THE CHURCH HANDY DICTIONARY
TO THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD
CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, D.D.
LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN,
THIS LITTLE BOOK IS
(WITH HIS LORDSHIP'S KIND PERMISSION)
RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY
THE CHURCH HANDY DICTIONARY
Dedicated by permission
TO THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN.
JAMES POTT & CO., 14 & 16, ASTOR PLACE.
CHURCH HANDY DICTIONARY.
Additions and Corrections.
ALTAR CLOTH, p. 3 add— This is the modern Roman sequence of colours, but there is another more truly belonging to the English Church, viz., the Sarum, in which only Red and White are used.
HERESY, p. 53, line, for "not taught" read "formally condemned."
MIRACLES, p. 69, at the end, dele. and add— , which latter deals with certain specious arguments adduced by these writers against the a priori possibility of a miracle taking place.
PRESENCE, REAL, p. 81, add,— Bishop Harold Brown says, in his history of Art. 28, "The doctrine of a real, spiritual presence is the doctrine of the English Church," and quotes the following passage from Jer. Taylor: "The result of which doctrine is this: it is bread, and it is Christ's Body. It is bread in substance, Christ in the Sacrament; and Christ is as really given to all that are truly disposed, as the symbols are: each as they can; Christ as Christ can be given; the bread and the wine as they can; and to the same real purpose to which they were designed."
The Article referred to above states, "The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the Body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is Faith."
From the nature of the case a little work such as this cannot lay claim to much originality, but must be, in the main, a compilation from various sources. Thus the articles on controverted subjects set forth the views of the best authorities to which the compiler has had access, but not necessarily his own, though his stand-point all along is, he trusts, distinctly that of the Church of England.
The idea of this book was suggested by Dean Hook's invaluable Church Dictionary, but, as will be seen on comparison, it is by no means a mere abridgement of that work, many other authors having been laid under contribution, and fresh articles having been added. Dean Hook's Dictionary is admirable for its comprehensiveness and general accuracy, but unfortunately the price puts it out of the reach of most of those for whose use the present "Handy Dictionary" is intended.
The compiler wishes to furnish not only the younger clergy, but also the laity of the Church of England, with a cheap and handy book of reference on all Church matters. He believes that Sunday School Teachers and Church Workers, Teachers in National Schools, the upper scholars in Church Schools of higher grade, both public and private; and, indeed, all engaged in the elementary study of the Prayer Book, or of Church History, will find this short "Handy Dictionary" full of useful information.
The compiler desires in this place to acknowledge gratefully his obligations to all the authors and books consulted, especially to those contained in the following list:—
Hook's Church Dictionary.
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity.
Bishop Harold Browne on the Thirty-nine Articles.
Bishop Wordsworth's Greek Testament.
Bishop Wordsworth's Theophilus Anglicanus.
Hart's Ecclesiastical Record'.
Riddle's Christian Antiquities.
Smith's Bible Dictionary.
Sir R. Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law.
The S.P.C.K. Teacher's Prayer Book.
Bishop Barry's Teacher's Prayer Book.
Procter on the Book of Common Prayer.
Palmer's Origines Liturgicae.
Wheatly on the Book of Common Prayer,
Pearson on the Creed.
Sanderson's Handbook of Theology.
Hardwick's and other Church Histories.
Blunt's Household Theology.
The Globe Encyclopedia.
The Official Year Book of the Church of England.
ABLUTIONS. Small quantities of wine and water poured into the chalice, after a celebration, and consumed by the Priest. Some take two ablutions, the first of wine, the second of wine and water mixed. The object of this is to insure the entire consumption of the consecrated element.
ABSOLUTION. In the Anglican Church the authoritative declaration, by a Bishop or Priest, of God's pardon to the truly penitent. "All the office and power of man in it is only to minister the external form, but the internal power and grace of remission of sins is properly God's." (Bingham.)
There are three forms of absolution in our Prayer Book, viz., in the Order for Morning and Evening Prayer; in the Communion Service, and in the Office for the Visitation of the Sick. It is to be noticed in each case that Confession precedes Absolution. The Scriptural authority for Absolution is found in Matt. xvi.19; xviii.18; John xx.23; 1 Cor. v.3-5; 2 Cor. ii.10.
St. Jerome compares the office of the Christian Priest in Absolution, with that of the Jewish Priest in cases of cleansing from leprosy.
ABSTINENCE, see Fasting.
ACOLYTE. One of the minor Orders of the Church of Rome. An Acolyte's duties are to wait upon the Priests and Deacons, carrying the bread and wine, &c. In some of our churches a layman, called a "Server," performs these duties.
ADULT BAPTISM, see Baptism.
ADVENT. Latin, Coming. Four Advent Sundays immediately precede Christmas. They are so called because they are designed to prepare us to commemorate the advent, or coming, of Christ in the flesh at Christmas, and also to prepare for His second coming to judge the world. The Ecclesiastical, or Church Year, begins with Advent Sunday. The season of Advent is spoken of in a homily written as far back as the year A.D. 450.
ADVOWSON. The right in perpetuity of patronage to a church, or any ecclesiastical benefice.
AFFINITY, see Kindred.
AGAPAE. Love feasts. After a celebration of Holy Communion the early Christians frequently partook of a social and friendly repast known by this name. This custom was discontinued in the Vth. century on account of abuses. It has been partially revived by some dissenting sects of our own day, who partake of a frugal meal and narrate their spiritual "experiences."
AGNUS DEI. Two Latin words, meaning "Lamb of God." It is an anthem sung in some places by the choir during the Communion of the Priest. The choir sing thrice, "O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world," adding twice, "Have mercy upon us," and the third time, "Grant us Thy peace." The anthem is found in Edward VI.'s First Prayer Book.
AGNOSTICISM. A school of thought which denies that we can know anything of God, or of a future state. It does not say that there is no God, but simply that it is impossible for us to know anything of God. It would do away with all revelation and theology, and make us think of God as the great Unknown and Unknowable.
AISLE. From a Latin word, meaning a wing. The lateral division of the choir, nave, or transept of a church.
ALB, see Vestments.
ALLELUIA or HALLELUJAH. A Hebrew word, meaning Praise ye the Lord.
ALL SAINTS' DAY. Nov. 1st. On this day the Church commemorates all the known and unknown departed Christian worthies, and the communion of the Church triumphant with the Church as yet militant on earth. It is called also All Hallows Day.
ALMONER. One who has the distribution of alms to the needy. In monasteries it was the officer who had charge of the Almonry, or room where alms were distributed. The Lord High Almoner is a Prelate who has the disposing of the alms of the sovereign.
ALMS. Relief given out of pity to the poor. In ecclesiastical language, the money collected during the Offertory. Alms should be collected every Sunday, whether there is a communion or not, as the rubric directs. The disposal of the alms rests with the clergyman and churchwardens, when there is an offertory, i.e., when the offertory sentences are read (see Rubric). Collections made at other times seem to be at the Clergyman's sole disposal.
ALTAR; LORD'S TABLE; HOLY TABLE; COMMUNION TABLE. Disputes have frequently arisen as to whether the Holy Table was to be called the Communion Table or the Altar. Bingham writes—"The ancient writers used both names indifferently; some calling it Altar, others the Lord's Table, the Holy Table, the Mystical Table, the Tremendous Table, &c., and sometimes both Table and Altar in the same sentence. Ignatius, Irenaeus, Origan, and Tertullian all call it Altar. It is certain that they did not mean by Altar what the Jews and heathen meant: either an altar dressed up with images, or an altar for bloody sacrifices. In the first sense they rejected altars, both name and thing. But for their own mystical, unbloody sacrifice, as they called the Eucharist, they always owned they had an altar."
In our Prayer Book it is styled the Table, the Holy Table, and the Lord's Table. The phrase Communion Table occurs in the Canons only. The word Altar is used in the Coronation Service.
Bishop Sparrow, one of the reviewers of the Prayer Book in 1662, writes thus:—"That no man take offence at the word Altar, let him know, that anciently both these names, Altar, or Holy Table were used for the same thing; though most frequently the Fathers and Councils use the name Altar. And both are fit names for that holy thing. Por the Holy Eucharist being considered as a sacrifice, in the representation of the breaking of the bread, and the pouring forth of the cup, doing that to the holy symbols which was done to Christ's body and blood, and so showing forth and commemorating the Lord's death, and offering upon it the same sacrifice that was offered upon the cross, or rather the commemoration of that sacrifice, it may fitly be called an Altar; which again is as fitly called an Holy Table, the Eucharist being considered as a Sacrament, which is nothing else but a distribution and application of the sacrifice to the several receivers."
ALTAR CLOTH. The 82nd Canon provides that the Altar be covered with a carpet of silk, or some other decent stuff; also with a fair linen cloth at the time of the ministration. It is usual in many churches to vest the Altar in different colours to mark the various seasons of the Church. Thus at Christmas, Easter, and festivals, other than the feasts of Martyrs, White is used. For Whit Sunday and feasts of Martyrs, Red is used. For Trinity Sunday White is used, but for the Sundays after Trinity, Green. Violet is the colour for Advent, Lent, Rogation Days, and Vigils.
