THE BOOK OF SPORTS:
CONTAINING OUT-DOOR SPORTS, AMUSEMENTS AND RECREATIONS, INCLUDING GYMNASTICS, GARDENING & CARPENTERING,
For Boys and Girls.
WILLIAM MARTIN, AUTHOR OF "FIRESIDE PHILOSOPHY," "THE PARLOUR BOOK," "INTELLECTUAL CALCULATOR," ETC. ETC. ETC.
LONDON: DARTON AND CO., HOLBORN HILL.
J. WERTHEIMER AND CO., PRINTERS, FINSBURY CIRCUS.
I. GAMES WITH MARBLES. Ring Taw 9 Lag Out or Knock Out 10 Three Holes 12 Arches 13 Bonce-Eye 13 Sun and Planet Taw 15 Pyramid 19
II. GAMES FOR COLD WEATHER. Prisoners' Base 21 Stag Out 22 Warning 23 Mouse in the Corner 23 King of the Castle 24 Hippas 24 Thread the Needle 24 Touch 25 Bowls 26 Quoits 27 Why and Because 27 Bombardment of a Snow Castle 29 Bandy Ball or Golf 31 Foot Ball 32 Trussing 32 Follow my Leader 33 Blindman's Buff 33 Tip-Cat 34 Jingling 35 French and English 36
III. DANGEROUS GAMES. Heap the Bushel 37 Drawing the Oven 37 Hop-Scotch 38 Basting the Bear 38 Buck, Buck 38
IV. GYMNASTICS. 39 Walking 44 Running 45 Leaping 46 Climbing 49 Rope Ladder 50 Slant Board 50 Vaulting 50 Balancing 51
V. CRICKET. 55 Laws of the Game of Double Wicket 59 The Bowler 61 The Striker 62 The Wicket-Keeper 64 Laws for Single Wicket 65 Bets 67
VI. SWIMMING. 69 Preliminary Exercises in Swimming 78 Bernardi's System 83
VII. GARDENING. 89 How to keep a Garden all the year round, with directions for each month 105
VIII. CARPENTERING. 115 Uses of the various Tools:—Plane, Chisel Gimlet, Mallet, Hammer, Files and Nails. 116 Stuff and Labour 121
IX. KEEPING POULTRY. 123 Nature and Situation of Fowl-House 124 The Various Breeds of Fowl 126 Choice of Stock 128 Food and Feeding 128 Laying 129 Preservation of Eggs 129 Hatching Chickens 130
X. BEES. 131 Queen Bee.—Drone.—Construction of Nests.—How to get a Stock of Bees.—Hiving 134
The prime object of this book is to induce and to teach boys and girls to spend their hours out of school in such a manner, as to gain innocent enjoyment while they promote their own health and bodily strength. The Author has never lost sight of this object, considering it to be what properly belongs to a Book of Sports.
He has, however, in many instances, had in view, in a subordinate degree, the intellectual improvement of his young readers. He hopes that several of the games, now described in print for the first time, will be found, if not "royal roads," at least delightful ones, to the knowledge of many scientific facts. There seems to be no good reason why the utile (considered intellectually as well as bodily) should not find its place in the sports of young people, if it be so skilfully combined with the dulce as not to convert pleasure into toil.
To those who assent to what has been stated, the introduction of a chapter on gardening will need no apology.
GAMES WITH MARBLES.
One of the best games with marbles is
This is played in the following manner:—A circle should be drawn about four feet in diameter, and an inner circle of about six inches being also marked out in its centre, into this each boy puts a marble. "Now then, boys, knuckle down at the offing, which is in any part of the outer circle. Now, whoever shoots a marble out of the ring is entitled to go on again: so mind your shots; a good shot may clear the ring. After the first shot, the players do not shoot from the offing, but from the place where the marble stops after it has been shot from the knuckle. Every marble struck out of the ring belongs to the party who hits it; but if the taw remains in the inner ring, either after it has struck a marble or not, the player is out, and must put in all the marbles he has won. If one player strike another player's taw, the player to whom the taw belongs is out; and he must give up all the marbles he has won to the player whose taw struck his."
LAG OUT OR KNOCK OUT.
This game is played by throwing a marble against the wall, which rebounds to a distance. Others then follow; and the boy whose marble strikes against any of the others is the winner. Some boys play the game in a random manner; but the boy who plays with skill judges nicely of the law of forces, that is, he calculates exactly the force of the rebound, and the direction of it.
The first law of motion is, that everything preserves a state of rest, or of uniform rectilineal (that is, straight, motion), unless affected by some moving force.
Second law.—Every change of motion is always proportioned to the degree of the moving force by which it is produced, and it is made in the line of direction in which that force is impressed.
Third law.—Action and reaction are always equal and contrary, or the mutual action of two bodies upon each other are always equal and directed to contrary parts.
To illustrate the first of these laws,—a marble will never move from the ground of itself, and once put in motion, it will preserve that motion until some other power operates upon it in a contrary direction.
With regard to playing Lag Out so as to win, you must further understand the principle of reflected motion. If you throw your marble in a straight line against the wall, you find that it comes back to you nearly in a straight line again. If you throw it ever so slightly on one side, or obliquely, it will fly off obliquely on the opposite side. If you throw the marble from the point C to the point B, it will fly off in the direction of the point A, and if a marble lay there it would hit it; but if you threw it from the point D, you would stand no chance.
WALL B / / / / / / / / C D A
In science, the angle C, B, D, is called the angle of incidence, and D, B, A, is called the angle of reflection.
Three Holes is not a bad game. To play it, you must make three small holes about four feet apart: then the first shot tries to shoot a marble into the first hole. If he gets in, he goes from that to the second, and then to the third hole, after which he returns, and having passed up and down three times, he thus wins the game. If he cannot get in the first hole, the second player tries; and when he stops short at a hole, the third, and so on. After any player has shot his marble into a hole, he may fire at any adversary's marble to drive him away, and, if he hits him, he has a right to shoot again, either for the hole or any other player. The game is won by the player who gets first into the last hole and works his way back again to the first, when he takes all his adversaries' marbles.
To play arches, the players must be provided with a board of the following shape, with arches cut therein; each arch being a little more than the diameter of a marble, and each space between the arches the same.
- 8 6 5 3 1 2 4 7 9 - - - - - - - - -
The boy to whom the bridge belongs receives a marble from each boy who shoots, and gives to each the number of marbles over the arches should they pass through them.
Bonce-Eye is played by each player putting down a marble within a small ring, and dropping from the eye another marble upon them so as to drive them out, those driven out being the property of the Boncer.
The law of falling bodies may be well illustrated by this game. It is one of the laws of motion, that the velocities of falling bodies are in proportion to the space passed over; and the space passed over in each instant increases in arithmetical progression, or as the numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9.
A / /1 / B / 3 /3 3 / C / 5 5 /5 5 5 / D / 7 7 7 /7 7 7 7 / E
By the annexed diagram it will be seen, that if a marble fall from the hand at A, when it reaches B it has only the quantity of velocity or force expressed in the angle 1; but when it passes to C, it has the quantity expressed in the three angles 3; when it passes to D, it has the quantity expressed in the angle 5; when it passes to E, it has the quantity expressed by the seven angles marked 7. Thus we may understand why a tall boy has a better chance at Bonce-Eye than a short one.
It is found by experiment, that a body falling from a height moves at the rate of 16-1/12 feet in the first second; and acquires a velocity of twice that, or 32-1/6 feet, in a second. At the end of the next second, it will have fallen 64-1/3 feet; the space being as the square of the time. The square of 2 is 4; and 4 times 16-1/12 is 64-1/3; by the same rule, it will be found, that in the third second it will fall 144-3/4 feet; in the fourth second, 257-1/3; and so on. This is to be understood, however, as referring to bodies falling where there is no air. The air has a considerable effect in diminishing their velocity of descent.
SUN AND THE PLANET TAW.
This is an entirely new game, and consists of the Sun in the centre, which may be represented by a bullet, because the sun is the most ponderous body of the system, and will in this game be required to move slowly. The planets moving round him, with their satellites, I represent by marbles. Now, each boy must take the place of a planet; and having taken it, he is required to put down as many marbles as there are satellites belonging to it. The boy who plays Mercury, puts down only one for his planet; the boy who plays Venus does the same; he who plays the Earth, has to put down one for the Earth, and one for the Moon, its satellite; the boy who plays Mars puts down Mars and the four satellites that lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter; the boy who plays Saturn puts down one for the planet, and draws a ring round it, outside of which he puts the seven satellites in any position he chooses; the boy who plays the planet Herschel, puts down one for the planet, and six for the satellites. Each boy, having taken his place in this manner, lays down his taw on any part of the orbit of his planet he pleases, being the point from which he must make his first shot.
