls is twenty-four inches in length. Mantle slate colored; primaries black, both these and the secondaries being broadly tipped with white. These Gulls nest abundantly on the Farallones, the majority of them showing a preference for the lower portions of the island, although they nest on the ledges also. Besides man, these Gulls are the greatest enemies that the Murres have to content against. They are always on the watch and if a Murre leaves its nest, one of the Gulls is nearly always ready to pounce upon the egg and carry it away bodily in his bill. The Gulls too suffer when the eggers come, for their eggs are gathered up with the Murres for the markets. They make their nests of weeds and grass, and during May and June lay three eggs showing the usual variations of color common to the Gulls eggs. Size 2.75 x 1.90.
50. SIBERIAN GULL. Larus affinis.
This bird does not nest in North America, and has a place on our list, by its accidental occurrence in Greenland. It is an Old World species and its nesting habits and eggs are like those of the Herring Gull.
51. HERRING GULL. Larus argentatus.
Range.—Whole of the Northern Hemisphere, breeding from Maine and British Columbia northward and wintering south to the Gulf.
This Gull, which formerly was No. 51a, a subspecies of the European variety, is now regarded as identical with it, and is no longer a sub-species. It is twenty-four inches in length, has a light gray mantle and black primaries which are tipped with white. The Herring Gulls nest in colonies in favorable localities throughout their range, chiefly on the coasts and islands. A few pairs also nest on islands in some of the inland bodies of fresh water. Except in places where they are continually molested, when they will build in trees, they place their nests on the ground either making no nest on the bare sand, or building a bulky nest of seaweed in the grass on higher parts of the island. They lay three eggs of a grayish color marked with brown. In rare cases unspotted bluish white eggs are found. Size 2.80 x 1.70.
52. VEGA GULL. Larus vegae.
Range.—Coast of Alaska, south in winter to California.
Similar to the Herring Gull, but with the mantle darker, but not so dark as in the Western Gull. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the Herring Gull, except that in a series, the eggs of the Vega will average a little darker in ground color. It nests during May on the coasts and islands of Bering Sea, placing its eggs in a hollow on the ground. Size 2.75 x 1.65.
53. CALIFORNIA GULL. Larus californicus.
Range.—Western North America, breeding in the interior.
A smaller Gull than the Herring with the primaries grayish instead of black; length twenty-five inches. This Gull is found in winter on the coast from British Columbia southward to Lower California, but nests in the interior from Utah northward. They nest very abundantly around the Great Salt Lake, placing their nests generally upon the bare ground. Sometimes there is a scant lining of grasses or weeds and again the nests will be situated in the midst of a tussock of grass. Three or four eggs generally constitute a set, but occasionally five are laid. The usual nesting time is during May. They show the same great variations in color and markings common to most of the Gulls. Size 2.60 x 1.80.
54. RING-BILLED GULL. Larus delawarenis.
Range.—Whole of North America, breeding from the United States northward and wintering south to the Gulf States.
A small Gull, eighteen inches in length, with a light gray mantle, black primaries with white tips, and always to be distinguished in the breeding season by the black band around the middle of the greenish yellow bill. They nest in enormous colonies on islands in the interior of the country and in smaller colonies on the coasts. Thousands of them breed on the lakes of the Dakotas and northward. The majority of them nest on the ground, although on the coast they are often found on the cliffs. They commonly lay three eggs placing them in a slight hollow in the ground, generally on the grassy portions of the islands. The color varies from grayish to brownish, marked with brown and lilac. The height of the nesting season is in June. Size of eggs, 2.80 x 1.75.
55. SHORT-BILLED GULL. Larus brachyrhynchus.
Range.—Breeds from the interior of British Columbia northward to Alaska; south in winter to Lower California.