ALTAR LIGHTS, CANDLES. On this subject, Proctor in his book on the Prayer Book says, "No direction was given upon the subject of the Ornaments of the Church in Edward VI.'s First Prayer Book, or in the Act of Uniformity which sanctioned it: but the publication of the Book was immediately followed by Injunctions (1549), condemning sundry popish ceremonies, and among them forbidding to set 'any lights upon the Lord's board at any time.'" This was especially mentioned because the Injunctions of 1547 had forbidden candles before pictures or images, but allowed "only two lights upon the high altar, before the Sacrament, for the signification that Christ is the very true light of the world." Although these Injunctions (1549) have not the authority of Parliament, yet they were undoubtedly issued with the intention of promoting that uniformity in all parts of Public Worship which had been enjoined by statute, and under the large notions of the royal supremacy which then prevailed. They may fairly be considered as affording evidence of the contemporary practice, and of the intention of the authors of the Prayer Book in matters of rites and ceremonies. Persons who yield the amount of authority to these Injunctions (which never became law) which is readily given to others (which were law), consider that candles upon the Communion Table are ornaments which were forbidden in the second year of Edward VI., and therefore are not authorized by our present Rubric. On the other hand, we may conclude from the terms of Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity, and from the Rubric of her Prayer Book, that it was her intention to distinguish between the customs of 1549, represented by Edward's Injunctions of that year, and those which, not being mentioned and forbidden in the statute, might be considered as authorized by the Parliament of 1549. And she certainly gave this practical interpretation to her own law, since in the royal chapel "the cross stood on the altar, and two candlesticks, and two tapers burning." Hook, in his Church Dictionary, says,—"From the time of Edward there never seems to have been a time when the lights were not retained in Cathedral churches, and wherever we might look for an authoritative interpretation of the Law. And to the present day the candles are to be seen on the Altars of almost all Cathedrals. In Collegiate churches, also, they are usually found; and so also in the Chapels Royal, and in the Chapels of several Colleges in Oxford and Cambridge."
ALTAR LINEN. The rubric at the beginning of the Communion Service provides that "The Table, at the Communion-time," is to have a "fair white linen cloth upon it." And a further rubric declares that "What remaineth of the consecrated Elements" is to be covered with "a fair linen cloth." This latter cloth is called a corporal, although some understand a cloth laid on the altar by that name. Other things used in some churches at the time of the celebration are—(1) a chalice-veil, which is a square of silk embroidered and fringed, varying in colour, according to the season, or of transparent material edged with lace. It is used for covering the chalice. (2) The pall, a small square of card-board, with linen on either side, is sometimes used to cover the chalice till after the people have communicated. (3) The burse is a kind of purse or pocket in which the corporal and pall are kept.
ALTAR RAILS. Archbishop Laud, 1640, ordered that the Holy Table should be placed at the east end of the chancel, and protected from rude approach by rails. They do not appear to have been in general use in the Western Church before the Reformation; although it is probable their use in the side chapels of Cathedrals is early. It is hard to say whether by the Latin word cancelli is meant the chancel-screen or the altar-rails, in some cases probably the latter. The use of altar-rails is ancient in the Eastern Church. The space within the rails, where the altar stands, is called the sanctuary.
ALTAR SCREEN. A screen behind the altar.
ALTAR VESSELS. Flagon, Chalice or Cup, and Paten. To these may be added the cyborium, a covered vessel, placed upon the altar of Roman Catholic churches, and holding the consecrated host. Altar vessels from very ancient times have usually been made of the most costly materials which the congregation using them could afford. The flagon appears to be the vessel in which the wine is placed before consecration. The chalice, or cup, that in which it is consecrated, and administered to the people. The paten is the plate on which the bread is consecrated, and from which it is dispensed to the people. A second plate is used for the unconsecrated bread, and is placed, with the flagon, on the Credence Table.
ALTRUISM, see Comtism.
AMBULATORY, or PROCESSIONARY. The continuance of the aisles round the east end of a church, behind the altar.
AMEN. A Hebrew word meaning "So be it," and thus it is explained in the Catechism. The same word in the Greek is rendered the "Verily, verily" of our Lord's parables. It should be said aloud by every member of the congregation, as testifying his assent to the prayer or praise offered, who thus makes it his own. St. Jerome says the primitive Christians at their public offices "echoed out the Amen like a thunderclap."
When printed in the Roman character in our Prayer Book it is for the minister to say alone; when in Italics, it is for the people to say, and not for the minister.
AMICE, see Vestments.
ANABAPTISTS, see Baptists.
ANDREW'S (St.) DAY. Nov. 30th. St. Andrew appears to have been a disciple of the Baptist before he became a follower of our Lord. He was the means of bringing his brother Simon, afterwards called Peter, to Jesus. After the Ascension he is supposed to have laboured in Scythia, and finally to have suffered death by crucifixion. The form of the cross on which he was martyred is called after him the St. Andrew's Cross.
ANGEL. A Greek word, meaning a messenger, and as such it is applied sometimes to God's ministers on earth; e.g., the Bishops of the seven Churches of Asia are called "Angels" in Rev. i. and ii. The word is more generally used of those bright beings who wait around the throne of God to do His will. They are the ministers of His good Providence to us.
Angels are of a different order of creation from man. It is a mistake to believe that "the dead in Christ" become angels.
There are different orders among the angels; the Prayer Book speaks of "Archangels," of "Cherubim and Seraphim." The Bible tells us that the name of one of the Archangels is Michael; Gabriel is also probably of this order, and Raphael. The Cherubim (the derivation of this word is uncertain) are frequently spoken of in the Bible: Gen. iii.24; Exodus xxv.19, 20; Ezekiel i.10; Rev. iv.6. The Seraphim, (plural of Seraph, a Hebrew word, meaning fiery, or burning) are possibly referred to in Psalm civ.4, "He maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flaming fire."
The Holy Angels are the objects of worship in the Church of Rome, in a degree which many think idolatrous, although Romanists deny this.
ANGLO-CATHOLIC CHURCH, see Church of England.
ANNATES, see Bounty, Queen Anne's.
ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY. March 25th. At the time of the Reformation the Church held seven festivals in honour of the Virgin. Our Reformers have appointed a Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, for only those two which have a foundation in the Gospel, viz: the Annunciation and the Purification. Two more, however, are retained in the Calendar, viz: the Visitation of the B. V. M., July 2nd, and the Nativity of the B. V. M., September 8th. The two principal festivals were probably observed as early as the 5th century. It is to be noticed how the collects for both these festivals bring forward their bearing on our Lord's life, rather than the incidents they commemorate in the life of the Blessed Virgin.
ANTHEM, see Church. Music.
ANTINOMIANISM. (literally "against law") The doctrine or opinion that the Elect (see Calvinism) are freed from obligation to keep the Law of God. A power or privilege is asserted for the elect to do what they please without prejudice to their sanctity; it being maintained that to them nothing is sinful, and this is represented as the perfection of Christian Liberty. History shows, as was to be expected, that this doctrine has borne the most disastrous fruits among those who have embraced it.
ANTIPHON, ANTIPHONALLY, see Church Music.
ANTI-TYPE, see Type.
APOSTASY. A renouncing of our religion either formally, or virtually by our actions.
APOSTLE. From a Greek word, meaning "one sent." A designation of those twelve who were our Lord's companions on earth, and who, afterwards, were sent into "all the world to preach the Gospel to every creature." After the treachery and death of Judas Iscariot, Matthias was chosen to fill his place, St. Paul, by virtue of his heavenly commission, is also termed an Apostle.
APOSTLES' CREED, see Creed.
APOSTOLICAL SUCCESSION. "The line in which the ministry of the Church is handed on from age to age by the laying on of hands by Bishops; the corporate lineage of the Christian clergy, just as in the Jewish Church there was a family lineage. The Church of England maintains the Apostolical Succession in the preface to her Ordination Service. Those are said to be in Apostolical Succession who have been sent to labour in the Lord's vineyard by Bishops, who were consecrated by other Bishops, who, in their turn, were consecrated by others, until the derived authority is traced to the Apostles, and through them to the great Head of the Church. The Apostolical Succession of the Ministry is essential to the right administration of the Sacraments. The clergy of the Church of England can trace their connexion with the Apostles by links in the long chain, not one of which is wanting, from the times of St. Paul and St. Peter to our own." (Hook's Church Dictionary.)
APPROPRIATION. In pre-Reformation times. Monasteries, and other spiritual corporations, frequently annexed to themselves benefices, placing in them some clergyman, who was called a Vicar, to do the work of the place, for which they allowed him a certain sum out of the income they had appropriated. At the Reformation, the Monasteries, and religious houses were put down, and their property distributed among the favourites of Henry VIII., and so the patronage and major part of the income of these appropriated benefices came into the hands of laymen. Thus, at the present day, a great number of our nobility and landed gentry are drawing large incomes from land, which is, in all right, the property of the Church, while the clergy who do the work of the Church receive a miserable pittance out of what was once their own. Laymen drawing these incomes, "great-tithes," as they are called, are named Lay-Rectors. A benefice in the hands of a layman is termed, not an Appropriation, but an Impropriation.
APSE or APSIS. A semi-circular, or polyhedral termination of the chancel. This style of Church building, although common in the East, has not been in use since the 13th century in England until quite the last few years. Mr. Street, the Architect of the Law Courts, built many churches in this style. In churches of this kind the altar should not be placed against the East wall, but upon the chord of the arc, as in the ancient Basilicas.
ARCHBISHOP. An Archbishop does not differ from a Bishop in order, but only in degree. Like a Bishop he has his own diocese, but besides that he is the chief of the clergy of a whole province. This, however, is not always the case in the Roman and Eastern churches. To him all appeals are made from inferior jurisdictions within his province. He also, upon the King's writ, calls the Bishops and clergy within his province to meet in Convocation.
ARCHDEACON. As each province is divided into dioceses, severally presided over by a Bishop, so each diocese is divided into archdeaconries, consisting of a certain number of parishes. Over each archdeaconry one of the clergy, a priest, sometimes a bishop, is appointed to preside in subordination to the Bishop of the diocese. The office dates back to very early times. In England the dioceses were divided into archdeaconries about the time of the Norman Conquest.
ARCHES, COURT OF. An ancient court of appeal, belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The judge of it is called the Dean of Arches, because he anciently held his court in the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow (Sancta Maria de Arcubus). (See Ecclesiastical Courts.)
ARCHITECTURE. The principal styles of English Architecture are:
Norman, 1066 to 1154. Round-headed doorways, windows and arches, heavy pillars and zig-zag ornaments. The Nave of Rochester Cathedral is a good example. From 1154 to 1189 this style underwent a Transition, the rounded arches becoming pointed, as in the choir of Canterbury Cathedral.
Early English, 1189 to 1272. Narrow, pointed windows, lancet-shaped; clustered pillars. Example, the choir, Westminster Abbey, or Salisbury Cathedral. 1272 to 1307 was another Transition period, tracery being introduced into the windows, as at the east end of Lincoln Cathedral.
