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The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom
by P. L. Simmonds
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THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM,

CONSIDERED IN THEIR VARIOUS USES TO MAN AND IN THEIR RELATION TO THE ARTS AND MANUFACTURES;

FORMING A PRACTICAL TREATISE & HANDBOOK OF REFERENCE FOR THE

Colonist, Manufacturer, Merchant, and Consumer,

ON THE CULTIVATION, PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT, AND COMMERCIAL VALUE, &c. OF THE VARIOUS SUBSTANCES OBTAINED FROM TREES AND PLANTS,

ENTERING INTO THE HUSBANDRY OF TROPICAL AND SUB-TROPICAL REGIONS, &c.

BY P.L. SIMMONDS,

HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL SOCIETIES OF JAMAICA, BRITISH GUIANA, ANTIGUA, BARBADOS, KONIGSBERG, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, NATAL, THE NEW YORK STATE SOCIETY, THE NOVA SCOTIA CENTRAL BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, THE SOCIETIES FOR PROMOTING AGRICULTURE IN PHILADELPHIA AND NEW ORLEANS; ONE OF THE EDITORS OF "JOHNSON'S FARMER'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA;" MANY YEARS EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR OF THE "COLONIAL MAGAZINE," &c. &c.

MDCCCLIV.



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

African Steam Ship Company, 3, Mincing Lane Archbell, J., Esq., Pietermaritzburg, Natal Assam Company, 30, Great Winchester-street Aubert, Honourable J.M.A., M.C., St. Lucia

Botanical Society (the Royal), Regent's Park Burton, C.H., Esq., 133, Fenchurch-street Boddington, Messrs. & Co., 9, St. Helen's Place Bristol Chamber of Commerce, Bristol Brown, Messrs. & Co., 4, Pancras Lane Begg, Thomas, Esq., 3, Corbett Court, Gracechurch-street Bow, J.B. De., Editor of Commercial Review, New Orleans Breede, L. Von, Esq., Natal Breen, H.H., Esq., St. Lucia Barbados General Agricultural Society British Guiana Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society Browne, Hunter & Co., Messrs., Liverpool Bagshaw, John, Esq., M.P., Cliff House, Harwich Berry, Richard L., Esq., Chagford, Devonshire Blyth, Messrs., J. & A., Steam Engine House, Limehouse Blyth, Philip P., Esq., 23, Upper Wimpole Street Brown, Messrs. Robert & Co., 25, Lawrence Pountney Lane

Carmichael, Sir James, Bart., Sussex Gardens Christopher, J.S., Esq., 26, Coleman-street Challis, Alderman, 32, Wilson Street, Finsbury Childs, R.W., Esq., 26, Coleman Street Cape of Good Hope Agricultural Society Campbell, C.T., Graham's Town, Cape of Good Hope (3 copies) Central Board of Agriculture, Halifax, Nova Scotia (5 copies) Crum, H.E., Esq., (Messrs. J. Ewing & Co's.,) Glasgow Clegg, T., Esq., Manchester Carleton, Percival A., Esq., Stipendiary Magistrate, Bahamas

Davis, Messrs. T.E. & W.W., manufacturers, 159 and 160, Whitechapel Road Dinneford, Messrs. & Co, 172, New Bond-street Denoon, Messrs. D. & Co., 6, Adam's Court, Old Broad-st. Decasseres, Phineas, Esq., Falmouth, Jamaica Dod, Francis, Esq., Savanna le Mar, Jamaica Duke, Sir James, M.P., Portland Place Dunbar, Messrs. D., & Sons, 95, Fore-street, Limehouse Dennistoun, Messrs. J. & A., Glasgow Drysdale, Hon. J.V., Colonial Secretary, St. Lucia Drumm, Mr. W., Chemist, Barbados (12 copies)

Ede, Francis, Esq., Great Winchester-street Ede, Limbrey, Esq., merchant, Winchester-street Edmonds, E., junr., Esq., Bilcomb Brook, Bradford, Wilts Evett, Thomas, Esq., Trelawney, Jamaica

Forbes, Dr., F.R.S., Burlington-street Fielden, J. Leyland, Esq., Feniscowles, Blackburn Fox, Mr. C., Paternoster Row Foster, T.C., Esq., Natal Framgee, Neeswanjee & Co., Bombay Forman, Mr. R.B., 14, Mincing Lane Franks & Co., Messrs., 36, Fenchurch-street

Grey, The Right Honourable Earl Grassett, Elliot, Esq., 6, Chesham-street, Belgrave Square Gray, Messrs. B.C.T. & Co., Great St. Helen's Gray & Co., Messrs., Commercial Chambers, Mincing Lane Glasgow, Messrs. Alexander & Co., Glasgow Glasgow Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures

Harker, George, Esq., 102 and 103, Upper Thames-street Henry, J.G., Esq., Bicknollon House, Williton, Somerset Holloway, Thomas, Esq., 244, Strand Hanbury, Daniel, Esq, 2, Plough Court Howard, Messrs. James & Frederick, Bedford Haywood, James, Esq., Birmingham Henley, The Right Honourable J.W., M.P. Humphreys, E.R., L.L.D., Cheltenham School Haynes, Robert, Esq., Thimbleby Lodge, Northallerton Howson, Rev. J.S., M.A., Principal of Liverpool Collegiate School Howard, W.M., Esq., Barbados Hitchins, Richard, Esq., Kingston, Jamaica Hamilton, William, Esq., 29, St. Vincent Place, Glasgow Hodge, Honorable Langford L., Antigua

Ifill, Benjamin, Esq., 86, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park Gardens Innes, J., Esq., Moorgate-street Isle of Thanet Agricultural Association, Ramsgate

Jamaica Association, 1, New Square, Lincoln's Inn Jamaica Royal Agricultural Society Jennings, J.H., Esq., Stipendiary Magistrate, St. Lucia Jung & Burgtheel, Messrs., 2, Winchester Buildings Johnson, C.W., Esq., F.R.S., Croydon

Keane, Charles C., Esq., Bermuda Keating, Thomas, Esq., St. Paul's Churchyard Keeling & Hunt, Messrs., Monument Yard

Laird, J.M., Esq., African Steam Ship Co., Mincing Lane Laurie, W.C., Esq. 6, Great Winchester-street Lane, Crawford & Co., Messrs., Hong Kong (12 copies) Lee, D. McPhee, Esq., Bermuda Livesay, Drs., R.N., 35, Nelson Square Lloyd, B.S., Esq., Birchin Lane Liverpool, Library of Collegiate Institution Lawton, Isaac, Esq., Kingston, Jamaica (2 copies) Lyons, George, Esq., Falmouth, Jamaica (2 copies) Lawrence & Co., Messrs., Madras (3 copies) Losack, F.C., Esq., Trelawney, Jamaica Lord Mayor, The Right Honourable, Mansion House

Molesworth, The Right Honourable Sir William, Bart., M.P., Eaton Square McCulloch, J.R., Esq., Her Majesty's Stationery Office Morewood, Edward Esq., Compensation, Natal Morewood, J.J., Esq., 1, Winchester Buildings Martin, R. Montgomery, Esq., 21, Victoria Road, Kensington McHenry, George, M.D., 12, Danzie Street, Liverpool Masterman, John, Esq., M.P., Nicholas Lane, City Mayers, J.P. Esq., Staplegrove, Barbados Mouat, Richard, Esq., R.N., H.M. Dockyard, Port Royal, Jamaica McHugh, R.G., Esq., St. Lucia Marryatt, Charles, Esq., Laurence Pountney Lane Mason, J.P. and Co., 18, Mincing Lane Mosely, Mr. E.N., Nassau, Bahamas. Michelli, Mr. F., Gould Square

Nesbit, J.C. Esq., F.G.S., Scientific School, Kennington Lane Newdegate, C.N., Esq., M.P., Blackheath Natal Agricultural and Horticultural Society Newcastle, his Grace the Duke of, (2 copies) New York State Agricultural Society, Albany Noble, Messrs. G. & J.A., 11, George Yard, Lombard Street,

Pakington, Right Hon. Sir John S., M.P. Poole, David, Esq., Analytical Chemist, 18, Jubilee Street, Mile End Road. Poole, Braithwaite, Esq., London and North Western Railway, Liverpool. Pitts and Gavin, Messrs., Kandy, Ceylon. Porteous, The Honorable James, Jamaica. Prescott, George W., Esq., 62, Threadneedle Street

Rowland, Messrs. Alex. and Sons, 20, Hatton Garden (3 copies) Ransomes and Sims, Messrs., Implement Makers, Ipswich (2 copies) Rolph, Thomas, Esq., M.D., Portsmouth. Richardson, Robert, Esq., 3, Jermyn Street, St. James's Richardson, Mr. J.M., Cornhill Rowe, Sir Joshua, Chief Justice of Jamaica Roberts, Charles, Esq., 38, Mincing Lane Russell, Graham, Esq., 63, Miller Street, Glasgow Rothschild, Baron, Lionel De, M.P., New Court, Swithin's Lane

