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The Botanical Magazine, Vol. V - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
by William Curtis
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- Transcriber's note: Older spellings of place names have been left as in the original. -



THE

Botanical Magazine;

OR,

Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated LINNAEUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

By WILLIAM CURTIS,

Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

VOL. V.

——"the garden yields A soft amusement, an humane delight. To raise th' insipid nature of the ground, Or tame its savage genius to the grace Of careless sweet rusticity, that seems The amiable result of happy chance, Is to create, and give a god-like joy, Which ev'ry year improves."

ARMSTRONG.

LONDON:

Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street. For

W. CURTIS, No 3, St. George's-Crescent, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by

the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

M DCC XCI.

* * * * *



[145]

MONARDA FISTULOSA, var. CRIMSON MONARDA.

Class and Order.

DIANDRA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla inaequalis: labio superiore lineari filamenta involvente. Semina 4.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MONARDA fistulosa capitulis terminalibus, caule obtusangulo. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 68. ed. 14. Murr. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 36.

ORIGANUM fistulosum Canadense. Corn. Canad. 13. t. 14.



The Monarda fistulosa, a hardy herbaceous plant, growing spontaneously in Canada, and other parts of North-America, has long been cultivated in the English gardens, to which it recommends itself as much by the fragrance of its foliage, as the beauty of its flowers; of this species the plant here figured is an uncommonly beautiful variety, its blossoms far surpassing those of the original in size, as well as brilliancy of colour, the floral leaves also are highly coloured; we have represented a single blossom of the common Monarda fistulosa, that the difference of the two may be rendered obvious.

This variety has been very lately introduced from Holland, by Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington; it flowers from June to September, and is propagated by parting its roots in spring or autumn.



[146]

HYPERICUM CALYCINUM. LARGE-FLOWER'D ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

Class and Order.

POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Calyx 5-partitus. Petala 5. Filamenta multa, in 5 phalanges basi connata. Capsula.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HYPERICUM calycinum floribus pentagynis solitariis terminalibus, caule tetragono fruticoso, foliis oblongo-ovatis coriaceis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 700. Mant. 106. Hort. Kew. v. 3. 103.

ASCYRUM magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 280. Prodr. 130.

ANDROSAEMUM Constantinopolitanum flore maximo. Wheler's Journey into Greece, p. 205. cum fig.



This species of St. John's-Wort, particularly distinguished by the largeness of its flowers, has very generally been considered as the Ascyron of LINNAEUS, owing to his giving to that plant the synonyms which properly belong to the present one: in his Mantissa, this species is called calycinum, which name is adopted in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, and also in the Hortus Kewensis, where the proper synonyms are applied to it, and from which we learn, that it is a native of the country near Constantinople, and was introduced into this country by Sir GEORGE WHELER, Bart. in 1676.

It is a hardy perennial, increasing much by its roots, which are of the creeping kind, and by parting of which in the autumn it is most readily propagated; like the periwinkle, it is a plant well adapted to cover a bank, or bare, spots under trees, where other plants will not thrive.

It flowers from July to September.



[147]

DAIS COTINIFOLIA. COTINUS-LEAV'D DAIS.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Involucrum 4-phyllum. Cor. 4 s. 5-fida. Bacca 1-sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DAIS cotinifolia floribus quinquefidis decandris. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 403. Spec. Pl. p. 556.

DAIS laurifolia. Jacq. ic. collect. 1. p. 46.



The Dais cotinifolia is an ornamental Green-house Shrub, of the deciduous kind, and though it appears from the Hortus Kewensis to have been introduced by Mr. JAMES GORDON, of Mile-End, in 1776, is yet a great rarity with us, and only to be found in some of the first collections.

Its scarcity, and consequent very high price, is attributed to the Nursery-men's not having yet discovered the means of propagating it freely.

Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. of Kensington, have some very fine plants of it, which flower every year in the months of June and July, but as yet have produced no perfect seeds, which they may be expected to do when grown older; such having been known to ripen them in Holland.

It is a native of the Cape, and appears to have been long possessed by the Dutch, as its Generic Character taken from D. V. ROYEN, is printed in the Genera Plantarum of LINNAEUS in 1764.

There are only two known species, and they vary in the number of their Stamina, and divisions of the Corolla.



[148]

PELARGONIUM BETULINUM. BIRCH-LEAV'D CRANE'S-BILL.

Class and Order.

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filamenta 10, inaequalia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata. L'Herit. Geran.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM betulinum umbellis paucifloris, foliis ovatis inaequaliter serratis laevigatis. L'Herit. n. 84.

GERANIUM betulinum calycibus monophyllis, foliis ovatis inaequaliter serratis planis, caule fruticoso. Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 946. Burm. Ger. 38.

GERANIUM fruticosum, betulae folio, africanum. Raii Suppl. 513.



Though long since described, we have been in possession of this species of Crane's-Bill but a few years; it is one of the many new ones introduced by Mr. MASSON from the Cape, and at the same time one of the most desirable, as its blossoms which are ornamental, are freely produced during most of the summer, and the plant itself is readily propagated by cuttings.

The flowers vary considerably, both in size, and colour; its foliage is different from that of most others, and, as its name imports, like that of the Birch-Tree.

It requires the same treatment as most other Green-House Plants.



[149]

ZINNIA MULTIFLORA. MANY-FLOWERED ZINNIA.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

Generic Character.

Recept. paleaceum. Pappus aristis 2 erectis. Cal. ovato-cylindricus, imbricatus. Flosculi radii 5-10, persistentes, integri.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ZINNIA multiflora floribus pedunculatis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 777.



The Zinnia, multiflora, a native of Louisania, is a plant of more modern introduction, but requires the same treatment, and flowers at the same time, as the Tagetes patula, with which, though far inferior in brilliancy of colour, it contributes to decorate the borders of the flower-garden from June to September.

There is a variety of it with yellow flowers, nearly as common in our gardens as the present plant.

LINNAEUS gave to this genus the name of ZINNIA, in honour of JOH. GOTTFR. ZINN, the pupil of HALLER, and his successor at the University of Gottingen.

The plant we have figured, answers to the name and to the specific description of LINNAEUS'S multiflora; having never seen his pauciflora, we cannot say whether there be any just cause for suspecting them to be varieties of each other.



[150]

TAGETES PATULA. SPREADING TAGETES, or FRENCH MARIGOLD.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

Generic Character.

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus aristis 5 erectis. Cal. 1-phyllus, 5-dentatus, tubulosus. Flosculi radii 4-8, persistentes.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TAGETES patula caule subdiviso patulo. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. 228.

TANACETUM Africanum Flos Africanus minor. Bauh. Pin. 132.