Decorated, 1307 to 1377. Geometrical tracery in windows, enriched doorways, and beautifully arranged mouldings. The Lady Chapel of Ely Cathedral is a good example. This style underwent Transition from 1377 to 1407, when the lines became less flowing, as in the choir of York Minster.
Perpendicular, 1399 to 1547. Upright lines of moulding in windows; doorways, a combination of square heads with pointed arches. Example, King's College Chapel, Cambridge.
Tudor, or Elizabethan, 1550 to 1600. A debased species of Perpendicular, mostly employed in domestic architecture.
Jacobean, 1603 to 1641. An admixture of the Classical with the Gothic, or Pointed style.
ARIANS. Heretics, so named from Arius, a native of Libya, their first founder. He was born about the middle of the 3rd century, and taught that God the Son was not equal to God the Father, being neither consubstantial nor co-eternal with the Father. As created by the Father, Arius looked upon our Lord as the highest of all creatures, and in that sense the Son of God. These heretics were condemned by the Council of Nice, in 325.
ARMINIANS. A party so-called after Arminius, (the Latin form of James Harmensen, a Dutchman,) the opposer of Calvinism. Arminius held that salvation is possible for all men, if they repent and believe in Jesus Christ, inasmuch as He died for the sins of the whole world. They reject the doctrine of Predestination, as generally held; and the doctrine of final perseverance, they deem uncertain and needing more proof. (See Antinomianism and Calvinism.)
ARTICLES, THE THIRTY-NINE. The Church of England's definition of Christian doctrine, and as such they have to be subscribed by all who seek Holy Orders. Formerly, every graduate of our Universities had to subscribe them. Many of the Articles are of a confessedly elastic nature, being so framed as to embrace the views of the various parties in the Church: but at the same time they are not so indefinite as many would have us believe.
Their history is this:—In 1553 Cranmer, Ridley, and others, drew up 42 Articles, which were more or less taken from the "Confession of Augsburgh," composed by Luther and Melancthon. In 1562 these 42 Articles were entirely re-modelled by Archbishop Parker and Convocation, when they were reduced to 38. In 1571, Parker and Convocation added Article xxix., which made up our present 39, which were subscribed in the Upper House of Convocation, by the Archbishops and Bishops, and by all the clergy of the Lower House. They were published the year after (1572) under the superintendence of Bishop Jewel, and the Ratification, still subjoined to them in the Prayer Book, was added. With regard to their arrangement—The first five treat of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity; the three following establish the rule of Christian Faith; from the ninth to the eighteenth they bear reference to Christians considered as individuals; and thence to the end they relate to Christians, considered as Members of a Church or religious society.
ASCENSION DAY or HOLY THURSDAY. The observation of this Festival cannot be traced with certainty to an earlier period than the 4th century, although, in the Western Church, at any rate, it was in St. Augustine's time so thorough and universal, that he supposes it to have had an Apostolic origin. It is one of the four great Festivals of the Church. It is held forty days after Easter, in memory of our Lord's Ascension into heaven. Special psalms and lessons are appointed for the day, as is also a special preface in the Communion Service.
ASH-WEDNESDAY. The first day of Lent. It is so called from the ceremony anciently used in admitting people to penance, ashes being sprinkled upon their heads.
A special service, called the Commination Service, is appointed for use on this day.
ASSOCIATIONS, CHURCH, see Societies.
ATHANASIAN CREED, see Creed.
ATHEIST. The "fool who saith in his heart, There is no God." Ps liii. The atheist differs entirely from the sceptic and agnostic (which see). In "A plea for Atheism," the writer says: "If the word 'God' is defined to mean an existence other than that existence of which I am a mode, then I deny 'God,' and affirm that it is impossible that 'God' can be." The Psalmist's definition is the clearer.
ATONEMENT. Originally at-one-ment, the reconciling of two parties who were before at variance. From that the word easily passed into a term to denote the means by which the reconciliation was made, viz: the life and death of our Saviour, Eph. ii. 16.
The doctrine of the Church on this subject is expressed in Article 11.
ATTRITION. This term is used by Romanists to denote the lowest form of Contrition, or Repentance; namely, mere sorrow for sin because of its consequences.
BANNS OF MARRIAGE see Matrimony.
BAPTISM. This word means literally "dipping." Holy Baptism is one of the two Sacraments taught by our Church to be generally (universally) necessary to salvation. The reason why the Church baptizes is well shewn in the exhortation which immediately follows the Gospel in the Service for the "Public Baptism of such as are of riper years." The doctrine of the Church on the subject is explained in Article xxvii., and in the Catechism; also throughout her Baptismal Offices she shows what she believes it to be. Notwithstanding this, there are diverse views held of Holy Baptism by parties in the Church; as, for example, some will deny that the passage in John iii. 3 has anything to do with Baptism, although the Church quotes it as a Scriptural authority for Baptism in the exhortation previously alluded to. These seem to degrade Holy Baptism into a mere formal admittance into the visible Church, this being the view the Wesleyans of the present day take, but not their founder's view. Hooker, in his fifth book, writes thus,—"Baptism is not merely a sign or token of grace given, but an instrument or mean whereby we receive that grace; for it is a Sacrament instituted by God for incorporation into Christ, and so through His merit to obtain (1) that saving grace of imputation which takes away all former guiltiness, (2) that infused divine virtue of the Holy Ghost which gives to the powers of the soul their first disposition towards future newness of life. It is a seal perhaps to the grace of election before received; but to our sanctification here a step that hath not any before it."
BAPTISM, ADULT. This office was added at the last revision of the Prayer Book, in 1661. It was made necessary by the general neglect of Church ordinances during the Rebellion. The Service is formed from that for the Baptism of Infants, but there are important differences, as will be seen by comparison. Confirmation and Communion should immediately follow the Baptism of an adult.
BAPTISM, INFANT. The question whether it is right to baptize infants will be gone into under the head of Baptists. Our present service for the Baptism of Infants is the out-come of many much older. Baptism should always be administered in the presence of a congregation, as the Rubric orders. The question about sponsors will be gone into under that head. The first prayer is by Luther, the second is from an old Office; the Gospel, with nearly all the addresses or exhortations here and elsewhere in the Prayer Book, is from the "Consultation," the work of Hermann, a German reformer. The questions to the sponsors are taken from an old Office. The prayer of Consecration came into the present form in 1661; but by Consecration here we only mean that the element of water is separated from common to sacred uses. It is not a necessary part of Baptism, as is shown by its being omitted in the Office for Private Baptism. The only two things necessary for the validity of Holy Baptism are (1) that it should be administered in water, (2) in the name of the Holy Trinity, as is shown by the questions in that part of the Office for Private Baptism which treats of receiving a child publicly into the Church. It is to be noticed that the rule of our Church is that the child should be immersed in the water (see the Rubric before the form of words which accompany the act of Baptism). Thus the rite of immersion can be claimed by any Church people. The custom of affusion, or aspersion, or sprinkling, came into use in the Western Church as early as the 13th century; but in the ancient Church Baptism was so administered to the sick. The difference in the climates of Western Europe and the Holy Land is sufficient to account for the custom.
The words which express the reception of the newly-baptized child into the congregation belong altogether to the English Prayer Book. The ceremony of making the sign of the cross has come down from the ancient Church.
The Address to the congregation, the Lord's Prayer, and the Thanksgiving which follows, were placed here in 1552. It is to be noticed how clearly the Church expresses her belief in the regeneration (see Regeneration) of each baptized infant. The latter part of the last exhortation was added in 1661. "The vulgar tongue" of course means the "common" or English language.
The note at the end of the Office, although declaring the eternal safety of a baptized child, dying before it commits actual sin, does not express any opinion as to the future of an unbaptized child.
BAPTISM, PRIVATE. To be used only for "great cause and necessity." This service was drawn up in 1661, chiefly from the "Consultation." It is very much to be deplored that so few of the children baptized at home, who live, are brought to be publicly received into the Church. The distinction which the poor draw between Baptism and Christening as meaning respectively Private and Public Baptism is, of course, unfounded. Baptism is also called "Christening," because in it the child is made a Christian, or member of Christ.
Under this head we may also treat of
Lay Baptism. Until 1604 this was allowed in the Church of England, but the rubrics were then brought into such a shape that Baptism by any but a "lawful minister" was distinctly disallowed. Still we find that by the present law, Lay Baptism, that is to say, Baptism by any man, or even woman, is valid so far as to qualify for burial with the usual service. Lay Baptism is allowed in the Roman Church, as it was in the Mediaeval Church, and in primitive times. Such having always been the custom of the Catholic Church, it is well that anybody should baptize a child in a case of great emergency, when a "lawful minister" cannot be procured. Should the child live and be brought to church, the clergyman can always, if doubtful of the validity of the Baptism, use the hypothetical form at the end of the Office for Private Baptism.
BAPTISTS or ANABAPTISTS. A name improperly assumed by those who deny the validity of Infant Baptism. They were formerly called Anabaptists because they re-baptized all who had been baptized in their infancy. The Baptists formed a separate community in England in 1633. They may be looked upon as the successors of the Dutch Anabaptists. Their object in forming themselves into a separate body was (1) for the maintenance of a strictly Calvinistic doctrine; (2) for the exercise of a vigorous and exclusive discipline; (3) for the practice of a literal scriptural ritual, especially in the matter of Baptism. In Church polity they follow the Independents. The Baptists hold that immersion is essential to the validity of the ordinance. Their leading idea is that the Church must consist of true Christians, and not merely of professing ones.
In 1882 in the United Kingdom there were Sunday Ministers, Members, Chapels, Scholars 1,905. 298,880. 3,502. 401,517.
In addition to these they have numerous congregations abroad, and they raise about L200,000 yearly for missionary and benevolent purposes.
Infant Baptism. The following reasons seem to afford ample proof that the baptism of infants has always been the practice of the Church, notwithstanding all the Baptists allege against it.
