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The Botanical Magazine Vol. 7 - or, Flower-Garden Displayed
by William Curtis
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THE

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE;

OR,

Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated LINNAEUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

By WILLIAM CURTIS,

Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

VOL. VII.

"Now let us range both far, and wide, "Thro' all the gardens boasted pride. "Here Jasmines spread the silver flow'r, "To deck the wall or weave the bow'r, "The Woodbines mix in am'rous play, "And breathe their fragrant lives away. "There rising Myrtles form a shade; "There Roses blush, and scent the glade; "The Orange, with a vernal face, "Wears ev'ry rich autumnal grace; "While the young blossoms here unfold, "There shines the fruit like pendant gold; "Citrons their balmy sweets exhale, "And triumph in the distant gale.

COTTON.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN,

For W. CURTIS, No 3, St. George's-Crescent, Black-Friars-Road;

And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

MDCCXCIV.



[217]

BUCHNERA VISCOSA. CLAMMY BUCHNERA.

Class and Order.

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. obsolete 5-dentatus. Corollae limbus 5-fidus, aequalis: lobis cordatis. Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BUCHNERA viscosa foliis lineari-lanceolatis laxe dentatis subglutinosis, floribus pedunculatis, caule fruticoso. L' Herit. Strip. nov. tom. 2. tab. 34. Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 357.

Buchnera is a genus of plants established by LINNAEUS in honour of A. E. BUCHNER, a German naturalist.

Of this genus, nine species are enumerated in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, by Professor MURRAY.

We learn from Mr. AITON, that the present species (a native of the Cape) was introduced to the royal garden at Kew in 1774.

It cannot boast much beauty, yet as it occupies but little room, grows readily from cuttings, and flowers during most of the summer: it obtains a place in most greenhouses.



[218]

DISANDRA PROSTRATA. TRAILING DISANDRA.

Class and Order.

HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. sub 7-partitus. Cor. rotata, subseptem-partita. Caps. 2-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DISANDRA prostrata. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. Suppl. Pl. p. 32. 214. Ait. Kew, V. 1. p. 493.

SIBTHORPIA peregrina. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 880.

The foliage of this plant greatly resembles that of Ground Ivy, and its branches trail on the ground somewhat in the same manner, extending to the length of several feet; but it is not on the ground that it is best seen, as its flowers are apt to be hid among the leaves: it appears most advantageously when growing in a pot, placed on a pedestal, or in some elevated situation, where its branches may hang carelessly down: thus treated, when fully blown, it becomes a most pleasing object.

LINNAEUS, the son, in his Suppl. Plant. observes, that the Disandra varies extremely in the number of its stamina, as it does also in the divisions of its calyx, and corolla; in this respect;, indeed, we do not know its equal: fortunately for those systems of Botany, which are formed from the number of certain parts of the fructification, few such inconstants exist.

Professor MURRAY observes, that seven is the most prevalent number of its stamina, five the most natural.

LINNAEUS describes it as a native of the East; Mr. AITON informs us, that it was introduced here about the year 1771, from Madeira.

It flowers during most of the summer months; in the winter it must be kept in the green-house; in the summer it will bear the open air, grows readily from cuttings, should be planted in rich earth, and plentifully watered in dry weather.



[219]

MICHAUXIA CAMPANULOIDES. ROUGH-LEAV'D MICHAUXIA.

Class and Order.

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 16-partitus. Cor. rotata, 8-partita. Nectarium 8-valve, staminiferum. Caps. 8-locularis, polysperma. L' Heritier Monogr.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MICHAUXIA campanuloides. L' Heritier Monogr.

The celebrated author of the Hortus Kewensis informs us, that the plant here figured is a native of the Levant, and was introduced to this country in the year 1787, by Mons. L'HERITIER, who first gave it the name of Michauxia, and wrote a Monographia, or particular treatise on it.

We have before observed, that when a plant has been named in honour of any particular person, that name must be retained in all countries, however uncouth its pronunciation may be, and there are few of our readers but what will think the present name sufficiently so.

Last summer 1792, in the month of July, we had the pleasure to see a fine plant of this sort, fully blown, in the collection of Messrs. GRIMWOOD and CO. Kensington; though in a small pot, it grew nearly to the height of six feet, was branched almost to the bottom, and loaded with a profusion of blossoms, such as are represented on the plate, and which bore some distant resemblance to those of a passion-flower.

It is a biennial green-house plant, and, of course, only to be raised from seeds, which we are sorry to find have not ripened in this country, though they are said to do so in France.



[220]

ERICA CERINTHOIDES. HONEYWORT-FLOWER'D HEATH.

Class and Order.

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inferta. Antherae bifidae. Caps. 4-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ERICA cerinthoides antheris muticis inclusis, corollis clavatis grossis, stigmate incluso cruciato, foliis quaternis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 368. Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 22.

The Erica cerinthoides is one of the most magnificent and shewy of the genus, grows wild at the Cape, from whence it was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Mr. MASSON, in 1774; it is the more valuable, as it flowers during most of the year: its blossoms are found to vary from a deep to a very pale red. It is a hardy green-house plant, and usually propagated by cuttings.

To have this beautiful tribe of plants in perfection, they must be kept in pots proportioned to their size, filled with that kind of bog earth in which our British heaths grow spontaneously, finely sifted; to which it may be necessary sometimes to add a third part of the mould of rotten leaves, or choice loam, partaking more of a clayey than a sandy nature: we must be careful not to let them suffer for want of water in dry hot weather, as such an omission, even for one day, may be fatal; and to give them as much air as possible at all times when the weather is mild.



[221]

IPOMOEA COCCINEA. SCARLET IPOMOEA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. infundibuliformis, Stigma capitato-globosum, Caps. 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IPOMOEA coccinea foliis cordatis acuminatis basi angulatis, pedunculis multifloris. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 204. Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 215.

CONVOLVULUS coccineus, folio anguloso, Plum. Amer. 89. t. 103.

QUAMOLCIT americana, folio hederae, flore coccineo. Comm. rar. 21. t. 21.

The Ipomoea is very nearly related to the Convolvulus, one principal difference consists in the different form of its stigma, which is globular, like that of the Primrose; whereas in the Convolvulus it is divided into two substances, as is obviously shewn in the Convolvulus arvensis and sepium, but all the plants of these two genera have not this character marked with equal strength.

The present species is a twining plant, will run up a stick to the height of six, eight, or ten feet, and produce an abundance of flowers, of a rich orange colour tending to scarlet, which renders it one of the most ornamental annuals cultivated in our gardens, into which it is not as yet generally introduced, though cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1759.

Mr. MILLER describes it as a native of Carolina, and the Bahama Islands, Mr. AITON of the West-Indies; it flowers from June to September.

It is cultivated in the same manner, and with the same ease as other annuals; three seeds may be set in the ground, about four inches asunder, in the form of a triangle; when the seedlings are sufficiently advanced, a tall stick is to be thrust down in the centre betwixt the three plants, for them to twine around: the warmer and more sheltered the situation, and the richer the soil in which they are placed, the taller the plants will grow; by raising them on a hot bed, you may anticipate their natural time of flowering, and be more certain of obtaining good seed.



[222]

STRUTHIOLA ERECTA. SMOOTH STRUTHIOLA.

Class and Order.

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. nulla. Cal. tubulosus, ore glandulis 8. Bacca exsucca, polysperma. Linn. Mant. p. 4. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 165.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

STRUTHIOLA erecta glabra. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 164. Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 165.