The rules of the game are very easy; but it is necessary to be perfectly acquainted with them, as it saves much trouble, and prevents disputes; and no one ought to play till he understands them tolerably well.
1. The players must each put his marble into a hat, and turn down the hat over the sun; then, as the marbles fall near or far from the sun, the planets are taken.
2. The player who puts in Mercury has the first shot.
3. No planet can be taken till the Sun has been struck beyond the orbit of Mercury.
4. The player who strikes the Sun beyond the orbit of Mercury, receives from the person who holds the orbit, as many marbles as there are planets or satellites in the orbit in which it stops.
5. The orbits are,—for Mercury, all the space between the Sun and him; for Venus, the space between Venus and Mercury; for the Earth, the space between the Earth and Venus; for Mars, the space between Mars and the Earth; for Jupiter, the space between Jupiter and Mars; for Saturn, the space between Saturn and Jupiter; for Herschel, the space between Herschel and Saturn.
6. If a player succeeds in knocking the Sun on the line of his own orbit, he receives one from every shooter so long as it remains there.
7. If the Sun is knocked against a planet, the player doing so has to pay two to the owner of the planet.
8. If the Sun be struck within the orbit of a planet, the player striking it receives one if for Herschel, two for Saturn, three for Jupiter, four for Mars, five for the earth, six for Venus, and seven for Mercury.
9. The player who succeeds in knocking the Sun beyond the orbit of Herschel, wins the game; that is, he receives one from each player, and all the marbles on the stake in the inner circle.
MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS AND THEIR SATELLITES.
10. When a planet is knocked out of the outer ring (the orbit of Herschel), it belongs to him who strikes it out: the loser must replace it by putting a marble down in its original place.
11. When a planet is struck within the orbit of any other planet, the player striking it there has to pay him to whom the orbit belongs, as many marbles as there are satellites.
12. Should a player's taw, after it has struck another taw, a planet, or a satellite, fall into its own orbit, he has to put one in the inner ring as stakes for the winner of the game.
13. If a player gets his taw within the inner ring, it must remain there for the winner, and he cannot play any more.
14. If a player has all his satellites taken, he then becomes a Comet, and can shoot from any part of any of the orbits every time the Sun is struck.
15. No player can shoot at his own planet or satellite.
16. Any player who strikes a planet or satellite within Saturn's ring, forfeits three to the inner circle. If he strikes the Sun, then he may take up Saturn and all his satellites remaining within his orbit.
17. After the first shot, every player must shoot from the place at which his taw rests.
* * * * *
Such are the laws of Sun and Planet Taw, and it will be found that in playing the game, some degree of thought is requisite, and a little calculation respecting the moves. It may be judicious for a good shooter to keep the Sun within the orbits as long as possible; or till such time as the inner ring gets fat with the forfeitures, or he may drive him from orbit to orbit where the forfeitures are large. He will endeavour to place him on the line of his own orbit. He may also strive to place his adversaries' taws within the inner ring, and to be careful in striking planets that they fall into the orbits where the forfeitures are small. By thus thinking of what he is about and exercising forethought and prudence, he will soon become expert, and by paying attention to the game he will make it his own.
To play Pyramid, a small circle of about two feet in diameter should be made on the ground, in the centre of which is a pyramid formed by several marbles,—nine being placed as the base, then a layer of four, and one on the top; and the Pyramid keeper asks his playmates to shoot. Each player gives the keeper one for leave to shoot at the Pyramid, and all that he can strike out of the circle belong to him.
GAMES FOR COLD WEATHER.
One of the best of these is called
To play this, there must be a number of boys, not less than eight or ten, and as many more as can be got together. To commence it, two semicircles are drawn against a wall or hedge at the opposite sides of the playground. These are called the BOUNDS.
Two other spaces are then marked out a little away from these to the right or to the left. These places are called the PRISONS.
The game is commenced by a player from one side running out midway between the bounds or prisons, a player from the other side immediately following to capture him; one from the other side follows after the second to capture him, and so on, both parties sending out as many as they think fit. The object of each player is to intercept and touch any player of the opposite side who has left his bounds before him, but he is not at liberty to touch any that have started after him; it being their privilege, if they can, to touch him before he gets back to his own bounds. A player must touch only one person each time he leaves bounds, and cannot be touched by another after he has taken a prisoner. Every player who is touched, must go to the prison belonging to his adversaries, where he must remain until one of his own side can touch him; and prisoners can neither touch nor be touched in their return to their own bounds again. The game is won by that side which has taken all the other party prisoners.
In this game, one boy personates the Stag, and with his hands closed together, starts from his bounds after the other players. When he succeeds in touching one who is called the Ass, the first who gets to him rides him back to the bounds. The two then go out in the same manner, then three, and so on, till the whole are caught.
This game is something similar to another very good game called "Warning," which may be played by any number of players. One begins the game in the same manner as in "Stag Out," repeating the following words,—"Warning once, warning twice, warning thrice—A bushel of wheat, and a bushel of rye, when the cock crows, out jump I—Cock a doodle doo." He then runs out and touches the first he can overtake, who returns to bounds with him. The two then join hands and sally forth, and touch a third, who joins hands with the other two: again they sally hand-in-hand, the two outside ones touching as many as they can. Immediately a player is touched, they must break hands and run back to the bounds. If any of the out-players can catch any of those who held hands, they may ride them back to their bounds. When three are touched, he who first begins the game has the privilege of joining the out-players, whose object is always to break the line.
MOUSE IN THE CORNER.
In this game, one of the players takes the part of Puss, and places himself in the centre, and the others playing take up their positions in the four corners of the playground. Each of the players calls out, "Puss, puss, puss, pretty puss,—how do you do pussy," and endeavour to pass from corner to corner. The players are at liberty to change corners in all directions, and if Puss can touch one when he is away from his corner, the one so touched, after giving Puss a ride round the ground, becomes Puss, or if Puss can take a vacant corner, the player without a corner must do the same,—give Puss a ride round and become Puss.
KING OF THE CASTLE.
This is not a bad game. One player, called King of the Castle, places himself on a little rising mound; the other players endeavour to push or pull him from his elevation, and whoever succeeds in this, takes his place.
This game is something like the preceding, only that one boy mounts on the back of another, who is called his Horse, another boy does the same, and the two mounted boys endeavour to pull each other from the saddle. This play is harmless when a soft piece of turf is chosen, but dangerous on the stones or hard ground.
THREAD THE NEEDLE.
This is a good game,—any number of boys may play it. It is begun by joining hands; and the two outside players at each end commence the game by the following dialogue:—
How many miles to Babylon? Three score and ten. Can I get there by candle-light? Yes, and back again. Then open the gates without more ado, And let the king and his men go through.
The player who stands at the opposite end of the line, now elevates his hand, joined in that of the player next him, to form the needle's eye, and the other outside player approaches running, and the whole line follow him through, if possible, without breaking. This is continued, each end holding up their hands successively, till the players are tired of the sport.
This is a game of speed. One volunteers to be Touch, and he pursues the other players till he comes up with one of them and touches him; unless the player so touched can say, "I touch iron," or, "I touch wood," before he is touched, he becomes Touch, and must give the player who touched him a ride home. A player is liable to be touched only when running from one piece of wood or iron to another.
There is another and a better game of Touch, called "Cross Touch," which is played thus:—One volunteers to be Touch, and sallies forth from his bounds. While he is pursuing one of the players, a third player runs between him and the player pursued, and touch must then follow the one who crosses till another crosses them, and so on, till at length the whole playground will become a scene of activity and sport.
"I will play at Bowls with the sun and moon."—Byron.
"He who plays Bowls must expect rubbers."—Bowles.
This is one of the best of games for hot or cold weather, for it is excellent exercise, and requires skill and judgment. Few requisites are required for it, but a level lawn, or tolerably level field, is indispensable, as are the bowls, the Jack, and the players.
In playing bowls, partners may be chosen, if there are many players, or the game may be played by two persons. When, however, there are three or four of a side, there is more interest attached to the game. The best player of my time was the good old schoolmaster, Mr. Fenn, from whom I obtained all the particulars concerning Bowls.
The bowls used at this game are of wood, loaded with lead, or biassed, as it is called, namely, there is one side thicker than the other, which is marked, and this may be held either near or away from the thumb as it may be required to lay the ball. No writer in a book can teach this, as it depends upon the nature of the ground, and the situation of the balls already bowled.