Under the Law infants were admitted into covenant with God by circumcision when eight days old. Gen. xvii.10, 14, so, too, when the Jews admitted proselytes into their communion, they not only circumcised all the males, but baptized all, male and female, infant and adult.
Thus, when the Apostles were sent "to make proselytes of all nations, by baptizing them" (Matt, xviii.19, should be so translated) would they not baptize infants as well as adults, seeing that such was the Jewish custom?
Compare John iii.5, "Except a man (Greek, except any one) be born of water and of the Spirit he cannot enter the kingdom of God," with Mark x.14, where our Lord says of infants that "of such is the kingdom of God." If so, they must be capable of baptism, both by water and the Spirit.
St. Peter, when speaking of baptism, said the promise was not only to adults, but also to their children, Acts ii.38, 39.
Again, where there no children among the whole households which were baptized by the apostles, Acts xvi.15, 33, 1 Cor. 1.16?
The early Fathers show that children were baptized in their time, which, in some cases, was less than a century after the Apostles lived. Justin Martyr, for instance, writing A.D. 148 (i.e., 48 years after the death of the last Apostle), speaks of persons 60 and 70 years old, who had been made disciples to Christ in their infancy. How can infants be made disciples, but by baptism? And, if these had been baptized in their infancy, it must have been during the lifetime of the Apostle St. John, and of other apostolic men.
BARNABAS' (St.) DAY. June 11th. This Apostle's name was changed from Joses into Barnabas, which means the "Son of Consolation." He was a highly educated man, being brought up, as St. Paul was, at the feet of Gamaliel. He travelled with St. Paul until there was a disagreement on the subject of Mark, the kinsman of Barnabas. After they separated, it is probable that St. Barnabas laboured in Cyprus. He is believed to have suffered martyrdom at Salamis by being stoned.
BARTHOLOMEW'S (St.) DAY. August 24th. This Apostle is believed to have been identical with Nathaniel. We are told nothing of his labours in the Bible. He is believed to have worked in Armenia and Lycaonia, and to have suffered martyrdom by crucifixion at Albanople.
This day is rendered famous in history, on account of the horrible massacre of Protestants in Paris in 1572. Thirty thousand persons were put to death in France, and this with the deliberate consent of the Pope and the authorities of the Roman Church!
BELFRY. Originally and properly, a watch-tower. That part of a church where the bells are hung.
BELLS. Bells have been used in churches in England from the 7th century. Their various uses are well summed up in the following monkish distichs,—
"Laudo Deum verum, plebem voco, congrego clerum, Defunctos ploro, pestem fugo, festa decoro."
"Funera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata pango, Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos."
In the Roman Church they are "baptized," with a certain ceremony; in the English Church they are merely consecrated, that is, set apart for a sacred purpose.
The "passing bell" is the tolling of a bell while anybody is dying, or passing out of this life, in order that the faithful may offer prayers on his behalf. It is ordered by Canon 67.
BENEDICITE. The apocryphal ending of Daniel iii. It is a paraphrastical exposition of Ps. 148; it was commonly sung in the Christian Church in the 4th century. In 1549 it was ordered to be sung during Lent instead of the Te Deum. It is now generally used when the lessons speak of the Creation. The "three children" are Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, who are better known by their Chaldean names of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego.
BENEDICTION. A solemn act of blessing performed by Bishops and Priests of the Church. A certain form was given by God Himself for the use of the Jewish Priests, Num. vi.22-27. In our Church several forms are used agreeing with the Office of which they form a part. The ordinary benediction at the end of the Communion Service is from Phil, iv.7, and Num. vi.23.
BENEDICTUS. The song of Zacharias, the father of the Baptist, Luke 1.68-79. The alternate Psalm, called the Jubilate Deo, was inserted in 1552 to be used when the Benedictus happened to be read in the second lesson. The song of Zacharias has always been a hymn of the Church.
BENEFICE or LIVING. A church endowed with a revenue for the performance of Divine Service; the holder of which is called a Rector, or Vicar, or Incumbent, or Perpetual Curate (see under each head). Heresy, Simony, and other grave offences, disqualify a man from holding a benefice.
A clergyman can only be deprived of his benefice for want of capacity, Heresy, Contempt of Court, or crime.
BIBLE, THE HOLY. So called from a Greek word, meaning "the books," just as the word Scriptures means "the writings." The Bible is divided into two parts—the Old and the New Testaments, or Covenants. The Old Testament, or the Covenant of God with the Hebrew nation, is written partly in Hebrew, and partly—the latter part—in Aramaic. It is most important to remember that it was written by many different persons, and at widely different times, spreading over the course of 2,000 years. The New Testament, or the New Covenant of God with His people, whether Jews or Gentiles, although also written by many various authors, was produced between the years A.D. 50, and A.D. 100.
The Bible is called the "Word of God" because the authors wrote by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, Heb. i.i; Acts iv.25; 2 Peter i.21; &c. It is important to remember that we do not claim a verbal inspiration, for the writers, but simply that God put into their minds what they should write. Inspiration did not preserve them from errors in grammar, or natural philosophy, or anything else foreign to the actual design of the Bible, which is the revelation of God, and of His will to man.
Thus, it is most important that we should know what books are inspired, and have a right to form a part of the Holy Scriptures, in other words what books are canonical. The Old Testament, as we have it now, was used by the Jews in the time of our Lord, who often quotes from its various books Himself, thus stamping them with the divine authority which they claimed. Ezra seems to have determined the canon of Old Testament Scriptures. With regard to the New Testament, the question of the authenticity and canonicity of some books was very much more difficult to determine, and an enormous amount of labour and scholarship has been expended on the subject. There can be no reasonable doubt now with regard to any of the books of the New Testament; the only thing now doubtful is what the original words were in the places where the ancient manuscripts differ. These differences are called various readings. The publication of the Revised Version of the New Testament in 1881 was partly an attempt to settle this question. The differences, as a rule, are very unimportant.
The chief translations of the Bible into English are Wiclif's, 1360; Tindal (or Tyndale) and Coverdale's, 1526; The Geneva Bible, 1560; The Bishops' Bible, 1568. The Translation we use now, called the Authorized Version, was published in 1611. About 50 learned men were appointed by King James 1st for the task.
We will now proceed to consider the contents of the Bible, first remarking that the division into Chapters and verses does not date back beyond the 13th century, that it rests on no authority, and very often spoils the sense.
The Old Testament consists of 39 books, which may be thus classified:—The Books of the Law; The Historical Books; The Holy Writings, or Poetical Books; and the Prophetical Books.
The Books of the Law, five in number, were written by Moses, and are called the Pentateuch; they are:—Genesis. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
The Historical Books are twelve. Where the name of the Author differs from the name of the Book it is given in brackets,—Joshua, Judges (Samuel?), Ruth (Samuel or Ezra), 1st and 2nd Samuel (Samuel, Nathan, and Gad), 1st and 2nd Kings (Jeremiah), 1st and 2nd Chronicles (Ezra?), Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther (author not known).
The Poetical Books, or Hagiographa, consist of five books,—Job (author not known), Psalms (by various authors, about half by David), Proverbs (Solomon chiefly), Ecclesiastes (generally attributed to Solomon), Song of Solomon, or Canticles.
The Prophetical Books are divided into two classes, the Greater Prophets and the Lesser Prophets. They are so called, not from any superiority or inferiority, but from the extent of their writings.
The Greater Prophets are four in number,—Isaiah, Jeremiah (author of two books—his Prophecy and his Lamentations), Ezekiel, Daniel.
The Minor Prophets are twelve,—Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
The ordinary reader of the Bible misses much from the fact that the books are not grouped in any chronological order. In the following table the books are placed so as to form a continuous history of the Jews, while, by their side, are the names of those books which should be read as commentaries on the period. The book of Job, however, it is impossible to place. He seems to have been a shepherd king, perhaps of the time of Abraham, but he was not of the Hebrew nation. The two books of the Chronicles contain a summary of history from the Creation down to the Restoration under Cyrus; parts, however, may be read with other books. (For Table, see opposite page.)
From the time of Malachi to the Birth of John the Baptist, a period of about 400 years, there seems to have been no special revelation from God. The Apocrypha was composed in that period by various authors. Although parts of it are appointed to be read as Lessons in Church, yet it is not considered as inspired, and consequently it does not belong to the Word of God. Our Church, in Art. vi., says that "the other books (viz., the Apocrypha) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners, but yet it doth not apply them to establish any doctrine." The Church of Rome receives the Apocrypha as Canonical.
We now pass on to consider the New Testament. It consists of 27 books, written by eight persons. They were all written in Greek, unless perhaps St. Matthew's Gospel, which some critics hold was originally written in Hebrew. The whole of the New Testament was written before the end of the first century, and during the lifetime of the Apostle John. The books were all received from the first as inspired, except the Epistle to the Hebrews, Epistles of James and Jude, 2nd of Peter, 2nd and 3rd of John, and the Book of the Revelation; but all these were in early times accepted as Canonical. It is still doubtful who wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The Four Gospels are by St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John. Of these, the first three are called the Synoptical Gospels, because they give a general view, and contain a brief account of the chief events of our Saviour's life, His miracles and His parables, from the same standpoint. St. John chiefly dwells on our Lord's words and discourses. The word "Gospel" means "good news."
The Book of the Acts of the Apostles is generally considered to have been written by St. Luke (c.f. Acts 1.1 with Luke 1.1-4).
The Epistles were written by the authors whose names they bear (except perhaps Hebrews). Seven of them are called Catholic, which means addressed to the Church generally, or universally, and not to particular persons or particular bodies of Christians.
The Book of Revelation, or Apocalypse, is by St. John the Apostle.