The Short-billed or American Mew Gull is seventeen inches in length, has a short, stout bill and is otherwise similar to the preceding species. Nests on islands in the lakes and along the river banks of Alaska. The nest is made of grass, weeds and moss and is placed on the ground. Early in June the birds lay their set of three eggs, the ground color of which is greenish brown marked with dark brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data.—Mackenzie River, N. W. T., June 18, 1900. Three eggs. Nest made of seaweed and grass and placed on the ground on an island in the river.
56. MEW GULL. Larus canus.
This is the European variety of the above species, breeding commonly both in the British Isles and northern Europe. This species is given a place in our avifauna because of its accidental appearance in Labrador.
57. HEERMAN'S GULL. Larus heermanni.
Range.—Pacific Coast of North America from British Columbia south to Panama, breeding chiefly south of the United States border.
A very handsome species, often called the White-headed Gull, and wholly unlike any other; length seventeen inches. Adults, in summer, have the entire head, neck and throat white, this shading quite abruptly into the slaty upper and under parts; the primaries and tail are black, the latter and the secondaries being tipped with white. The legs and bill are vermilion. They are found off the coast of California, but are not believed to breed there. They are known to breed on some of the islands off the Mexican coast nesting on the ground the same as the other species. The three eggs are greenish drab in color and are marked with different shades of brown and lilac. Size 2.45 x 1.50.
58. LAUGHING GULL. LARUS ATRICILLA.
Range.—Eastern North America, breeding from the Gulf to Nova Scotia, chiefly on the coast. A beautiful Gull, 16 inches long, with a dark slate colored head, gray mantle, black primaries, and white neck, underparts and tail. Bill and feet red. This bird has its name from its peculiar laughing cry when alarmed or angry; it is also called the Black-headed Gull. They nest by thousands on the islands off the Gulf Coast and along the South Atlantic States. The nest is placed on the ground and is made of seaweed. Three, four and sometimes five eggs are laid, of a grayish to greenish brown color, marked with brown and lilac. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data.—Timbalin Is., La., June 3, 1896. Three eggs. Nest of drift grass thrown in a pile about 8 inches high, slightly hollowed on top, in low marsh back of beach. Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.
59. FRANKLIN'S GULL. Larus franklini.
Range.—Interior North America, breeding from middle United States northward.
Like the last but smaller and with the primaries light. Underparts rosy in breeding season. Nests very abundantly in the marshes of Minnesota and northward. Nest made of grasses and placed in the marsh grass barely above the surface of the water. Eggs same color as the last but the markings more inclined to zigzag lines. Size 2.10 x 1.40. Data.—Heron Lake, Minn., May 26, 1885. Nest of wet sedge stalks and rubbish placed in a bunch of standing sedge in shallow water; at least five thousand birds in rookery. Collector, J. W. Preston.
60. BONAPARTE'S GULL. Larus philadelphia.
Range.—Breeds in the northern parts of North America; winters from Maine and British Columbia to the southern border of the United States.
Smaller than the last; 14 inches long. Plumage similar, but bill slender and black. They nest in great numbers on the marshes of Manitoba and to the northward. The nests, of sticks and grass, are placed on the higher parts of the marsh and the usual complement of three eggs is laid during the latter part of June. The eggs are grayish to greenish brown, marked with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.90 x 1.30.
60.1. LITTLE GULL. Larus minutus.
This Gull is the smallest of the family; it is a European bird, and has accidentally strayed to our shores but a few times. Its plumage is similar to that of the Bonaparte Gull but the bill is red. It breeds in the marshes around the Baltic Sea, placing its nest of dead vegetation on the highest parts of the marsh. They lay three eggs of a greenish gray color marked with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.75 x 1.25.
61. ROSES GULL. Rhodostethia rosea.
Range.—The Arctic regions, south in winter to Alaska, Greenland, northern Europe and Asia.
This beautiful bird is the most rare of all the Gulls, being very difficult to obtain because of its extreme northerly distribution. It is in form and plumage like Bonaparte Gull, with the exceptions that the head is white, there being a narrow black collar around the neck, the tail is wedge shaped, and the whole under parts from the chin to the tail are rosy in the breeding plumage. The nests and eggs remain still undiscovered, although Nansen, in August 1896, found a supposed breeding ground in Franz Josef Land, because of the numbers of the birds, but found no nests.