FLOS Africanus. Dod. Pempt. 255. The small single French Marigold. Park. Par. p. 304.



For richness and variety of tints few flowers can vie with this species of Tagetes, which forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens at the close of summer.

Some authors make it a native of Africa, others of America.

Two principal varieties are usually kept in the gardens, the common small sort with a strong disagreeable smell, and a larger one here figured, usually called sweet-scented, the former is of more humble growth, its branches more spreading, its blossoms smaller than those of the latter, the flowers of which have usually a greater portion of the yellow tint, and the smell of the other so modified as to be far less disagreeable; sweet-scented we fear it can scarcely be called: from the seed of both sorts some flowers will be produced extremely double, and others single.

MILLER recommends the seed to be frequently changed, to prevent them from degenerating.

It is one of our tender annuals which require to be raised on a gentle hot-bed, if we are desirous of having them early; if that be not an object, they may be sown under a common hand-glass on a warm border the beginning of May, and, when large enough, planted out in the flower-beds, where they are to remain.

DODONAEUS observes, that the leaves, if held up to the light, appear as if perforated; and he adduces some instances, which prove the plant to be of a poisonous nature.



[151]

LOTUS TETRAGONOLOBUS. WINGED LOTUS.

Class and Order.

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Legumen cylindricum strictum. Alae sursum longitudinaliter conniventes. Cal. tubulosus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LOTUS tetragonolobus leguminibus solitariis membranaceo-quadrangulis, bractaeis ovatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab, p. 691. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 91.

LOTUS ruber siliqua angulosa. Bauh. Pin. 332.

LOTUS pulcherrima tetragonolobus. Comm. Hort. 91. t. 26.

PISUM quadratum, the crimson-blossom'd or square-codded Pease. Park. Parad. p. 338.



A common annual in our gardens, where it has been long cultivated; is a native of Sicily, and flowers in the open borders in July and August; requires the same management as other hardy annuals.

MILLER observes, that it was formerly cultivated as an esculent plant, the green pods being dressed and eaten as peas.



[152]

EPIDENDRUM COCHLEATUM. TWO-LEAV'D EPIDENDRUM.

Class and Order.

GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Nectarium turbinatum, obliquum, reflexum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

EPIDENDRUM cochleatum foliis oblongis geminis glabris striatis bulbo innatis, scapo multifloro, nectario cordato. Linn. Syst. Vegetab, ed. 14. Murr. p. 819. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303.

HELLEBORINE cochleato flore. Plum. Sp. 9. u. 185. fig. 2.



Plants which draw their support from other living ones, of which there are numerous instances, are by Botanists termed parasitical, and of this kind are most of the present family; deriving their generic name, which is of Greek extraction, from growing on trees, into the bark of which they fix their roots; some of them are also found to grow on dead wood, as the present plant, which is described by Sir HANS SLOANE, in his history of Jamaica, V. 1. p. 250. t. 121. f. 2. as not only growing plentifully on trees, but also on the palisadoes of St. Jago de la Vega.

Instances of these plants flowering in England are very rare; Commodore GARDNER, in the year 1789, presented to the Apothecaries company some roots of this plant, taken up in the woods of Jamaica with great care, and which being successfully treated by Mr. FAIRBAIRN in their garden at Chelsea, one of them threw up a flowering stem last February, from whence our drawing was made.

Mr. FAIRBAIRN planted the roots in pots of earth, composed of rotten wood and decayed leaves, plunging them into the tan-bed of a pit of considerable size.

In its fructification, the Epidendrum obviously agrees with the Orchis tribe, but differs essentially in the oeconomy of its roots; in the Orchis the roots spring from the crown of the bulb, which is formed in the earth; in the Epidendrum the bulb, or the part which appears to be analogous to a bulb, though of a green colour, is produced above ground, while the roots or fibres proceed from below it.



[153]

BULBOCODIUM VERNUM. VERNAL BULBOCODIUM.

Class and Order.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis, hexapetala: unguibus angustis staminiferis. Capsula supera.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BULBOCODIUM vernum foliis lanceolatis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 320. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 421. Retz. Obs. Bot. Fasc. 2. t. 1.

COLCHICUM vernum hispanicum. Bauh. Pin. 69. Medowe Saffron of the spring. Park. Parad. p. 158-159. f. 7.



The excellent and learned CLUSIUS, in the second appendix to his history of rare plants, gives a very good figure of this plant, both in flower and seed, accompanied with its history; our PARKINSON also represents it in his Parad. terr. and gives such a minute description of it, as convinces us he must have cultivated it at the time he wrote: Mr. MILLER appears not to have been well acquainted with it, or he would not have described its root to be like that of the Snowdrop; had he said Colchicum, he would not have misled: RETZIUS also in his Bot. Obs. gives a figure of it with the flower dissected.

The Bulbocodium, of which there is only one species, is a mountainous plant, a native of Spain, and flowers in the open ground at the same time as the Crocus, for a purple variety of which it might easily be mistaken at first sight; but it differs from the Crocus in having six stamina, and from the Colchicum, to which it is very nearly allied, in having one style instead of three.

It is at present a rare plant in our gardens, which we attribute to its bulbs not admitting of much increase, as well as to its being liable to be killed by frost, and hence requiring more care than it may be thought entitled to from its appearance.

It varies in the colour of its flowers.



[154]

SAPONARIA OCYMOIDES, BASIL SOAP-WORT.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, nudus. Petala 5 unguiculata. Caps. oblonga 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SAPONARIA Ocymoides calycibus cylindricis villosis, caulibus dichotomis procumbentibus. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 5. app. t. 23. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 87.

LYCHNIS vel Ocymoides repens montanum. Bauh. Pin. 206.



The Saponaria Ocymoides has been figured in the appendix to the fifth volume of the Flora Austriaca in its wild state, as in similar works every plant is expected to be; our figure represents a branch of it only, taken (as all ours in this work professedly are) from a garden specimen which grew on a wall of a particular construction in our garden at Brompton, and of which it was the principal ornament through the months of May, June, and July, during most of which time it was covered with a profusion of bloom[1].

Though it produces blossoms in abundance, it affords but little seed, but may be increased by slips or cuttings.

It is a hardy perennial, a native of France, Italy, Switzerland, and Carinthia, loves a pure air and a dry situation[2], grows best among rocks, stones, or out of a wall, and certainly is one of the best plants imaginable for ornamenting of rock-work.

I received seeds of it, and many other rare plants, from my very kind friend Mr. DAVAL, of Orbe, in Switzerland.