The following is a chronological table of the books of the New Testament, with their probable dates:—
Books Date A.D. S. Matt's 60 S. Mark's 64 S. Luke's 64 S. John's 70 The Acts 64 I. Thess. 52 II. Thess. 52 Galatians 52 I. Corinth. 53 II. Corinth. 57 Romans 58 Ephesians 61 Philipp. 62 Colloss. 62 Philemon 62 I. Tim. 56 Titus 56 II. Tim. 61 S. James 61 I. Peter 64 II. Peter 64 Jude 64 I. John 80 II. John 85 III. John 90 Revelation 95 Some scholars assign an earlier date to the Revelation.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF BOOKS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
BOOKS ILLUSTRATING CONTEMPORARY PERIOD HISTORY SAME PERIOD PROPHETS Creation Genesis, I. Chron. i. to x. To Exodus. (geneaologies). Settlement Numbers. Leviticus. In Deuteronomy. Canaan. Joshua. Judges. Judges. Ruth. Kings. I. Samuel. I. Chron. x. to xxix. 22; Psalms II. Samuel./ of David,Asaph, Ethan, and Sons of Korah. I. Kings Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and Jonah (time of Jehu). Proverbs, (time of Solomon). II. Kings / I. Chron. xxix. 22, to end of II. Amos Chron. Hosea From Uzziah Isaiah to end of Joel / Hezekiah. Micah Nahum Zephaniah Time of Jeremiah / Josiah. - Esther. Psalm cxxxvii. Habakkuk, Daniel, Obadiah, Ezekiel. - Ezra. Psalms cxx. to cxxxiv. (probably sung Haggai, Zechariah, on the way back). Malachi. Nehemiah. Psalms cxiii. to xcviii. at consecration of Temple. -
BIBLE CHRISTIANS. Sometimes called Bryanites. They are the followers of a Mr. William O'Bryan, a Wesleyan local preacher in Cornwall, who, in 1815, separated from the Wesleyans, and began himself to form societies upon the Methodist plan. In doctrine they do not appear to differ from the various bodies of Arminian Methodists. The forms of public worship are of the same simple character. But in the administration of the Lord's Supper "it is usual to receive the elements in a sitting posture, as it is believed that that practice is more comformable to the posture of body in which it was first received by Christ's Apostles, than kneeling; but persons are at liberty to kneel, if it be more suitable to their views and feelings to do so." Members of this sect are nearly all Cornish people.
Ministers. Lay Preachers. Members. 173. 1,442. 24,238.
On Sunday Probation. Chapels. Scholars. 822. 574. 37.361.
BIDDING PRAYER. The Prayer before the Sermon. Before the Reformation it was called the Bidding of the beads. The people were bid to pray for certain objects as the preacher successively named them. The canonical form of the present prayer is given in the 55th Canon. The ordinary practice of using a collect is now sanctioned by custom. An extempore prayer, however, from the preacher is quite unauthorized. At the University sermons, and also on occasions of more than usual solemnity, the Bidding Prayer is always used. In Borough towns it is appropriately repeated on the Sunday next after November 9th, when the Mayor is elected.
BIER. The carriage on which the coffin is carried to the grave.
BISHOP, see Orders.
BOUNTY, QUEEN ANNE'S. Before the Reformation, the Annates or First-fruits, being the profits for one year of every vacant benefice, were paid to the Pope. In Henry VIII.'s reign they were paid to him instead. Queen Anne, however, instead of receiving them for her own use, established a fund for the benefit of the poor clergy. This fund has since been called Queen Anne's Bounty. Money was granted to it also by Parliament, and many generous individuals increased the sum.
BOWING AT THE NAME OF JESUS. This pious custom is ordered by the 18th Canon of our Church, in supposed accordance with the idea of the Apostle in Phil. ii.9. In many churches the custom is now observed by bowing at the Sacred Name in the Creed only; but the Canon orders "due and lowly reverence to be done" whenever the "Name of the Lord Jesus is mentioned in the time of Divine Service."
BOWING TOWARDS THE ALTAR. This reverent custom is still practised in many of the Royal Chapels, and in some churches and Cathedrals, e.g., in Christ Church, Oxford, in many village churches where the custom, once universal, has not died out, and it survives in some College Chapels.
The synod of 1640 said, "We heartily commend it to all good and well affected people, that they be ready to tender to the Lord their reverence and obeisance, both at their coming in and going out of church, according to the most ancient custom of the primitive Church in the purest times."
BROAD CHURCH, see Church Parties.
BURIALS ACT. A Bill passed in Parliament, 1880. Before the passing of the Act no deceased persons (with certain exceptions, specified in the Rubric) could be buried in consecrated ground without the Service of the Church of England being read over their remains. Now, anyone who wishes to have his relatives or friends buried in any such ground without any religious service, or with any other Christian and orderly service than that of the Church of England, can do so. This service may be conducted by anybody, man, woman, or child, but 48 hours' notice must be given in writing to the incumbent, who still has all his legal rights preserved. The Burials Bill deals solely with the churchyard, and confers no rights as to the tolling of the bell, or to the use of any church or consecrated chapel.
Under this Act the Clergy are empowered to use the Service of the Church for the burial of the dead in any unconsecrated burial ground or cemetery.
The Bill owes its origin to the agitation of Dissenters, and that their supposed grievances were purely sentimental is shown by the fact that comparatively few funerals are taken under this Act.
BURIAL SERVICE, THE. The present arrangement of this Office is the outcome of several revisions. In 1549 (1st Prayer Book of Edward VI.) there was a special Communion Office for use at funerals. The custom obtaining in many places of the mourners coming to church on the Sunday next following the funeral perhaps has its origin in the ancient practice of their receiving Holy Communion together. The Rubric denying Christian burial to the unbaptized, the excommunicate, and to suicides was added in 1661. The first two sentences, or anthems—John xi.25, 26, and Job xix.25-27, formed part of an ancient Office. The third sentence, I Tim. vi.7, and Job i.21, and the two Psalms, were added in 1549. The Lesson formerly formed part of the Mass for the Dead. The sentences, or anthems, to be said at the grave side are from old Offices, so also what follows down to the Collects. The prayer, "For as much," &c., is called the Committal Prayer, and the practice of casting earth upon the coffin is part of a very old ceremony. The last two prayers were added in 1552, and the "Grace" in 1661. Many of the dissenting sects use this Service. The whole Office is of a nature to cheer the heart of the mourner, and to rouse in all a "hope full of immortality."
CALENDAR, THE CHURCH, is the detailed (excepting, of course, the rubrics) law of the Church for the daily worship of God. It also contains a list of Fasts and Festivals, or Holy Days. Our Church recognises eighty-two such Holy Days, of which the following is a classification, not including Ash Wednesday, Holy Week or Passion Week, and Easter Eve:—
In honour of our Blessed Lord (including 50 ordinary Lord's Days) 57
In honour of God the Holy Ghost 3
In honour of the Holy Trinity 1
In honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary 2
In honour of the Holy Angels 1
In honour of the Apostles and Evangelists 14
In honour of S. John Baptist and other Saints 4
The object for which Holy Days are instituted, is the commemoration of some person or event by devotional observance, the devotion being, of course, offered to Almighty God. (Blunt's Household Theology.)
The Calendar contains a Table of Lessons, or portions of Holy Scripture, to be read in Church, and rules for finding the date of the Moveable Feasts.
The present Table of Lessons came into use Jan. 1st, 1873.
(For Holy Days, &c., see under their respective heads.)
CALL TO THE MINISTRY. Every Candidate for Deacon's Orders (see Ordinal) has this question put to him by the Bishop,—"Do you trust that you are inwardly moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon you this Office and Ministration, to serve God for the promoting of His glory and the edifying of His people?"
In the "Ordering of Priests" a similar question is put in this form,—"Do you think in your heart that you be truly called, according to the will of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the order of this Church of England, to the Order and Ministry of Priesthood?" And in the "Consecration of Bishops" the question is put thus,—"Are you persuaded that you be truly called to this Ministration, according to the will of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the order of this realm?"
It should be noticed that the question is not "Are you sure?" but (a) "Do you trust?" (b) "Do you think?" (c) "Are you persuaded?" If a man deals earnestly and truly with his own heart, he can scarcely be deceived as to whether he answers these solemn questions truly or not. He need not wait for some miraculous intimation from the Holy Spirit. By ordinary signs he may safely judge: primarily, from his own sincere inward conviction; and in an inferior degree from the advice of his parents, or of God's ministers, or of other godly persons qualified to advise in such a matter. These are all ways of learning God's will.
Bishop Oxenden, in his "Pastoral Office," says to the Candidate for Holy Orders, "If, after looking well at your motive, you find it pure,—if you are entering the Ministry in a serious, thoughtful spirit,—if the love of souls, and an earnest desire to save them, impels you—if you feel the work is one in which your soul will find delight, and that you are heartily willing to labour in the service of your Heavenly Master,—then I hesitate not to say that you have chosen for yourself the best and most delightful of all professions." This consciousness of purity of motive is a true indication that a candidate is called of God.
CALVINISTS. These form no particular sect, but are to be found among different bodies of Christians. They are the followers of the Reformer, John Calvin, who was born in 1509. The five points, or essential doctrines of Calvinism, are (1) particular election, (2) particular redemption, (3) moral inability in a fallen state, (4) irresistible grace, and (5) the final perseverance of the saints. In other words, a Calvinist holds that before the foundation of the world God elected a certain number to salvation, and reprobated the rest of mankind to damnation; that Christ Jesus died only for the elect; that mankind are totally depraved in consequence of the fall; that God, in His own good time, calls all those he has before predestinated to life by the irresistible power of the Holy Spirit to grace and salvation; that those once called can never finally fall from a state of grace.
It is true that the 17th Art. is so ambiguous in language that even such a doctrine as the above is not reproved by it; but the Church of England, in her Communion Office, says that "Christ, by the one oblation of Himself once offered, made a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world," and in the Church Catechism it is said that "God the Son hath redeemed all mankind." These two passages alone are enough to show that the Church of England is not Calvinistic in her doctrine. (See Antinomianism and Arminians.)
CANDLES, see Altar Lights.
CANON. A Greek word, meaning a Rule or Measure. The laws of the Church are called Canons. The Canons made before the Reformation are binding on our Church now, and are acted upon in the Ecclesiastical Courts, except where they have been superseded by subsequent Canons, or by the provisions of an Act of Parliament.