Before commencing the game, the first player leads out a small white ball, called a Jack; he then lays his own balls as near to it as possible; the players then follow in succession, but no partners follow each other till the whole balls are delivered, and those who obtain the nearest points to the Jack score one for each ball.
The number making the game is arbitrary, but eleven is generally fixed upon. Of course it would be more were there a great number of bowlers. The sport of the game consists in driving your opponent's ball from the Jack, and putting your own near it. When one side scores eleven before their opponents get five, it is called a lurch. The players at Bowls change the Jack from one side of the green to the other after the whole of each side have bowled once.
"Quoit me down, Bardolph."—Shakspeare.
The game of Quoits resembles Bowls. It is played with flat rings of iron of various weights. At a certain number of paces apart (to be agreed upon), two circular pins of iron are driven into the ground. The players beginning the game stand at one of these pins, called the Hob, and pitch the quoits to the other, each person having two. When all the quoits are cast from one Hob, the players walk to the other and pitch to the first, and so on in succession.
Those who get nearest to the Hob, are, of course, nearest to the game, and each pair of quoits counts two,—each single quoit, one; but if a quoit belonging to A lies nearest to the Hob, and a quoit belonging to B the second, A can claim but one towards the game, although all his other quoits may be nearer to the Hob than all those of B, as the quoit of B is said, technically, to have cut them out.
WHY AND BECAUSE.
This is also a new game, and one of those that combine amusement and instruction. To play it, a king must be chosen, who is called "King of the Shy," who sets up a brick on its end and puts a stone upon it, as a mark for the players to bowl their stones at, which they do successively. When a player has bowled, if he knocks the stone off the brick, he may take up his own stone and run back to his bounds, if he can do so before the king sets his brick and stone up again; but if the King can touch the player after having set his brick up, he is obliged to answer a "Why," or be King instead of him. The "Why" must be proposed by the King, and it may either be a conundrum, or it may contain the reason of any thing, as, "Why does a stone fall to the ground?" "What makes the smoke go up the chimney?" If the player cannot answer the "Why," he is obliged to mind the shy and let the others bowl. Sometimes it will happen, that of all the boys who have bowled at the shy, not one has thrown it down; the King then looks sharply at each one who tries to take up his stone, to touch him. It generally happens, that whilst the King is pursuing one, who has taken up his stone, to touch him, all the rest take to their stones, and make off home. But it should have been said, that by the place from which they bowl, a string is stretched for a leap, over which a player running from the King is obliged to jump before he is considered home.
(Some good Conundrum Questions for this game will be found in the "Book of Sports," on In-Door Amusements.)
BOMBARDMENT OF A SNOW CASTLE.
There is no game like this for promoting warmth and exercising the ingenuity. To play this, a Snow Castle, Tower, and Fort must be constructed, and a Bombardment got up.
When the snow is on the ground, let a party go into a meadow and divide themselves into two companies, and appoint a general to each. Each company then takes up its respective position, and proceeds to build a fort and castle, for defence, on each side; the dexterity with which the work is performed, and the celerity with which it is accomplished, being much in favour of those who play. During the building of the castle, some must be employed as sharp-shooters, who must annoy the builders on each side with snow balls, and some must be employed in making a store of snow balls for the magazine. When the castle is commenced, the first thing to be done is, for several of the builders to make a roll of snow about eighteen inches in length, and as thick as his arm, and to roll this on the snow, which will attach itself to it till it forms a large ball as high as the builders's shoulders. This must be turned over on its flat side, and as many more as can be arranged in the following manner, for a fort (supposing the other side to be erecting a castle). The foundation thus being laid, other balls not quite so large must be rolled up and laid on the former, so as to make the rampart about four feet high. Behind this, a single line of snow balls must be placed, about one foot in height, on which the attacking party may mount to discharge their balls to the castle opposite. On elevated parts of the forts, long sticks with pocket-handkerchiefs, as flags, must be raised, and in the centre, a larger flag should be placed, and it must be the object of the opposite party to demolish them with their balls. When a player wishes to throw a ball, he mounts upon one of the inner partings of snow, discharges his shot, and jumps down behind the parapet for more shot. The party on the opposite side may build their castle as they please; but each party should watch each other's movements, and build their different places of defence or annoyance in such a manner as to defend themselves and annoy the enemy in the most effective manner. It may be observed, that the fort must be so constructed with reference to the castle, that it is brought to bear on every point of it. The two ends are towers, which should be a foot higher than the ramparts, and should be made by three snow balls laid one upon the other,—the last one being turreted, with room for one boy to mount to the top, if necessary, to discharge his shots. The highest place of all, is the keep, and should be at least six feet high, with room and steps behind for two boys to mount. Convenient places should be left behind, where the ammunition should be piled up.
When the fort or castle is built, each party uses its best efforts for the demolition of the other, but no one is allowed to make use of his hands in the demolition of either castle or fort; battering-rams may alone be employed. In ancient times, battering-rams were large beams, hooped and shod with iron; but the moderns do things better, and the way in which it may be done is as follows:—A boy who volunteers to be battering-ram has his legs tied and then two other boys take him up, and, swinging him by the arms and legs, force his feet against the walls of the castle or fort to batter it down, the opposite party pouring on them, all the while, snow balls heated to a white heat from the ramparts above. Parties also may go out from one side to the other, as in playing "Hippas," mounted, and may meet in the open space and endeavour to pull each other from their horses. If a player on either side can break over the fort and capture one of the flags without being touched, he may bring it off and place it on his own ramparts as a trophy, and the party from whom the flag is captured must not replace it; but if in this act he is touched, he becomes a prisoner, and must make snow-balls for his adversaries. Every one who is thrown down, either from his horse or by any other means, is considered a dead man, and can do nothing but make snow-balls for the opposite party. When the flags are all struck on either side by being shot away, or when the men are all taken prisoners or slain, or when the ramparts are demolished, the victors may sing, "Old Rose and burn the Bellows."
BANDY BALL OR GOLF.
This game is played with a bat and a small ball; and the game consists in driving the ball into certain holes made in the ground. Sometimes these holes from first to last, are at the distance of half a mile or even more from each other. There are many intervening holes. Those who drive the ball into the greatest number of holes, of course win the game; but the ball must never be driven beyond a hole without first going into it. If the ball passes in the way beyond a hole, the player is out.
Foot Ball is a very simple game. A large soft ball is procured (which is now made of Gutta Percha), and the players having assembled and taken sides, a line is drawn across the playground, and the play commences. The object of the play is, for each party to kick the ball across the goal of the other, and to prevent it from passing their own. The party into whose bounds the ball is kicked, loses the game.
This is an excellent game. In some places it is called "Cock Fighting." To play it, two players must be matched against each other, and one is sometimes called "Black Cock," and the other "White Cock." They are seated on a carpet, or, what is better, the floor of the play-room, and undergo the operation of "trussing." This is performed as follows:—The hands are first tied with a handkerchief at the wrists. The ancles are tied in the same manner. The Cock then has his hands brought to his instep, while his knees pass between his arms, and a short stick is thrust in under the knees and over the joints of the elbow, and secured in this situation. The fight now begins by each Cock advancing towards his enemy, and when they come close to each other, each endeavours, by inserting his toes under the other's feet, to capsize him and throw him over on the side; and whoever does this, is entitled to crow, and is winner of the game. There is often a good deal of fun in this game, and the players can rarely hurt each other.
FOLLOW MY LEADER.
Follow my Leader is a very good game; and when the Leader is a droll boy, causes much fun and laughter. The leader starts off at a moderate pace, and all the other boys, in a line, one after the other, follow him. They are not only bound to follow him, but do exactly what he does. If he hops on one leg, or crawls on the ground, or coughs, or sneezes, or jumps, or rolls, or laughs, all must do the same. If any boy fail to follow his Leader, he is called the "Ass," and must be ridden by the boy next him. Sometimes the Leader will leap a ditch, climb a tree, or run into a river. But boys should be careful of very mad pranks in this sport.
In this game, a person is blindfolded, and endeavours to catch any one of the players, who, if caught, is blindfolded and takes his place.
There is another Game something resembling it, called SHADOW BUFF. A piece of white linen is thrown over a line across the room; between this screen and close to the wall on one side, a candle is placed, and on the other side, Buffy is obliged to stand, while the players moving between the candle and linen show their shadows through it, and Buffy has to distinguish each person by his shadow. When he does this, the player so found out becomes Buffy and takes his place.