[155]

OXALIS VERSICOLOR. STRIPED-FLOWER'D WOOD-SORREL.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala unguibus connexa. Caps. angulis dehiscens, 5-gona.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

OXALIS versicolor caule erecto hirto, pedunculis unifloris, foliis ternatis: foliolis linearibus callosis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 114. p. 434. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 114.

OXYS Africana foliis tenuissimis, flore amplo versicolore. Pluk. Amalth. 169. t. 434. f. 5.

OXYS Africana foliis tenuissimis in summitate caulis. Raii Suppl. 598.



The Oxalis-versicolor is considered as one of the most beautiful of the many species cultivated in gardens; and, though well known to, and described by several of the older Botanists, has graced our collections but a few years, being introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew, from the Cape (where, as well as in Ethiopia, it grows spontaneously) by Mr. MASSON, in the Year 1774.

Many of this genus flower early in the spring, the season in which this species also puts forth its blossoms, but by dexterous management it may be made to flower during most of the year; and this is effected by placing the pea-like tubera or knobs which the root sends forth, and by which the plant is propagated, in pots filled with loam and bog-earth at stated distant periods.

Like most of the Cape plants, it is well adapted to the greenhouse, and succeeds best when placed on a front shelf of the house, where it can have plenty of light and air; some keep it in the stove, but there the plant is drawn up, and the flowers lose a part of their brilliancy: in no situation do they ever expand but when the sun shines on them; this is the less to be regretted, as they are most beautiful when closed.



[156]

COREOPSIS VERTICILLATA. WHORLED COREOPSIS.

Class and Order.

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.

Generic Character.

Receptaculum paleaceum. Pappus bicornis. Calyx erectus, polyphyllus, basi radiis patentibus cinctus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

COREOPSIS verticillata foliis decomposito-linearibus. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 782.

COREOPSIS foliis verticillatis linearibus multifidis. Gronov. Fl. Virgin. p. 131.

DELPHINII vel mei foliis planta ad nodos positis caule singulari. Clayt. n. 308.



The Coreopsis verticillata is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, a native of North-America; producing its blossoms, which are uncommonly shewy, from July to October, and is readily propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.

It grows to a great height, and is therefore rather adapted to the shrubbery than the flower-garden.

CLAYTON remarks, that the petals, though of a yellow colour, are used by the inhabitants to dye cloth red.



[157]

HYACINTHUS BOTRYOIDES. GRAPE HYACINTH.

Class and Order.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. campanulata: Pori 3 melliferi germinis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HYACINTHUS botryoides corollis globosis uniformibus, foliis canaliculato-cylindricis strictis. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 336. Aiton Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 459.

HYACINTHUS racemosus caeruleus major. Bauh. Pin. 42.

HYACINTHUS Botroides caeruleus amoenus. The skie-coloured grape-flower. Park. Par. p. 114. p. 113. f. 5.



The Hyacinthus botryoides, a native of Italy, and cultivated in the time of GERARD and PARKINSON, is now become scarce with us, being only to be accidentally met with in long-established gardens; we first saw it in the garden of our very worthy and much valued friend, Mr. JOHN CHORLEY, of Tottenham, to whose lady my collection stands indebted for several rare and valuable plants.

This species increases sufficiently fast by offsets, but in the open border does not very readily produce flowering stems: as both it and the racemosus are apt to become troublesome in a garden from their great increase, we would recommend their bulbs to be placed in moderately sized pots filled with light earth, and plunged in the borders where they are designed to flower; in the autumn they should be regularly taken out, the offsets thrown away, and about half a dozen of the largest bulbs left, all of which will most probably flower at the usual time, the end of March or beginning of April.

PARKINSON, who most admirably describes this and the racemosus, enumerates three varieties, viz. the white, the blush-coloured, and the branched; the first is frequently imported with other bulbs from Holland, the second and third we have not seen; the latter, if we may judge from PARKINSON'S fig. in his Parad. is a most curious plant, and was obtained, as CLUSIUS reports, from seeds of the white variety; whether it now exists is deserving of inquiry.

The botryoides differs from the racemosus, in having its leaves upright, its bunch of flowers smaller, the flowers themselves larger, rounder, of a paler and brighter blue.



[158]

HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS. CHINA-ROSE HIBISCUS.

Class and Order.

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Calyx duplex, exterior polyphyllus. Capsula 5-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HIBISCUS Rosa Sinensis foliis ovatis acuminatis serratis, caule arboreo. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 629. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 629.

ALCEA javanica arborescens, flore pleno rubicundo. Breyn. cent. 121. t. 56.

HIBISCUS javanica. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to. by whom cultivated in 1731.



RUMPHIUS in his Herbarium Amboinense gives an excellent account of this beautiful native of the East-Indies, accompanied by a representation of it with double flowers, in which state it is more particularly cultivated in all the gardens in India, as well as China; he informs us that it grows to the full size of our hazel, and that it varies with white flowers.

The inhabitants of India, he observes, are extremely partial to whatever is red, they consider it as a colour which tends to exhilarate; and hence they not only cultivate this plant universally in their gardens, but use its flowers on all occasions of festivity, and even in their sepulchral rites: he mentions also an oeconomical purpose to which the flowers are applied, little consistent with their elegance and beauty, that of blacking shoes, whence their name of Rosae calceolariae; the shoes, after the colour is imparted to them, are rubbed with the hand, to give them a gloss, and which thereby receives a blueish tinge, to discharge which they have recourse to lemon juice.

With us it is kept in the stove, where it thrives and flowers readily during most of the summer; the single blossoms last but a short time, yet their superiority arising from the curious and beautiful structure of the interior parts of the flower, compensates for the shortness of their duration.

It is usually increased by cuttings.



[159]

ALYSSUM SAXATILE. YELLOW ALYSSUM.

Class and Order.

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

Generic Character.

Filamenta quaedam introrsum denticulo notata. Silicula emarginata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ALYSSUM saxatile caulibus frutescentibus paniculatis, foliis lanceolatis mollissimis repandis. Linn. Syst. Veg, ed. 14. Murr. p. 590. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 381.

ALYSSUM Creticum Saxatile, foliis undulatis incanis. Tourn. cor. 15.

THLASPI luteum leucoji folio. Bocc. muf. 79. t. 93.



As this plant has very generally obtained in gardens and nurseries the name of yellow Alyssum, we have retained it; for though it is not the only one of the genus which produces yellow flowers, it may still be called yellow by way of eminence, such is the extreme brilliancy and profusion of its blossoms.

It is a native of Crete, and was first cultivated in this country by Mr. MILLER, in 1731[3], at Chelsea garden.

It begins to flower about the latter end of April, and continues to blossom through great part of May; and it is not uncommon for it to flower again in autumn.

If it has a pure air and a dry situation, it will grow in almost any soil.