PASSERINA dodecandra. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 513. Amaen. Acad. V. 4. p. 271.

PASSERINA filiformis. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

PASSERINA. Burm. Afric. t. 47. f. 1.

The plant here represented appears to have been first described and figured by BURMAN, in his Pl. Afric. under the name of Passerina: LINNAEUS introduced it in the 3d edition of his Sp. Pl. by the title of Passerina dodecandra; discovering afterwards that it had in reality only four stamina, and that the other eight substances, mistaken for such, were so many glandular nectaria, he made in his Mantiss. Plant. a new genus of it, by the name of Struthiola, and assigned it the trivial name of erecta; in the abbreviated generic description given of it by Prof. MURRAY, an alteration is made in this generic character, and what before was considered as Corolla, is here regarded as Calyx; no reason is assigned for this alteration, and we are at a loss to account for the propriety of it.

Mr. MILLER, who cultivated this plant in 1758, describes it in his dictionary, and observes very justly, that though its branches when young are erect, when loaded with blossoms they incline to a horizontal position; hence the term erecta becomes an improper one, and should be changed for one more expressive.

This species of Struthiola is a very common shrub in our greenhouses, will grow to the height of five or six feet, and, though not so ornamental as some other plants, has the merit of flowering during most of the year, and often in the depth of winter.

Is readily increased by cuttings.



[223]

LYCHNIS CORONATA. CHINESE LYCHNIS.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, oblongus, laevis. Petala 5, unguiculata: Limbo sub-bifido. Caps. 5-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LYCHNIS coronata glabra, floribus axillaribus terminalibusque solitariis, petalis laciniatis. Thunb. Japon. p. 187. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 435. Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 117.

LYCHNIS grandiflora floribus axillaribus terminalibusque folitariis, petalis inaequaliter crenatis. Jacq. Collect. V. 1. p. 149. Icon. V. 1.

JAPONICE sen sjun ra, vulgo Ganpi. Kempf. Amaen. Exot. Fasc. V. p. 873.

The rich and elegant blossoms of this Chinese or Japanese beauty, possess a flatness and stiffness, which gives them an artificial air, to which their colour, which is exactly that of common red lead, may perhaps somewhat contribute; they make their appearance towards the close of the summer, and as many (when the plant is in health and vigour) are produced on the same stem, they continue a considerable time in bloom; its root is perennial, and its stem, which rises to the height of about two feet, herbaceous.

We remember to have seen this plant in the collection of the late Dr. FOTHERGILL at Upton, about the year 1774, by whom it was first introduced to this country: KAEMPFER, the celebrated Dutch traveller, who saw it growing in Japan, gives a very short description of it in his Amaenitates exoticae, and mentions a variety of it with white flowers: Professor THUNBERG, who saw it also in its wild state, as well as in the gardens of that country, confines himself to describing the plant more at large: Professor JACQUIN, in his Icones, has given an admirable figure of it.

Persons here differ in their mode of cultivating this species of Lychnis, some treating it as a stove others as a greenhouse and others as a hardy herbaceous plant; the latter mode is to be preferred, provided care be taken to plant it in a sheltered situation, and to guard it against the inclemency of particular seasons; it is propagated by parting its roots, also by slips, and cuttings, but in this business more than ordinary care is required to be successful.



[224]

PHYLICA ERICOIDES. HEATH-LEAV'D PHYLICA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Perianthium 5-partitum, turbinatum. Petala 0. Squamae 5, stamina munientes. Caps. tricocca, infera.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PHYLICA ericoides foliis linearibus verticillatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 235. Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 268.

ALATERNOIDES africana ericae foliis, floribus albicantibus et muscosis. Comm. Hort. 2. p. 1. t. 1.

Mr. MILLER, who cultivated this plant in 1731, informs us, that it grows wild about Lisbon, where it covers extensive tracts of ground, in the same manner as the heath does in this country; it seldom rises above the height of three feet, and is much disposed to become bushy; its flowers, which are slightly odoriferous, begin to appear in autumn, and continue during the winter and spring; they grow in little heads on the summits of the branches: their whiteness, contrasted with the dark colour of the foliage, forms a pleasing appearance, and entitles this plant, though a common and long-established inhabitant of the greenhouse, to a place with such as may boast more brilliancy of colour.

Its leaves, which thickly cover the stalks, do not well accord with LINNAEUS's specific description.

It is usually propagated by cuttings, which strike readily.



[225]

LOBELIA SURINAMENSIS. SHRUBBY LOBELIA.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA MONOGAMIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. 1-petala, irregularis. Caps. infera, 2 sive 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LOBELIA surinamensis caule suffruticoso, foliis oblongis glabris serratis, floribus axillaribus pedunculatis. Ait. Kew. V. 3. p. 498. Sp. Pl. 1320.

LOBELIA laevigata foliis ellipticis serratis glabris, capsulis grossis globosis, calycibus subulatis, corollis glaberrimis. Linn. Suppl. p. 392.

The Lobelia surinamensis, a plant newly introduced here, is minutely described in the Suppl. Pl. of the younger LINNAEUS, under the name of laevigata, apparently from the smoothness of its flowers: in the year 1786, Mr. ALEXANDER ANDERSON sent this plant to the Royal Garden at Kew, from the West-Indies, where it grows spontaneously, as well as at Surinam; and Mr. AITON has inserted it at the end of the Hort. Kew. assigning to it a new specific description, and a new trivial name: our drawing was made from a plant which flowered in the stove of Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington, to whom it was imparted by RICHARD MOLESWORTH, Esq. of Peckham, a gentleman liberal in his communications, and anxious to promote the cause of Botany.

This species of Lobelia is a stove plant, having a some-*what shrubby stalk, growing to the height of several feet; its blossoms are very large, of a pale red colour, and its Antherae, which might be mistaken for the stigma, unusually hairy.

It begins to flower in January and February, and continues to blossom during most of the summer.

Is increased by cuttings.



[226]

ARABIS ALPINA. ALPINE WALL-CRESS.

Class and Order.

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

Generic Character.

Glandulae nectariferae 4, singulae intra calycis foliola, squamae instar reflexae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ARABIS alpina foliis amplexicaulibus dentatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 599. Ait. Kew. Vol. 2. p. 399. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

DRABA alba siliquosa repens. Bauh. Pin. p. 109.

An early-blowing plant, if it has no great pretensions to beauty, brings with it a powerful recommendation, more especially if its flowers are not of the more common hue; such are the claims which the present plant has to a place in this work: it is perennial, hardy, herbaceous, of low growth, rarely exceeding a foot in height, producing its white blossoms in April and May: its size renders it a suitable plant for the border of a small garden, or for the covering of rock-work.

It is readily increased by parting its roots in autumn.

Grows spontaneously on the Alps of Switzerland, Austria, and Lapland, and was cultivated (vid. Hort. Kew) in the Botanic Garden at Oxford, in 1658.



[227]

HELIANTHUS MULTIFLORUS. MANY-FLOWERED or PERENNIAL SUN-FLOWER.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.

Generic Character.

Recept. paleaceum, planum. Pappus 2-phyllus. Cal. imbricatus, subsquarrosus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HELIANTHUS multiflorus foliis inferioribus cordatis trinervatis superioribus ovatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 781.

CHRYSANTHEMUM americanum majus perenne, floris folis foliis et floribus. Moris. Hist. 3. p. 23.