62. SABINE'S GULL. Xema sabinii.
Range.—Arctic regions, breeding from Alaska and Greenland and northward, and wintering south to New England.
A handsome bird, having the slaty hood bordered behind with a black ring, the primaries black, white tipped, and the tail slightly forked. They breed abundantly on the marshes of northern Alaska and Greenland, nesting the same as others of the species. The two or three eggs are laid in June. They are greenish brown in color and are marked with dark brown. Size 1.75 x 1.25. Data.—Hudson Bay, August 1, 1894. Eggs laid on the ground in the moss; no nest except the hollow in the moss.
63. GULL-BILLED TERN. Gelochelidon nilotica.
Range.—Found in North America along the Gulf Coast and on the Atlantic Coast north to Virginia and casually farther.
This is one of the largest of the Terns, is 14 inches long, has a short, thick, black bill and a short slightly forked tail; the crown is black, mantle pearly gray, white below. This species is very widely distributed, being found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. They are known locally as "Marsh Terns" where they breed in immense numbers on some of the marshes about the Gulf, particularly in Texas. They also breed on many of the islands along the Coast, rarely making any nest, but laying the eggs in a hollow in the sand. They nest most abundantly in the latter part of May, generally laying three eggs. They are of a yellowish, grayish or greenish buff color and are spotted with brown and lilac. Size 1.80 x 1.30. Data.—Northampton Co., Va., May 28, 1882. Three eggs laid on a mass of seaweed on marsh above tide water.
64. CASPIAN TERN. Sterna caspia.
Range.—Like the preceding species, this bird is nearly cosmopolitan in its range, in North America breeding from the Gulf Coast and Texas northward to the Arctic Regions.
This beautiful bird is the largest of the Tern family, being about 22 inches in length, with the tail forked about 1.5 inches. The bill is large, heavy and bright red; the crest, with which this and the next three species are adorned, is black. The mantle is pale pearl and the under parts white. These Terns sometimes nest in large colonies and then again only a few pairs will be found on an island. In Texas, the breeding season commences in May, it being later in the more northern breeding grounds. They may be regarded as largely eastern birds, as while they are common in the interior of the country, they are rarely found on the Pacific Coast. Two or three eggs constitute a complete set; these are laid on the sand in a slight hollow scooped out by the birds. They vary from gray to greenish buff, marked with brown and lilac. Size 2.60 x 1.75. Data.—Hat Island, Lake Michigan, July 1, 1896. No nest. Two eggs in a hollow in the gravel. Fully a thousand terns nesting on about one acre. Collector, Charles L. Cass.
65. ROYAL TERN. Sterna maxima.
Range.—Temperate North and South America, breeding in the United States locally from Texas and the Gulf States northward to the northern boundary of the United States.
The Royal Terns nest in great numbers on the coasts and islands on the South Atlantic and Gulf States and in the marshes of southern Texas. Like the former species they lay two or three eggs in a hollow on the bare sand. The eggs are the same size but differ in being more pointed and having a lighter ground and with the markings more bold and distinct. Size 2.60 x 1.70.
66. ELEGANT TERN. Sterna elegans.
Range.—Pacific Coast of South and Central America; north to California in summer.
A similar bird to the Royal Tern, but easily distinguished by its smaller size, slender bill, and more graceful form. In the breeding plumage the under parts of these Terns are tinged with rosy, which probably first gave the birds their name. They breed on the coasts and islands of Mexico and Central America, placing their eggs on the sand. They are believed to lay but a single egg, like that of the Royal Tern, but smaller. Size 2.40 x 1.40. Data.—Honduras, Central America, June 5, 1899. Single egg laid on the sandy beach.