Sampson, M.B., Esq., City Editor of the Times, Lombard Street Saunders, Trelawney W., Esq., F.R.G.S., 6, Charing Cross Staunton, Sir George Thomas, Bart., M.P., F.B.S., Hants Strousberg, B.H., Esq., F.R.G.S., Editor of "The Merchant's Magazine." Straube, Dr., 36, Moorgate Street Stewart, Charles, Esq., 4, Adam's Court, Old Bond-street (2 copies) Schomburgk, Sir R.H., British Consul, St. Domingo Sewell, William, Esq., St. James's, Jamaica Stephenson, R. Macdonald, Esq., East India Railway, Calcutta Simmonds, Richard, Esq., R.N., Admiralty, Somerset House Simmonds, J.G., Esq., R.N., H.M.S. Crane, West Coast of Africa Simeon, Hardy and Sons, Messrs., Cork Samuelson, B., Esq., Britannia Iron Works, Banbury Stanford, Mr., 6, Charing Cross

Trade, The Honorable the Board of Tennent, Sir J. Emerson, M.P. Travers, Messrs., and Co., 19, St. Swithin's Lane Thibou, James B., Esq., Antigua Tollemache, Honorable F., Hillmagham Hall, Ipswich Thornton, Edward, Esq., Statistical Department, East India House

Weeding, Thomas, Esq., 6, Great Winchester Street (2 copies) Weguelin, T.M., Esq., 7, Austin Friars Wyld, James, Esq, Great Globe, Leicester Square Westgarth, Ross and Co., Messrs., Melbourne, Port Philip Wortley, S.S., Esq., Cumberland Pen, Spanish Town, Jamaica Wray, Leonard, Esq., Natal Wells, Charles, Esq., Grenada Woodifield, R.D., Esq., Custom House Woods, R.C., Esq., Straits Times, Singapore (20 copies) Wilson, Mr. Effingham, Royal Exchange Buildings (2 copies)

Yeatman, Rev. H.F., L.L.B., Stockhouse, near Sherborne Young, Bryan, T., Esq., Barbados



WORKS CONSULTED.

SIMMONDS'S COLONIAL MAGAZINE, 15 vols.

PORTER'S TROPICAL AGRICULTURIST.

PAXTON'S BOTANICAL DICTIONARY.

LAWSON'S MERCHANT'S MAGAZINE, 2 vols.

PROFESSOR ROYLE, on the Productive Resources of India.

CRAWFORD'S HISTORY OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, 3 vols.

LOGAN'S JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, 3 vols.

REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS CONNECTED WITH THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY, in regard to the Cultivation and Manufacture of Cotton, Wool, Raw Silk, and Indigo in India.

JOURNAL OF THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

MILBURN'S ORIENTAL COMMERCE.

URE'S DICTIONARY OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES, AND SUPPLEMENTS.

CHASE'S HISTORY OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

PROFESSOR BALFOUR'S MANUAL OF BOTANY.

DUPON'S TRAVELS IN SOUTH AMERICA, 2 vols.

COUNT DANDOLO on the art of Rearing Silk Worms.

JOURNAL AND TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 7 vols.

PRIDHAM'S HISTORY OF CEYLON AND ITS DEPENDENCIES, 2 vols.

PRIDHAM'S HISTORY OF THE MAURITIUS.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF JAMAICA, 5 vols.

THE BARBADOS AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY'S REPORTER, 2 vols.

LOW'S DISSERTATION ON THE AGRICULTURE OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

M'CULLOCH'S COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY, last Edition and Supplements.

HUNT'S NEW YORK MERCHANT'S MAGAZINE, 27 vols.

DE BOW'S COMMERCIAL REVIEW, New Orleans, 6 vols.

RENNY'S HISTORY OF JAMAICA.

SCHOMBURGK'S HISTORY OF BARBADOS.

BREEN'S HISTORY OF ST. LUCIA.

CAPTAIN BEEVER'S AFRICAN MEMORANDA.

PERREIRA'S ELEMENTS OF MATERIA MEDICA.

SPRY'S PLANTS, &c., required for India.

HOOPER'S MEDICAL DICTIONARY.

PERLEY'S REPORTS ON THE FOREST TREES AND FISHERIES OF NEW BRUNSWICK.

ESSAYS ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE TEA PLANT IN THE UNITED STATES, by Junius Smith, L.L.D.

THE MAHOGANY TREE, its Range, &c.

THE STATES OF CENTRAL AMERICA, by John Bailey, R.M.

THE INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF NOVA SCOTIA, by A Gesner.

REPORTS ON THE PAST AND PRESENT STATE OF H.M.'s COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, for the years 1849-50.

POOLE'S STATISTICS OF COMMERCE.

PATENT OFFICE REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1849-50.

DE BOW'S INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN STATES OF AMERICA, 4 vols.

OFFICIAL AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION; Part 1.—RAW MATERIALS.

DR. O'SHAUGHNESSY'S BENGAL DISPENSATORY.

ARCHER'S ECONOMIC BOTANY.

A FEW WORDS ON THE TEA DUTIES, by J. Ingram Travers.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF CEYLON.

GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, by James McQueen.

A HISTORY OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM, by W. Rhind.

THE STATISTICAL COMPANION, by Banfield and Weld.

FORTUNE'S TRAVELS IN CHINA.

BALL ON TEA CULTURE.

PROFESSOR ROYLE ON COTTON.

LECTURES ON THE RESULTS OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION, delivered before the Society of Arts, 2 vols.

JOHNSON'S FARMER'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA.

A DISSERTATION UPON TEA, by Thomas Short, M.D.; 1753.

PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS ON TRADE AND NAVIGATION.

THE HONG KONG ALMANAC AND DIRECTORY.

JAMAICA ALMANACS, &c.

KEEFER'S PRIZE ESSAY ON THE CANALS OF CANADA, 1850.

COLMAN'S CONTINENTAL AGRICULTURE, 1848.

CUBA IN 1851, by Alexander Jones.

MARTIN, on China.

CEYLON ALMANACS.

EARL'S ENTERPRISE IN TROPICAL AUSTRALIA.

CUNNINGHAM'S HINTS FOR AUSTRALIAN EMIGRANTS.

DR. TURNBULL'S CUBA, with Notes of Porto Rico.

LT. MOODIE'S TEN YEARS IN SOUTH AFRICA, 2 vols.

FARMER'S MAGAZINE, 20 vols.

ROBERTSON'S LETTERS ON SOUTH AMERICA, 3 vols.

STEVENSON'S TWENTY YEARS RESIDENCE IN SOUTH AMERICA, 3 vols.

JOURNALS OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON AND PARIS.

PHARMACEUTICAL JOURNAL, 10 vols.

THE LEADING AGRICULTURAL PERIODICALS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE COLONIES.

BALANZA GENERAL DE COMERCIO OF CUBA.

KNIGHT'S CYCLOPAEDIA OF THE INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS.



PREFACE.

The objects and purposes of the following Work are fully set forth in the introductory chapter; but I may be permitted to remark here, that its compilation and arrangement have occupied a very large share of my time and attention, and I can therefore assert with confidence, that it will be found the most full and complete book of the kind that has ever yet appeared. It is not a mere condensation from Encyclopaedias, Commercial Dictionaries, and Parliamentary and Consular Reports; but is the fruit of my own Colonial experience as a practical planter and of much laborious research and studious investigation into a class of ephemeral but useful publications, which seldom meet with any extended or enduring circulation—assisted, moreover, by the contributions and suggestions of many of the most eminent agricultural chemists, planters, and merchants of our Colonial Possessions and Foreign Countries.

Few are aware of the great labor and research required for digesting and arranging conflicting accounts—for consulting the numerous detached papers and foreign works treating of the subjects embraced in this volume, and for referring to the home and colonial trade circulars, Legislative papers, and scientific periodicals of different countries. The harassing duties appertaining to the position of City editor of a daily paper, coupled with numerous other literary engagements, have afforded me insufficient time to do full justice to the work while passing through the press; and several literal typographical errors in the botanical names have, I find, escaped my attention in the revision of the sheets. I have, however, thought it scarcely necessary to make a list of errata for these. From want of leisure, to reduce all the weights and measures named in the body of the work into English, I have given their relative value in the Index. I have taken considerable pains to make the Index most full and complete, for it has always appeared to me, that in works embracing a great variety of subjects, facility of reference is of paramount importance.

Some discrepancy may here and there be found between the figures quoted from Parliamentary returns and those derived from private trade circulars; but the statistics are accurate enough for approximate calculations.

Whilst the work has been passing through the press, several important modifications and alterations have been made in our Tariff.

I have throughout found great difficulty in obtaining commercial information from the various Colonial brokers and importers of the City, who, with but few exceptions, have been stupidly jealous of any publicity respecting the staples in the sale of which they were specially interested. The greatest fear was expressed lest any details as to the sources of supply, stocks on hand, and cost prices of many of the minor articles, should transpire. After the results of the Great Exhibition, the exertions making to establish Trade Museums, and the prospect of information to be furnished at the new Crystal Palace, this narrow-minded and selfish feeling seems singularly misplaced.

I had not originally contemplated touching upon the grain crops and food plants of temperate regions; but the prospect of a failure in our harvest, the disturbed state of political affairs on the Continent, with short supplies from Russia and the Danubian provinces, and the absence of any reliable statistics and information for convenient reference on this all-important subject, added to the recommendations of one or two well-informed correspondents, induced me to go more into detail on the Food-plants and Breadstuffs than I had at first intended, and to treat very fully upon Wheat, Barley, Potatoes, and other subsidiary food crops. This has trenched somewhat largely on my space; and although the volume has been swelled to an unexpected size, I am reluctantly compelled to omit some few Sections, such as those treating of elastic and other Gums, Resins, &c.; on tropical Fruits; and on textile substances and products available for cordage and clothing. The latter section, which includes Cotton, Flax, Jute, &c., and embraces a wide and important range of plants, I propose issuing in a separate volume at an early date, with a large fund of statistical and general information.