The Helianthus multiflorus, a native of North-America, is a hardy perennial herbaceous plant, arising usually to the height of five or six feet, and producing a great number of large yellow shewy blossoms, which renders it a suitable plant to ornament the shrubbery or garden of large extent; the variety with double flowers is the one most commonly cultivated, and this we find in almost every garden: it flowers from July to September, and is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.

This is a hardy plant, of ready growth, will bear the smoke of London better than many others; if it continues in the same spot for a great number of years, the blossoms are apt to become single.

The single sort, according to MORISON, was introduced before 1699 by Lord LEMSTER. Ait. Kew.



[228]

BELLIS PERENNIS var. MAJOR FLORE PLENO. GREAT DOUBLE DAISY.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum, conicum. Pappus nullus. Cal. hemisphaericus: squamis aequalibus. Sem. subovata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BELLIS perennis scapo nudo. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 770.

BELLIS hortensis flore pleno. Bauh. Pin. p. 261.

BELLIS minor hortensis flore pleno. Double Garden Daisy. Park. Parad. p. 322.

The daisy, a plant common to Europe, in its wild state delights in open situations, which are moderately moist, its root is perennial, and increases greatly; the usual colour of its flowers is white, the florets are sometimes tipt with red, but more frequently red on the under side.

When double, the daisy becomes much more ornamental, and in this state many varieties of it have long been cultivated, very generally in gardens; those principally found in our nurseries are

The large double daisy with florets of a deep red colour on the under side, figured on the plate; the flowers of this sort will sometimes expand nearly to the size of a half-crown piece, and are the most shewy of any that we have seen; the foliage of this sort is also proportionably larger.

The pale red double daisy, more delicate in its appearance, but smaller, varying in its shades of colour.

The pure white double daisy.

The deep red double daisy; in this the petals are usually tubular or quilled.

Besides these, there are

The coxcomb double daisy, both red and white, in which the flowering stem rises up preternaturally flattened, and carries on its summit a long-extended ridge of flowers, frequently of an enormous size; this monstrous production seems to arise from the coalescence of two or more flowering stems: and as it is of accidental origin, so we find that a daisy which has been a coxcomb one year, shall lose that appearance entirely the next, and out of a long edging of daisies growing luxuriantly, new ones shall here and there arise; we cannot therefore depend upon the constancy of this variety.

Another singular variety is the proliferous or hen and chicken daisy, in which a number of flowers standing on short footstalks spring circularly out of the main flower; as this appearance for the most part arises from great luxuriance[A], this sort of daisy is also found occasionally to lose its prolific character: in my garden at Lambeth-Marsh, I once had a daisy growing in an edging among a number of others, which not only became proliferous, or of the hen and chicken kind, but its stalk also, or scapus, became branched, producing six or seven flowering-stems, with flowers at their extremities of the size of the common daisy; thus we find that the most permanent characters of plants are liable to be altered, and even destroyed, by accident, or culture.

Daisies appear to most advantage planted as an edging to a border, not that they are superior, or even equal to box for the great purposes of an edging; but in the spring of the year they enliven the border more, and add much to the general gaiety of the garden: in the formation of these, we shall give our readers some practical instructions, which will enable them to succeed much better than by following the mode commonly practised.

The last week in September, or the first in October, take up your daisy roots, and divide them into single plants; your border being dug, put down your line, and make a shallow trench along it as for the planting of box; in this trench place your plants three inches apart, spreading out their fibres in the trench, and pressing the earth closely round them; in this way they will soon become rooted, and firmly fixed in the ground before the approach of frost; should this business be deferred later, as it frequently is, and the daisies be planted with a dibber in the usual way, in all probability the worms will draw out every plant before spring, especially if the earth has been rendered loose by repeated frosts.

Edgings of this kind require to be replanted in the same way every autumn, as the plants, if they grow well, spread too wide; if the summer prove dry, many of the roots fail, and if they remain undisturbed in the same spot, they will degenerate and become single, notwithstanding Mr. MILLER informs us, that he never observed them to do so.

[Footnote A: We once saw a specimen of a hen and chicken daisy gathered on a hill in Sussex, much inferior in size to the daisy as it usually grows.]



[229]

PRIMULA ACAULIS FL. PLENO CARNEO. DOUBLE LILAC PRIMROSE.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Involucr. umbellulae. Corollae tubus cylindricus ore patulo.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PRIMULA acaulis foliis rugosis dentatis, subtus hirsutis; scapis unifloris. Jacq. Misc. Austr. p. 158. Curt. Flor. Lond. Fasc. 6.

The Primrose in its wild single state is frequently introduced into shrubberies and plantations, for the purpose of enlivening them in the spring months; in its double state it has been deemed peculiarly worthy of cultivation by the curious in flowers. Of the double yellow Primrose, which seems to have been the first known, we meet with a figure in the Hort. Eyst. and in the Parad. Terrestr. of PARKINSON, since those publications many new and perfectly double varieties have been introduced, as

The double white, rarely met with.

The double deep red or velvet, the blossoms of this will sometimes come single.

The double pink or lilac, here figured, a plant much admired.

The double crimson, a new variety, which, in brilliancy of colour, far surpasses all the others.

The red, commonly called the Scotch Primrose, less ornamental than any of the preceding: besides these, we have observed a variety with blossoms of a dingy yellow inclining to red, not worth cultivating.

These several varieties of Primrose are admirably adapted to the decoration of the shrubbery, plantations, or even the north side of rock-work; they delight to grow in a stiff loam, a moist and somewhat shady situation, so planted they thrive admirably, the double succeeding almost as well as the single; every second or third year their roots should be divided, which may be done either in spring or autumn, they may be cultivated also in pots for the convenience of removing them when in blossom.



[230]

PLUMBAGO ROSEA. ROSE-COLOURED LEADWORT.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis: Stamina squamis basin corollae claudentibus inserta. Stigma 5-fidum. Sem. 1. oblongum tunicatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PLUMBAGO rosea foliis petiolatis ovatis glabris, subdenticulatis caule geniculis gibbosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 199. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 215. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 205.

PLUMBAGO zeylanica, folio splendento ocymastri, flore rubro. Burm. Zeyl. 195.

RADIX vesicatoria. Rumph. Amboin. 5. p. 453. t. 168.

The Plumbago rosea, one of the most ornamental plants which we keep in our stoves, is a native of India, from whence it was introduced to this country by the late Dr. FOTHERGILL, in the year 1777, posterior to the publication of the last edition of Mr. MILLER's Dictionary.

It is a shrubby plant, which frequently grows to the height of four or five feet, and is perpetually putting forth flowering spikes; these continue a long while in blossom, and hence, with proper management, it may be had to flower during most of the year, a very desirable circumstance in a plant of such singular beauty.

The usual mode of increasing it is by cuttings, which strike freely.

Its parts of fructification, whether we regard their colour or structure, are highly deserving of notice.



[231]

FUMARIA SOLIDA. SOLID-ROOTED FUMITORY.

Class and Order.

DIADELPHIA PENTANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. diphyllus. Cor. ringens. Filam. 2 membranacea, singula Antheris 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FUMARIA solida, caule simplici, bracteis brevioribus multifidis, radice solida. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

FUMARIA bulbosa, caule simplici, bracteis longitudine florum. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 636. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 983. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 1.

FUMARIA bulbosa radice non cava major. Bauh. Pin. p. 144. Small hollow roote. Park Parad. p. 275. 279. f. 2.