67. CABOT TERN. Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida.
Range.—A tropical species breeding regularly north to the Bahamas and Florida; casually farther north. A beautiful bird distinguished from the three preceding ones by its smaller size (sixteen inches) and by the bill which is black with a yellow tip. They nest in colonies on the shores of islands in the West Indies and Bahamas, but not to a great extent on the United States Coast. Their two or three eggs have a creamy ground color, and are boldly marked with brown and black. Size 2.10 x 1.40.
68. TRUDEAU'S TERN. Sterna trudeaui.
Range.—South America; accidentally along the coast of the United States.
A rare and unique species with a form similar to the following, but with the coloration entirely different. About fifteen inches in length; tail long and deeply forked; bill yellow with a band of black about the middle. Whole head pure white, shading into the pearly color of the upper and under parts. A narrow band of black through the eye and over the ear coverts. A very rare species that is supposed to breed in southern South America. Given a place among North American birds on the strength of a specimen seen by Audubon off Long Island.
69. FORSTER'S TERN. Sterna forsteri.
Range.—Temperate North America, breeding from Manitoba, Mass., and California, south to the Gulf Coast and Texas.
Length about fifteen inches; tail long and deeply forked; crown black, back and wings pearl and under parts white. Bill orange red. This species and the three following are the most graceful of birds in appearance and flight. Their movements can only be likened to those of the Swallows, from which they get the name of "Sea Swallows." Their food consists of fish, which they get by diving, and marine insects. They breed by thousands in the marshes from Manitoba to Texas and along the South Atlantic coast. The eggs are laid in a hollow on the dry grassy portions of the islands or marshes. They generally lay three eggs and rarely four. They are buffy or brownish spotted with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.80 x 1.30. Data.—Cobb's Island, Va., June 8, 1887. Eggs in a hollow on grassy bank. Collector, F. H. Judson.
70. COMMON TERN. Sterna hirundo.
Range.—Eastern North America, breeding both on the coast and in the interior from the Gulf States northward.
This bird differs from the preceding chiefly in having a bright red bill tipped with black, and the under parts washed with pearl. These are the most common Terns on the New England coast, nesting abundantly from Virginia to Newfoundland. These beautiful Terns, together with others of the family, were formerly killed by thousands for millinery purposes, but the practice is now being rapidly stopped. In May and June they lay their three, or sometimes four eggs on the ground as do the other Terns. They are similar to the preceding species but average shorter. Data.—Duck Is., Maine, June 30, 1896. Three eggs in marsh grass about fifty feet from beach. No nest. Collector, C. A. Reed.
71. ARCTIC TERN. Sterna paradisaea.
Range.—Northern Hemisphere, breeding from New England northward to the Arctic Regions and wintering south to California and the South Atlantic States. A similar bird to the last, differing in having the bill wholly red and the feet being smaller and weak for the size of the bird. A more northern bird than the last, breeding abundantly in Alaska, both on the coast and in the interior. In the southern limits of its breeding range, it nests in company with the Common Tern, its nests and eggs being indistinguishable from the latter. When their nesting grounds are approached, all the birds arise like a great white cloud, uttering their harsh, discordant "tearrr, tearrr," while now and then an individual, bolder than the rest, will swoop close by with an angry "crack." On the whole they are timid birds, keeping well out of reach. The nesting season is early in June. Eggs like the preceding. Data.—Little Duck Is., Me., June 29, 1896. Three eggs in a slight hollow on the beach, three feet above high water mark.
72. ROSEATE TERN. Sterna dougalli.
Range.—Temperate North America on the east coast, breeding from New England to the Gulf.
These are the most beautiful birds, having a delicate pink blush on the under parts during the breeding season; the tail is very long and deeply forked, the outer feathers being over five inches longer than the middle ones; the bill is red with a black tip. They nest in large colonies on the islands from Southern New England southward, placing the nests in the short grass, generally without any lining. They lay two or three eggs which are indistinguishable from the two preceding species.
73. ALEUTIAN TERN. Sterna aleutica.
Range.—Found in summer in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands.