Among those gentlemen to whom I acknowledge myself most indebted for valuable suggestions or important information, are my friends Sir R.H. Schomburgk, British Consul at St. Domingo, and Mr. R. Montgomery Martin, the well-known Statist and Colonial Historian; Mr. R.D. Wodifield, Deputy Inspector of Imports at the port of London; Mr. Leonard Wray, of Natal, author of "The Practical Sugar Planter;" Dr. W. Hamilton, of Plymouth, a talented and frequent contributor to the scientific periodicals of the day; Mr. T.C. Archer, of Liverpool, author of "Economic Botany;" Mr. Greene, of the firm of Blyth, Brothers, and Greene; Mr. J.S. Christopher, author of several works on the Cape Colony, and Natal; Mr. B.H. Strousberg, editor of "The Merchant's Magazine," and Mr. G.W. Johnson, the eminent agricultural writer, author of various elaborate "Essays on the Agriculture of Hindostan," which were written for my "Colonial Magazine."

P.L. SIMMONDS.

5, BARGE YARD, BUCKLERSBURY, December, 1853.



CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

Objects of the work.

Prof. Solly on the demand for a practical book on raw materials.

Objects of the Society of Arts and Great Exhibition.

Necessity for an attention to the culture of the minor staples of the soil.

New objects of industry worthy the attention of Science.

Principal part of our homeward commerce composed of raw materials from the Vegetable Kingdom.

Mutual dependence of countries on Commerce for the supply of their wants.

System of arrangement of subjects adopted by the author.

Many articles of commerce omitted for want of space.

Those of tropical and sub-tropical regions chiefly discussed.

Hints for the cultivator. Division of zones, and countries lying within each, with their range of temperature.

Table of climate; duration and production of the principal cultivated plants.

SECTION I.—DRIED LEAVES, SEEDS, AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF POPULAR DIETETIC BEVERAGES

Cacao or Cocoa.

Varieties and description of the tree.

Mode of cultivation in the Colombian Republics.

Enemies of the tree.

Expenses of a plantation in Jamaica.

Cultivation in Trinidad and St. Lucia.

Statistics and consumption.

Coffee.

Home consumption and revenue of coffee.

Chicory largely substituted for; history of the fiscal changes.

Continental demand.

Present produce and consumption in various countries.

Cultivation in Mocha.

Cultivation in India; in Ceylon.

Exports from that island.

Manures suitable for the tree.

Peeling, pulping, and winnowing.

Improved machinery.

New use for coffee leaves.

Culture in Java.

Production of America and the West Indies; Venezuela.

Statistics of the Brazils.

Shipments of various countries to the United States.

Comparative consumption by different nations.

Cultivation in Jamaica; Trinidad; British Guiana; Cuba; decline of production in this island.

Statistics of exports.

Preparation of coffee leaves for infusion according to Dr. Gardner's patent.

Dr. Hooker's opinion thereon.

Tea.

Immense consumption of.

Liebig's analysis of.

Varieties of the plant.

Imports of tea for a series of years.

Alterations in the duties.

Statistics of import and consumption, revenue and prices.

Value and extent of the tea exported from China; first cost at the ports; enormous prices paid for superior teas.

Total outlay for tea.

Consumption of tea in China.

Export to various countries.

Total production.

Consumption per head in England; not properly within the reach of the poorer classes.

China could furnish any quantity.

Mr. Travers on the tea duties.

Brick tea of Thibet.

Tea annually imported into the United States; proportion of green to black.

Range of the plant.

Countries in which its culture has been attempted.

Its progress in America.

The Assam Company and its plantations.

Extension of tea culture by the East India Co.

Mr. Fortune's travels in the tea districts of China.

Instructions and details as to soil, management and manufacture, by Dr. Jameson and Mr. Fortune.

Dr. Campbell's notes.

Mr. A. Macfarlane's Report.

The East India tea plantations in the North-West Provinces.

Experimental cultivation of the tea plant in Brazil; M. Geullemin's report thereon.

Paraguay Tea: Mr. Robertson's description of the collection and manufacture.

Sugar.

Plants from which it is usually obtained.

The sugar cane; its range of cultivation.

Production in our colonies.

Consumption in the last ten years.

Improvements in sugar machinery and manufacture.

Quantity of cane sugar annually produced and sent into the markets.

Local consumption in India.

Present European supply; demand according to the consumption in England.

Estimated annual production throughout the world.

Consumption in the principal European countries.

Average annual consumption in the United Kingdom.

Comparative amount of beet-root and cane sugar produced in the last four years. Gazette prices of sugar in the last ten years.

Production of sugar in the United States.

Production in Cuba.

Production in the British West Indies.

Production in Mauritius.

Statistics of imports from the Mauritius.

Production in the British East Indies.

Production in Java.

Production in the Philippines.

Chemical distinction between cane and grape sugar. Varieties of the sugar cane cultivated.

Possibility of raising the cane from seed.

Analysis of the cane, and of a sugar soil.

Chemical examination of cane juice.

Vacuum pans.

Boiling and tempering.

Composition of cane juice.

Ramos's prepared plantain juice.

Professor Fownes on the manufacture of sugar. Expression of cane juice.

Construction of the sugar mill.

Quantity of juice obtained by each kind of mill.

Position of rollers.

Mode of culture and varieties in the East Indies.

Soils considered best adapted for its luxuriant growth.

Manures.

Sets and planting.

Aftergrowth.

Harvesting.

Injuries, from seasons, storms, insects, &c.

Mode of cultivation in the Brazils; in Natal; expenses.

Comparison between the cost of production in Mauritius and Natal.

Comparative cost in free and slave countries.

Beet-root sugar: variety cultivated; mode of expression and manufacture; yield of sugar; estimated profit; extensive production in France; production in the German States.

Statistics of the Prussian Provinces of Saxony; Russia, Belgium and Austria.

A Visitor's account of the French manufactories.

Mr. Colman's opinion.

Proportion of sugar in the beet.

Maple Sugar: description of the tree; its production limited to America; extent of the manufacture in Canada and the United States; processes employed; statistics of production.

Maize Sugar.

SECTION II.—THE GRAIN CROPS, EDIBLE ROOTS AND FARINACEOUS PLANTS, FORMING THE BREADSTUFFS OF COMMERCE

Statistics of Wheat Culture.

Exports of flour from the United States.

Adaptation of the soil and climate of the United States to the culture of the cereals.

Export of sophisticated (damaged) flour. Kiln drying of bread stuffs and exclusion of air. Value of the "whole meal" of wheat as compared with that of the fine flour. Nutritious properties of various articles of food.

Composition of wheat and wheat-flour, and the modes of determining their nutritive value.

Rotation of crops in connexion with wheat culture.

Production and consumption of the United Kingdom.

Statistics of other countries.

Barley, Oats, Rye, Buckwheat, Maize: Indian corn and meal imported.

Crop and exports of United States.

System of culture.

Rice: Statistics of production and culture in Carolina.

The Bhull rice lands of Lower Scinde.

Rice in Kashmir; exports from Arracan.

Millet.

Broom Corn.

Chenopodium Quinoa.

Fundi or Fundungi.

Pulse.

The Sago Palms.

Manufacture and extent of the trade in Singapore.

The bread-fruit tree.

Kafir bread.

The PLANTAIN and BANANA; various products of these palms.

STARCH-PRODUCING PLANTS investigated.

Characters of starch from different plants.

Tenacity and clearness of jellies; per centage of starch yielded, and produce of plant per acre; their meal as articles of export.

Indian Corn starch.

Rice starch.

ARROWROOT: East and West India, culture and statistics of.

ROOT CROPS: Potatoes, Yams, Cocos, or Eddoes, Sweet Potatoes, Cassava or Manioc.

NEW TUBEROUS PLANTS recommended as substitutes for the potato.

MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PLANTS.

LICHENS and MOSSES.

FERNS.

SECTION III.—SPICES, AROMATIC CONDIMENTS, AND FRAGRANT WOODS.

CINNAMON.

Limited range of the culture in Ceylon.

Analysis of the soil most favorable to the tree.

Peeling.

Various kinds of bark; commercial classification, distinguishing properties of good cinnamon; suitability of the Straits Settlement for cinnamon plantations; oil of cinnamon; statistics and exports from Ceylon, and prices realised; reduction of the duty; extent of land under cultivation with the tree; progress of the culture in Java; exports thence to Holland.

CASSIA BARK: species from whence derived; imports, consumption and prices.

Cassia Buds.

Cassia Oil.

CANELLA ALBA.

CASCARILLA BARK.

CLOVES: description and varieties of the tree.

Produce in Java.

Introduction into the West Indies.

Progress of the culture in Pinang and Singapore.

The Clove plantations of Zanzibar. Imports and consumption of the United Kingdom.

The NUTMEG: Botanical description.

Dr. Oxley's account of the cultivation and management of a plantation; enemies of the tree.

Produce and returns.

Preparation of the nuts for market.

Statistics of culture in the Straits Settlements.

Memorandum on the duties on nutmegs.

Exports of nutmegs from Singapore and Java.

Imports into the United Kingdom, and consumption of wild and cultivated nutmegs and mace.