By the old Botanists this species of Fumaria, whose root is constantly solid, was considered as a distinct species from another similar to it of larger growth, whose root is as constantly hollow, and which will be figured in the next number of this work; CASPAR BAUHINE in particular, in his Pinax, describes the characters in which they differ: LINNAEUS nevertheless makes them varieties of each other, uniting them under the name of bulbosa; from this union we have taken the liberty to dissent, choosing rather to follow MILLER, who regards them as distinct, and the Botanists preceding him.

The Fumaria solida, a very old inhabitant of our gardens, is a plant of very humble growth, rarely exceeding three or four inches in height, and producing its spike of purple flowers in April, which continue in blossom about a fortnight.

In point of colour the flowers of this plant are not subject to much variation, we possess a variety of it with blossoms of a much brighter colour than those of the common sort, and which, on that account, is much more worthy of cultivation.

As a spring plant, it deserves a place in the garden; in point of ornament, it is applicable to the same purposes as the Primrose, will grow in almost any soil or situation, requires to be taken up in the autumn, and fresh-planted every two or three years; if suffered to remain in the same spot for a great length of time, it becomes smaller, produces few or no flowers, and is so altered in its appearance, as to look like another species.



[232]

FUMARIA CAVA. HOLLOW-ROOTED FUMITORY.

Class and Order.

DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. diphyllus. Cor. ringens. Filamenta 2 membranacea singula Antheris 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FUMARIA cava, caule simplici, bracteis longitudine florum integris, radice cava.

FUMARIA bulbosa radice cava major. Bauh. Pin. p. 143.

RADIX cava major. Park. Parad. p. 275.

The hollow-rooted Fumitory differs from the solida, already figured, and that constantly, in a variety of particulars; its root is always, as far as we have observed, hollow, appearing sometimes, as PARKINSON informs us, "like a shell, every part of which when broken will grow;" frequently acquiring a very great size; the plant itself usually grows to twice the height of the solida, bearing foliage and flowers proportionably large; its bracteae or floral leaves, which in the solida assume a kind of finger'd appearance from the manner in which they are divided, in this are entire or but slightly indented; it flowers also about three weeks earlier.

Of the Fumaria cava there are three principal varieties in point of colour, viz. the white, the blush-coloured, and the purple, which, though plentiful in our gardens formerly, are now rarely met with; Mr. CHAPPELOW informs me, that he found them all this spring, in an old plantation at Teddington, where they produced the most pleasing effect.

It begins to flower in March and continues in bloom three weeks or a month, rarely produces any seed, so that it is to be propagated only by dividing its roots; it is a hardy herbaceous plant, a native of Germany, and will grow in almost any soil provided it be planted in a shady situation.



[233]

CHIRONIA BACCIFERA. BERRY-BEARING CHIRONIA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. rotata. Pistillum declinatum. Stamina tubo corollae infidentia. Antherae demum spirales. Peric. 2-loculare.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CHIRONIA baccifera frutescens baccifera. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 229. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 258.

CENTAURIUM minus arborescens pulpiferum. Comm. rar. 9. t. 9.

CENTAURIUM minus africanum arborescens angustifolium. Old. afr. 26.

The Chironia baccifera, a native of Africa, is a plant not unfrequent in our greenhouses; its flowers are curious in their structure, of a lively hue, and suceeded by round seed-vessels, which, when ripe, have the appearance of red berries, whence its name of baccata; if we carefully examine these seed-vessels, we shall find that they are not properly berries, for on cutting them transversly, they are found to be hollow and to be divided into two cells (vid. Pl.) in which are contained small black seeds, whose surface is beautifully reticulated with impressed dots; the sides of the seed-vessel are fleshy, and do not appear to divide or split in any regular manner for the discharge of the seed; they must however be regarded rather as capsules than berries: in the genus Hypericum, the seed-vessels are found to vary in a somewhat similar manner; in this part of the fructification there is not, therefore, that deviation which has been supposed, but there is a very great one in the antherae, which do not ultimately become spiral.

This plant, which grows to the height of a foot and a half or two feet, becomes very bushy, rather too much so in point of ornament, and produces both flowers, and fruit, during most of the summer.

Though regarded as a greenhouse plant, it does not ripen its seeds well unless kept in the stove; is with difficulty raised from cuttings, from seeds readily, by which it requires to be frequently renovated.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER in 1759. Ait. Kew.



[234]

LINUM ARBOREUM. TREE FLAX.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Caps. 5-valvis, 10-locularis. Sem. solitaria.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LINUM arboreum foliis cuneiformibus, caulibus arborescentibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 303. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 388.

LINUM arboreum. Alp. Exot. 19. t. 13.

Contrary to what we observe in most of the plants of this genus, the present very rare and no less beautiful species of Flax forms (if not a tree, as its name imports) a shrub of the height of several feet, which begins to flower in the green-house in March, and continues to be more or less covered with blossoms to the close of the summer.

It is a native of the Levant, from whence it was introduced to this country in the year 1788, with a profusion of other vegetables, by JOHN SIBTHORP, M. D. the present celebrated Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford; who, for the laudable purpose of promoting the science in which he is so eminent, and of enriching the Oxford collection, already rendered most respectable by his unwearied labours, meditates, as we are informed, a second journey into Greece.

Hitherto this plant has produced no seeds in this country, and it is with difficulty increased by cuttings.

Our figure was drawn from a plant which flowered in the spring with Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.



[235]

TROLLIUS ASIATICUS. ASIATIC GLOBE-FLOWER.

Class and Order.

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Petala circiter 14. Capsulae plurimae, ovatae, polyspermae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TROLLIUS asiaticus corolla patula, nectariis staminibus longioribus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 518. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 271.

HELLEBORUS aconiti folio, flore globoso croceo. Amm. Ruth. 101.

Of this genus, two species only have as yet been discovered, the one a native of Great-Britain, the other here figured the produce of Siberia and Cappadocia, both hardy, perennial, herbaceous plants; the latter, more particularly, from the bright orange colour of its flowers, held in high estimation as an ornamental plant, and flowering in May and June. This species, as yet rare in this country, is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn; it may also be raised from seeds, which ripen frequently on strong healthy plants: to succeed in its cultivation, we should plant it in a composition of loam and bog earth, and place it in a north border, taking care that it does not suffer from want of watering in dry summers.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1759. Ait. Kew.



[236]

VERBASCUM MYCONI. BORAGE-LEAV'D MULLEIN.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla rotata, subinaequalis. Caps. 1-locularis 2-valvis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VERBASCUM myconi foliis lanatis radicalibus, scapo nudo. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 220. Ait. Kew. p. 238.

CORTUSA foliis ovatis sessilibus. Linn. Hort. Cliff. 50.

SANICULA alpina, foliis boraginis villosa. Bauh. Pin. 243.

AURICULA ursi myconi. Dalech. Hist. 837.

AURICULA ursi flore coeruleo folio Boraginis. Blew Beares Eares with Borage leaves. Park. Parad. p. 236. 237. f. 3.

Most of the plants of this genus are tall and shewy; the one here figured is however, of very humble growth, its flowering stem in the cultivated plant rarely exceeding six inches in height; its flowers are proportionably large, of a blueish purple colour, and highly ornamental; they make their appearance in May, and continue successively in blossom for several months, hence it becomes a desirable plant to cultivate, especially for the decorating of rock-work; it is very hardy, requires a north aspect in the summer, and to be carefully watered in dry weather; will grow in almost any soil, and is usually propagated by planting its roots in autumn.