South in winter to Japan. This handsome Tern is of the form and size of the Common Tern, but has a darker mantle, and the forehead is white, leaving a black line from the bill to the eye. They nest on islands off the coast of Alaska, sometimes together with the Arctic Tern. The eggs are laid upon the bare ground or moss, and are similar to the Arctic Terns, but average narrower. They are two or three in number and are laid in June and July. Size 1.70 x 1.15. Data.—Stuart Is., Alaska. Three eggs in a slight hollow in the moss.
74. LEAST TERN. Sterna antillarum.
Range.—From northern South America to southern New England, Dakota and California, breeding locally throughout its range.
These little Sea Swallows are the smallest of the Terns, being but 9 inches in length. They have a yellow bill with a black tip, a black crown and nape, and white forehead. Although small, these little Terns lose none of the grace and beauty of action of their larger relatives. They nest in colonies on the South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, placing their eggs upon the bare sand, where they are sometimes very difficult to see among the shells and pebbles. They are of a grayish or buffy color spotted with umber and lilac. They number two, three and rarely four, and are laid in May and June. Size 1.25 x .95. Data.—DeSota Beach, Fla., May 20, 1884. Three eggs laid on the sandy beach. Collector, Chas. Graham.
75. SOOTY TERN. Sterna fuscata.
Range.—Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States. This species measures 17 inches in length; it has a brownish black mantle, wings and tail, except the outer feathers of the latter which are white; the forehead and under parts are white, the crown and a line from the eye to the bill, black. This tropical species is very numerous at its breeding grounds on the small islands of the Florida Keys and the West Indies. They lay but a single egg, generally placing it on the bare ground, or occasionally building a frail nest of grasses. The egg has a pinkish white or creamy ground and is beautifully sprinkled with spots of reddish brown and lilac. They are laid during May. Size 2.05 x 1.45. Data.—Clutheria Key, Bahamas, May 28, 1891. Single egg laid on bare ground near water. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.
76. BRIDLED TERN. Sterna anaetheta.
Range.—Found in tropical regions of both hemispheres; casual or accidental in Florida. This Tern is similar to the last except that the nape is white and the white of the forehead extends in a line over the eye. The Bridled Tern is common on some of the islands of the West Indies and the Bahamas, nesting in company with the Sooty Terns and Noddies. The single egg is laid on the seashore or among the rocks. It is creamy white beautifully marked with brown and lilac. Size 1.85 x 1.25. Data.—Bahamas, May 9, 1892. Single egg laid in a cavity among the rocks. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.
77. BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis.
Range.—Temperate America, breeding from the middle portions of the United States northward to Alaska; south in winter beyond the United States Border.
The identity of these Terns cannot be mistaken. They are but ten inches in length; the whole head, neck and under parts are black; the back, wings and tail are slaty and the under tail coverts are white. Their dainty figure with their long slender wings gives them a grace and airiness, if possible, superior to other species of the family. They are very active and besides feeding upon all manner of marine crustacea, they capture many insects in the air. They nest in large colonies in marshes, both along the coast and in the interior, making a nest of decayed reeds and grasses, or often laying their eggs upon rafts of decayed vegetation which are floating on the water. The nesting season commences in May, they laying three eggs of a brownish or greenish color, very heavily blotched with blackish brown. Size 1.35 x .95. Data.—Winnebago City, Minn., May 31, 1901. Three eggs. Nest made of a mass of weeds and rushes floating on water in a swamp. Collector, R. H. Bullis.
78. WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon leucoptera.
Range.—Eastern Hemisphere, its addition to American birds being made because of the accidental appearance of one bird in Wisconsin in 1873. They nest very abundantly among the lakes and marshes of southern Europe, placing their eggs the same as the American species, upon masses of decayed reeds and stalks. They lay three eggs which have a somewhat brighter appearance than the common Black Terns because of a somewhat lighter ground color.
79. NODDY. Anous stolidus.
Range.—Tropical America, north to the Gulf and South Atlantic States.