The usual mode of propagating it is by slips, or cuttings. As it is a small, shewy, hardy plant, and not disposed to over-run others, it is very suitable to embellish rock-work.



[160]

PULMONARIA VIRGINICA. VIRGINIA LUNGWORT.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis fauce pervia. Calyx prismatico-pentagonus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PULMONARIA Virginica calycibus abbreviatis, foliis lanceolatis obtusiusculis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 187.

PULMONARIA non maculosa, floribus tubulosis longis pulcherrimis caeruleis, in panicula pendula congestis, foliis teneribus glabris latis obtusis, ad margines aequalibus, pediculis dilute purpureis infidentibus, radice crassa instar symphyti. Mountain Cowslip. Clayt. Gron. Fl. Virg. p. 25.



MILLER informs us in his Dictionary, that the Pulmonaria Virginica grows naturally upon mountains in most parts of North-America, that the seeds were sent many years since by Mr. BANISTER, from Virginia; and some of the plants were raised in the garden of the Bishop of London, at Fulham, where for several years it was growing.

Though a native of Virginia, it ranks with the hardy herbaceous plants of our gardens, and flowers in the open border about the middle of April; the blossoms before their expansion are of a reddish purple colour, when fully blown they become of a light bright blue, the foliage is glaucous, or blueish green; it is said to vary with white and flesh-coloured flowers.

In favourable seasons, the Flower-Garden owes much of its gaiety to this elegant plant, and at a time when ornament is most desirable.

It requires a pure air, and a situation moderately sheltered, as the cold easterly winds which too readily prevail in April, when it is in flower, are apt to deface it.

It is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and is a free grower.



[161]

AMYGDALUS NANA. DWARF ALMOND.

Class and Order.

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus, inferus. Petala 5. Drupa nuce poris perforata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMYGDALUS nana foliis basi attenuatis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 162. Pallas. Ross. 1. p. 12. t. 6.

AMYGDALUS indica nana. Pluk. alm. 28. t. 11. f. 3.

ARMENIACA persicae foliis, fructu exsucco. Amm. Ruth. 273. t. 30.



The Dwarf Almond, a native of Russia and Tartary, is justly considered as one of our most ornamental shrubs; it rarely rises above the height of three feet, and hence becomes very suitable for the shrubbery of small extent. It flowers about the middle of April, somewhat later than the common Almond.

MILLER observes, that the roots are apt to put out suckers, by which the plant may be increased in plenty; and if those are not annually taken away, they will starve the old plant.

Cultivated in 1683, by Mr. JAMES SUTHERLAND. Ait. Hort. Kew.



[162]

SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. CANADA PUCCOON, or BLOODWORT.

Class and Order.

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 8-petala. Cal. 2-phyllus. Siliqua ovata, 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SANGUINARIA Canadensis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 489.

CHELIDONIUM majus Canadense acaulon. Corn. Canad. 212.

RANUNCULUS Virginiensis albus. Park. Theat. 226.

SANGUINARIA flore simplici. Dill. Elth. t. 252.



Though the Sanguinaria cannot be considered as a handsome shewy plant, yet we scarcely know its equal in point of delicacy and singularity; there is something in it to admire, from the time that its leaves emerge from the ground, and embosom the infant blossom, to their full expansion, and the ripening of its seed vessels.

The woods of Canada, as well as of other parts of North-America, produce this plant in abundance with us it flowers in the beginning of April: its blossoms are fugacious, and fully expand only in fine warm weather. It is a hardy perennial, and is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn; a situation moderately shady, and a soil having a mixture of bog-earth or rotten leaves in it suits it best.

Its knobby roots, when broken asunder, pour forth a juice of a bright red or orange colour, whence its name of Sanguinaria: with this liquid the Indians are said to paint themselves.

DILLENIUS, has figured it in his admirable work, the Hortus Elthamensis, where three varieties of it are represented, viz. a large one, a small one, and one in which the petals are multiplied, but which can scarcely be called double.

It appears from MORISON[4], that the Sanguinaria was cultivated in this country in 1680, the date of his work.



[163]

PHLOX DIVARICATA. EARLY-FLOWERING LYCHNIDEA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Corolla hypocrateriformis. Filamenta inaequalia. Stigma 3-fidum. Cal. prismaticus. Caps. 3-locularis, i-sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PHLOX divaricata foliis lato-lanceolatis: superioribus alternis, caule bifido, pedunculis geminis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab, p. 199. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 206.

LYCHNIDEA virginiana, alsines aquaticae foliis, floribus in ramulis divaricatis. Pluk. Mant. 121?



Most of the plants of this genus are natives of North-America, and remarkable for their beauty; they were first introduced under the name of Lychnidea, which, though a Latin term, is now familiarized to the English ear.

Mr. AITON has given to this species the name of early-flowering, it coming much sooner into blossom than any of the others, beginning to flower in May with the yellow Alyssum; its blossoms, however, are not of so long duration, nor so ornamental as some others of the same family.

It seldom exceeds a foot in height, and, on this account, may be regarded as a suitable rock-plant.

It rarely ripens its seeds with us, but is readily increased either by cuttings or layers; succeeds best in a pure air and a situation moderately dry.

Like most other American plants, it is of modern introduction, was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1758, and figured in his Icones.



[164]

RANUNCULUS GRAMINEUS. GRASS-LEAVED CROWFOOT.

Class and Order.

POLYANDRIA POLYGNIA.

Generic Character.

Calyx 5-phyllus. Petala 5 intra ungues poro mellifero. Semina nuda.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

RANUNCULUS gramineus foliis lanceolato linearibus indivisis, caule erecto laevissimo paucifloro. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 515. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 265.

RANUNCULUS gramineo folio bulbosus. Bauh. Pin. 181?

RANUNCULUS montanus folio gramineo. Bauh. Pin. 180.

RANUNCULUS gramineus. Grasse leafed Crowfoot. Park. Parad. p. 218. 221. f. i.



This species of Ranunculus, an inhabitant of the dry pastures South of France and Italy, and a hardy herbaceous plant of ready growth, recommends itself by the earliness of its flowering and the delicate glaucous colour of its foliage. PARKINSON figures it with double flowers, though he describes it with semi-double ones only; we have not observed either of these varieties in the gardens about London, they have most probably fallen victims to the rage for novelty, at the shrine of which many a fair and goodly flower is yearly sacrificed.

It flowers towards the end of April, and is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.

The synonyms of this and other species of Ranunculus described in GERARD'S Fl. Gallopr. are very inaccurately quoted in Professor MURRAY'S edition of the Syst. Vegetab.



[165]

PELARGONIUM CORDIFOLIUM. HEART-LEAVED GERANIUM.

Class and Order.