Grows spontaneously on the Pyrenean Alps; in its wild state it is more dwarfish than our figure represents it, its foliage more woolly, and enriched with various tints, which the plant loses on cultivation; such specimens I saw in the possession of Dr. R. HALIFAX, of Albemarle-Street, who gathered it on its native Alps.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1731, Ait. Kew. and most probably long before that period by PARKINSON, who lives a figure and accurate description of it in his Parad. terrestris.



[237]

OXALIC CARINA. GOAT'S-FOOT WOOD SORREL.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala Unibus connect. Caps. Anglos discerns, 5-Gina.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

OXALIS Carina scapis unbeliefs, foliis ternaries glabris, floribus erects. Thunb. Oxalic, n. 11. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 433.

OXALIS Peas Capra scapo embellisher, foliis ternaries sub bipartite apiece subtus callouses. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 622.

OXALIS bulbosa pentacle et hexagonal, floribus margins lutes et copiosis. Burm. Afr. 80. t. 29. et t. 28. f. 3.

The Cape of Good-Hope, that most fertile source of curious and beautiful plants, affords numerous species of Wood Sorrel, and, among others, the present one, which is distinguished for the largeness of its blossoms; they are of a fine yellow colour, and, when expanded by the influence of the sun, make a very conspicuous figure in the green-house; it begins to flower early in April, and continues about two months in bloom, many flowering stems arising from the same root.

This species is of free growth, and increases plentifully by bulbs, which are produced on the crown of the root, as well as on its fibres; these, when the plant decays, should be taken up, and two or three of the largest planted in the middle of a pot filled with a mixture of bog earth and rotten leaves, well incorporated; towards winter, the pots mould be placed in the green-house, or in a frame so secured as perfectly to keep out frost.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1757. Ait. Kew.



[238]

SENECIO ELEGANS. PURPLE GROUNDSEL, or RAGWORT.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum. Pappus simplex. Cal. cylindricus, calyculatus. Squamis apice sphacelatis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SENECIO elegans corollis radiants, foliis pontiffs aequalibus pianissimos margin increased recurved. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 757.

SENECIO elegans corollis radiants, foliis polos-viscid is pontiffs aequalibus pianissimos, Roach inferno angsts, calycibus hurts. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 193.

ASTER Africans Annuus senecionis foliis. Comm. Hort. 2. p. 59. t. 30.

LINNAEUS has given to this charming annual the name of elegans, on account of the great beauty of its flowers, the florets of the radius being of a most brilliant purple, and those of the disk bright yellow; colours regarded as peculiar to this plant, till the Sen. venustus described in the Hort. Kew. was discovered and introduced here; it is a native of the Cape and other parts of Africa, grows usually to the height of a foot and a half, or two feet; flowers from June to August, grows readily, requiring the same treatment as other annuals of the more tender kind; seedling plants raised in the autumn in pots, and kept in the green-house or under a frame during winter, will, of course, flower much earlier than plants produced in the spring.

Within these few years, a variety of this Senecio with perfectly double flowers, equally brilliant as those of the single kind, has been introduced, and is here figured; this, from its superior beauty, is now cultivated, in preference to the single; there is double variety of it also with white flowers which being less shewy is not so much esteemed; both of these are raised, and that readily, from cuttings, which as soon as well rooted may be planted out in the open borders, where they will be highly ornamental during most of the summer; as young plants are most desirable, we should take care to have a constant succession from cuttings regularly put in, and to preserve pots of such in particular, in the green-house during winter, for early blowing the ensuing summer.

The single sort was cultivated here, by CHARLES DUBOIS, Esq. in the year 1700. Ait. Kew.



[239]

AMARYLLIS ATAMASCO. ATAMASCO LILY.

Class and Order.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. hexapetaloidea, irregularis. Filamenta fauci tubi inserta, declinata, inaequalia proportione vel directione. Linn. Fil.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMARYLLIS Atamasco spatha bifida acuta, flore pedicellato, corolla campanulata subaequali erecta basi breve tubulosa, staminibus declinatis aequalibus. Linn. Fil. Ait. Kew. p. 416.

AMARYLLIS Atamasco spatha uniflora, corolla aequali, pistillo declinato. Linn. Spec. Pl. ed 3. p. 420.

LILIO-NARCISSUS Indicus pumilus monanthus albus foliis angustissimis Atamasco dictus. Moris. Hist. 11. p. 366. t. 24.

LILIO-NARCISSUS virginiensis. Catesb. Carol. 3. p. 12. t. 12.

LILIO-NARCISSUS liliflorus carolinianus flore albo singulari cum rubedine diluto. Pluk. Alm. 220. t. 43. f. 3.

The Amaryllis Atamasco is a native of Virginia and Carolina, in which countries it grows very plentifully in the fields and woods, where it makes a beautiful appearance when it is in flower, which is in the spring. The flowers of this sort are produced singly, and at their first appearance have a fine Carnation colour on their outside, but this fades away to a pale or almost white before the flowers decay. This plant is so hardy as to thrive in the open air in England, provided the roots are planted[B] in a warm situation and on a dry soil; it may be propagated by offsets from the roots, which they put out pretty plentifully, especially if they are not transplanted oftner than once in three years. Miller's Dict.

It is usual with the Nurserymen about London to keep this plant in the greenhouse, where it flowers about the end of April.

Mr. CHARLES HATTON cultivated here in 1680, Ait. Kew. on the authority of MORISON.

[Footnote B: CLAYTON in Gronov. Fl. Virg. says maddidis gaudet locis, it delights to grow in wet places.]



[240]

PELARGONIUM TRICOLOR. THREE-COLOURED CRANE'S-BILL.

Class and Order.

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema desinente in tubulum capillarem, nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filamenta 10, inaequalia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata, Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata. L'Herit. Geran.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM tricolor petalis duobus superioribus punctis prominulis lucidis ad basin scabris.

The Pelargonium tricolor, a species perfectly new, in point of beauty is thought to eclipse all that have hitherto been introduced to this country; its blossoms are certainly the most shewy, in a collection of plants they are the first to attract the eye, the two uppermost petals are of a beautiful red, having their bases nearly black, the three lowermost are white, hence its name of tricolor: this peculiarity of colour joined to their form, has induced some to fancy a similarity betwixt its flowers and those of the Heartsease: to the blossoms of the Lathyrus articulatus in point of colour, they bear also a distant resemblance.

In our eagerness to lay before the public this striking novelty, we may possibly omit some circumstances relative to its history and treatment, which future experience may develope, they will not, however, we trust be very material; the plants which we have had an opportunity of seeing have scarcely exceeded a foot in height, growing up with a shrubby stem, and expanding widely into numerous flowering branches, unusually disposed to produce flowers in a constant succession, so that during most of the summer the plant is loaded with a profusion of bloom; these flowers for the most part go off without being followed by any seed, and when any seed is produced, of which we have seen a few instances, there is generally one perfect and four abortive, frequently all of them fail; the blossoms vary in the number of their stamina, four are most usually apparent, three superior, and that very constantly, one inferior and often two, we have never observed seven, the proper number of fertile stamina in a Pelargonium: the whole plant is covered with short white hairs which give to the foliage a somewhat silvery hue.

Instances have occurred in which one or more of the white petals have had a stripe of red in them, and we have observed that the dark colour at the base of the uppermost petals is, in a certain degree, soluble in water, for on the plants being watered the white petals have here and there become stained by the colouring matter proceeding from it, and which, in a diluted state, is of a purplish tint: as the flowers decay, this apparently black part, distinguished by the roughness of its surface, arising from prominent lucid points, and which essentially distinguish the species, is sometimes perforated with numerous small holes.