CANON. An ecclesiastic, having the right to a stall in a Cathedral, and of giving a vote in the Chapter. He differs from a Prebendary in that a Prebendary means one who enjoys a Prebend, or endowment, whereas a Canon does not necessarily do so. In England the Honorary Canons are all without capitular revenues.
CANON. A name applied to part of the Roman Office of Mass, and it was also made use of in first Prayer Book of Edward VI. The name is given to the more solemn part of the Eucharistic Service, from just after the Preface till the final close.
CANON OF SCRIPTURE, see Bible.
CANONICAL HOURS. At a very early date special hours of prayer were appointed by the church. In the Church of Rome the Canonical Hours begin with vespers, or evening prayer, about 6 o'clock, or sunset; next follows compline, a service at bedtime; at midnight the service of nocturns, or matins, was held; lauds, an early morning service of praise, was held at cock-crow. Then came the "Little Hours," prime at 6 o'clock, terce at 9, sext at noon, and nones at 3.
CANTATE DOMINO. Psalm xcviii, used occasionally at Evening Prayer in place of the Magnificat.
CANTICLES. Songs, especially also the Song of Solomon. The sacred songs appointed to be sung or said in the Order for Morning and Evening Prayer. These are the Venite, Te Deum, Benedicite, Benedictus, Jubilate, Magnificat, Cantate, Nunc Dimittis, and Deus Misereatur; each of which see.
CASSOCK, see Vestments.
CATECHISM. From a word meaning to instruct by word of mouth. The insertion of this elementary exposition of Christian Faith and Practice into the Prayer Book is a feature of the Reformation. The Catechism, as drawn up in 1549, finished with the explanation of the Lord's Prayer. The explanation of the Sacraments was not added until 1604. Bishop Overall is believed to have written it. The Catechism formerly stood in the Confirmation Service, but was placed in its present position in 1661. The first rubric at the end of the Catechism has for a long time been rendered practically obsolete by the institution of Sunday Schools and Children's Services.
CATHEDRAL. The chief church of every diocese is called the Cathedral, because in it is the cathedra, or seat, of the Bishop. Every Cathedral has a body of clergy belonging to it of various degrees of dignity. (See Dean, Dean and Chapter.)
CATHOLIC. A Greek word, meaning universal or general. The Holy Catholic Church is the visible Church of Christ throughout the world, of all ages, all whose branches have retained unbroken the Apostolical succession in the Ministry. There may be erring Branches of the True Church. Art. xix. declares, "As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch have erred, so also the Church of Rome hath erred...."
It is improper to speak of the Roman Catholic Church simply by the name of Catholic; in England, members of the Church of England are Catholics.
CEMETERY. A sleeping place. The beautiful name given to places of burial by Christians.
CEREMONY. Ceremonia in its classical sense was a general term for worship. Johnson defines a ceremony to be "outward rite, external form in religion." Hooker uses the word in this sense. In a larger sense it may mean a whole office. All should read that part of the introduction to our Prayer Book which treats "Of Ceremonies, why some are to be abolished, and some retained" (written in 1549). see also Art. xxxiv.
CHALICE, see Altar Vessels.
CHANCEL. The choir, or upper part of a church, commonly at the east end, is called the chancel. It is the freehold of the Incumbent should he be a Rector. Where there is a lay impropriator he has the freehold. It usually is raised some steps above the level of the nave, from which it was formerly separated by a screen, called the rood screen, upon which was the rood, or figure of our Blessed Lord on the Cross. The chancel contains the seats, or stalls, for the clergy and the choir. The east end of the chancel is partitioned off by the altar rails. The part thus enclosed is called the sanctuary, and contains the altar. The sanctuary is usually raised still higher than the chancel by additional steps.
CHANCELLOR. A deputy of the Bishop, with a jurisdiction in all ecclesiastical matters throughout the diocese.
The Chancellor of a Cathedral is quite a different personage. He is an ecclesiastic, frequently a canon, who discharges many duties in connection with the Cathedral of which he is Chancellor. He directs the services, is secretary of the chapter, the librarian, the superintendent of schools connected with the Cathedral, &c. These offices, however, are not always combined.
CHANT, see Church Music
CHAPEL. Any consecrated building other than a Parish Church or Cathedral. The word is also now applied to the Meeting Houses of the various dissenting bodies. Lately, some of these bodies have taken to calling their places of worship churches.
CHAPLAIN. A person authorized to officiate in places other than the Parish Church, such as the private chapels of noblemen, and the chapels attached to Asylums, Workhouses, Hospitals, and the like. A statute of Henry VIII. restricts the number of chaplains which may be appointed by personages of various ranks as follows:—an Archbishop, eight; a Duke or Bishop, six; Marquis or Earl, five; Viscount, four; Baron, Knight of the Garter, or Lord Chancellor, three; a Duchess, Marchioness, Countess, Baroness, the Treasurer or Comptroller of the King's household, the Clerk of the Closet, the King's Secretary, the Dean of the Chapel, Almoner, and Master of the Rolls, each of them two chaplains. The Queen has forty-eight chaplains, called Chaplains in Ordinary.
CHAPTER. The governing body of a Cathedral or Collegiate Church, consisting of the Dean, the Canons, Prebendaries, &c. (See Dean and Chapter.)
CHAPTER HOUSE. A building attached to a Cathedral, in which the Dean and Chapter meet for the transaction of business.
CHARGE. The address delivered by a Bishop or Archdeacon at their respective Visitations of the Clergy.
CHASIBLE, or CHASUBLE, see Vestment.
CHERUB, see Angel.
CHIMERE, see Vestments
CHOIR, or QUIRE. That part of a church which is called the chancel, is generally called the choir in a Cathedral. The word is also applied to the singing men and boys, who lead the musical part of the service. (See Church Music.)
CHORISTER. A member of the choir, and more properly one of the boys of the choir.
CHRIST. The Anointed One. The Greek form of the Hebrew Messiah. One of the titles of our Blessed Lord. Acts x.38. (See Trinity, The Holy.)
CHRISTEN, TO. The same as to Baptize. (See Baptism.)
CHRISTIAN. A title given, in ridicule possibly in the first instance, to the believers in Christ by the people of Antioch. (Acts. xi.26.)
CHRISTIAN NAME. The name given us when we were made Christians, viz., at our baptism.
CHRISTMAS DAY. Dec. 25th. The day kept as the anniversary of our Saviour's birth. This is believed to be the true day and month. W. H. Mill says that the objections against it are "for the most part weak and groundless." This high Festival has been kept at least since the IVth century. There are special Psalms and Lessons appointed, and a "proper preface" in the Communion Service. It is one of those "three times" at which all professing members of the Church are expected to communicate every year.
CHURCH, THE. Our Prayer Book supplies us with a definition in Art. xix. The three chief branches of the Church Catholic are—(1) the Eastern, or Greek Church; (2) the Western, or Roman Church; and (3) the Anglican Church, of which the Episcopal Churches of England, Scotland, Ireland, America, and the Colonies form part. Although, unhappily, there are grave differences in both faith and ceremony among these great branches of the Church, yet we can still profess our belief in "one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church," inasmuch as we are all one by unity of faith in Christ, by Apostolical foundation, and succession of Orders. It seems well here to give a brief sketch of the English, Greek, and Roman Churches.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Christianity was introduced into Britain at the end of the first, or beginning of the second, century. Three British Bishops were present at a Council held at Arles, in Gaul, in 314. At the invasion of the heathen Anglo-Saxons the British Church retreated into Wales. In 597 Gregory the Great, Bishop of Rome, sent Augustine to this island, who was instrumental in reviving Christianity in the south-east of England. When he came he found seven Bishoprics existing, and two Archbishoprics, viz., London and York. Augustine was made the first Archbishop of Canterbury; this was the first appointment by Papal authority in England. The northern part of England was evangelized in the earlier portion of the following century, by Irish Missionaries from Iona, under Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne; and his successor, Finan, who lived to see Christianity everywhere established north of the Humber, and died in 662. "The planting, therefore, of the Gospel in the Anglo-Saxon provinces of Britain was the work of two rival Missionary bands (597 to 662); in the south, the Roman, aided by their converts, and some teachers out of Gaul; in the north, the Irish, whom the conduct of Augustine and his party had estranged from their communion. If we may judge from the area of their field of action, it is plain that the Irish were the larger body; but a host of conspiring causes gradually resulted in the spread and ascendancy of Roman modes of thought." (Hardwick.)
In the time of Archbishop Theodore (668—689) the fusion of the English Christians was completed, and the Pope began to assert (not without opposition) an usurped authority in the English Church (c.f., Hardwick).
What are called the "dark ages" were indeed dark in the Church, for then it was that she became erring in faith, doctrine, and practice, and almost a caricature of what she once was. This state of things continued until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place. The movement was popular in England, and nearly all, clergy and people, were glad to see the superstitions and corruptions which had crept into the Church swept away by Archbishop Cranmer and his colleagues. Still, there was a party which would take no share in this movement, but remained faithful to the Pope,—the representatives of what was falsely called the "old faith." Notwithstanding the differences of faith between these two parties, they both continued nominally members of the Church of England. It was not until 1569 that the Roman Catholic party seceded from the Church of England, and formed a distinct sect. It is most important for Churchmen to remember that the Church of England did not secede from that of Rome, but Romanists seceded from the Church of England. Just as Naaman the leper remained the same Naaman after he was cured of his leprosy as he was before, so the Church of England remained the same Church of England after the Reformation as she was before, composed of the same duly consecrated Bishops, of the same duly ordained Clergy, and of the same faithful people. The present Church of England is the old Catholic Church of England, reformed in the 16th century of certain superstitious errors, but still the same Church which came down from our British and Saxon ancestors, and as such it possesses its original endowments, which were never, as some suppose, taken from one Church and given to another. And thus, when Roman Catholics speak of our grand old Cathedrals and Parish Churches as being once theirs, they assert what is not historically true. These buildings always belonged, as they do now, to the Church of England, which Church has been continuous from British times to the present. (See Endowment.)