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema, definente in tubulum capilarem, nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filam. 10 inaequalia: quorum 3. (raro 5) castrata. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia introrsum barbata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM cordatum umbellis multifloris, foliis cordatis acutis dentatis, petalis inferis linearibus acutis. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 427.

GERANIUM cordifolium. Cavan. Diss. p. 240. t. 117. f. 3.



Our readers are here presented with the figure of another Geranium of modern introduction, not enumerated by LINNAEUS or MILLER, and which in point of beauty, duration of flowering, and facility of culture, is equal to most.

It was introduced to the Royal Garden, at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr. MASSON, in 1774.

There are several varieties of it, but the one here figured is the most beautiful.

It strikes readily from cuttings, by which it is usually propagated.

Requires the same treatment as the more common Geraniums, and flowers, from March to July.



[166]

CHEIRANTHUS MARITIMUS. MEDITERRANEAN STOCK.

Class and Order.

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

Generic Character.

Germen utrinque denticulo glandulato. Cal. clausus: foliolis duobus basi gibbis. Semina plana.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CHEIRANTHUS maritimus foliis ellipticis obtusis nudis scabriusculis, caule diffuso scabro. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 597. Mantiss. p. 568. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 395.

LEUCOJUM minus flore violaceo. Barr. Ic. 1127.



LINNAEUS has described this plant minutely in his Mantissa Plant, so that no doubt remains of its being his maritimus.

With us, it has been customary for Gardeners and Nurserymen to distinguish this species by the name of Virginia Stock, a name highly improper, as it is found to be a native of the Mediterranean coast.

The blossoms which this plant first puts forth are of a lively red, in a few days they become of a blueish purple colour; to this variety of hues the plant owes its chief beauty.

Being of humble growth, and producing a profusion of bloom, which is of long duration, it is frequently used as an edging to borders, and sometimes sown in little patches with other annuals; in whatever way used, it contributes greatly to enliven the borders of the flower-garden.

It is one of those annuals whose seeds should be sown in the autumn, as it thereby comes much forwarder into bloom, and its blossoms are more lively than those arising from seeds sown in the spring; by varying the time of sowing, it may be had to flower in spring, summer, and autumn.

Small pots of it in bloom have a pretty appearance, and may be used to decorate the windows of those who reside in cities or great towns, where the pleasures of the garden are not to be enjoyed.



[167]

SOPHORA TETRAPTERA. WINGED-PODDED SOPHORA.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Calyx 5-dentatus, superne gibbus. Cor. papilionacea: alis-longitudine vexilli. Legumen.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SOPHORA tetraptera foliis pinnatis foliolis numerosis (17—19) lanceolato-oblongis villosiusculis: leguminibus membranaceo-quadrangulis, caule arboreo. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 43.

SOPHORA tetraptera. Job. Miller ic. tab. 1.



The magnificent and highly curious species of Sophora here represented, is one of the many plants discovered by Sir JOSEPH BANKS at New-Zealand, where it forms a tree of a considerable size.

A finer sight can scarcely be imagined than a tree of this sort, extending to a great breadth on a wall with a western aspect, in the Apothecaries Garden at Chelsea, where it was planted by Mr. FORSYTH about the year 1774, and which at this moment (April 28, 1791) is thickly covered with large pendulous branches of yellow, I had almost said golden flowers; for they have a peculiar richness, which it is impossible to represent in colouring; in the winter care is taken to cover it carefully with mats, least it should suffer from any extraordinarily severe weather.

It usually produces a few seed vessels of an uncommon form, having four wings, whence its name of tetraptera; from some of the seeds which have ripened in this country plants have been raised, and by these the plant is found to be propagated with the most success; it may also be increased by cuttings and layers.



[168]

IRIS PAVONIA. PEACOCK IRIS.

Class and Order.

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala inaequalis, Petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus, Stigmata petaliformia; cucullato-bilabiata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS pavonia imberbis folio lineari glabro, scapo subunifloro. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 92.



We have our doubts whether the plant here figured be the pavonia of the Systema Vegetabilium, as it does not accord so well with the description there given, as we could wish; as such however it has been regarded by some here, and it must be allowed to answer extremely well to the name.

It is a small delicate Iris, about a foot and a half high, with very narrow leaves, bearing on the top of the stalk one or at most two flowers, three of the petals are large and white, with a brilliant blue spot at the base of each, edged on the outer side with deep purple; the delicacy of the flower, and the eye-like spot at the base of three of the petals, render at one of the most striking plants of the genus.

The figure here given was drawn from a plant which flowered with Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. last June, who received it from Holland, and treat it in the same way as their Cape bulbs, of which country it is said to be a native.

It is not mentioned either in Mr. MILLER'S Gardener's Dictionary, or the Hortus Kewensis.



[169]

IXORA COCCINEA. SCARLET IXORA.

Class and Order.

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 1-petala, infundibuliformis, longa, supera, Stamina supra faucem. Bacca 4-sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IXORA coccinea foliis ovalibus semiamplexicaulibus, floribus fasciculatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 148.

JASMINUM indicum, lauri folio, inodorum umbellatum, floribus coccineis. Pluk. alm. 196. t. 59. s. 2.

CERASUS zeylanica humilis sylvestris, floribus holosericeis intense rubris umbellatim congestis, fructibus nigris. Mus. Zeyl. p. 15.

FLAMMA SYLVARUM Rumph. Amb. 4. p. 105. t. 46.



It will appear strange, we presume, to most of our readers, when they are informed, that the Ixora coccinea, a plant at present in few hands, and which a short time since was sold in some of our nurseries for five guineas, should have been known in this country a hundred years ago; and yet Mr. AITON, who has so laudably exerted himself, in ascertaining the precise period, when most of the exotics cultivated in the royal garden at Kew first made their appearance in Great-Britain, informs us on very respectable authority, that this plant was introduced by Mr. BENTICK in 1690.

There is every reason to suppose, that this splendid exotic did not long survive its introduction; on inquiry, we learn that it was reintroduced about fifteen years ago, by the late Dr. JOHN FOTHERGILL, a name, to medicine and botany ever dear, in whose rich and magnificent collection at Upton was first known to flower; about the same time, the late Mr. THOBURN, Nurseryman at Brompton, raised a few Ixoras from foreign seeds, and from these (an accident having happened to the plant which was Dr. FOTHERGILL'S) are said to have arisen the plants at present in this country.