Mr. MASSON, who is employed to collect plants at the Cape, for the Royal Garden at Kew, and in which employment he so honourably acquits himself, as the Hortus Kewensis bears ample testimony, sent hither seeds of this Pelargonium, which flowered in that matchless collection in the year 1792; a few plants of it have also been raised from Cape seeds, by Mr. WILLIAMS, Nurseryman, at Hammersmith, some of which flowered this spring with Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman, Kings-Road.

It must be several years before the lovers of plants can be generally gratified with the possession of this plant, most of its branches running out speedily into flowering stalks, form few proper for cuttings, which are struck with difficulty, and perfect seeds are sparingly produced.

It appears to be equally hardy as most others of the same tribe, and to require a similar treatment.



[241]

FAGONIA CRETICA. CRETIAN FAGONIA.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5, cordata. Caps. 5-locularis, 10-valvisi, loculis 1-spermis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FAGONIA cretica spinosa, foliolis lanceolatis planis laevibus. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed 3. p. 553. Mant. p. 380. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 401. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 62.

TRIFOLIUM spinosum Creticum. Clus. Hist. 2. p. 242. f. Bauh. Pin. p. 330.

FAGONIA cretica spinosa. Tourn. Inst. p. 265.

CLUSIUS is the first author who has described and figured this plant, he is very minute in his description of it, noticing the exact number of its stamina; it is the more surprising, therefore, that he should have so little idea of generic character, as to rank it with the trefoils merely from the form of its leaves: TOURNEFORT, born to illustrate the genera of plants, named it Fagonia in honour of his friend and patron, Mons. FAGON, privy counsellor and consulting physician to LEWIS XIV.

This species is a native of the island of Candia, and was cultivated here by Mr. MILLER, in 1739; it is an annual, and as it does not perfect its seeds with us in the open air, unless in very favourable seasons, it is usually treated as a green-house plant, its seeds should be sown in the autumn, as it thereby flowers earlier, and ripe seeds are with more certainty obtained.

It blossoms from June to August.

The plant from which our drawing was made, flowered this season in the very rich collection of Messrs. LEE and KENNEDY, Hammersmith.

Its branches are usually procumbent, about a foot in length, and require, if the plant be kept in a pot, to be tied up to a stick.



[242]

VERONICA DECUSSATA. CROSS-LEAV'D SPEEDWELL.

Class and Order.

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. limbo 4-partito: lacinia infima angustiore. Caps. 2-locularis apice emarginata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VERONICA decussata spicis terminalibus paniculatis, foliis oblongis integerrimis laevigatis coriaceis, caule fruticoso. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 20.

VERONICA decussata floribus racemosis axillaribus, foliis ovalibus decussatis integerrimis. Moench. Weissenstein. p. 137. Linn. Syst. Nat. tom. 2. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 30.

The plant here represented, is a native of Falkland's Island, and was introduced to this country by Dr. FOTHERGILL, about the year 1776; if permitted to grow, it will become a bushy shrub of a considerable size: it has been chiefly admired for the unusual and regular growth of its leaves, which are ever-green, and grow thickly on the branches, cross-wise, affording an excellent example of the folia decussata; but it is entitled to our admiration on another account, its blossoms have a most delicious fragrance (similar to that of the Olea fragrans) not mentioned by authors, and we believe scarcely known, having never heard it spoken of by those who have cultivated the plant; its flowers, which are white, are produced on the tops of the branches, which, however, they do not strictly terminate, but usually grow out just below the summits, on short racemi; the corolla is sometimes divided into five segments, and there is a greater equality in the segments than is usually found in the flowers of the Veronica, the seed-vessel differs also in its form, being longer, more oval, and scarcely emarginate; these several deviations from the structure of the Veronica genus, joined to the fragrance of the blossoms of this plant, induce us to think, that it has more affinity with the Olea above mentioned.

Cultivators complain, that it does not blow freely; without any peculiarity of treatment, it flowers with us every year, about the middle of June; it is one of the more hardy greenhouse plants, which is usually and readily increased by cuttings.



[243]

ARGEMONE MEXICANA. MEXICAN ARGEMONE, or PRICKLY POPPY.

Class and Order.

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala. Cal. 3-phyllus. Caps. semivalvis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ARGEMONE mexicana capsulis sexvalvibus, foliis spinosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 490. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 225.

PAPAVER spinosum. Clus. Hist. 2. p. 93.

CARDUUS chrysanthemus Peruanus. The Golden Thistle of Peru. Ger. Herb. p. 993.

This species of Argemone is a native of Mexico, and the West-Indies, where we should suppose it to be a very common and noxious weed, from the name there given it of Fico del inferno, or the Devil's Fig: it has long been introduced to this country; GERARD, who cultivated it with success, ludicrously attributes its nickname to a different source: "The golden Thistle of Peru, called in the West-Indies, Fique del inferno, a friend of mine brought it unto me from an iland there, called Saint Johns Iland, among other seedes, what reason the inhabitants there have to call it so it is unto me unknown, unless it be bicause of his fruite, which doth much resemble a figge in shape and bignesse, but so full of sharpe and venemous prickles, that whosoever had one of them in his throte, doubtless less it would send him packing either to heaven or to hell."

MILLER mentions it as a plant of no great use or beauty, in the latter point of view CLUSIUS, who was one of the first to figure and describe it, and GERARD, thought differently; its foliage is certainly beautiful, somewhat like that of the milk thistle, its blossoms are large and shewy, though not of long duration; like the Celandine, the whole plant abounds with a yellow juice, which flows out when it is wounded; it differs from the poppy, to which it is nearly related, in having a calyx of three leaves.

Though a native of a very warm climate, it is cultivated with as much facility as any annual whatever; in the gardens about London, where it has once grown, and scattered its seeds, it comes up spontaneously every spring, flowers in July and August, and ripens its seeds in September; these are large, somewhat round, of a black colour, with a beautiful surface; a light rich soil and warm situation suits it best.



[244]

IPOMOEA QUAMOCLIT. WINGED LEAV'D IPOMOEA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis. Stigma capitato-globosum. Caps. 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IPOMOEA Quamoclit foliis pinnatifidis linearibus, floribus subsolitariis. Linn, Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 204. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 215.

QUAMOCLIT s Jasminum Americanum. Clus. Posth. 9.

CONVOLVULUS tenuifolius Americanus. The red Bellflower of America. Park. Parad. p. 358. 3.

In a former number of this work, we gave a figure of the Scarlet Ipomoea, which every one possessing a garden, at least in the more southern parts of this kingdom, might gratify themselves with a sight of, it being hardy enough to flower and ripen its seeds in the open border; but the present species, an annual also, and equally beautiful, with greater singularity of foliage, can be brought to perfection only in the stove of hot-house.

Its seeds should be sown early in the spring, two or three in a small pot; when the plants are so far advanced as to shew a disposition to climb, they should be removed with a ball of earth into a middle-sized pot, in which one, two, or three sticks, four or five feet high should be stuck, for the plants to climb up; in the months of June and July they will flower, and ripe seed will be produced in September.

This elegant species, a native of both the Indies, was cultivated here by PARKINSON, who minutely describes it in his Parad terr. when speaking of the seed, he observes, "with us it will seldom come to flower, because our cold nights and frosts come so soone, before it cannot have comfort enough of the sun to ripen it."