The Established Church in England is governed by 2 Archbishops and 31 Bishops. Besides these, there are 4 Suffragan (which see) Bishops (Dover, Bedford, Nottingham, and Colchester). There are also 22 retired Colonial Bishops in England. Four new Bishoprics have recently been created, and two more are in course of formation. As assistants to the Bishops there are 82 Archdeacons, and 613 Rural Deans. There about 13,500 benefices in England, and about 23,000 clergymen of every class. The Church sittings number about 6,200,000. It is somewhat difficult to arrive at the number of the members of the Church of England, as Nonconformists have always objected to a religious census being made. Taking the following official returns, we find that, out of every 100,—
School returns give 72 28 Cemetery " " 70 30 Marriages " " 75 25 Army " " 63 37 (Of which 37 no fewer than 24 are Roman Catholics.) Navy returns give 75 25 Workhouse " " 79 21 Giving an average of 72 per cent, to the Church, and 28 per cent, to Dissenters. The whole population in England and Wales in 1878 was 24,854,397 Church population at 72 percent. 17,995,159 Nonconformist population (including Roman Catholics) 6,859,238
With regard to Educational Matters, we find that
In Day Schools connected with the Church, there are 2,092,846 Ditto with Wesleyans 173,804 Ditto Roman Catholics 223,423 In British and Undenominational Schools 324,144 School Board Schools 1,197,927
We also find that on Hospital Sunday, 1881, the following contributions were made:
Church of England L174,662 Methodists (the various sects together) L 9,012
For Missionary purposes the sums of money collected in 1881 were:
Church of England L460,395 Nonconformist Societies in England L313,177
Statistics of the Anglican Communion Bishops. Clergy.
England and Wales (including 4 Suffragan, and 4 Assistant, Bishops) 41 23,000 Ireland 12 1,700 Scotland 7 250 British Colonies, India, &c. 75 3,100 United States 69 3,600 Retired Bishops 22 —- ——— Total (in round numbers) 226 30,000
CHURCH, THE GREEK. This ancient branch of the Catholic Church is the Church of the East. The great schism between the Eastern and Western Churches took place in the eleventh century, though for centuries before a separation had been imminent. One of the chief causes of the separation of the Eastern from the Western Church was that the latter holds the doctrine that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son (filioqe) as well as from the Father, eternally; and inserted the words "filioque" (and from the Son) in the Nicene Creed. This the Eastern Church rejects; and also she errs in other details both of faith and practice. Her orders are without doubt Apostolical, and efforts have been made for her union with the Anglican Church, but the "filioque" clause in the Creed has hitherto hindered this from being accomplished.
CHURCH OF ROME. This is properly that branch of the great Church Catholic over which the Bishop, or Pope, of Rome presides. It in no way belongs to the object of this work to trace the history of this Church from Apostolic times, nor yet to notice how by degrees it claimed and assumed the supremacy over other churches. But since we find amongst us certain congregations who worship according to the Roman use, and who look up to the Pope of Rome as their head, it will be well to see how Romanism was introduced into this land after the Reformation. As has been before noticed (see Church of England), it was not until about forty years after the Papal usurpation had been suppressed in England that those who still remained Roman at heart fell away from the ancient Church of England, and constituted themselves into a distinct community or sect. This was in the year 1570. This schismatic community was first governed by the Jesuits. In 1623 a Bishop, called the Bishop of Chalcedon, was consecrated, and sent from Rome to rule the Roman sect in England. The Bishop of Chalcedon was banished in 1628, and then the adherents of the Papacy in England were left without any Bishops until the reign of James II. This King favoured the Romanists, and would gladly have re-introduced the Roman Catholic religion into the country. He filled many vacant Sees with members of the Church of Rome; but all he did in favour of Popery was more than reversed in the reign of his successor, William III., Prince of Orange. In 1829 a Bill, called the Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill, was passed, by which Roman Catholics were made eligible to sit in Parliament, and restored to other rights of English citizenship from which they had before been excluded. In the present reign (1850) Dr. Wiseman, and a few other Roman Catholic priests, led the Pope to trench upon the Royal prerogative by establishing a Romish Hierarchy in this country. Cardinal Wiseman was made Archbishop of Westminster; and twelve others, Bishops of territorial Sees. A Bill, however, was brought into Parliament by the Government to resist this Papal aggression, and forbidding the assumption of English territorial titles. This Act has been repealed.
We of the Reformed Church hold that many doctrines and practices of the Church of Rome are erroneous and unscriptural, the most important of which are the following:—The doctrine of Original Sin, and Justification, as defined by the Council of Trent; Propitiatory Sacrifice of the Mass; Transubstantiation; Communicating in one kind only; the Seven Sacraments; Purgatory; the Worship, Invocation, and Intercession of the Blessed Virgin, Saints, and Angels; Veneration of Relics; Worship of Images; Universal Supremacy of the Roman Church; the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin; and the Infallibility of the Pope. These two last were not imposed upon the Roman Church as articles of faith, necessary to be believed, until 1854 and 1870. With the exception of the last two, the above is a summary of the errors of Rome, drawn up by Dr. Barrow, and quoted by Bishop Harold Browne in his book on the 39 articles.
In England the Roman Church has two Cardinals, one of whom (Cardinal Manning) is also Archbishop, 17 Bishops, 2,112 other Clergy. The number of Roman Catholic Archbishops and Bishops now holding office in the British Empire is 131.
CHURCH MUSIC. Certain parts of our Service are directed to be "said or sung," the former possibly describing the parochial, the latter the Cathedral, manner of performing Divine Service. The use of musical instruments in the singing of praise to God is very ancient. The first Psalm in the Bible—viz., that which Moses and Miriam sang after the passage of the Red Sea—was then accompanied by timbrels. Afterwards, when the Temple was built, musical instruments were constantly used at public worship. In the 150th Psalm the writer especially calls upon the people to prepare the different kinds of instruments wherewith to praise the Lord. And this has been the constant practice of the Church in all ages. It is not clearly known when organs were first brought into use, but we find that as early as the year 766 the Emperor of the East sent an organ as a present to Pippin, King of France. It is certain that the use of them has been very common now for several hundreds of years.
The custom of dividing the choir into two parts, stationed on either side of the chancel, in order that they may say, or sing, alternate verses, dates from the primitive Church. Thus Miriam sang. (Ex. xv.20.) Thus the angels in heaven sing. (Isaiah vi.3)
The Psalms and Canticles are generally sung to a chant. These are of two kinds—Gregorian and Anglican. Gregorian chants are very ancient; a collection of them was compiled by Gregory, Bishop of Rome, about A.D. 600. They are sung in unison. Anglican chants, which are of much more recent invention, are sung in harmony. Nearly all our Church music is based on the Gregorian chant. A single chant is an air consisting of two phrases, corresponding to the two parts into which every verse of the Psalms and Canticles is divided in our Prayer Book by a colon. A double chant consists of four parts. Sometimes the Canticles are sung to what is called a Service, which is a musical arrangement similar to the Anthem.
Hymn, a metrical song of praise. Hymns are nowhere formally authorised in our Church, with one exception, viz., the Veni Creator in the Ordination Service. Still, metrical hymns have been sung in the Church from Apostolic times, the words of some of which are extant. The "hymn" sung by our Lord and his disciples at the Last Supper was probably the "Hallel," Psalms cvii.—cxviii.
Anthem, as the term is usually understood in England, consists of passages from Holy Scripture set to music; such also are Introits. Anthems are almost peculiar to our Church, but have been in constant use in it since the Reformation.
Other parts of the Service, such as the Prayers, the Versicles, the Litany, are frequently read either on one note (monotoned), or on one note occasionally varied at the end by a cadence (intoned). This is objected to by some as being unnatural; but it is not so. A child naturally intones or monotones if set to read or recite. And where a congregation have to repeat the same words together, it is absolutely necessary that they should do it on some given note, or the result would be Babel. Children in school, of their own accord, say their lessons together in a monotone. The practice of doing so in the Church dates from the very earliest times.
CHURCH PARTIES. There always have been, and probably always will be, in every religious community different schools of thought. Truth is many-sided, and while men may agree in prescribing a certain limit, outside which is error, yet within the boundary there may be room for many different views of central truths. In the Church of England the views held by different parties are generally reckoned under three heads,—(1) High Church, a section of which party are Ritualists; (2) Low Church, or Evangelicals; (3) Broad Church. Roughly speaking their influence may be thus described: The High Church party has deepened the sense of the Church's corporate life and work, and added to the reverence, the order, the beauty of holy worship. The Low Church party has done much to awaken a spirit of vital personal religion. The Broad Church party has done much to co-ordinate the truths of religion with the certain results of science. The members of this party hold views more or less latitudinarian. The teaching of these three parties will best be seen by an enumeration of the names most favoured by each; thus High Churchmen appeal to Laud, Hammond, Sancroft, Hooker, Andrewes, Cosin, Pearson, Ken, Wilson, Robert Nelson, George Herbert, John Keble, and Pusey. Low Churchmen delight in Melanchthon, Zwingli, Cranmer, Hooper, Ridley, Jewel, Bunyan, Whitfield, Cowper, Scott, Cecil, John Newton, Romaine, Venn, Wilberforce, Simeon, and Henry Martyn. The Broad Church School contains such names as Bacon, Milton, Hales, Jeremy Taylor, Tillotson, Locke, Isaac Newton, Coleridge, Arnold, Maurice, Hare, Robertson, Kingsley, Thirlwall, and Stanley.
CHURCH RATE. A rate which the Churchwardens and Vestry had the right to levy on ratepayers for the repairs of the Church, and for the expenses connected with Divine Service. Ina, king of Wessex, drew up a code of Ecclesiastical Laws, which were accepted in a National Council in A.D. 690. Among these laws was that—"The Church Scot (or Rate) for the repair of Churches, and supply of all things necessary for Divine Worship, was to be paid by every house before Martinmas, according to a valuation made at Christmas." This right of the Church to levy compulsory Church Rates was only taken from her by an Act passed in the present reign, in consequence of the opposition raised by Dissenters.