A peculiar but handsome bird (about fifteen inches long), with a silvery white head and the rest of the plumage brownish, and the tail rounded. They breed in abundance on some of the Florida Keys, the West Indies and the Bahamas. Their nests are made of sticks and grass, and are placed either in trees or on the ground. They lay but a single egg with a buffy or cream colored ground spotted with chestnut and lilac. Size 2.00 x 1.30. Atwood's Key, Bahamas, June 1, 1891. Nest made of sticks and grasses, three feet up a mangrove. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.
SKIMMERS. Family RYNCHOPIDAE
Skimmers are Tern-like birds having a very strangely developed bill. The lower mandible is much longer than the upper and very thin, the upper edge being as sharp as the lower. The lower mandible is rounded at the end while the upper is more pointed. Young Skimmers are said to have both mandibles of the same length, the abnormal development not appearing until after flight. Skimmers are very graceful birds, and, as implied by their name, they skim over the surface of the water, rising and falling with the waves, and are said to pick up their food by dropping the lower mandible below the surface, its thin edge cutting the water like a knife. There are four species of Skimmers, only one of which is found in North America.
80. BLACK SKIMMER. Rynchops nigra.
Range.—The South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, breeding from New Jersey southward. The Black Skimmer is about eighteen inches in length, and besides the remarkable bill is a bird of striking plumage; the forehead, ends of the secondaries, tail feathers and under parts are white; the rest of the plumage is black and the basal half of the bill is crimson. Skimmers nest in large communities, the same as do the Terns, laying their eggs in hollows in the sand. They are partially nocturnal in their habits and their hoarse barking cries may be heard after the shadows of night have enveloped the earth. Fishermen call them by the names of "Cut-water" and "Sea Dog." The nesting season commences in May and continues through June and July. They lay from three to five eggs, having a creamy or yellowish buff ground, blotched with black, chestnut and lilac. Size 1.75 x 1.30. Data.—Cobb's Is., Va., June 8, 1894. Three eggs laid in a hollow on the beach. No nest.
TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS. Order III. TUBINARES.
ALBATROSSES. Family DIOMEDEIDAE
Albatrosses are the largest of the sea birds and have an enormous expanse of wing, the Wandering Albatross, the largest of the family, sometimes attaining an expanse of fourteen feet. Their nostrils consist of two slightly projecting tubes, one on each side near the base of the bill. They are unsurpassed in powers of flight, but are only fair swimmers and rarely, if ever, dive, getting their food, which consists of dead animal matter, from the surface of the water.
81. BLACK-FOOTED ALBATROSS. Diomedea nigripes.
Range.—North Pacific from California northward. This Albatross is thirty-two inches in length; it is of a uniform sooty brown color shading into whitish at the base of the bill, which is rounded. Like the other members of the family, this species is noted for its extended flights, following vessels day after day without any apparent period of rest, for the purpose of feeding on the refuse that is thrown overboard. They breed during our winter on some of the small isolated islands in the extreme southern portions of the globe. They lay a single white egg on the bare ground.
82. SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS. Diomedea albatrus.
Range.—North Pacific Ocean in summer, from Lower California to Alaska. With the exception of the Wandering Albatross, which is now regarded as doubtful as occurring off our coasts, the Short-tailed Albatross is one of the largest of the group, measuring thirty-six inches in length, and has an extent of seven feet or more. With the exception of the black primaries, shoulders and tail, the entire plumage is white, tinged with straw color on the back of the head. They breed on the guano islands in the North Pacific off the coasts of Alaska and Japan. They lay a single white egg on the bare ground or rocks. As with the other members of the family, the eggs are extremely variable in size, but average about 4.25 x 2.50.
82.1. LAYSAN ALBATROSS. Diomedea immutabilis.
Range.—Laysan Island of the Hawaiian Group, appearing casually off the coast of California. This species breeds in large numbers on the island from which it takes its name. The birds are white with the exception of the back, wings and tail, which are black. The birds, having been little molested in their remote island, are exceedingly tame, and it is possible to go among the sitting birds without disturbing them. Mr. Walter K. Fisher has contributed an admirable report on this species in the 1913 Bulletin of the Fish Commission, the report being illustrated with numerous illustrations of the birds from photos by the author. Their single white eggs are laid on the bare ground.
83. YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS. Thalassogeron culminatus.
This is a species which inhabits the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is said to rarely occur on the California coast. They breed during our winter on some of the small islands and during our summer are ocean wanderers. An egg in the collection of Col. John E. Thayer was taken on Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean; Sept. 1st, 1888. The nest was a mound of mud and grass about two feet in height. The single white egg measured 3.75 x 2.25. It was collected by George Comer.
84. SOOTY ALBATROSS. Phoebetria-palpebrata.
Range.—Southern seas, north in our summer along the Pacific coast of the United States.
This species is entirely sooty brown except the white eyelids. It is similar to the Black-footed Albatross from which species it can be distinguished in all plumages by the narrow base of the bill, while the bill of the former species is broad and rounded. They breed commonly on isolated islands in many quarters of the southern hemisphere. Sometimes this species constructs a mound of mud on which to deposit its single white egg, and also often lays it on the bare ground or rock. A specimen in Mr. Thayer's collection, taken by Geo. Comer on So. Georgia Is. in the South Atlantic ocean, was laid in a hollow among loose stones on the ledge of an overhanging cliff. Size 4.10 x 2.75.
FULMARS, SHEARWATERS and PETRELS Family PROCELLARIDAE
Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels are Gull-like birds with two nostril tubes located side by side, in a single tube, on the top of the bill at its base.
The Fulmars are mostly northern birds while the majority of the Shearwaters nest in the extreme south during our winter, and appear off our coasts during the summer. Their food consists of fish or offal which they get from the surface of the water; large flocks of them hover about fishermen, watching their chance to get any food which falls, or is thrown, overboard.
85. GIANT FULMAR. Macronectes gigantea.
Range.—This Petrel is a native of the southern seas and is only casually met with off the Pacific coast.
It is the largest of the family, being about three feet in length, and is normally a uniform sooty color, although it has light phases of plumage. They nest in December on many of the islands south of Africa and South America, laying their single white egg on the bare rocks.
86. FULMAR. Fulmarus glacialis glacialis.
Range.—North Atlantic coasts from New England northward, breeding from Hudson Bay and southern Greenland northward.
This bird which is 19 inches in length, in the light phase has a plumage very similar to that of the larger Gulls. They nest by thousands on rocky islands of the north, often in company with Murres and Gulls. Owing to the filthy habits of the Fulmars, these breeding grounds always have a nauseating odor, which is also imparted to, and retained by the egg shell. Their single white eggs are laid on the bare rocks, in crevices of the cliffs, often hundreds of feet above the water. Size 2.90 x 2.00. Data.—St. Kilda, off Scotland. June 5, 1897. Single egg laid on rock on side of sea cliff. Collector, Angus Gillies.
86b. PACIFIC FULMAR. Fulmarus glacialis glupischa.
This sub-species of the preceding, has a darker mantle than the common Fulmar; it is found on the northern Pacific coasts where it breeds on the high rocky cliffs, the same as its eastern relative. They nest in large colonies, every crevice in the rocks having its tenant. Their flight is graceful like that of the Gulls, which they closely resemble. They lay but a single white egg, the average dimensions of which are slightly smaller than those of the common Fulmar. Data.—Copper Is., Alaska. May 14, 1889. Egg laid in a crevice among the cliffs.
86.1. RODGER'S FULMAR. Fulmarus rodgers.
Range.—North Pacific, breeding in large numbers on some of the islands in Bering Sea; south to California in winter. Very similar to the two preceding species except that the back is mixed with whitish, it is not believed to have a dark phase. Their breeding habits and eggs do not differ from the common Fulmar. The eggs are laid on the rocky cliffs during June.