[245]

TEUCRIUM LATIFOLIUM. BROAD-LEAV'D SHRUBBY GERMANDER.

Class and Order.

DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. labium superius (nullum) ultra basin 2-partitum, divaricatum ubi stamina.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TEUCRIUM latifolium foliis integerrimis rhombeis acutis villosis subtus tomentosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 526. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 276.

TEUCRIUM fruticans baeticum ampliore folio. Dill. Elth. 379. t. 284. f. 367.

The Teucrium latifolium as well as the fruticans, which is nearly related to it, is a native of Spain, and was cultivated in this country in 1714, by the Duchess of BEAUFORT, vid. Ait. Kew.

It is a shrubby plant, growing to the height of seven or eight feet (it may be trained to a much greater height) now common in our greenhouses, and sometimes planted in the open border in warm situations, where it will bear about the same degree of cold as the myrtle; it flowers during most of the summer months, and is readily increased by cuttings.



[246]

AQUILEGIA CANADENSIS. CANADIAN COLUMBINE.

Class and Order.

POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Petala 5. Nectaria 5 corniculata, inter petala. Caps. 5 distinctae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AQUILEGIA canadensis nectariis rectis, staminibus corolla longioribus. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 535. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 248.

AQUILEGIA pumila praaeox canadensis. Corn. Canad. 60.

AQUILEGIA praecox canadensis; flore externe rubicundo, medio luteo. Moris. Hist. 111. p. 457. t. 2. f. 4.

AQUILEGIA Virginiania flore rubescente praecox.

The early red Columbine of Virginia. Park. Th. p. 1367.

PARKINSON was not acquainted with this plant when he wrote his Parad. terr. but in his larger and more general work, the Theat. Pl. published in 1640, he describes and figures it as a plant newly introduced from Virginia, by Mr. JOHN TRADESCANT: CORNUTUS, in his account of the plants of Canada, gives us a representation and a description of this plant also; according to him, its usual height in that country is about nine inches; in the gardens here it nearly equals the common Columbine, which it considerably resembles in the appearance of its foliage, but differs in the form and colour of its flowers, the horn of the nectary is straighter, and the blossom in some of its parts inclines more to orange, which renders it highly ornamental.

It is a hardy perennial, and may be easily propagated by parting its roots in autumn or spring; it may also be raised from seeds, which ripen readily here; these are found to be a long time in vegetating, as are others of this genus.

We have observed in some gardens, a Columbine of more humble growth than the one here figured, called by the name of canadensis, and which most probably is a variety of our plant, its blossoms spread wider, are of a pale red colour without any orange, and hence being less beautiful, is, of course, less worthy of culture.



[247]

SCABIOSA ATROPURPUREA. SWEET SCABIOUS.

Class and Order.

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. communis polyphyllus; proprius duplex, superus. Recept. paleaceum nudum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SCABIOSA atropurpurea corollulis quinquefidis radiantibus, foliis dissectis, receptaculis florum subulatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 145. Ait. Kew. v. i. p. 137.

SCABIOSA peregrina rubra capite oblongo. Bauh. Pin. 270.

SCABIOSA vi. indica. Clus. Hist. 2. p. 3.

Red flowered Indian Scabious. Park. Parad. 324.

It is not a little singular that we should have no certain account of what country this species of Scabious is a native; CLUSIUS who describes and figures it accurately, relates that he received seeds of it from Italy, under the name of Indian Scabious; he informs us also that he received seeds of a Scabious from Spain, which the same year produced flowers of a similar colour, but paler; PARKINSON says this plant is verily thought to grow naturally in Spain and Italy; does he borrow this idea from what CLUSIUS has advanced? he certainly gives no authority for his supposition: LINNAEUS mentions it as a native of India with a note of doubt; MILLER does the same, omitting any doubts about it; Mr. AITON leaves its place of growth unsettled.

The Sweet Scabious has long and deservedly held a place as an ornamental plant in our gardens, the flowers are well adapted for nosegays, have a sweet musky smell, and are produced in great profusion from June to October.

It is a hardy biennial, requiring yearly to be raised from seeds, these should be sown about the latter end of May, or beginning of June, on a shady border of fresh earth, thinning the plants as they advance to the distance of three or four inches; in autumn they should be removed into the border, where they are intended to flower, thus treated they will become good strong plants against winter, flower early the ensuing summer, and produce abundance of perfect seeds.

The blossoms vary in colour, towards autumn the edge of the florets become paler.

PARKINSON, deviating from his usual accuracy, describes the flowers without scent. vid. Parad.



[248]

VINCA ROSEA. MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Contorta. Folliculi 2 erecti. Semina nuda.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VINCA rosea caule fructescente erecto, foliis ovato oblongis, petiolis basi bidentatis, floribus geminis sessilibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 252. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 296.

VINCA foliis oblongo-ovatis integerrimis, tubo floris longissimo, caule ramoso fruticoso. Mill. Icon. 86.

The Vinca rosea was first Cultivated in this country by Mr. PHILIP MILLER in 1757, he observes that it deserves a place in the stove as much as any of the exotic plants we have in England, because the flowers are very beautiful, and there is a constant succession of them all the summer.

The following account is extracted from his Dictionary.

"This plant grows naturally in the Island of Madagascar, from whence the seeds were brought to the Royal Garden at Paris, where the plants were first raised, and produced their flowers the following summer; from these plants good seeds were obtained, which were sent me by Mr. RICHARD, gardener to the King at Versailles and Trianon. It rises to the height of three or four feet; the branches which when young are succulent become ligneous by age: these flowers which appear early in the summer produce ripe seeds in the autumn.

"This sort is propagated by seeds or cuttings in the usual way; unless the summer proves warm these plants should not be placed abroad, for they will not thrive if they are exposed to cold or wet, therefore during the summer they should be placed in an airy glass-case, and in winter they must be removed into the stove, where the air is kept to a temperate heat, without which they will not live through the winter in England. Mill. Dict.

There is a variety of this plant having white blossoms with a purple eye.

The flowers do not always grow in pairs.



[249]

CINERARIA AMELLOIDES. BLUE-FLOWERED CINERARIA or CAPE ASTER.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLOA.

Generic Character.

Recept. nullum. Pappus simplex. Cal. simplex polyphyllus aequalis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CINERARIA Amelloides pedunculis unifloris, foliis oppositis ovatis nudis, caule suffruticoso. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 765. Ait Kew. v. 3. p. 219.

ASTER africanus frutescens ramosus, floribus caeruleis, foliis oppositis minimis, caulibus et ramulis in pedunculos nudos exeuntibus. Raii Suppl. 158.

ASTER caule ramoso scabro perenni, foliis ovatis sessilibus, pedunculis nudis unifloris. Mill. Icon. 76. f. 2.

The Cineraria Amelloides a plant common in every green-house, was introduced by Mr. PHILIP MILLER as long since as the year 1753, being raised by him from Cape seeds; it forms a bushy shrub, of the height of two, or three feet, produces numerous blossoms, which stand singly on long footstalks, are of a pale blue colour; they make some amends for their want of brilliancy by flowering during most of the year.

The plant is easily propagated either by seeds or cuttings.



[250]

MYRTUS TOMENTOSA. WOOLLY-LEAVED MYRTLE.

Class and Order.

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus, superus. Petala 5. Bacca 2. s. 3 sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MYRTUS tomentosa pedunculis unifloris, foliis triplinervii, subtus tomentosis. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 159.