For this game a piece of wood must be procured about six inches in length and two inches thick, of the following shape:—
that is, of a double curve. It will be seen by the shape of this, that it will fly up as easily as a ball when it is laid in the trap, for the striker has only to tap one end of it, and up it flies, making many a summerset as it rises; while it is performing this turn-over motion, which philosophers call the rotatory, the striker makes a blow at it and sends it whither he pleases.
The proper way to play the game, is as follows:—A large ring is made on the ground, in the middle of which the striker takes his station; he then tips the Cat and endeavours to strike it out of the ring; if he fail in this, he is out, and another player takes his place. If he strike the Cat out of the ring, he judges with his eye the distance the Cat is driven from the centre of the ring, and calls for a number, at pleasure, to be scored towards the game. The place is now measured by the stick with which the Cat is struck, and if the number called be found to exceed the same number of lengths of the cudgel, he is out, but if it does not, he obtains his call. Another method of playing, is to make four, six, or eight holes in the ground in a circular direction, at equal distances from each other, and at every hole is placed a player with his cudgel. One of the party who stands in the field, tosses the Cat to the batsman who is nearest to him, and every time the Cat is struck, the players must change their situations and run over from one hole to another in succession. If the Cat be driven to any great distance, they continue to run in the same order, and claim a score towards their game every time they quit one hole and run to another. But if the Cat be stopped by their opponents, and thrown across between any two of the holes before the player who has quitted one of them can reach the other, he is out.
This game is common to the West of England, and is called a "Jingling Match." It is played by a number of players being blindfolded within a ring formed for the game, and one or two others, termed the "Jinglers," not blindfolded, with a bell fastened to their elbow, also enter the ring. The blinded players have to catch the Jingler, who moves about rapidly from place to place. He who catches the Jingler wins the game; but if after a certain time, agreed upon previously by the players, the Jingler is not caught, he is declared the victor.
FRENCH AND ENGLISH.
French and English is another good game. A rope being provided, two players stand out, and after having cleeped for first choice, select the partners. After an equal number has been selected for each side, one party attaches itself to one end of the rope, and the other party lays hold of the other: a line is then made on the ground, and each party endeavours to pull the other over this line. The party succeeding in this, wins the game.
And now that we have given a description of some good games, it may be as well to warn our readers of some bad or foolish ones, which are either calculated to spoil their clothes, make them very dirty, or are dangerous to their limbs.
HEAP THE BUSHEL.
This is a very dangerous game, if it can be called a game. Should one boy happen to fall, it is the practice of other boys to fall upon him and to "Heap the Bushel," as it is called, all the other boys leaping on the one already down. It sometimes happens, that those underneath are seriously injured; and the sport is seldom engaged in without quarrelling among the players, and sometimes it leads to a fight.
DRAWING THE OVEN.
This is another dangerous game. It consists of several players being seated on the ground in a line, clasped by each other round the waist: when all are thus united, two others take the foremost one, and endeavour by pulling and tugging to break him off from the rest. Thus the united strength of several boys before, and as many behind, is made to act upon the one in front, and an arm may be dislocated by a sudden jerk, not to say anything about a broken neck.
This is a silly game. It is calculated to wear out the shoes.
BASTING THE BEAR.
This is another silly game. A boy, who is called the "Bear," kneels down on the ground in a ring marked out, to let the other boys beat him with their twisted or knotted handkerchiefs. The master of the Bear, who holds him by the rope, endeavours to touch one of the assailants; if he succeeds in doing this, without pulling the Bear out of his circle, or letting go the rope, the player touched becomes Bear in his turn. But it is calculated to spoil the clothes of the Bear, and sometimes, should he kneel on a sharp stone, may do him much injury.
"Buck, Buck, how many horns do I hold up?" is also a stupid game. It neither requires speed, nor agility, nor wit. The game is played by one boy resting his head against a wall and making a back, upon which the other jumps, who, when seated, holds up as many of his fingers as he pleases, and cries, "Buck, Buck, how many horns do I hold up?" The player who is leaped upon, now makes a guess; if he guesses correctly, it is his turn to leap, if not, the leaper leaps again. But there is little good in all this, and it ought not to be encouraged.
All boys, and girls too, ought to train themselves to habits of agility, and nothing is more calculated to do this than Gymnastics, which may be rendered a source of health and amusement.
In all playgrounds, a piece of ground should be laid out; and there should be erected thereon, a couple of posts, about twenty feet apart, and sixteen feet high, which should support a plank, about a foot wide, and six inches thick; on the underside of this might be affixed a hook, from which a triangle might be swung,—this is capable of being used in a variety of ways. Two more hooks, about a foot apart, might be used for two ropes, so that the more advanced pupils could climb to the top by means of grasping a rope in each hand, and without the assistance of the feet. A pole may rise from the ground to the cross piece about midway: the pupils will be able to climb up this without the assistance of the feet. A wood ladder and rope ladder may occasionally be fastened to the beam, but may, when necessary, be taken down. A board about a foot broad may also be set up against the beam, inclining four feet from the perpendicular: the climber will grasp the sides with his hands, and placing his feet almost flat against the board, will proceed to the top: this is an advanced exercise. Another board may be set up which should be three feet broad, at least, and should slant more than the other: the pupil will run up this to the top of the beam easily, and down again. The middle of this, up to the top, should be perforated with holes about four inches apart, in which a peg may be placed: this may be in the first hole to begin with. The pupil will run up and bring this down, and then run up and put it in the second, and so on, till he has arrived at the top: then two or more pegs may be used, and it may be varied in many ways. A pole, twenty-five or thirty feet high should be erected, rather thin towards the top: at distant intervals of this, three or four pegs, as resting places, should be fastened; another pole, thicker, from about sixteen to twenty feet high, should be erected; on the top of which should be placed four projecting hooks turning on a pivot: to these hooks four ropes should be attached, reaching to within two feet from the ground. This is called the "Flying Course," from an individual taking hold of the peg at the end of each rope.
One person may cross a rope under the one in possession of another, and by pulling round hard, make the other fly over his head. Care should be taken to make the hooks at the top quite secure, for otherwise many dangerous accidents might ensue. A cross pole might also be set up, but most of the exercises for which this is used, may be performed by the triangle. On the parallel bars, several beneficial exercises may be done, and also on the bridge. This is a pole thick at one end, thin at the other, and supported at three or four feet from the ground by a post at one end and another in the middle, so that the thin end vibrates with the least touch. This, it will be evident, is an exercise for the organ of equilibrium, and exercises the muscles of the calf, of the neck, and anterior part of the neck, and those of the back, very gently. On this bridge a sort of combat may be instituted,—two persons meeting each other, giving and parrying strokes with the open hands. The string for leaping is also another very pleasing exercise. It is supported by a couple of pegs on two posts fastened in the ground. The string may be heightened and lowered at pleasure,—it may be raised as high as the leaper's head when a leaping-pole is used. Besides these arrangements, a trench about a foot and a half deep should be dug, and widening gradually from one foot to seven, for the purpose of exercising the long leap either with or without the aid of the pole. Such are the general arrangements of a gymnasium, but before the youth enters upon regular exercises, he may commence with a few preliminary ones.
EXERCISE 1. The pupil should hold out his hand at arm's length, until he can hold it out no longer, and repeat it until he has power in the muscles, to continue it, without fatigue, for a considerable length of time.
2. Stand on one foot till he is tired, and repeat this for a similar period.
3. Hold out both arms parallel with his chin, letting the thumbs and fingers touch each other.
4. Hold the hands behind the back in a similar manner, the arms being stretched as far backward as possible, and hold the hands high.
5. Hold up the right foot by the right hand, extending the leg and arm by degrees.
6. Hold up the left foot in the same manner.
7. Stand with the knees bent, and exercise them towards the ground, until he can kneel on both knees at once without supporting himself as he drops.
8. Raise himself from this position without the aid of his hands, by springing back on his toes.
9. Endeavour to touch both his toes, with the back straight, the legs close together, and the head down.
10. Take a piece of wood, three inches broad, and twenty long, that will not bend, and hold it across the back, the three first fingers touching the wood.
11. Endeavour to sit, but not touch the ground, nor let any part of his body touch his heels, with his arms stretched out in a line with his chin.
12. Stand with his arms and legs extended, so as to form the letter X.
Let the pupil:—
13. Lie down on his back, and raise his body from an horizontal to a vertical position, without any assistance from the hands or elbows.