GINGER: description and consumption of.

Commercial distinction between black and white ginger. East and West India ginger, directions for cultivation.

Shipments from Jamaica.

Comparison between the imports from the East and from the West.

Total annual imports and consumption.

GALANGALE ROOT.

CARDAMOMS; plants from which derived.

Grains of Paradise.

Meleguetta, or Guinea pepper. PEPPER: description of the vine; range of the plant.

Production of the World.

The culture declining in Java.

Extent of the production in Singapore.

Exports from Ceylon.

Its introduction into the Mauritius.

Shipments from Singapore.

Imports and consumption of the United Kingdom.

CHILLIES AND CAYENNE PEPPER: varieties of Capsicum.

PIMENTO: description of the tree; production of the spice limited to Jamaica.

Imports and consumption.

VANILLA: description of the plant.

Its collection and preparation for the market.

Commercial varieties.

Tonquin beans.

TURMERIC: sources of supply.

Commercial uses.

Value of the Curry stuffs of the East.

Imports and consumption.

GINSENG: description of—demand for in China, exports from America, and commercial value.

Canary, Coriander, mustard and anise seeds.

PUTCHUX, or COSTUS.

LIGNUM ALOES, and fragrant woods.

SECTION IV.—DYES AND COLORING STUFFS AND TANNING SUBSTANCES

Importance and value of these substances to our manufacturing interests.

New specimens and materials recently produced.

Miscellaneous notices of useful plants.

Lana Dye.

Prices of Dyewoods.

Red SANDERS WOOD.

FUSTIC.

SAPPAN WOOD, Camwood and Barwood.

Imports of Dyewoods.

ARNATTO.

Commercial kinds.

Cultivation and manufacture.

Imports, consumption and prices.

CHAY-ROOT.

Wood Dyes.

Mangrove Bark.

SUMACH.

Statistics of imports and prices.

SAFFLOWER.

Gamboge.

Common native dyes.

INDIGO; plants which produce it.

Commercial sources of supply.

Cultivation in Central America, in Jamaica and the West Indies; once an important crop in the United States.

The indigo plant a common weed in many parts of Africa.

Cultivation in India.

Classification of the dye-stuff.

Localities best suited to its production.

Process of Manufacture.

Annual production in the East Indies; adaptation of Ceylon.

Extent of the culture in Java; annual exports therefrom; imports and consumption.

MADDER: extent of the demand for. Enormous profit of the cultivation; system of harvesting and manufacture.

Large supplies received from France.

MUNJEET, or Indian madder, deserving of more consideration.

LOGWOOD, FUSTIC, Quercitron.

Brazil Wood.

LICHENS FOR DYEING.

Henna.

ORCHILLA WEED.

Chemical examination of the coloring principles of the Lichens.

BARKS FOR TANNING: cursory notice of a variety of suitable barks.

Proportions of tannin yielded by different barks.

CATECHU: definition of, and whence derived.

GAMBIER PLANT: cultivation in Singapore; returns from a plantation.

Different qualities of extract and mode of obtaining it.

Places of manufacture; average produce.

Terra Japonica, a misnomer. Cutch, another name for Catechu.

Statistics of imports and consumption; the amount and value of Gambier from Singapore.

DIVI-DIVI: description of.

CORK TREE BARK.

MIMOSA BARK.

Valuable native barks of New Zealand.

Mangrove bark.

MYROBALANS.

Kino: definition of; sources from whence obtained.

VALONIA: statistics of, consumption and prices.

SECTION V.—OLEAGINOUS PLANTS AND THOSE YIELDING FIXED OR ESSENTIAL OILS

General Remarks.

Extensive demand for Oils.

Proportion of oil furnished by various seeds.

Richness of Indian seeds in oil.

RAPE OIL.

Domba Oil.

The EARTH or GROUND NUT, its extensive cultivation for food and oil.

Tea oil.

Tobacco seed oil.

Poppy oil.

Tallicoonah oil.

Carap oil.

Macaw oil. Madia sativa.

Cocum oil.

Candle Tree.

Cinnamon Suet.

Croton oil.

Oil of Ben.

PALM OIL: progress of the African trade.

Imports into Liverpool.

Quantity retained for home consumption.

Statistics of; imports of the four principal vegetable oils.

OLIVE OIL: description of the tree and its varieties; its cultivation attempted in the United States.

Preservation of the fruit.

Expression of the oil.

Range of prices.

Frequently adulterated with cheaper oils.

Annual imports and consumption.

ALMOND OIL.

SESAME, or TEEL Oil.

Various species cultivated in the East.

Large exports of the seed from India; native oil mills; processes of expression and manufacture.

Sunflower oil.

Margose, or Neem oil.

Illepe oil.

Vegetable butter. Candle nut tree.

Colza oil.

VEGETABLE WAX.

The Candleberry myrtle.

The CASTOR OIL PLANT: manufacture of the oil in the East and West Indies.

Extent of the imports annually.

The oil-cake for manure.

Kanari oil.

The COCO-NUT PALM: description of the tree; its various and important uses.

Varieties of this palm met with.

Wide range of the plant.

Directions for its culture; profits derived from plantations; great attention paid to them in Ceylon.

Commercial value of its products.

Statistics of culture in Pinang.

Natural enemies of the tree.

Copperah and Poonac.

Statistical returns connected with its products in Ceylon.

Imports and consumption of coco-nut oil.

Comparison of the consumption of the chief vegetable oils of commerce.

The value and uses of oil-cake for cattle-feeding.

VOLATILE, OR ESSENTIAL OILS: description of the most important.

Oil of peppermint.

Process of obtaining the perfumed oils.

Cultivation of Roses in the East and preparation of Attar. Lemon-grass oil.

Citronella oil.

Patchouly.

SAPONACEOUS PLANTS.

SECTION VI.—DRUGS, INCLUDING NARCOTICS AND OTHER MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES

The COCA PLANT. Cocculus Indicus.

BETEL LEAF.

The ARECA PALM; extensive use of the nuts in the East as a masticatory.

Narcotic properties.

Catechu, or Cutch; its astringent properties.

Davy's analysis.

Value of the Areca nuts exported from Ceylon.

The POPPY: increasing consumption of Opium in this country.

Production of the Drug in India.

Large revenue derived therefrom.

Variety of the poppy grown; system of culture pursued.

Various modes of consuming opium.

Its preparation and manufacture described.

Commercial varieties met with.

Requisites for the successful culture of the poppy for opium.

The TOBACCO PLANT; species cultivated.

London's classification.

Analyses of various samples of tobacco; Statistics of the culture in Brazil; extent of the consumption; considerations of revenue; memorial of Liverpool Chamber of Commerce.

Comparative consumption of tea, coffee and tobacco, per head.

Imports and duty received on tobacco in the last five years.

Consumption checked in England and France by the high duties.

Imports, sales, and stocks, in Bremen for 10 years.

Culture and statistics in the United States.

Quantity exported from 1821 to 1850.

Countries from whence we received our supplies in 1850.

Particulars of the tobacco trade in 1850 and 1853.

Mode of culture pursued in Virginia.

General instructions for the planter.

Information as to growing Cuba tobacco.

History of the trade and cultivation in Cuba.

Statistics of exports from the Havana.

Culture of tobacco in the East.

Analysis of tobacco soils.

Progress of cultivation and shipments in Ceylon.

Manila tobacco and cigars.

Production in the Islands of the Archipelago.

Suggestions and directions for tobacco culture in New South Wales.

Its value and extensive use as a sheep wash.

Excellence of the product and manufacture in New South Wales; culture of tobacco in South Australia.

MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS.

Poisons.

ALOES: varieties of the plant; culture and manufacture in Socotra, Barbados, and the Cape Colony.

ASAFOETIDA.

CAMPHOR.

CINCHONA BARK: commercial varieties of CALUMBA ROOT.

COLOCYNTH.

CUBEBS.

GAMBOGE.

GENTIAN.

IPECACUAN.



INTRODUCTORY.

The want of a practical work treating of the cultivation and manufacture of the chief Agricultural Productions of the Tropics and Foreign Countries, has long been felt, for not even separate essays are to be met with on very many of the important subjects treated of in this volume.

The requirements of several friends proceeding to settle in the Colonies, and wishing to devote themselves to Cotton culture, Coffee planting, the raising of Tobacco, Indigo, and other agricultural staples, first called my attention to the consideration of this fertile and extensive field of investigation.

Professor Solly, in one of the series of Lectures on the results of the Great Exhibition, delivered before the Society of Arts, early last year, made some practical remarks bearing on the subject:—

"If (he said) you were to place before any manufacturer specimens of all the substances which could be employed in his particular manufacture, and if you could tell him from whence each could be procured, its cost, the quantities in which he might obtain it, and its physical and chemical properties, he would soon be able to select for himself the one best suited for his purposes. This, however, has never happened in relation to any one art; in every case manufacturers have had to make the best of the materials which chance or accident has brought before them. It is strange and startling, but nevertheless perfectly true, that even at the present time there are many excellent and abundant productions of nature with which not only our manufacturers, but, in some instances, even our men of science, are wholly unacquainted. There is not a single book published which gives even tolerably complete information on any one of the different classes of vegetable raw produce at present under our consideration. The truth of these remarks will be felt strongly by any one who takes the trouble to examine any of these great divisions of raw materials. He will obtain tolerably complete information respecting most of those substances which are known in trade and commerce; but of the greater number of those not known to the broker, he will learn little or nothing. Men of science, for the most part, look down upon such knowledge. The practical uses of any substances, the wants and difficulties of the manufacturer, are regarded as mere trade questions, vulgar and low—simple questions of money. On the other hand, mere men of business do not feel the want of such knowledge, because, in the first place, they are ignorant of its existence, and secondly, because they do not see how it could aid them or their business; and if it should happen that an enterprising manufacturer desires to learn something of the cultivation and production of the raw material with which he works, he generally finds it quite impossible to obtain any really sound and useful information. In such cases, if he is a man of energy and of capital, he often is at the cost of sending out a perfectly qualified person to some distant part of the globe, to learn for him those practical details which he desires to know. This is no uncommon thing; and many cases might be stated, showing the great advantages which have arisen to those who have thus gained a march upon their neighbours."