Both RHEEDE and RUMPHIUS describe and figure this plant in their respective works, the Hortus Malabaricus and Herbarium Amboinense; it is mentioned also by several other authors: from their various accounts we discover, that in different parts of India, where it grows wild, it forms a slender shrub, or tree, about six feet high, rising generally with a single stem; that its clusters of flowers, seen from afar are so brilliant as to resemble a burning coal, especially in a dark wood, whence its name of Flamma Sylvarum; that it grows in the woods, and flowers in September and October, producing a black fruit, the size of small cherries, on which the peacocks are supposed to feed, and from whence they have obtained the name of Cerasa Pavonina. The Chinese call it Santanhoa; with them it produces flowers and fruit the year through, and they hold the blossoms in such veneration, as to use them in the sacrifices they make to their idol IXORA, whence LINNAEUS has taken the name applied by him to this genus. The root is said to possess some acrimony, and to be made use of by the natives in curing the toothach.

It is customary in this country, to treat the Ixora as a stove plant; perhaps it may be less tender than we are aware of; it flowers in July and August, but has not been known to produce fruit; is increased from cuttings, without much difficulty.

Our drawing was taken from a small but very healthy plant in the stove of Mr. WHITLEY (late THOBURN and WHITLEY, Brompton).

LINNAEUS describes, and some authors figure this plant with stipulae, which our plant had not, not being arrived at an age, perhaps, to produce them.



[170]

DRABA AIZOIDES. SENGREEN DRABA, or WHITLOW-GRASS.

Class and Order.

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

Generic Character.

Silicula integra, ovali-oblonga: valvis planiusculis, dissepimento parallelis. Stylus nullus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DRABA aizoides scapo nudo simplici, foliis ensiformibus carinatis ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. Murr. p. 372. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 372.

SEDUM alpinum hirsutum luteum. Bauh. Pin. 284.

LEUCOJUM luteum aizoides montanum. Col. Ecphr. 2. p. 62.



The plant here figured, a native of the German Alps, is one of those whose beauty cannot be shewn in a small detached piece of it; to be admired, it must be seen in a tuft of some considerable size, which it is much disposed to form when growing among rock-work, for which, like many other small Alpine plants, it is well suited; thus elevated above the surface of the ground, the various beauties of this humble race are more distinctly seen, and their curious structure more readily inspected.

This species is the more to be esteemed, as it flowers very early in the spring, in March, and the beginning of April, and continues in blossom about six weeks.

LINNAEUS originally confounded it with a similar plant, the Draba alpina, a mistake since rectified in his Mantissa Plant. p. 91.



[171]

IXIA CHINENSIS. CHINESE IXIA.

Class and Order.

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. Stigmata 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IXIA chinensis foliis ensiformibus; floribus remotis, panicula dichotoma, floribus pedunculatis. Linn. Sp. Pl. v. i. p. 52. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. i. p. 62.

MORAEA chinensis caule compresso, foliis ensiformibus, panicula dichotoma, floribus pedunculatis. Murr. Syst. Vegetab. p. 93.



In that elaborate and inestimable work, the Hortus Malabaricus, we have a good figure of the plant here exhibited, accompanied by a minute description; the author informs us that it grows spontaneously in India, attaining the height even of five or six feet, and affecting a sandy soil; the natives consider it as an antidote to poisons in general, and regard the bruised root as peculiarly efficacious in curing the bite of the serpent, called Cobra de Copella.

We raised plants of it last year from seeds imparted to us by J. IBBETTSON, Esq. of the Admiralty; this year, during the months of August and September, many of them have flowered, and capsules are forming which have every appearance of producing perfect seeds; the root of this plant is yellow, and tuberous like that of the Iris, the leaves also greatly resemble those of that tribe, it grows to the height of about three feet, and produces a considerable number of flowers in succession each of which is of short duration.

The root and radical leaves as represented on the plate are much smaller than in plants which have been long established.

Our plants stood in pots in the open ground through the winter of 1790-1 without injury, but it must be remembered, that the weather during that period was uncommonly mild; it will be safest therefore to consider it as a tender herbaceous plant.

It differs so much in its fructification from many others of the genus, that Prof. MURRAY has considered it as a Moraea, with which, in our humble opinion, it has scarcely any affinity.



[172]

LAMIUM ORVALA. BALM-LEAVED ARCHANGEL, or DEAD-NETTLE.

Class and Order.

DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

Generic Character.

Corollae labium superius integrum, fornicatum; lab. infer. 2-lobum; faux utrinque margine dentata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LAMIUM Orvala foliis cordatis inaequaliter arguteque serratis, corollis fauce inflata, caulibus coloratis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 534.

LAMIUM maximum sylvaticum alterum. Bauh. Pin. 231.

GALEOPSIS maxima pannonica. Clus. hist. 2. p. 35. Hungary Dead-Nettle, or the Dragon Flower. Park. Parad. p. 385.



Few of the plants of this genus have been thought to possess sufficient beauty for the flower-garden, the present one excepted, the magnificence of whose blossoms justly entitles it to rank with the more curious, if not the most beautiful of the vegetable tribes.

Though not common in our gardens, it has long been introduced, having been cultivated and accurately described, though badly figured, by PARKINSON in his Parad. terr.

It grows spontaneously in the woods of Italy and Hungary, and flowers with us about the latter end of April, at which time, if cold winds prevail, it is apt to be injured, unless placed in a sheltered part of the garden.

It may be propagated either by seeds, or by parting its roots in autumn, is a hardy plant and grows readily.



[173]

AITONIA CAPENSIS. CAPE AITONIA.

Class and Order.

MONADELPHIA OCTANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Monogyna. Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. 4-petala. Bacca sicca, 4-angularis, 1-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AITONIA Capensis. Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 303. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 612.

COTYLEDON foliis linearibus, flore quadrifido, fructu subrotundo. Burm. Afric. 53. t. 21. s. 2.



This genus, of which there is only one known species, has been named by the younger LINNAEUS, in honour of Mr. WILLIAM AITON, author of the Hortus Kewensis, and Botanic Gardener to his Majesty. The great length of time[5], Mr. AITON has been engaged in the cultivation of plants, the immense numbers which have been the constant objects of his care through every period of their growth, joined to his superior discernment, give him a decided superiority in the prima facie knowledge of living plants over most Botanists the present day; his abilities in the other line of his profession, are displayed in the eulogies of all who have seen the royal collection at Kew, which he has the honour to superintend.

The Aitonia is a native of the Cape, and was introduced by Mr. MASSON, in the year 1774.

It is a greenhouse shrub of slow growth, seldom exceeding three feet in height; producing, when of sufficient age, flowers and fruit through most of the year; the fruit is a large dry angular berry, of a fine red colour.

Our drawing was made from a very fine plant, formerly Dr. FOTHERGILL'S, now in the collection of Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.

It is only to be raised from seeds, which are sparingly produced in this country.



[174]

BUDDLEA GLOBOSA. ROUND-HEADED BUDDLEA.