14. Draw up the legs close to the posterior part of the thighs, and rise without other assistance.
15. Extend himself on his back again, and walk backwards with the palms of his hands and his feet.
16. Sustain the weight of the whole body upon the palms and the toes, the face being towards the ground.
17. Lie on his back, and take hold of each foot in his hands, and throw himself on his face by rolling over.
18. Lie with the face down, and take hold of his toes while in that position.
19. With his chest downwards, drag his body along by walking only with his hands.
20. Place himself on his back, and endeavour to advance by means of the propulsion of the feet.
21. Place his body on his hands and feet, with the breast upwards, and endeavour to bring the lips to the ground.
22. Lean on the breast and palms of the hands, and throw the legs over towards the back of the head.
23. Stretch himself on the back, and extending the hands beyond the head, at the utmost stretch, touch the ground, and, if possible, bring up a piece of money, previously to be placed there.
24. In the same manner, endeavour to seize a ball by the toes at full length.
These preliminary exercises having been practised, the young pupil will commence a course of more advanced exercises, such as walking, running, leaping, balancing, vaulting, and climbing. Walking is common to all, but few persons have a good walk, and nothing exhibits the person to so much disadvantage as a slovenly bad gait. It is true, that the walk of a person will indicate much of his character. Nervous people walk hurriedly, sometimes quick, sometimes slow, with a tripping and sometimes a running step; phlegmatic people have a heavy, solid, and loitering step; the sanguine man walks rapidly, treads somewhat briskly and firmly; while the melancholic wanders, and seems almost unconscious of touching the ground which he seems to slide over. But the qualities of the mind itself manifest themselves in the gait. The man of high moral principle and virtuous integrity, walks with a very different step to the low sensualist, or the cunning and unprincipled knave; therefore the young pupil will be sure that even the art of walking, which seems to be an exertion purely physical, will not be acquired properly if his mind has taken a vicious and unprincipled bias: it will either indicate his pride or his dastardly humility, his haughty self-sufficiency, or his mean truckling to the opinion of others, his honest independence, or his cringing servility. But he who has been blessed with the full use of his muscular powers, in proportion as he is virtuous, will, with a very little attention, indicate by his bearing, step, and carriage, the nobility of his mind.
In walking, the arms should move freely by the side—they act like the fly-wheel of an engine, to equalise the motion of the body, and to balance it. One hand in the breeches pocket, or both, indicates the sot, and has a very bad appearance. The head should be upright, without, however, any particular call being made upon the muscles of the neck to support it in that position, so that it may move freely in all directions. The body should be upright, and the shoulders thrown moderately backwards, displaying a graceful fall. When the foot reaches the ground, it should support the body, not on the toe or heel, but on the ball of the foot. This manner of walking should be practised daily, sometimes in a slow, sometimes in a moderate walk, and sometimes in a quick pace, until each is performed with elegance and ease.
In running, as the swiftness of the motion steadies the body in its course, without the aid of the oscillations of the arms, they are naturally drawn up towards the sides, and, bent at the elbows, form a right angle. Their motion is almost suspended in very swift running. In moderate running, a gentle oscillation is observed, increasing in proportion as the body approaches to the walking pace. The knees are now more bent,—the same part of the foot does not touch the ground, the body being carried forward more by the toes. The degree of velocity is acquired in proportion to the length and quickness of the steps. The person should therefore endeavour to ascertain whether long or short steps suit his muscular powers best; generally speaking a moderately short step, quickly repeated, accelerates motion most. In learning to run, the pupil should first endeavour to improve his breath by degrees: he must try his speed first in short distances, to be gradually increased: the distance will vary according to the age and strength of the runner. The first exercises in running should commence at a gentle trot over a distance of a hundred and fifty yards, at the rate of about six feet to a second: this should be varied up to eight feet in a second, for the first three or four days, and the distance increased from one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty yards. On following days, the distance may be increased to five hundred yards, and afterwards gradually, until a mile can be performed in ten minutes, which is tolerably good running. Afterwards, six miles may be tried in an hour, which will be easily accomplished.
As regards rapid running, from one hundred feet to one hundred yards may be attempted at full speed, and when the constitution is good, the body not too fat, the muscular developments fine, and the lungs sound, a quarter of a mile a minute may be accomplished, and a mile in five minutes, which is seldom done even in very good running. Ten miles an hour, which is the average speed of the mail, may, however, be easily performed with judicious and proper training.
In leaping, that with the run, is the most common and the most useful. The object of the run is to impart to the nerves of the body a certain quantity of motion which may carry it onwards after the propelling power has ceased to act when the body leaves the ground. The run need not exceed twelve or fifteen paces: in this the steps are small and rapid. When the body leaves the ground, the legs are drawn up, one foot generally a little more than the other; and a great thing to be avoided, is coming to the ground on the heels. When springing, the height of the leap must be calculated, the breath held, the body pressed forward, and the fall should be upon the toes and the ball of the foot, although in an extended leap this is impossible. Leaping must, like running, be practised gradually; in the high leap, a person may easily accomplish the height of his own body, and should practise with the bar, which may be made of two upright posts bored, through which ropes should be placed according to the height required for the leap: on these should be hung a string with weights attached to each end to keep it straight. Should the leaper touch it with his feet as he takes his leap, it will be thrown off the pegs, thus showing that he did not make a clean leap.
The deep leap may be acquired from the top of a bank into a hollow, and is useful in leaping from the top of a house or wall in a moment of danger. It may be practised from a flight of steps, ascending a step at a time to increase the height, till the limbs can bear the shocks, to break which, the body must be kept in a bent position, so that its gravity has to pass through many angles. The leaper should always take advantage of any rivulet that has one bank higher than the other, to practise himself.
In the long leap, a person ought to be able to clear with a run, three times the length of his body.
The high leap, the deep leap, and the long leap, may be all practised with the pole. For the high leap, the pole should be taken with the right hand, about the height of the head, and with the left hand, about the height of the hips; when put to the ground, the leaper should spring with the right foot, and pass by the left of the pole, and swing round as he alights, so as to face the place he leaped from. In the deep leap, the pole being placed the depth you have to leap, the body should be lowered forward, and then, the feet being cast off, swing round the pole in the descent. The long leap, with the pole, is performed much in the same manner.
In climbing the rope, the hands are to be moved one above the other alternately; the feet should be crossed, and the rope held firmly by their pressure: sometimes the rope may be made to pass along the right thigh just above the knee, and wind round the thigh under the knee.
In climbing the upright pole, the feet, legs, knees, and hands touch the pole. Taking a high grasp of the pole, the climber raises himself by bending his body, drawing up and holding fast by the legs, and so on alternately.
THE ROPE LADDER.
The climber must keep the body stretched out, and upright, so as to prevent the steps, which are loose, from being bent forward.
The oblique rope must be climbed with the back turned towards the ground, the legs crossed and thrown over, so that the rope passes under the calf, and thus he must work himself up by raising his hands one above the other alternately.
The exercises on the ladder are:—1. To ascend and descend rapidly. 2. To ascend and descend with one hand. 3. Without using the hand. 4. Passing another person on the ladder, or swinging to the back to let another pass.
THE SLANT BOARD.
This should be seized with both hands, the feet being placed in the middle. The board should be considerably aslant when first attempted, and gradually brought towards the perpendicular.
This exercise may be practised on that part of the balancing bar between the posts. It may be performed with or without running: it should, however, be commenced with a short run. The height should be, to commence, about the pit of the stomach, which should be increased to the height of the individual.
There are two kinds of balancing to which we shall allude; namely, the balancing of other bodies, and the balancing of our own.
All feats of balancing depend upon the centre of gravity being uniformly preserved in one position. The centre of gravity is that point, about which all the other parts exactly balance each other. If a body be freely suspended upon this point, it will rest with security, and as long as this point is supported, it will never fall, while in every other position it will endeavour to descend to the lowest place at which it can arrive. If a perpendicular line were drawn from the centre of gravity of a body to the centre of the earth, such a line would be termed the line of direction, along which every body supported endeavours to fall. If this line fall within the base of a body, such a body will be sure to stand.
When the line of direction is thrown beyond its centre, unless the base be enlarged to counterbalance it, the person or body will fall. A person in stooping to look over a deep hole, will bend his trunk forward; the line of direction being altered, he must extend his base to compensate for it, which he does by putting his foot a step forward. A porter stoops forward to prevent his burthen from throwing the line of direction out of the base behind, and a girl does the same thing in carrying a pail of water, by stretching out her opposite arm, for the weight of the pail throws the centre of gravity on one side, and the stretching out of the opposite arm brings it back again, and thus the two are balanced. The art of balancing, therefore, simply consists in dexterously altering the centre of gravity upon every new position of the body, so as constantly to preserve the line of direction within the base. Rope-dancers effect this by means of a long pole, held across the rope; and when the balancing-rail is mounted, it will be found necessary to hold out both the arms for the same purpose; nay, even when we slip or stumble with one foot, we in a moment extend the opposite arm, making the same use of it as the dancer does of his pole.