The Society of Arts, appreciating the importance of from time to time encouraging the introduction of new and improved products from our Indian and Colonial Possessions, has offered many gold medals as premiums for a great variety of staples from abroad.

The Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations brought together an immense variety of productions from tropical regions, of which the English public were comparatively ignorant. Attracting public attention, as these necessarily did, information on the best modes of cultivating and manufacturing them will be peculiarly valuable to the colonists, and is as eagerly sought after by many brokers, merchants and manufacturers at home.

In consequence of the recent liberal policy of Great Britain, the competition of foreign countries, the want of cheap and abundant labor, and other causes, those chief staples, Sugar and Coffee, which for a series of years formed the principal and almost exclusive articles of production in our colonies, and which had met with a ready and remunerative sale in the British markets, have either fallen off to an alarming extent, or become so reduced in price as scarcely to repay the cost of cultivation. The partial abandonment of the cultivation of these staples in our colonies has had the effect of crippling the agricultural and commercial enterprise of several of our most valuable foreign possessions, and throwing out of employment a number of persons: it behoves us, therefore, to direct attention to some of the many minor articles in demand;—to those indigenous or exotic products of the soil in tropical regions, which, being inexpensive in cultivation and manufacture, might be undertaken with a moderate outlay of labor and capital, and the certainty of a ready and remunerative sale in the European markets; and could moreover be attended to without neglecting or at all interfering with the cultivation of the leading staples.

It is evident that the export wealth of tropical regions must be chiefly agricultural, the soil and climate being peculiarly fitted for the culture of fruits, trees and plants yielding oils, gums, starch, spices, and other valuable products, which no art can raise cheaply in more temperate latitudes. The large and continued emigration of farmers and other enterprising persons from Britain and the Continent to Natal, the Cape Colony, Northern Australia, Ceylon, the East India Company's Possessions and the Straits Settlements, Brazil, New Granada, and the Central American Republics, Texas, the Southern States of North America, and other tropical and sub-tropical countries, renders information as to the agriculture and productions of those regions highly desirable. Even to the settlers in our West Indian possessions, most of whom have too long pursued the old beaten track of culture and manufacture, comparatively regardless of modern improvements and the results of chemical, scientific, and practical investigation, recent information on all these subjects, and a comparison of the practices of different countries, cannot fail to be useful.

There is much valuable information to be met with in detached papers and essays in the scientific periodicals of the day, and in colonial and other publications; such as the Transactions and Journals of the different agricultural and horticultural societies of the East and West Indies, the United States, Australia, &c., but none readily accessible for easy reference, and which the new settler, proceeding out to try his fortune in those fair and productive regions of the globe, can turn to as a hand book. I have had much experience in Tropical Agriculture, and for many years my attention has been mainly directed to this important subject, for which purpose I have kept up a large and extended correspondence with numerous agricultural, scientific and other societies abroad; with experienced practical men, and have also received the leading journals of all the tropical Colonies.

No one person could be expected to be thoroughly familiar with all the different modes of culture and preparation of every one of the numerous products to be described in this volume; but where my own agricultural experience (of several years in the West Indies and South America) was at fault, I have availed myself of the practical knowledge of those of my colonial friends and correspondents best informed on the subject, and am particularly fortunate in having many valuable essays on Tropical Agriculture scattered through the different volumes of my "Colonial Magazine."

The discussion of the best modes of culture, properties, manufacture, consumption, uses, and value of the commercial products of the vegetable kingdom cannot be without its value, and the attention of merchants and planters may be usefully directed to various articles, which will be profitable both in an agricultural and commercial point of view; many of which are already sources of wealth to other countries.

The introduction of new objects of industry into the colonial dependencies of the British Empire, is no longer considered a mere subject of speculation, but one well worthy the attention of the eye of science; and the fostering hand of care is beginning to be held out to productions of nature and art, which, if not all equally necessary to the welfare of man, yet certainly merit the attention of the cultivator and capitalist, and have great claims on the scientific observer, and on those interested in raising the manufactures of our country to a higher standard.

Few who have not investigated this subject are aware of the immense number of countries lying in the equatorial and tropical ranges of the torrid zone, many of which, from the value and importance of their indigenous productions, have already attracted considerable notice, and to which still more attention will be directed by European nations as the value of their various products becomes more extensively known.

The homeward commerce which we carry on with our numerous Colonies, with our Indian Possessions, and with foreign countries, is principally in articles furnished by the vegetable kingdom, such as the cereal grains, wheat, rice, maize, &c.; vegetables used in preparing dietetic drinks and distilled liquors, as tea, coffee, cacao, and the sugar cane, grapes, &c.; spices and condiments; drugs; dyes and tanning substances, obtained from the bark, leaves, fruit, and roots of various herbs and trees; the expressed or distilled oils of different plants; fruits in the green, dried, or preserved state; starches obtained from the roots or trunks of many farinaceous plants; fibrous substances used for cordage, matting, and clothing, as cotton, Indian hemp, flax, coco-nut coir, plantain and pine-apple fibre; timber and fancy woods. These substances, in the aggregate, form at least nine-tenths in value of the whole imports of this country. There are also several products of the animal kingdom dependent on vegetable culture, which might be brought into this category, such as silk and cochineal. Very few of these products of the vegetable kingdom come to us in any other than an unmanufactured state; they are shipped to this country as the chief emporium and factory of the world, either for re-export or to be prepared for consumption by the millions to whom they furnish employment, sustenance, and articles of clothing.

It is a wise ordination of Providence, that the different nations of the earth are as it were mutually dependent on each other for many of the necessaries and luxuries of life, and the means of progress and civilization. Commerce is thus extended, the various arts and manufactures improved by comparison and competition; and the acres yet untilled in distant lands hold out strong inducements for immigration, their climate and products affording health, freedom, and independence to the over-tasked and heavily taxed artisan and agriculturist of Europe. Although the systems of tropical agriculture, generally pursued, are peculiar and effective, yet there is no doubt that much improvement remains to be carried out in the practices adopted, in the implements employed, and the machinery used for preparing the crops for shipment. In the British Isles our insulated position, limited extent of country, unsettled climate, and numerous population, aggregated in dense masses, have compelled us to investigate and avail ourselves of every improvement in agriculture, arts and manufactures, which experience, ingenuity, and a comparison with the customs of other countries, have placed at our disposal.

If we except sandy deserts, and some of the interior portions of the polar regions, it will be found that there is scarcely any country but what is capable of improvement. Indeed, so extensive are the resources of agriculture, that further improvements may be most easily effected.

Let us then examine and ascertain what new objects may be improved upon, and if by our speculations only one single article, either for food or use, is added to those already in use, or those that are already cultivated be improved upon, it is equivalent to an increase of our wealth.

An eminent writer has truly remarked that "Agriculture is the parent of Manufactures, seeing that the productions of nature are the materials of art."

In the economy of Providence every fragment of creation seems to unfold, as man progresses in the arts of life, unbounded capabilities of adaptation to his every want. We have, indeed, daily illustration of the truth of that trite and homely adage, that "nothing is made in vain."

That quaint old English poet, Herbert, who flourished in the fifteenth century, in a short poem on "Providence," has graphically described, in his unique vein, the sentiment which forces itself upon us in view of the numerous discoveries of the age in which we live:—

"All countries have enough to serve their need.

* * * * *

——The Indian nut alone Is clothing, meat and trencher, drink and can, Boat, cable, sail, and needle, all in one."

"The addition (it has been well observed) of even a single flower, or an ornamental shrub, to those which we already possess, is not to be regarded as a matter below the care of industry and science. The more we extend our researches into the productions of nature, the more are our minds elevated by contemplating the variety as well as the exceeding beauty and excellence of the works of the Creator."

The mode of arrangement of the various subjects treated of involved some consideration; two or three plans were open for adoption. 1st. To describe the several products in the order of their agricultural importance or commercial value. 2nd. An alphabetical reference, in the style of a Dictionary or Encyclopaedia; and 3rd. Classifying them under subdivisions, according to their particular or chief uses. The last seemed to me the most desirable and efficient mode, although open to some objections, from the variety of uses to which different parts of many plants were applied. Some, as cotton, indigo, sugar, coffee, tea, &c., would readily fall into their proper division, but others, as the coco-nut, plantain, &c., from the variety of their products, would come under several heads. I have, however, endeavoured to meet this difficulty by placing each plant or tree under the section to which its most valuable production seemed naturally to refer it.