87. SLENDER-BILLED FULMAR. Priocella glacialoides.
Range.—Southern seas, appearing on the Pacific coast of the United States in the summer. This species has a paler mantle than the others of the family, and the primaries are black. The make-up and plumage of the whole bird is more like that of the Gulls than any of the others. They probably breed in the far south during our winter, although we have no definite data relative to their nesting habits.
88. CORY'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus borealis.
This species probably breeds in the far south. It has been found only off the coast of Massachusetts and Long Island. This is the largest of our Shearwaters, and can be distinguished from the next species by its wholly white underparts, its light mantle and yellowish bill. We have no data relative to its nesting habits.
89. GREATER SHEARWATER. Puffinus gravis.
Range.—The whole of the Atlantic Ocean.
Thousands of them spend the latter part of the summer off the New England coast, where they are known to the fishermen as Haglets. Their upper parts are brownish gray, darker on the wings; bill and feet dark; underparts white, with the middle of the belly and the under tail covers dusky. Length about 20 inches. Little is known concerning their nesting quarters, although they are said to breed in Greenland. From the fact of their early appearance off the New England coast it is probable that the greater part of them nest in the far south.
90. MANX SHEARWATER. Puffinus puffinus.
This species inhabits the North Atlantic ocean chiefly on the European side, being abundant in the Mediterranean and in the British Isles. These birds deposit their single pure white eggs in crevices among the cliffs, on the ground or in burrows dug by themselves. Size of egg 2.35 x 1.60. Data.—Isle of Hay, North Scotland. June 1, 1893. Single egg laid at the end of a three foot burrow.
91. PINK-FOOTED SHEARWATER. Puffinus creatopus.
Range.—Pacific Ocean, north on American side to California in summer.
This species, whose breeding habits are little known, is similar in size and color to the Greater Shearwater, differing chiefly in the yellowish bill and pinkish colored feet.
92. AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus lherminieri.
Range.—Middle Atlantic, ranging north in late summer to Long Island.
This bird, having a length of but twelve inches, is the smallest of the Shearwaters found along our coasts. Large colonies of them breed on some of the small islands and keys of the West Indies and Bahamas, and not so commonly in the Bermudas. Their eggs, which are pure white, are deposited at the end of burrows dug by the birds. Size of egg 2.00 x 1.35. Their nesting season commences about the latter part of March and continues through April and May. After the young are able to fly, like other members of the family, the birds become ocean wanderers and stray north to southern New England. Data.—Bahamas, April 13, 1891. Single egg laid at the end of a burrow about two feet in length. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.
92.1. ALLIED SHEARWATER. Puffinus assimilis.
This is an Australian and New Zealand species that has accidentally strayed to the shores of Nova Scotia.
93. BLACK-VENTED SHEARWATER. Puffinus opisthomelas.
Range.—Middle Pacific coast of the Americas, north in late summer along the coast of California. This species breeds commonly on the islands off the coast of Lower California, especially on the Gulf side. Their single egg is white, size 2.00 x 1.30, and is located at the end of a burrow. Data.—Natividad Is., Lower California, April 10, 1897. Single egg laid on the sand at the end of a burrow six feet in length. Collector, A. W. Anthony.
93.1. TOWNSEND'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus auricularis.
This bird ranges from Cape St. Lucas, south along the Pacific coast of Mexico, breeding on the Revillagigedo Islands off the Mexican coast.
94. SOOTY SHEARWATER. Puffins fuliginosus.
Range.—A common species off the Atlantic coast in summer; breeds along our northern coasts, and it is also supposed that many of them nest in southern seas and reach our coasts early in the summer. These Shearwaters are entirely sooty gray, being somewhat lighter below. They are called "black haglets" by the fishermen, whose vessels they follow in the hope of procuring bits of refuse. They commonly nest in burrows in the ground, but are also said to build in fissures among the ledges. Their single white egg measures 2.55 x 1.75. Data.—Island in Ungava Bay, northern Labrador, June 14, 1896. Egg laid in a fissure of a sea cliff. Collector, A. N. McFord.