A balancer finds that a body to be balanced, is the best for his purpose if it have a loaded head, and a slender or pointed base, for although the higher the weight is placed above the point of support, the more readily will the line of direction be thrown beyond the base, yet he can more easily restore it by the motion of his hand,—narrowly watching with his eyes its deviations. Now the same watchfulness must be displayed by the gymnastic balancer: he first uses the balancing pole,—he then mounts the balancing bar without it. On mounting the bar, the body should be held erect, and the hands must be extended. He must then learn to walk firmly and steadily along the bar, so as to be able to turn round, and then he should practise going backwards. Two balancers should then endeavour to pass each other on the bar; afterwards, to carry each other, and bodies of various weights, in various positions.
Walking on stilts is connected with balancing. A person can walk with greater security upon high than on low stilts. In some parts of France, the peasantry, in looking after their sheep, walk generally on stilts, and it only requires practise to make this as easy as common walking. Some few years ago, several of these stilt-walkers were to be seen in London, and they could run, jump, stoop, and walk with ease and security, their legs seeming quite as natural to them as those of the Stork.
Cricket is the king of games. Every boy in England should learn it. The young prince of Wales is learning it, and will some day be the prince of cricket-players, as I trust he will some day, a long while hence, however, let us hope, be king of merry England. I shall, therefore, be very particular concerning this noble game. It is played by a bat and ball, and consists of double and single wicket. The wicket was formerly two straight thin batons, called stumps, twenty-two inches high, which were fixed in the ground perpendicularly, six inches apart, and over the top of both was laid a small round piece of wood, called the bail, but so placed as to fall off readily if the stumps were touched by the ball. Of late years the wicket consists of three stumps and two bails; the middle stump is added to prevent the ball from passing through the wicket without beating it down; the external stumps are now seven inches apart, and all of them three feet two inches high. Single wicket requires five players on each side, and double wicket eleven; but the number in both instances may be varied at the pleasure of the two parties. At single wicket the striker with his bat is the protector of the wicket; the opponent party stands in the field to catch or stop the ball; and the bowler, who is one of them, takes his place by the side of a small baton or stump, set up for that purpose, twenty-two yards from the wicket, and thence delivers the ball with the intention of beating it down. It is now usual to set up two stumps with a bail across, which the batsman, when he runs, must beat off before he returns home. If the bowler prove successful, the batsman retires from the play and another of his party succeeds; if, on the contrary, the ball is struck by the bat, and driven into the field beyond the reach of those who stand out to stop it, the striker runs to the stump at the bowler's station, which he touches with his bat, and then returns to his wicket. If this be performed before the ball is thrown back, it is called a run, and a notch or score is made upon the tally towards the game; if, on the contrary, the ball be thrown up and the wicket beaten down by the opponent party before the striker is home or can ground his bat within three feet ten inches of the wicket (at which distance a mark is made in the ground, called the popping crease), he is declared to be out, and the run is not reckoned. He is also out if he strike the ball into the air and it is caught by any of his antagonists before it reaches the ground, and retained long enough to be thrown up again. When double wicket is played, two batsmen go in at the same time,—one at each wicket: there are also two bowlers, who usually bowl four balls in succession alternately. The batsmen are said to be in as long as they remain at their wickets, and their party is called the in-party; on the contrary, those who stand in the field with the bowlers, are called the out-party. Both parties have two innings, and the side that obtains the most runs in the double contest, claims the victory. These are the general outlines of this noble pastime, but there are many particular rules and regulations by which it is governed, and these rules are subject to frequent variations.
Single wicket may be played with any number of players, and is better than double wicket for any number of players under seven. At double wicket, a small number of players would get so fatigued with running after the ball, that when it came to the last player's turn, he would find himself too tired, without resting a while. The first innings in single wicket must be determined by chance. The bowler should pitch the wickets, and the striker measure the distance for the bowling-stump. Measure a distance of the length of the bat, and then one of the striker's feet, from the middle stump in a direction towards the bowling stump: there make a mark, which is the same as the popping-crease, and this will show when you are on the ground; place your bat upright on the mark at the place where the measure came to, and ask the bowler whether your bat is before the middle of your wicket; here make a mark on the ground, which is generally called the blocking-hole.
The bowler now begins to bowl, and the striker should endeavour to hit any ball which comes within his compass, or if the ball given be not favourable for that purpose, he may block it; but in blocking he must be careful never to let the tip of the bat come before the handle, as the ball in such a case will probably rise in the air towards the bowler, and he will be caught out. In running, the striker must touch the bowling-stump with his bat or person, or it is no run, and he may be put out if he do no put his bat or some part of his person on his ground before the ball touches his wicket.
With three players, the bowler and striker will be the same as when two are at play; the second player will be fieldsman, who, when the ball be hit nearer to him than to the bowler, will pick it up, or catch it if he can, and return it to the bowler. If the striker should attempt to run, the bowler should immediately run to the wicket, and the fieldsman should throw the ball to him, so that he may catch it, and touch the wicket with it to get the striker out. When the first striker is out, the fieldsman will take his place, the striker will bowl, and the bowler will take the field. When four players are engaged, the fourth should stand behind the wicket; and when five or more play, the additional players should take the field. The rule in such a case is simply, that as soon as a striker is out he becomes bowler, then he becomes wicket-keeper, and then he takes his place in the field on the left of the bowler, and afterwards the other places in regular progression, until it is his turn to have a new innings.
LAWS OF THE GAME OF DOUBLE WICKET.
"Law, is law," said Evergreen; "laws must be rigidly obeyed, and, therefore, I will read the articles of war for your edification. The first article of war is said to be, 'That it shall be death to stop a cannon-ball with your head.'" Cricketers must be cautious also how they stop cricket-balls with this part of the body: but
Imprimis, the BALL must be in weight between five ounces and a half and five ounces and three quarters, and must be between nine inches and nine inches and one-eighth in circumference.
2. The BAT must not be more than thirty-eight inches in length, nor exceed four inches and a quarter in its widest part.
3. The STUMPS, which are three to each wicket, must be twenty-seven inches out of the ground, and placed so closely as not to allow the ball to pass through. The bails must be eight inches in length.
4. The BOWLING-CREASE must be in a line with the stumps, and six feet eight inches in length, the stumps in the centre, with a return-crease at each end towards the bowler at right angles.
5. The POPPING CREASE must be three feet ten inches from the wicket, and parallel to it, unlimited in length, but not shorter than the bowling-crease.
6. They must be opposite to each other, twenty-two yards apart.
7. It is not lawful for either party, during a match, without the other party gives consent, to make any alteration in the ground by rolling, watering, covering, mowing, or beating.
This rule is not meant to prevent the striker from beating the ground with his bat near to the spot where he stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler from filling up holes with sawdust, &c., when the ground is wet.
8. After rain, the wickets may be changed with the consent of both parties.
9. The bowler must deliver the ball with one foot behind the bowling-crease, and bowl four bowls before he changes wickets, which he is permitted to do, once only, in the same innings.
10. The ball must be bowled; if it be thrown or jerked, or if the hand be above the shoulder in the delivery, the umpire must call "no ball" (this being reckoned as one of the four balls).
11. In some matches, the bowler may give six balls where the parties are agreed. The bowler may order the striker at the wicket from which he bowls, to stand on which side of it he pleases.
12. Should the bowler toss the ball over the striker's head, or bowl it so wide that it shall be out of distance to be played at, the umpire, although the striker attempt it, shall adjudge one run to the parties receiving the innings, either with or without an appeal from them, which shall be put down to the score of wide balls, and such balls shall not be reckoned as any of the four balls. When the umpire shall have called "wide ball," one run only shall be reckoned, and the ball shall be considered dead.
13. If "no ball" be called by the umpire, the hitter may strike at it, and is allowed all the runs he can make, and is not be considered out except by running out. Should no run be obtained by any other means, then one run shall be scored.
14. When a fresh bowler takes the ball, only two balls shall be allowed for practice; he must, however, continue the next four in the game before he can change for another better approved. If six balls are agreed to be bowled, then he must continue the six instead of four.
15. No substitute in the field shall be allowed to bowl, keep wicket, STAND AT THE POINT or MIDDLE WICKET, except by mutual agreement of the parties.
Is OUT, if either of the bails be struck off by the ball, or either of the stumps struck out of the ground.