There are very many plants and substances which have been passed over altogether, it being impossible, within the limits of a moderate sized volume, to bring under notice even a tithe of the valuable grasses, timber trees, cabinet woods, fruits, &c.; and I have confined myself in a great measure to those which either already are, or might easily be rendered, articles of commerce, of some importance. I have shown their present value by quoting the current prices, and brought down, as far as possible, the statistics of each article to the close of last year, thus rendering the work valuable by commercial references which could not be found collectively elsewhere.

There are some articles of commerce which could not properly be treated of in a work intended as a guide on agriculture and husbandry, for the tropical planter and cultivator, who purposes devoting his attention to the raising of useful crops and plants on his estate. The forests and jungles of the tropics abound in products of an useful character, the luxurious and spontaneous growth of nature, such as ebony, sandal wood, &c.; but these must be sought for by a different class of settlers; and the mahogany cutter of Honduras, the teak-feller of India, the gatherer of elastic gums, can scarcely be ranked with the cultivators of the soil.

I had originally intended to confine my remarks to staples of tropical growth, but I have been induced to depart from my prescribed plan by the importance of some of the commercial products of temperate regions, such as maple and beet-root sugar, wheat, the grain crops, and potatoes.

The system of agriculture, and modes of tillage, &c., of separate countries in the Eastern and Western hemisphere, notwithstanding their similarity of climate, are as opposite as if each country belonged to a different zone; and yet much may be learned by one of the other.

The only essentially useful division of seasons in countries within the tropics is into a wet and dry season, the former being the period of germination, the latter that of fructification.

The implements of agriculture required are for the most part few and simple, for no high tillage is necessary, the luxuriance of vegetation being so great that most of the products of the soil will grow indiscriminately throughout the year, and the only care of the husbandman, after the first preparation of the soil, is to keep down the vast growth of weeds, which might stifle the crops.

In tropical regions there is less demand for manures than in temperate climates, but still there are many additions to the soil that may profitably be made.

Firstly, that most important principle, which has only recently been practically inculcated, is in too many quarters entirely neglected, namely, returning to the soil the component parts taken off by various crops, and which is so generally practised in all good agricultural districts, by a careful rotation of crops. Liebig has well pointed out this: "It must be admitted (he says), as a principle of agriculture, that those substances which have been removed from a soil must be completely restored to it; and whether this restoration be effected by means of excrements, ashes, or bones, is in a great measure a matter of indifference." Again he remarks, "We could keep our fields in a constant state of fertility by replacing every year as much as we remove from them in the form of produce; but an increase of fertility, and consequent increase of crop, can only be obtained when we add more to them than we take away." Of all natural manures, therefore, the best for each description of plant is its own refuse, or ashes; enough of these can seldom, however, be obtained. But, as far as they can be restored, this principle is beginning to be acted upon by the sugar planters of the West Indies, who employ the waste leaves and ashes of the expressed stalk of the cane, after it has been used as fuel, to manure their cane-fields. The vine growers of Germany and the Cape also bury the cuttings of their vines around the roots of the plants. The cinnamon grower of the East returns the waste bark and cuttings of the shoots to the soil. And in the coco-nut groves of Ceylon, the roots of the trees are best manured with the husks of the nuts and decomposed poonac, or the refuse cake, after the oil has been expressed from the pulp. Analysis of soils is, perhaps, not so essential in countries where virgin land is usually in abundance, and the luxuriance of vegetation furnishes itself, by decomposition, abundant materials for replenishing the fertility of the soil. But there are some substances, such as muriate of soda, gypsum, phosphate, and other compounds of lime, which may be advantageously applied. Guano and expensive artificial manures, are seldom required, and, indeed, will not repay the planters for importing.

An experienced cultivator can generally judge by a superficial examination, aided by the situation, locality, and appearance of the soil, whether a certain portion of land is fitted for the profitable growth of any particular plant. Depth of soil, and facilities for deepening it, with the nature of the subsoil, so as to know whether it retains or parts with water, are also important considerations, because tap-rooted plants require free scope for penetrating deep into the ground.

A due supply of water is of vital importance to most crops—and therefore the extent and periods of the fall of rain are essential to be known, as it is not always possible to resort to irrigation. The quantity of labor required for previous tillage, cultivation, and harvesting of different crops, and the available supply, are primary essentials to be considered before entering upon the culture of any staple product, however remunerative it may appear in prospective. Facility and cost of transport to the nearest market or shipping port are the next desiderata to be ascertained, as well as a careful estimate of the cost of plant or machinery necessary.

It may be desirable at the outset to make a brief enumeration of the countries lying within the different zones, and the agricultural products of which come, therefore, more especially under the notice of the tropical planter.

Meyen, in his division of the horizontal range of vegetation into zones, extends—

1. The equatorial zone to fifteen degrees on both sides of the equator. In this division we shall find the Cape Verd Islands, Sierra Leone, Ascension, and St. Helena, the Republic of Liberia, the European and native settlements in the Gulf of Guinea, and on the western Coast of Africa, Abyssinnia, Zanzibar on the East Coast, Mocha and Aden in the Red Sea, the northern portion of Madagascar, the Seychelles, the Madras Presidency, Northern India, Ceylon and the Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Siam, Malacca, Singapore and the Straits Settlements, Cochin China, the Phillippine Islands, Borneo, Celebes and the Moluccas, Java and Madura, Banca, the Johore Archipelago, Timor and the eastern group of Islands, with New Guinea, a large portion of Northern Australia, the Marquesas, Society's and other oceanic islands. In South America the Republics of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, New Granada, and Venezuela, British, French and Dutch Guiana, and a large portion of the empire of Brazil; Trinidad, Barbados, and most of the islands in the Carribean Sea.

This zone has a mean temperature of 781/2 to 821/2 Fahrenheit.

2. The tropical zone reaches from the 15th deg. on each side of the equator to the tropics in 23 lat. The mean temperature is 731/2 to 783/4 deg. Summer temperature 801/2 to 86 deg.; winter temperature in the eastern coast districts, 59 deg.

In this region is comprised the following countries:—Sandwich Isles, Canton, in province of China, Burmah, Calcutta, and a portion of the Bengal Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, Madagascar, Mauritius and Bourbon; the southern portion of Brazil, Cuba, St. Domingo, Mexico, and Central America.

3. The sub-tropical zone extends from the tropics 23 to 34 deg. of latitude. There are a number of tropical fruits in this region. The winters are mild and vegetation is green throughout the year. In the northern division of the zone palms and bananas grow on the plains. In this region is comprised all the extreme northern portions of Africa, coasting the Mediterranean, comprising Algiers and the Barbary States, Egypt, part of Persia, Cabool and the Punjab; the greater portion of China, Lower California, Texas, the South-Western States of America, the Bermudas, the Cape Colony and Natal, New South Wales, Southern and Western Australia—the Government settlements in the Northern Island of New Zealand, the largest portion of Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Republics, the Provinces of Brazil from St. Paul to Rio Grande, Madeira and the Canary Isles.

To define accurately the conditions of temperature which a plant requires to maintain it in a flourishing condition we must ascertain within what limits its period of vegetation, may vary, and what quantity of heat it requires. This most remarkable circumstance was first observed by Boussingault, but unfortunately we do not as yet possess sufficiently accurate accounts of the conditions of culture in the various regions of the earth, to enable us to follow out this ingenious view in all its details. His theory is, that the time required by a plant to arrive at maturity is as the inverse ratio of the temperature; therefore, knowing the mean temperature of any place, and the number of days which a plant takes to ripen, the time required at any other point more or less elevated, can easily be ascertained. Peter Purry, a native of Switzerland, who settled in Charleston in the eighteenth century, in a memorial to the Duke of Newcastle, then Secretary of State, sets out with this postulate, that "there is a certain latitude on our globe, so happily tempered between the extremes of heat and cold, as to be more particularly adapted than any other for certain rich productions of the earth; among which are silk, cotton, indigo," &c.—and he fixes on the latitude of 33 deg., whether north or south, as the one of that peculiar character.

The following Table, showing the climate, duration and production of certain plants cultivated in tropical America, is from the proceedings of the Agricultural Society of Grenada. The second, column gives the altitude in English yards above the level of the sea. The third, the mean temperature by Fahrenheit's thermometer. The fourth, the average time required to commence bearing. The fifth, the number of plants in a Spanish "fanegada" of 170 varras, about 153 square yards. The sixth, the average duration of each plant. The seventh, the average produce of each plant in the year:—