CHURCH WARDENS. The Office of Church Warden dates from very early times in England, but we have no clear account of its origin. The Church Wardens, of whom there are two in most Parishes, are appointed at a meeting of parishioners held at Easter. The Incumbent has the power of appointing one, the other is elected by the vote of the parishioners. The Church Wardens were originally mere ecclesiastical officers; the State then added various civil functions to the office, such as levying rates, &c., but a good deal of this civil power has now been withdrawn. Their business has become in substance that of assisting in the finances, repairs, warming, &c., of the Church. It is also their duty to complain to the Bishop or Archdeacon if the Incumbent be neglectful or irregular in the conduct of Divine Service.
When Church Wardens have been chosen, they are admitted to their office by the Archdeacon. The office is of one year's duration only. In many larger parishes they are assisted by Synodmen, or Sidesmen.
A Church Warden should be a resident rate-payer; but non-residence is not always a disqualification. The following are certainly disqualified to hold office,—all aliens born, as well as aliens naturalized; all Jews; all children under 10 years of age; all persons convicted of felony; all idiots and insane persons.
CHURCH YARD. The ground adjoining the Church, in which the dead are buried. It is the freehold of the parson, but inasmuch as it was the common burial place, it was fenced and cared for at the charge of the parishioners, who could be rated for it. Recent Burial Acts (which see) have lately given power to laymen to conduct funeral services even in the consecrated Churchyard. Rates have also been done away with, and thus we find the parson burdened with the charge of a Churchyard in which any man, woman, or child, may hold funeral services. The Church of England is the only religious body in England which may not have a distinct burial ground for her dead!
CHURCHING OF WOMEN. From the earliest times it has been usual for a woman after child-birth to come to God's house to offer thanks. It was so among the Jews, although with them the idea of purification is involved as well as of thanksgiving, as it is in the Eastern Church at the present day. In some country places there is an idea that a woman can be "Churched" at home, which is a contradiction in terms.
CIRCUMCISION OF CHRIST. A feast dating from before the 6th century, when a special service was already in use for it. The collect—a translation from an ancient Latin one—sums up well the teaching of the day.
CLERGY. A general name for ecclesiastics of all orders (see Orders), as distinguished from the laity. The word is from a Greek one, meaning a portion.
CLERK. The legal designation of a clergyman is "Clerk in Holy Orders." The Parish Clerk was formerly a person in Holy Orders, but his office, as defined in our Prayer Book, is usually discharged by a layman. The appointment of a Parish Clerk is in the hands of the incumbent, by whom also he may be dismissed; but in some parishes the office is a freehold. The almost universal use of choirs in churches has nearly done away with that strange mode of public worship which consisted of a duet between the parson and clerk. The clerk has certain stated fees for his assistance at marriages and funerals.
CLOISTER. A covered walk attached to monastic and collegiate buildings and Cathedrals.
COLLATION. The appointment to a benefice by a Bishop is called a collation.
COLLECT. A short concentrated prayer. The derivation of the word is doubtful. The greater part of our Collects are found in the Sacramentaries of St. Leo (A.D. 420), Gelasius (A.D. 494), and Gregory the Great (A.D. 590.) Fifty-seven out of tie existing eighty-two Prayer Book Collects are thus translations from the Latin. The later Collects may sometimes be distinguished from these ancient ones by their lack of terseness, and by their greater use of scriptural language.
COLLEGE. A corporation or community. The Colleges of our Universities are independent societies, governed by their own statutes and officers. Still, they are connected in certain ways with the greater Corporation, called the University (which see.)
COLLEGIATE CHURCHES. Churches with a College, or body of Canons or Prebendaries attached, such as Westminster Abbey, and St. George's, Windsor. The only others remaining now are Wolverhampton, Middleham, and Brecon.
COMMANDMENTS, The TEN. The recital of the Decalogue is peculiar to our English Communion Service. It was ordered in 1552, possibly to counteract the growth of Antinomianism (which see.) While other parts of the Levitical Law relating to ceremonies and the like are not binding on Christians, the Commandments are so, because they embody the Moral Law, which is for all time and all people.
For the sense in which the Commandments are to be understood, see the explanation of them in the Catechism. The reason of their being placed in the Communion Service is to remind us of the duty of self-examination before we "presume to eat of that bread and drink of that cup," and to give us a standard whereby we may measure ourselves. For the alteration from the seventh day to the first, see Sunday.
COMMENDATORY PRAYER. One of the four extra prayers added to the Office for the Visitation of the Sick in 1662. It is a most beautiful commendation of a "sick person at the point of departure" to God's gracious mercy.
COMMINATION. The word means a threat, or denunciation of vengeance. The Service, so-called in our Prayer Book, took its present shape in 1549. It is, as the first exhortation states, an imperfect substitute for the primitive practice of open penance. Notice that in using this Service we do not invoke the wrath of God on sinners, but merely declare that a curse must rest on sin. The Service is used on Ash Wednesday, although, if ordered, it may be used at other times. The first seven sentences are from Deut. xxvii.15-26; the eighth is from Jer. xvii.5; the ninth is an agglomeration of sins condemned in Scripture. The Amen here means not So be it, but So it is. The exhortation which follows is a succession of quotations from Scripture. The Rubric mentions the "place where they are accustomed to say the Litany," which place is neither the pulpit nor reading pew mentioned in the first Rubric in the Office, but is a desk placed "in the midst of the church" (Injunctions of 1549). Following the Lord's Prayer, Versicles, and Collects, comes a most forcible confession couched in the words of Scripture, but less comprehensive than those of the Morning and Communion Services. The Blessing, added in 1662, is a shortened form of the old Jewish Blessing (Num. vi.24-26), but here it is precatory not declaratory.
COMMITTAL PRAYER. That prayer in the Burial Service in which the minister commits the body to the ground, "earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust." (See Burial Service.)
COMMON PRAYER, see Liturgy.
COMMUNION, THE HOLY. Variously called the Lord's Supper and the Eucharist. This Service, formerly exclusively called the Liturgy is the highest act of Christian worship. We will consider it under four heads,—(1) History; (2) Rubrics; (3) Service; (4) Views.
(1) History. The two Sacraments—Holy Communion, and Holy Baptism—differ from all other Christian observances in that they are the only two expressly ordained by our Lord. We have four records of the institution of the Lord's Supper in the New Testament, viz., Matt, xxvi.26-28; Mark xiv.22-24; Luke xxii.19-20; 1 Cor. xi.23-25. In obedience to our Lord's command, "This do in remembrance of Me," we find the Apostles constantly celebrated the Holy Communion; Acts ii.46; xx.7; &c. This was always accompanied by a set form of prayer, traces of which we may even find in the New Testament—Acts ii.42; 1 Cor. x.16; 1 Cor. xiv.16. Justin Martyr, who wrote A.D. 140, gives an account of a Sunday Service. Almsgiving usually, if not always, accompanied a celebration of the Holy Communion. As the number of Christians increased, the various Churches throughout Europe compiled for their own use forms of prayer for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; the form most used in England was known by the name of the "Sarum, or Salisbury, Use." The Communion Service in our Prayer Book is based upon, and translated from, this "Sarum Use," with considerable modifications and adaptations. The first reformed Office appeared in 1548; the first full English Office was put forth in 1549; the present Office is substantially that in the second Prayer Book of Edward VI., 1552. A great deal of it is from Hermann's "Consultation," a Liturgy drawn up in 1543 by Melanchthon and Bucer.
(2) Rubrics. The first, inserted in 1661, has become virtually obsolete. The "Ordinary," mentioned in the third, is the Bishop, and the "Canon" referred to is the 109th. For first part of fourth rubric, see Altar. For the latter part of this rubric, see Eastward Position. This rubric was added in 1552.
The rubric before the Commandments was inserted in 1552, but the words "turning to the people," were added in 1661. The next was inserted in 1549. In the next rubric, the alternate form of giving out the Epistle is for use when the passage selected as the Epistle is not really from the Epistles, but is some other "portion of Scripture;" the "sung or said" refers, possibly, to the Cathedral and Parochial modes of conducting Service. (See Church Music.)
Three rubrics follow the Nicene Creed; in the first, 1662, the word "Curate," there and elsewhere in the Prayer Book, means the minister in charge of the parish, having "cure of souls," not the assistant minister generally so denominated now. The direction that notice of Holy Communion is to be given at this part of the service is quite contradictory to the rubric following the Prayer for the Church Militant, which should be altered. The word "Homily," in the second of these rubrics, means "a plain sermon." Two books of Homilies have been put forth, one in 1547, by Archbp. Cranmer and others, and the second in 1562, by Bishop Jewel. There is no authority in this, or any other rubric, for changing the surplice for a black gown, neither is there any direction for a prayer before the sermon, although a form is given in the 55th Canon. (See Bidding Prayer.)
For the next rubric see Offertory.
The first rubric after the Offertory Sentences was inserted in 1661; in 1552 the alms were to be put in the poor box, and not presented. The next rubric orders the bread and wine to be placed on the Holy Table, thus implying the existence of some shelf or table, called the Credence Table, on which they had been previously placed. This rubric was omitted from 1552 to 1661, which perhaps accounts for the custom existing in some churches of not placing the elements on the altar till the time of consecration. The rubrics before the two exhortations giving notice of Holy Communion, were inserted in 1661, but now they have fallen into disuse. The next rubric, inserted in 1552, refers to the custom, almost obsolete now, of intending communicants taking places in the chancel for the rest of the service.
The rubric before the Confession is ambiguous in language, and may mean that the Confession is to be said by the minister alone. The next rubric, directing the Bishop, if present, to pronounce the Absolution, is from the Scottish Office, and was introduced here in 1661. For the rubric before the Consecration prayer, see Eastward Position. The "fair linen cloth," ordered to be thrown over what remains of the consecrated elements, is by some thought to represent the linen clothes in which the Saviour's body was wrapped when placed in the tomb.