He is OUT, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or hand below the wrist, be held by his adversary before it touches the ground, although hugged or caught between the arms and breast of the catcher.
He is OUT, if in striking, or at any other time while the ball is in play, both his feet be over the popping-crease, and his wicket put down, except his bat be grounded within it.
He is OUT, if in striking at the ball, he either with his bat, clothes, or person, hits down his wicket.
He is OUT, if under pretence of running a notch, or otherwise, either of the strikers prevent a ball from being caught, or if the ball be struck up and he wilfully strikes it again.
He is OUT, if in running a notch the wicket be struck down by a throw, or with the hand or arm with ball in hand, before his bat is grounded over the popping-crease. If the bails should happen to be off, a stump must be struck out of the ground.
He is OUT, should he take up or touch the ball while in play, unless at the request of the opposite party.
He is OUT, if with a part of his person he stop the ball, which the bowler, in the opinion of the umpire at the bowler's wicket, has pitched in a straight line with the wicket.
If the players have crossed each other, he that runs for the wicket that is put down, is out; and if they have not crossed, he that has left the wicket which is put down, is out.
When a ball is caught, no run is to be reckoned.
When a striker is run out, the notch they were running for is not to be reckoned.
If "lost ball" shall be called, the striker is allowed the runs; but if more than six shall have been run before "lost ball" shall have been called, then the striker shall have all that have been run.
When the ball has been lodged in the wicket-keeper's or bowler's hands, it is considered dead, that is, no longer in play, and the striker need not keep within ground, till the umpire has called "play;" but if the player goes off his ground, with intent to run, the bowler may put him out.
Should the striker be hurt, he may retire from his wicket and return to it any time during that innings. Some other person may stand out for him, but not go in.
If any person stop the ball with his bat, the ball is to be considered as DEAD, and the opposite party to add five notches to their score.
If the ball be struck up, the striker may guard his wicket with his bat or any part of his body except his hand.
If the striker hit the ball against his partner's wicket when he is off his ground, he is out, should it previously have touched the bowler or any of the fieldmen's hands, but not otherwise.
The wicket-keeper should not take the ball for the purpose of stumping, until it have passed the wicket. He shall stand at a proper distance behind the wicket, and shall not move till the ball be out of the bowler's hand. He shall not by any noise, incommode the striker, and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, although the ball hit it, he shall not be out.
The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play, and all disputes are determined by them, each at his own wicket. They shall not stand more than six yards from the wicket. In case of a catch, which the umpire at the wicket cannot see sufficiently to decide upon, he may apply to the other umpire, whose opinion is conclusive.
The umpires shall pitch fair wickets, and the parties shall toss up for the choice of innings.
They shall allow two minutes for the striker to come in, and fifteen minutes between each innings. When the umpires shall call "play," the party who refuses shall lose the match.
They are not to order a player out unless assented to by the adversaries.
If the bowler's foot be not behind the bowling-crease and within the return crease when he delivers the ball, they must, unasked, call "no ball;" if the striker run a short run, the umpire must call "no run."
If in running either of the strikers shall fail to ground his bat, in hand, or some part of his person, over the popping crease, the umpire, for every such failure, shall deduct two runs from the number intended to have been run, because such striker, not having run in the first instance, cannot have started in the second from the proper goal.
No umpire is allowed to bet.
No umpire to be changed during a match, unless with the consent of both parties, except in case of a violation of the last law, then either party may dismiss the transgressor.
After the delivery of four balls, the umpire should call "over," but not until the ball shall be lodged and definitely settled in the wicket-keeper's or bowler's hand; the ball shall then be considered dead. Nevertheless, if an idea be entertained that either of the strikers is out, a question may be put previously to, but not after the delivery of the next ball.
The umpire must take especial care to call "no ball" instantly upon delivery, and "wide ball," as soon as ever it shall pass the striker.
LAWS FOR SINGLE WICKET.
1. When there shall be less than four players on a side, bounds shall be placed, twenty-two yards each, in a line from the off and leg stump.
2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a run, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling-stump or crease, in a line with it, with his bat or person, or go beyond them, returning to the popping-crease, as in double wicket, according to the law.
3. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on the ground behind the popping-crease, otherwise the umpire shall call "no hit."
4. When there shall be less than five players of a side, neither byes nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out behind the wicket, nor stumped out.
5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the space between the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling stumps and the bounds; the striker may run till the ball be so returned.
6. After the striker has made one run, he must touch the bowling stump, and run before the ball shall cross the play, to entitle him to another.
7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the same number for ball stopped with bat.
8. When there shall be more than four players to a side, there shall be no bounds; all hits, byes, and overthrows, will then be allowed.
9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at double wicket.
10. No more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.
1. No bet is payable in any match unless it be played out or given up.
2. If the runs of one player be betted against those of another, the bet depends on the first innings, unless otherwise specified.
3. If the bet be made upon both innings, and one party beats the other in one innings, the runs in the first innings shall determine it.
4. If the other party go in a second time, then the bet must be determined by the number in the second.
Cricket is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on each side, and two umpires, with two persons to score and count the innings. Thirteen players play at one time, viz., two strikers, one bowler, one wicket-keeper, long-stop, short-stop, point, cover, middle-wicket, long-field, off-side, on-side, and leg; of these the two strikers are the inside, or have their innings. The object of the game is to get the greatest number of runs, and this is to be done by the strikers. Each side having been in once and out once, the first innings is concluded, and, we might say, a complete game has been played, but in most matches another innings is played. The scorers keep the account of runs to each striker separately for each innings. The side that has obtained the greatest number of runs, wins the game. The arrangement of the players in the field is as follows:—
6 * 8 * 9 * 7 10 5 * * * 4 3 1 1 2 * * * * * 12 11 * *
ORDER OF THE PLAYERS.
1. Striker. 2. Bowler. 3. Wicket-keeper. 4. Long-stop. 5. Short-stop. 6. Long-slip. 7. Point. 8. Cover. 9. Middle-wicket. 10. Long-field, off-side. 11. Long-field, on-side. 12. Leg.
No boy should be unable to swim, because it is essential to the preservation of life; but the attainment of the art has been held to be difficult, and the number of good swimmers is very small. The whole science of swimming consists in multiplying the surface of the body by extensive motions, so as to displace a greater quantity of liquid. As the first requisite of oratory was said to be action; the second, action; and the third, action; so the first, second, and the third requisite in learning to swim, is COURAGE. Now there is a vast difference between courage and temerity; courage proceeds from confidence, temerity, from carelessness; courage is calm and collected, temerity is headstrong and rash; courage ventures into the water carefully, and throws himself off with a firm and vigorous lounge forward, and a slow and equable stroke; temerity begins to dive before he knows whether he can swim or sink, and after floundering about for a minute or two, finds that he can swim farthest where it is deepest. Therefore, let the young swimmer mark the distinction between courage and temerity, and he will speedily become a swimmer.
Before, however, we proceed to offer any remarks on swimming as an art, we cannot refrain from calling the attention of our young friends to the observations of a celebrated medical doctor who has thought profoundly on the subject. "Immersion in cold water," says he, "is a custom which lays claim to the most remote antiquity; indeed it must be coeval with man himself. The necessity of water for the purpose of cleanliness, and the pleasure arising from its application in hot countries, must have very early recommended it to the human species; even the example of other animals was sufficient to give the hint to man; by instinct many of them are led to apply cold water in this manner, and some, when deprived of its use, have been known to languish, and even to die."
The cold bath recommends itself in a variety of cases, and is peculiarly beneficial to the inhabitants of populous cities who indulge in idleness and lead sedentary lives: it accelerates the motion of the blood, promotes the different secretions, and gives permanency to the solids. But all these important purposes will be more easily answered by the application of salt water; this also ought not only to be preferred on account of its superior gravity, but also, "for its greater power of stimulating the skin, which prevents the patient from catching cold."
It is necessary, however, to observe, that cold bathing is more likely to prevent than to remove obstructions of the glandular or lymphatic system; indeed, when these have arrived at a certain height, they are not to be removed by any means; in this case, the cold bath will only aggravate the symptoms, and hurry the unhappy patient into an untimely grave. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance, previously to the patient entering upon the use of the cold bath, to determine whether or not he labours under any obstinate obstruction of the lungs or other viscera, and when this is the case, cold bathing ought strictly to be prohibited.
In what is called a plethoric state, or too great fulness of the body, it is likewise dangerous to use the cold bath without due preparation. In this case, there is danger of bursting a blood-vessel, or occasioning an inflammation.