Class and Order.

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. 4-fida. Stamina ex incifuris. Caps. 2-fulca, 2-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BUDDLEA globosa foliis lanceolatis, capitulis solitariis. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 150. V. 1.

BUDLEJA globosa. Hope in Act. Harlem, V. 20. part. 2. p. 417. t. 11.

PALQUIN Feuil. it. 3. p. 51. t. 38.



Mr. ADAM BUDDLE, in honour of whom the present genus has been originally named by Dr. HOUSTON, was an ingenious English Botanist, cotemporary with, and the friend of PETIVER; his name is often mentioned in the Synopsis of Mr. RAY and his Hortus Siccus, or dried collection of British plants, preserved in the British Museum, still resorted to in doubtful cases.

The present species not enumerated either by LINNAEUS or MILLER, is a native of Chili, and according to the Hort. Kew. was introduced by Messrs. KENNEDY and LEE, in 1774.

It has been customary, in consideration of its native place of growth, to treat it here as a greenhouse plant, for which situation it soon becomes unfit from its magnitude; some have ventured to plant it in the open borders in warm sheltered situations, where it has been found to succeed very well, producing its beautiful yellow blossoms in abundance; care must be taken, however, to guard it carefully from severe frosts, which are apt to destroy it.

It flowers in May and June, and is usually propagated by cuttings or layers.



[175]

KALMIA LATIFOLIA. BROAD-LEAV'D KALMIA.

Class and Order.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Calyx 5-partitus. Cor. hypocrateriformis: limbo subtus quinquecorni. Caps. 5-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

KALMIA latifolia foliis ovato-ellipticis ternis sparsisque, corymbis terminalibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 64. ed. 14. Murr. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 64.

ANDROMEDA foliis ovatis obtusis, corollis corymbosis infundibuliformis, genitalibus declinatis. Fl. Virg. 160.

CHAMAEDAPHNE foliis tini, floribus bullatis. Catesb. Car. 11. t. 98.

CISTUS chamaerhododendros Mariana laurifolia, floribus expansis, summo ramulo in umbellam plurimis. Pluk. mant. 49. t. 379. s. 6. The common Laurel, vulgarly called Ivy.



Professor KALM (in honour of whom LINNAEUS, as before has been observed, named this genus of plants) in his travels into North-America, published in English by Mr. FORSTER, relates that he found this species in various provinces of that extensive continent, as Pensylvania, New-Jersey, and New-York, growing most commonly on the sides of hills, sometimes in woods; that it flourished most on the northern sides of the hills, especially where they were intersected by rivulets; he observes, that when all the other trees had lost their ornaments, this enlivened the woods by the verdure of its foliage, and that about the month of May, it was covered with a profusion of blossoms of unrivalled beauty.



[176]

CYTISUS LABURNUM. COMMON LABURNUM.

Class and Order.

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus: 2/3. Legumen basi attenuatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CYTISUS Laburnum racemis simplicibus pendulis, foliolis ovato-oblongis. Linn. Syst. Veg. p. 666. ed. 14. Murr. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 49.

LABURNUM arbor trifolia anagyridi similis. Bauh. hist. 2. p. 361.

LABURNUM. Beane Trefoile. Park. Parad. p. 438.



Of the Laburnum, our nurseries afford two principal varieties, the broad and narrow-leav'd; the latter (which is the one here figured) Mr. MILLER was induced to make a species of under the name of alpinum; it certainly differs very materially from the broad-leav'd one, yet is most probably only a seminal variety; the Laburnum figured in its wild state by Professor JACQUIN, in his Flora Austriaca, has much broader leaves than ours, no mention is made by him of its being subject to vary.

Both MILLER and HANBURY recommend the Laburnum to be cultivated not only as an ornamental but as a timber tree, the wood having a very close grain, a good colour, and bearing a high polish;[6] they urge in its favour, that it is very hardy, a quick grower, and one that will thrive in almost any soil; the latter says, it will become a timber tree of more than a yard in girt: whatever success may attend its cultivation for the more useful purposes, as a hardy, deciduous, ornamental tree, it has long been the pride of our shrubberies and plantations.

It blossoms in May, and is usually very productive of seeds, by which it may be propagated most readily.

Hares and rabbits being fond of its bark, do great damage to plantations of Laburnum, especially in severe weather; I remember somewhere to have read, that these animals will not touch a tree if soot has been placed about it; perhaps, a circle drawn round the base of the tree with the new coal tar, which has a powerful smell of long duration, might keep off these noxious animals.

The Professor does not mention the precise height which he had observed these trees to attain in North-America, but it is evident that they acquire a considerable thickness, as the wood of the root as well as the body of the tree is manufactured into various utensils by the natives, and by the Indians into spoons in particular, whence it has obtained the name of the Spoon Tree.

The leaves have been found to prove poisonous to kine, horses, and sheep, but the deer are observed to brouse on them with impunity.

PETER COLLINSON, Esq. who was highly instrumental in enriching this country with the native plants of North-America, is said to have introduced this elegant species about the year 1734.

With us it succeeds best when planted with a northern aspect, well sheltered, in a soil composed of loam and bog earth, in a situation moderately moist, where the air is perfectly pure.

Being with difficulty propagated by suckers or layers, it is most commonly raised from American seeds.



[177]

KALMIA GLAUCA. GLAUCOUS KALMIA.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

KALMIA glauca foliis oppositis oblongis laevigatis, subtus glaucis, margine revolutis, corymbis terminalibus, ramulis ancipitibus. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 64. tab. 8.



This species (much inferior in size to the latifolia, as it rarely exceeds two feet in height) is a native of Newfoundland, where it was discovered by Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart. and by him introduced to this country in the year 1767.

It is of course not described by Mr. MILLER, nor is it mentioned the in the 14th edition of LINNAEUS'S Syst. Vegetab. by Professor MURRAY; in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. AITON, it is both described and figured.

It flowers in April and May, is propagated in the same manner and requires the same treatment as the latifolia.



[178]

HYPERICUM CORIS. HEATH-LEAV'D. ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

Class and Order.

POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Nect. 0. Capsula.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HYPERICUM Coris floribus trigynis, calycibus serrato-glandulosis, foliis subverticillatis. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 702.

CORIS lutea. Bauh. pin. 280.

CORIS legitima, Ericae similis. Hon. Belli, ep. 1. ad Cluj. Clus. op. V. 1. p. 299.

CORIS. Matthioli 939.



There is an elegance and neatness in most of this tribe, and none possess those qualities in a greater degree than the present species, which is a charming little evergreen, admirably adapted for the greenhouse, as it forms a pretty bulb, and flowers during most of the summer.