- - - 2 3 4 5 6 7 Level of Mn. Temp. Time No. of Average the Sea, to Deg. Min. Required plants Years produce - - - Cacao } 81.17 61/2 1,156 40 11/4 lb (Theobroma 587 yds. } 46.00 yrs per tree Cacao) } - - Plantain { 630 yds. to 81.17 9 mths. 3,613 30 50 (Musa { 1077 46.00 91/2 " plantains Paradisiaca) { 40.61 11 " - - - Indian Corn { 1077 81.17 90 days 28,900 Annual 238 for (Zea Mays) { 1260 to 40.61 110 " every { 1890 36to37.80 120 " seed { 2880 25.20to27 180 " - - Manioc or { 1077 81.17 10 mths 28,900 Bicen- One Cassava { 1195 40.61 12 " nial cassava { 43.00 120 days weighing { 3/4 lb. { 1/4 oz. { starch - - Coco nut 630 81.17 5 yrs. 452 60 4 bottles (Cocos 46.00 6 " oil per nucifera) tree - - Tobacco { 630 81.17 150 days 28,900 Annual 1/2 lb. (Nicotiana { 1077 46.00 170 " dried tabacum) { 1980 40.61 180 " to each { 33.30 225 " 5 plants - - Cotton { 630 81.17 61/2 mth 28,900 31/2 1/2 lb. (Gossypium) { 1077 46.00 7 " nett { 1415 40.61 71/2" per { 34.61 9 " plant - - Coffee { 230 47 24 mths 5,300 45 11/2 (Coffea { 630 46 25 " lb. Arabica) { 1077to 2250 37.80 to 28 " per { 2453 39.60 36 " tree { 33.30 - - Sugar cane { 630 84.17 11 mths. 28,900 5 10 percnt (Saccharum { 1080 46.00 12 " sugar officinarum) { 41.40 14 " upon the { weight { of the { raw cane - - Indigo { 90 48.60 21/2 " 57,800 11/2 70 plants (Indigofera { 630 46.00 3 " produce tinctoria) { 1077 40.61 31/2 " 1 lb. { coloring { matter - - Potato { 1080 38.70 140 days 116,600 41/2 (Solanum { 1980 33.30 165 " Annual lb each tuberosum) { 2700 27.00 210 " plant - - Wheat { 567 42.30 80 " 57,800 Annual 37 for (Triticum { 1170 38.70 100 " every aestivum) { 2520 32.99 120 " seed { planted - - -

The plantain bears at 1,529 yards, in a temperature of 61 deg. Fahrenheit, and requires fifteen months, but its cultivation is of little benefit in so high a latitude. It is the same with the cassava root. The cane at 1,160 altitude, in a temperature of 66 deg., gives no sugar; and indigo at 1,620 affords no coloring matter.



SECTION I.

DRIED LEAVES, SEEDS, AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF POPULAR DIETETIC BEVERAGES.

No substances are so essentially necessary to mankind, or form such important articles of commerce, as those which we come first to consider, the dietetic products—cacao, coffee, tea, and sugar. The consumption of these in all civilized countries is immense, notwithstanding that in many they have been fettered with heavy fiscal duties. The investigation of the culture of the plants from which they are obtained, and the manufacture of the products, is a very curious object of research.

CACAO OR COCOA.

The chocolate nuts or seeds, termed cacao, are the fruit of species of Theobroma, an evergreen tree, native of the Western Continent. That commonly grown is T. cacao; but Lindley enumerates two other species, T. bicolor, a native of New Granada; and T. Guianensis, with yellow flowers, a native of Guiana. The seeds being nourishing and agreeable to most people, are kept in the majority of houses in America, as a part of the provisions of the family. By pressure they yield fatty oil, called butter of cacao. They also contain a crystalline principle analogous to caffeine, called theobromine. The common cacao of the shops consists generally of the roasted beans, and sometimes of the roasted integuments of the beans, ground to powder. The consumption of cacao in the United Kingdom is about three millions of pounds annually, yielding a revenue of L15,500. Few tropical products are more valuable or more useful as food to man than cacao. It is without any exception the cheapest food that we can conceive, and were it more generally employed, so that the berries should not be more than two, three, or, at most, six months old, from the time of gathering (for, if kept longer, they lose their nutritive properties), even a smaller quantity than that usually taken in a cup would suffice: in fact, cacao cannot be too new. The cacao beans lie in a fruit somewhat like a cucumber, about five inches long and three-and-a-half inches thick, which contains from twenty to thirty beans, arranged in five regular rows with partitions between, and which are surrounded with a rose-colored spongy substance, like that of water melons. There are fruits, however, so large as to contain from forty to fifty beans. Those grown in the West India islands, as well as Berbice and Demerara, are much smaller, and have only from six to fifteen; their development being less perfect than other parts of South America. After the maturation of the fruit, when their green colour has changed to a dark yellow, they are plucked, opened, their beans cleared of the marrowy substance, and spread out to dry in the air. In the West Indies they are immediately packed up for the market when they are dried; but in Caraccas they are subjected to a species of slight fermentation, by putting them into tubs or chests, covering them with boards or stones, and turning them over every morning to equalize the operation. They emit a good deal of moisture, and lose the natural bitterness and acrimony of their taste by this process, as well as some of their weight. Instead of wooden tubs, pits or trenches dug in the ground are sometimes had recourse to for curing the beans; an operation called earthing. They are, lastly, exposed to the sun and dried. According to Lampadius, the kernels of the West India cacao beans contain in 100 parts, besides water, 53.1 of fat or oil, 16.7 of an albuminous brown matter, which contains all the aroma of the bean; 10.91 of starch, 73/4 of gum or mucilage, 0.9 of lignine, and 2.01 of a reddish dye-stuff, somewhat akin to the pigment of cochineal. The husks form 12 per cent, of the weight of the beans. The fatty matter is of the consistence of tallow, white, of a mild agreeable taste, and not apt to turn rancid by keeping. It melts only at 112 degrees Fahr., and should, therefore, make tolerable candles. It is obtained by exposing the beans to strong pressure in canvas bags, after they have been steamed or soaked in boiling water for some time. From five to six ounces of butter may be thus obtained from a pound of cacao. It has a reddish tinge when first expressed, but it becomes white by boiling with water.

The beans, being freed from all spoiled and mouldy portions, are to be gently roasted over a fire in an iron cylinder, with holes in its ends for allowing the vapors to escape, the apparatus being similar to a coffee-roaster. When the aroma begins to be well developed, the roasting is known to be finished, and the beans must be turned out, cooled, and freed by fanning and sifting from their husks. The kernels are then to be converted into a paste, either by trituration in a mortar heated to 130 degrees Fahr., or by a powerful mill.[1] The cacao tree resembles our dwarf apple tree both in body and branches, but the leaf, which is of a dark green, is considerably broader and larger. The nuts are of the color and about the size of an almond, and hang eighteen to thirty together by a slender stringy film, enclosed in a pod. A ripe pod is of a beautiful yellow, intermixed with crimson streaks; when dried, it shrivels up and changes to a deep brown; the juice squeezed from the mucilaginous pulp contained in the husks of these nuts appears like cream, and has a very grateful taste of a cordial quality. The nuts have a light pleasant smell, and an unctuous, bitterish, roughish (not ungrateful) taste. Those of Nicaragua and Caracas are the most agreeable and are the largest; those of the French Antilles, and our own West India islands, are the most unctuous.

The Mexicans, in preparing the chocolate paste, add some long pepper, a little annatto, and lastly vanilla; some add cinnamon, cloves and anise, and those who love perfumes, musk and ambergris.

The finest American cacao is said to be that of Soconusco, but the principal imports are from Caracas and Guayaquil, which is of a very good quality. The province of Barcelona, adjoining Caracas exports annually from 200,000 to 300,000 cwt.

The very large shipments from Guayaquil are shown by the following return. Of this quantity Spain takes the largest portion, Mexico the next, and England receives but a very small quantity.

Cacao exported from Guayaquil:—

lbs. 1833 6,605,786 1834 10,999,853 1835 13,800,851 1836 10,918,565 1837 8,520,121 1838 7,199,057 1839 12,169,787 1840 14,266,942

The exports of cacao from the port of La Guayra, has been as follows in the years ending December 31.

Fanegas. 1850 40,181 1851 47,951 1852 54,083

Five fanegas are equal to one English quarter. The price of cacao was, at the close of 1852, sixteen dollars the fanega.

The province of Caracas, according to Humboldt, at the end of the last century, produced annually 150,000 fanegas of cacao, of which two-thirds were exported to Spain, and the remainder locally consumed. The shipments from the port of La Guayra alone averaged 80,000 to 100,000, or nearly double the present shipments. In the early part of the present century the captain-generalship of Caracas produced nearly 200,000 fanegas, of which about 145,000 were sent direct to Europe. The province of Caracas then produced 150,000 fanegas; Maracaibo, 20,000; Cumana, 18,000, and New Barcelona, 5,000.

The vallies of Aragua, in the province of Caracas, those of Cariaco, Campano, of Rio Caribe and the banks of the river Caroni, in Spanish Guiana, produce excellent cacao in abundance.

The tree there bears fruit in four years after it has been planted, the following year still more, and increases in fecundity until the ninth or tenth year, when it is in full bearing.

The banks of the Magdalena, in the vicinity of Santa Martha and Carthagena, are famed for the excellent cacao they produce. "This tree," says Bonnycastle (Spanish America, vol. 1, p. 257), "is indigenous, seldom exceeds the diameter of seven inches, and is extremely beautiful when laden with its fruit, which are disposed on short stalks over the stem and round the great branches, resembling citrons, from their yellow color, and warty appearance. The leaves are attenuate, stalked, drooping, about a foot long and three inches broad, elliptic, oblong, pointed, slightly wavy, entire, and very smooth on both sides; with one mid-rib and many transverse ones, connected by innumerable veins. The petals of the flower are yellow, the calyx of a light rose-color, and the flowers themselves are small and placed on tufts on the sides of the branches, with single foot-stalks, about an inch long. Its fruit is red, or a mixture of red and yellow, and about three inches in diameter, with a fleshy rind half-an-inch thick; the pulp is whitish and of the consistence of butter, containing the seed; these seeds are generally twenty-five in number in each fruit, and when first gathered are of a flesh color, and form a nice preserve if taken just before they are ripe. Each tree yields about two or three pounds of fruit annually, and comes to maturity the third year after planting from the seed; it also bears leaves, flowers, or fruit all the year round, the usual seasons for gathering being June and December. The excellence of the Magdalena chocolate may be attributed to the moist nature of the soil, as the plant never thrives where the ground is hard and dry, or cannot be irrigated."