ARBOR sinensis canellae folio minore, trinervi, prona parte villoso, fructu caryophylli aromatici majoris villis similiter obducto. Pluk. Amalth. 21. t. 372. f. 1.

In the third edition of the Species Plant. of LINNAEUS, published in 1764, thirteen Myrtles are described; in the 13th edition of the Syst. Natur. published by GMELIN in 91, forty-one are enumerated; thus in twenty-seven years this genus has gained an accession of twenty-eight species: most of these are natives of warm climates, and few comparatively have been introduced to this country, six species only being mentioned in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. AITON, in that work the tomentosa here figured, not known to LINNAEUS or MILLER is specifically described, and there Mr. AITON informs us that it is a native of China, and was introduced by Mrs. NORMAN about the year 1766.

Since that period it has fallen into the hands of various cultivators, and flowered perhaps in greater perfection than it did originally at Kew; the peduncles, in the various specimens we have seen usually supporting more than one flower.

It is a shrub of great beauty, both in respect to its foliage and flowers, bearing but little similitude to the common Myrtle, if suffered to grow, acquiring the height of many feet.

Its blossoms are produced in June and July, the buds are covered with a white down, as is also the underside of the leaves, whence its name of tomentosa.

It has been customary to treat it as a stove plant, such it is considered in the Hort. Kew. there is great reason however to believe, that it is by no means tender, and that it may succeed as most of the Chinese plants do in a good greenhouse.

It is usually increased by cuttings which are struck difficulty.



[251]

ALLIUM DESCENDENS. PURPLE-HEADED GARLICK.

Class and Order.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-partita, patens. Spatha multiflora. Umbella congesta. Caps. supera.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ALLIUM descendens caule subteretifolio umbellifero, pedunculis exterioribus brevioribus, staminibus tricuspidatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 322. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 425.

ALLIUM staminibus alterne trifidis, foliis fistulosis, capite sphaerico non bulbifero atropurpureo. Hall. All. Tab. 2. f. p. 355. xx. ii.

BARON HALLER in his most admirable Monographia on the plants of this genus, published in his Opuscula Botanica, describes and figures this species, a hardy perennial, being a native of Switzerland, and cultivated according to Mr. AITON, in the garden at Oxford in 1766.

It usually grows to the height of three feet, thriving in almost any soil or situation, its flowers as in many other species grow in a capitulum or little head, not an umbel, strictly speaking, as LINNAEUS describes it; this head is at first covered with a whitish membrane, wearing some resemblance to a night-cap, on the falling off of which the whole of the capitulum is perceived to be of a green colour, shortly the crown of it becomes of a fine reddish purple, this colour extends itself gradually downwards, presently we see the upper half of the head purple, the lower half green, in this state it has a most pleasing appearance; the purple still extending downwards, the whole head finally becomes uniformly so, and then its flowers begin to open, and emit an odour rather agreeable than otherwise; on dissecting a flower we find three of the stamina in each longer than the others, and bearing two little points, which proceed not from the antherae, but from the top of the filaments, it is therefore one of those Alliums which LINNAEUS describes, as having Antherae bicornes.

This species increases readily by offsets, which should be separated and planted in Autumn.

We know not why LINNAEUS should give it the name of descendens, unless from its being one of those plants whose roots in process of time descend deeply into the earth.



[252]

CAMPANULA GRANDIFLORA. GREAT-FLOWERED BELL-FLOWER.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. campanulata fundo clauso valvis staminiferis. Stigma trifidium. Caps. insera poris lateralibus dehiscens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CAMPANULA grandiflora caule subunifloro, foliis sublanceolatis serratis, corolla patente. Jacq. in Litt. Hort. v. 3. t. 2.

CAMPANULA grandiflora foliis ternis oblongis serratis, caule unifloro, flore patulo. Linn. Suppl. p. 140. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 207. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 218.

Professor JACQUIN is, we believe, the first author who has figured this species of Campanula, which he has done in his Hortus Vindebonensis; LINNAEUS the Son afterwards inserted it in his Suppl. Pl. assigning it the characters specified above in the synonyms, and expressing his doubts whether it was not a variety of the Campanula carpatica, already figured in this work, Pl. 117. Prof. JACQUIN clearly demonstrates that it cannot be so, as it differs most essentially from that plant in a variety of particulars, vid. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. his specific description there given, agrees much better with the plants we have seen flower here, than that of LINNAEUS does, there being generally more than one flower on a stalk, and the leaves rarely growing three together.

The blossoms of this plant when it grows in perfection, are very large, nearly twice the size of those of the Campanula carpatica, whence its name of grandiflora; previous to their opening fully, they somewhat resemble an air balloon, from which circumstance it has been called by some the Balloon plant.

It is a hardy perennial, a native of Siberia and Tartary, and was introduced to this country by Mr. JOHN BELL in the year 1782.

It flowers in July, is as yet a rare plant in this country, and likely to continue so, as it is not easily increased, multiplying but little by its roots, scarcely to be struck from cuttings, and rarely producing perfect seeds.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Seventh Volume are alphabetically arranged.

Pl. 251 Allium descendens. 239 Amaryllis Atamasco. 226 Arabis alpina. 243 Argemone mexicana. 246 Aquilegia canadensis. 228 Bellis perennis var. major fl. pl. 217 Buchnera viscosa. 252 Campanula grandiflora. 233 Chironia baccifera. 249 Cineraria Amelloides. 218 Disandra prostrata. 220 Erica cerinthoides. 241 Fagonia cretica. 231 Fumaria solida. 232 —— cava. 227 Helianthus multiflorus. 221 Ipomoea coccinea. 244 —— Quamoclit. 234 Linum arboreum. 225 Lobelia surinamensis. 223 Lychnis coronata. 219 Michauxia campanuloides 250 Myrtus tomentosa. 237 Oxalis caprina. 240 Pelargonium tricolor. 224 Phylica ericoides. 230 Plumbago rosea 229 Primula acaulis fl. pl. carneo. 247 Scabiosa atropurpurea. 238 Senecio elegans. 222 Struthiola erecta. 245 Teucrium latifolium. 235 Trollius asiaticus 248 Vinca rosea. 236 Verbascum Myconi. 242 Veronica decussata



INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Seventh Volume are alphabetically arranged.

Pl. 252 Bell flower great-flowered. 217 Buchnera clammy. 233 Chironia berry-bearing. 249 Cineraria blue-flowered. 246 Columbine canadian. 240 Cranes-bill three-coloured 228 Daisy great double. 218 Disandra trailing. 241 Fagonia cretian. 234 Flax tree. 231 Fumitory solid-rooted. 232 —— hollow-rooted. 251 Garlick purple-headed 245 Germander broad-leaved shrubby. 235 Globe-flower Asiatic. 220 Heath honeywort-flowered. 221 Ipomoea scarlet. 244 —— winged-leaved. 230 Leadwort rose-coloured. 239 Lily Atamasco. 225 Lobelia shrubby. 223 Lychnis chinese. 219 Michauxia rough-leaved. 236 Mullein borage-leaved. 250 Myrtle woolly-leaved. 248 Periwinkle Madagascar. 224 Phylica heath-leaved. 243 Poppy prickly. 229 Primrose lilac double. 238 Rag wort purple. 247 Scabious sweet. 242 Speedwell cross-leaved. 222 Struthiola smooth. 227 Sunflower perennial. 226 Wall-cress alpine. 237 Wood-sorrel goat's-foot.

THE END

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