It grows spontaneously in the South of Europe, and many parts of the Levant; HONORIUS BELLUS, in his epistle CLUSIUS (vid. Clus. op.) describes it as growing on the hilly parts of the island of Crete.

Mr. LEE, of Hammersmith, received it about four years since from the Crimea.

It is propagated by cuttings.



[179]

FUMARIA GLAUCA. GLAUCOUS FUMITORY.

Class and Order.

DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.

Generic Character.

Cal. diphyllus. Cor. ringens. Filamenta 2, membranacea, singula Antheris 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FUMARIA sempervirens siliquis linearibus paniculatis, caule erecto. Linn. Sp. Pl. V. 2. p. 984. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 837. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 2. Bastard Fumitory. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

FUMARIA siliquosa sempervirens. Corn. Canad. 57. t. 57.



The term sempervirens applied to this plant by LINNAEUS, originated in the description given of it by CORNUTUS; (vid. Syn.) the impropriety of calling an annual plant (for such it undoubtedly is with us, and must be in Canada, its native place of growth) an evergreen, has appeared to us too glaring to be continued; we have thought the promotion of the science required a change in the name, and have therefore altered it to that of glauca, as coinciding with the English name of glaucous, given it by Mr. AITON in his Hortus Kewensis; for to the delicate, pleasing, glaucous hue of its foliage, it owes its beauty, as much as to the lively colours of its blossoms.

It is a hardy annual, coming up spontaneously in the open border where it has once flowered and seeded, and sometimes reaching the height of two feet.

It flowers from June to September.

Mr. AITON informs us of its having been cultivated by Mr. JAMES SUTHERLAND in the year 1683. Strange! that it should yet be a rarity in our gardens.



[180]

AZALEA NUDIFLORA var. COCCINEA. SCARLET AZALEA.

Class and Order.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Generic Character.

Cor. campanulata. Stamina receptaculo inferta. Caps. 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AZALEA nudiflora foliis ovatis, corollis pilosis, staminibus longissimis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 198. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 1. p. 202.

CISTUS virginiana, periclymeni flore ampliori minus odorato. Pluck. Mant. 49.



Whether the variety of the Azalea nudiflora here figured, was originally introduced to this country by Mrs. NORMAN of Bromley in Kent, or Mr. BEWICK of Clapham in Surrey (both celebrated for their collections of American plants) we cannot with certainty assert; true it is, the Azalea coccinea was little known here till the sale of Mr. BEWICK'S plant in 1722; a considerable number of these shrubs formed the choicest part of that collection, and sold at high prices, one of them produced twenty guineas: prior to this period, Mr. BEWICK had presented one of the same sort of shrubs to Mr. THOBURN, the fruits of whose skill and assiduous care in the cultivation of American plants are apparent in his late nursery at Brompton, now Mr. WHITLEY'S, and from the produce of which plant our figure was taken.

The original species, found abundantly in the more southern parts of North-America, was introduced, according to Mr. AITON'S account, by PETER COLLINSON, Esq. about the year 1724.

The brilliancy of colour and a happy combination of form, unite in rendering the variety here figured, one of the most beautiful plants in nature: yet it wants the fragrance of some of the varieties of the viscosa.

It flowers in June and continues in blossom about three weeks, requires a sheltered but not too shady a situation, more dry than moist, and a soil composed of loam and bog earth, or rotten leaves.

The usual mode of propagating it is by layers; care must be taken not to remove the offspring too soon from the mother plant.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Fourth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

Pl.

173 Aitonia capensis. 159 Alyssum saxatile. 161 Amygdalus nana. 180 Azalea nudiflora var. coccinea. 174 Buddlea globosa. 153 Bulbocodium vernum. 166 Cheiranthus maritimus. 156 Coreopsis verticillata. 176 Cytisus Laburnum. 147 Dais continifolia. 170 Draba aizoides. 152 Epidendrum cochleatum. 179 Fumaria glauca. 158 Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis. 157 Hyacinthus botryoides. 146 Hypericum calycinum. 178 Hypericum Coris. 168 Iris pavonia. 171 Ixia chinensis. 169 Ixora coccinea. 175 Kalmia latifolia. 177 Kalmia glauca. 172 Lamium Orvala. 151 Lotus tetragonolobus. 145 Monarda fistulosa var. 155 Oxalis versicolor. 165 Pelargonium cordifolium. 148 Pelargonium betulinum. 163 Phlox divaricata. 160 Pumonaria virginica. 164 Ranunculus gramineus. 162 Sanguinaria canadensis. 167 Sophora tetraptera. 154 Saponaria Ocymoides. 150 Tagetes patula. 149 Zinnia multiflora.



INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Fourth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

Pl.

173 Aitonia cape. 161 Almond dwarf. 159 Alyssum yellow. 172 Archangel balm-leav'd. 180 Azalea scarlet. 174 Buddlea round-headed. 153 Bulbocodium vernal. 148 Crane's-bill birch-leav'd. 165 Crane's-bill heart-leav'd. 164 Crowsfoot grass-leav'd. 156 Coreopsis whorled. 147 Dais continus-leav'd. 170 Draba fengreen. 152 Epidendrum two-leav'd. 179 Fumitory glaucous. 158 Hisicus china-rose. 157 Hyacinth grape. 168 Iris peacock. 171 Ixia Chinese. 169 Ixora scarlet. 175 Kalmia broad-leav'd. 177 Kalmia glaucous. 176 Laburnum common. 151 Lotus winged. 160 Lungwort Virginian. 163 Lychnidea early-flowering. 150 Marigold French. 145 Monarda crimson. 162 Puccoon Canada. 146 St. John's-wort large-flower'd. 178 St. John's-wort heath-leav'd. 154 Soap-wort basil. 167 Sophora winged-podded. 166 Stock Mediterranean. 155 Wood-sorrel striped-flower'd. 149 Zinnia many-flower'd.

* * * * *

FOOTNOTES

[1] Pulcherrimos et latissimos in rupibus cespites efficit. Haller.

[2] Delectatur solo duro, arenoso, umbroso sylvarum. Jacquin.

[3] Ait. Hort. Kew.

[4] Provenit sponte in America occidentali five in Virginia seu Canada, unde semen ad nos delata, quibus propagata ejus fobeles abundanter satis in hortulo suburbano Gul. Walker non longe a palatio Divi Jacobi, sito in vico ejusdem nominis Jacobeo dicto.

[5] Mr. A. was a pupil of the celebrated Mr. MILLER.

[6] MATTHIOLUS long since noticed the excellence of this wood, and speaks of it as being particularly used for making the best kind of bows; are our modern Toxopholites acquainted with this circumstance?

THE END

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