The ancient Romans and Greeks, we are told, when covered with sweat and dust, used to plunge into rivers without receiving the smallest injury. Though they might escape danger from this imprudent conduct, yet it was certainly contrary to sound reason; many robust men have thrown away their lives by such an attempt. We would not, however, advise patients to go in the cold water when the body is chilled; as much exercise at least ought to be taken as may excite a gentle glow all over the body, but by no means so as to overheat it.
To young people, and particularly to children, cold bathing is of the utmost importance; it promotes their growth, increases their strength, and prevents a variety of diseases incident to childhood.
It is necessary here to caution young men against too frequent bathing, as many fatal consequences have resulted from the daily practice of plunging into rivers, and continuing there too long.
The most proper time of the day for using the cold bath is, no doubt, the morning, or at least before dinner, and the best mode, that of quick immersion. As cold bathing has a tendency to propel the blood to the head, it ought always to be a rule to wet that part as soon as possible. By due attention to this circumstance, there is reason to believe that violent head-aches, and other complaints which frequently proceed from cold bathing, might be often prevented.
The cold bath, when too long continued, not only occasions an excessive flux towards the head, but chills the blood, cramps the muscles, relaxes the nerves, and wholly defeats the intention of bathing; hence expert swimmers are often injured, and sometimes lose their lives. All the beneficial purposes of cold bathing are answered by one immersion at a time, and the patient ought to be rubbed dry the moment he comes out of the water, and should continue to take exercise some time after.
Doctor Franklin, who was almost always a practical man, says, "that the only obstacle to improvement in this necessary and life-preserving art, is fear; and it is only by overcoming this timidity, that you can expect to become a master of the following acquirements. It is very common for novices in the art of swimming, to make use of corks or bladders to assist in keeping the body above the water; some have utterly condemned the use of them. However, they may be of service for supporting the body while one is learning what is called the stroke, or that manner of drawing in and striking out the hands and feet that is necessary to produce progressive motion; but you will be no swimmer till you can place confidence in the power of the water to support you. I would therefore advise the acquiring that confidence in the first place, as I have known several who, by a little practice necessary for that purpose, have insensibly acquired the stroke, taught as if it were by nature. The practice I mean, is this—choosing a place where the water deepens gradually, walk coolly in it until it is up to your breast, then turn your face towards the shore and throw an egg into the water between you and the shore, it will sink to the bottom and will easily be seen there if the water is clear; it must lie in the water so deep that you cannot reach to take it up without diving for it. To encourage yourself to do this, reflect that your progress will be from deep to shallow water, and that at any time you may, by bringing your legs under you and standing on the bottom, raise your head far above the water; plunge under it with your eyes open, which must be kept open before going under, as you cannot open your eyelids from the weight of water above you, throw yourself towards the egg and endeavour by the action of your feet and hands against the water, to get forward till within reach of it. In this attempt you will find that the water buoys you up against your inclination, and that it is not so easy to sink as you imagine, and that you cannot, but by active force, get down to the egg. Thus you feel the power of water to support you, and learn to confide in that power, while your endeavours to overcome it and to reach the egg, teach you the manner of acting on the water with your feet and hands, which action is afterwards used in swimming to support your head higher above the water, or to go forward through it.
"I would the more earnestly press upon you the trial of this method, because, though I think I shall satisfy you that your body is lighter than water, and that you might float for a long time with your mouth free for breathing, if you would put yourself into a proper posture, and would be still and forbear struggling, yet till you have obtained this experimental confidence in the water, I cannot depend upon your having the necessary presence of mind to recollect the posture and the directions I gave you relating to it; the surprise may put all out of your mind.
"Though the legs, arms, and head of a human body, being solid parts, are specifically somewhat heavier than fresh water, yet the trunk, particularly the upper part, from its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, as that the whole of the body, taken altogether, is too light to sink wholly under water, but that some parts will remain above until the lungs become filled with water, which happens from drawing water to them instead of air, when a person in the fright attempts breathing while the mouth and nostrils are under water.
"The legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt water, and will be supported by it, so that a human body cannot sink in salt water, though the lungs were filled as above, but for the greater specific gravity of the head. Therefore, a person throwing himself on his back in salt water, and extending his arms, may easily lie so as to keep his mouth and nostrils free for breathing, and by a small motion of the hand may prevent turning if he should perceive any tendency to it.
"In fresh water, if a man throw himself on his back near the surface, he cannot continue in that situation but by proper action of his hands in the water; if he have no such action, the legs and lower part of the body will gradually sink till he comes into an upright position, in which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his breast keeping the head uppermost.
"But if in this erect position, the head be kept upright above the shoulders, as when we stand on the ground, the immersion will, by the weight of that part of the head that is out of the water, reach above the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that a man cannot long remain suspended in the water with his head in that position.
"The body continuing suspended, as before, and upright, if the head be leaned quite back, so that the face look upward, all the back part of the head being under water, and its weight consequently being in a great measure supported by it, the face will remain above water quite free for breathing, will rise an inch higher at every inspiration, and sink as much at every expiration, but never so low that the water may come over the mouth.
"If, therefore, a person unacquainted with swimming, falling into the water, could have presence of mind sufficient to avoid struggling and plunging, and to let the body take this natural position, he might continue long safe from drowning, till, perhaps, help should come; for as to the clothes, their additional weight, when immersed, is very inconsiderable, the water supporting them, though when he comes out of the water he would find them very heavy indeed.
"But, as I said before, I would not advise you or any one to depend on having this presence of mind on such an occasion, but learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men were taught to do in their youth: they would on many occasions be the safer for having that skill, and on many more, the happier, as being free from painful apprehensions of danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment in so delightful and wholesome an exercise. Soldiers, particularly, should all be taught to swim; it might be of particular use either in surprising an enemy or saving themselves, and if I had any boys to educate, I would prefer those schools in which an opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantageous an art, which when once learned, is never forgotten.
"I know by experience, that it is a great comfort to a swimmer who has a great distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his back, and to vary in other respects the means of procuring a progressive motion.
"When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method to drive it away, is to give the parts affected a sudden, vigorous and violent shock, which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.
"During the great heats in summer, there is no danger in bathing, however warm he may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly warmed by the sun; but to throw one's-self into cold spring water when the body has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which may prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men, who, having worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died upon the spot, a third next morning, and the fourth recovered with great difficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar circumstances, is frequently attended with the same effect in North America.
"When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with flying a paper kite, and approaching the bank of a lake which was near a mile broad, I tied the string to a stake, and the kite ascended to a very considerable height above the pond while I was bathing. In a little while, being desirous of amusing myself with my kite and enjoying at the same time the pleasure of swimming, I returned, and loosening from the stake the string with the little stick which was fastened to it, went again into the water, where I found, that by lying on my back and holding the stick in my hand, I was drawn along the surface of the water in a very agreeable manner. Having thus engaged another boy to carry my clothes round the pond to a place which I pointed out to him on the other side, I began to cross the pond with my kite, which carried me quite over without the least fatigue and with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally to halt a little in my course and resist its progress, when it appeared that by following too quick I lowered the kite too much; by doing thus occasionally, I made it rise again. I have never since that time practised this singular mode of swimming, though I think it not impossible to cross in this manner from Dover to Calais. The packet boat is, however, preferable."
PRELIMINARY EXERCISES IN SWIMMING.
We have shown that much of the art of swimming depends upon having confidence, and that that confidence is speedily dissipated upon the swimmer coming in contact with the water. Besides this, a great deal in the art of swimming depends upon the degree of ease with which the swimmer can use his hands and feet. Now this sort of exercise may in part be acquired on land, and it would be of great usefulness to the learner were he to enter upon some preliminary practice which would give him the use of his hands and feet, in the manner required in swimming. To do this, he should provide himself with two ropes, which should be fastened up in the manner of two swings, at about sixteen inches apart from each other, and one a little higher than the other; these should be joined together with two or three cords passing from the one to the other, and on the rack thus made, a pillow or cushion should be placed; upon this, the learner will throw himself on his breast, as upon the water, and supporting himself in this position, and having his hands and feet perfectly at liberty, he will move them to and fro in the same manner as in swimming; this he should repeat several times a day, until he finds that he has got a complete mastery over the action required. The head must be drawn back, the chin raised, the fingers must be kept close, and the hands slightly concave on the inside,—they must be struck out in a line with the breast; the legs must then be drawn up and struck out, not downwards, however, but behind, in such a manner, that they may have a good hold upon the water. These directions being followed for a few days, will give the learner so much assistance, that when he enters the water he will find little more requisite than calmness and confidence in striking out.