Mode of cultivation in the Colombian Republics—Plantations of cacao were speedily multiplied in Colombia, and the soil so admirably seconded the labors of the planter, that in the produce abundance was united to excellence. The cacao of this quarter ranks next to that of Soconusco. It is well known that the best commercial recommendation of cacao is that of coming from Caracas. But even in these provinces the quality varies. The cacao of Orituco is superior to that of other places, and a quantity of equal bulk weighs twenty per cent. more. The cacao of the coast comes next, and obtains a preference over that of the interior.

The plantations of cacao are all to the north of the chain of mountains which coast the sea, and in the interior country. The former extend from Cumana to the mouth of the Tocaygo; the latter are situate in the vallies of Tuy, Orituco, Ocumare, Cura, Marrin, Tare, Santa Theresa, Santa Lucia, Zuapira, Santa Philippo, Barquisimeto, Valencia, Gruige and Cariaco.

All kinds of soil are not equally adapted to the culture of cacao, still less are all exposures; but an analysis of the soil destined to this culture never furnishes indications on which reliance can be placed. No regard should be had to color or composition; it is only requisite that it should be friable to a certain depth, which is ascertained by the size of the trees with which it is covered; this sign determines the land proper for cacao.

A suitable situation is not so easily found. It should be exposed as little as possible to the north, and be on the borders of a river, which may communicate moisture to the soil in dry seasons, and receive its drainings in times of rain. A preference is particularly to be given to land which can receive from the river the benefits of irrigation without being exposed to injury from its overflow.

After having chosen the land, it should be cleared of all trees, shrubs, and other plants. This operation is performed in various ways. It is customary in Colombia to commence felling the trees immediately after the rains, that is, about the month of November; the wood, after being cut, is left to dry, then collected in heaps and burnt.

As soon as the new plantation is cleared, it is crossed with small ditches, in directions according to the declivity of the soil. These serve to drain the stagnant waters, to carry off the rains, and to irrigate or water the soil whenever necessary. The alignement is then laid out, in which the cacao trees are to be arranged. They are planted in triangles or squares. In either case, there is always in the centre an alley, bordered by cacao trees, and running from east to west. When they are planted in squares, this alley is crossed by another running from north to south. The cacao plants should be placed at fifteen or sixteen feet (French measure) from each other, in good soil; and about thirteen or fourteen feet in soil of inferior quality.

This is almost the only tree in nature to which the enlivening beams of the sun are obnoxious. It requires to be sheltered from their ardour; and the mode of combining this protection with the principles of fertility, forms a very essential part of the skill which its cultivation demands. The cacao tree is mingled with other trees, which guard it from the rays of the sun, without depriving it of the benefit of their heat. The Erythrina and the banana are employed for this purpose. The latter, by the rapidity of its growth, and the magnitude of its leaves, protect it for the first year. The erythrina endures at least as long as the cacao; it is not every soil, however, that agrees with it. It perishes after a while in sandy and clayey ground, but it flourishes in such as combine those two ingredients.

In the Antilles this protection cannot be given to cacao, as it would expose the plantation to destruction by every hurricane. Besides, the cacao succeeds but indifferently there, and is much less oily than in other parts.

The quality of the soil, and the species of the erythrina, should determine the distance at which they ought to be placed. That kind which the Spaniards call bucare anaveo, is planted in a fertile soil, at the distance of two alleys, that is to say, at each second range of cacao trees. That which they call bucare peonio, is placed at three alleys in good soils (about forty-eight French feet).

The former species of erythrina is that which elevates itself the highest. The second species has many thorns, the upper surface of the leaf is darker and the lower whiter. Both kinds should be cut in the wane of the moon, and remain in the shade until its increase, at which time they should be planted. It is much preferable, however, to take them from a nursery.

In one range of cacao trees a banana is placed between two cacaos, and an erythrina between the two following. In the other range a banana is placed between each cacao tree, and no erythrinas, so that the latter are at the distance of two alleys. The banana and the erythrina are first planted, and when a shelter from the sun is thus provided, the hole for the cacao is made, around which are planted four stalks of the yucca plant, at the distance of two feet from each other. At the end of two months the cacao is planted. The smaller the plant is, the better. There are, nevertheless, soils subject to worms where the small plants do not thrive; but, excepting in this particular, the small plants are preferable, because the large require more labor for their transportation and planting; many of them die, and those which survive bud and shoot forth, but are never of any value.

The cacao plant should not exceed thirty-six inches in size when transplanted; if larger, it succeeds with difficulty, as will be shown.

The nurseries of cacao demand an excellent soil, well prepared, where the water does not remain. They should be well sheltered from the sun. Small knolls of earth are formed, in each of which are put two seeds of cacao, in such a manner that they are parallel with the level of the ground. During the first twenty days the seeds are covered with two layers of banana or other leaves. If necessary, the ground is watered; but the water is not suffered to remain. The most suitable time for sowing is in November.

Where there is not a facility for watering, the planting of the cacao should take place in the rainy season; but when the former is practicable, it is best to plant in dry weather and assist nature by irrigation, since it is then in the power of the cultivator to give the exact quantity of moisture necessary. But, in all cases, care should be taken that the plants are not wet in the interval between their being taken out of the ground and replanted.

When the bananas grow old, they should be carefully felled, lest the cacaos should be injured by their accidental fall. They are totally removed as soon as the erythrina yields sufficient shade; this operation gives more air to the trees of the plantation, and encourages their growth.

Until the cacao attains four feet in height, it is trimmed to the stem. If it shoots forth several branches, they are reduced to three, at equal distances; and, in proportion as the plant increases, the leaves which appear on the three branches are stripped off. If they bend much, and incline towards the earth, they are tied in bunches, so that the tree may not remain crooked. The branches, which are trimmed, are cut at the distance of two fingers from the tree. The suckers which spring from the tree are also removed, as they only live at its expense.

Enemies of the tree.—The cacao trees should, as already stated, have sufficient shade to prevent their being burned by the sun. If they are much exposed to its rays, their branches are scattered, crack, and the tree dies. They are also infested with worms, which gnaw the bark all around, then attack the interior and destroy them. The only remedy which has hitherto been found, is to employ people to kill these worms, which are deposited by a small, scaly winged insect, which gnaws the tree; as soon as it hears the approach of its destroyers, it lets itself fall, and trusts to its wings for safety.

The color of this insect is a mixture of ash color and white. If pressed, it emits a sound something similar to the noise of water thrown on a very hot substance. It has two small horns on its head, the points of which are directed upwards. It is so lively that, even when the head is separated from the body, it is a long time in dying. To deposit its progeny it makes small holes in the tree.

At the commencement of the winter, or rainy season, another worm makes its appearance, which devours the leaves of the young cacao plant. This species of worm is called goaseme, and they are in some years so abundant, that all the people of the plantation are solely employed in destroying them. This worm is four inches in length, and of the thickness of a finger. It is sometimes called angaripola, or Indian, on account of the vivacity of its colors. It is believed that these worms are mediately produced by other large worms in the earth, from which are engendered butterflies, who lay their eggs on the leaves of the cacao. These eggs are full of small worms, which feed on the leaves of the cacao, and appear in clusters of the size of a shilling. They are sought and destroyed with great attention, as they occasion considerable damage. Those which escape lodge themselves in the earth, and in the succeeding year are changed into butterflies. At the time when the worm makes its appearance, it is necessary to make fires, which should not be so large as to injure the cacao, yet sufficient to attract and burn the butterfly.

The plantations of cacao in the valley of Tuy, the quarters of Marrin, Cuba, Sabana, Ocumare, San Francis, &c., are subject to another species of worm called rasquilla. It multiplies in the dry seasons.

There are small insects, called by the Spaniards accerredores, of the same figure with those which eat the bark of the cacao, but larger and of a blackish colour. They feed on the branches of the tree; are always found upon those branches which they have cut; and the evil can only be obviated by killing them.

The worms called vachacos occasion also much damage. They eat the leaf and the flower. To destroy them it is necessary to seek them in their nests in the earth. Water is thrown on the spot, and stirred, as in making mortar. By this means their young are crushed, and the evil is diminished, if it be not entirely removed.

A parasitical plant often attaches itself to a branch of the cacao tree which it covers over and causes to wither, by nourishing itself with the substance of the plant. The only remedy is to remove it.

When the cacao trees are in a bearing state, they are subject to a disease called tache. This is a black taint, or stain, which attacks the trees, encircling them below, and kills them. The mode of preservation is to make, in the beginning, a slight notch that shall pierce the bark. But if the taint is extensive, it is necessary to cut all the affected part. It then exudes a liquid and is healed. The bark remains of a violet color in the part that has been tainted.

The other enemies of the cacao are the agouti, stag, squirrel, monkey, &c. The agouti produces most havoc. It often destroys in one night all the hopes of the proprietor.

Birds are not less injurious to the cacao. The whole class of parrots, in particular the great Ara, which destroys for the pleasure of destroying, and, the parroquets, which come in numerous flocks, conspire also to ruin the plantations of cacao.

Means of preserving a plantation.—It is necessary that a cacao plantation should have always shade and irrigation; the branches of the plant should be cleared of the lichens that form on them; the worms destroyed; and no large herbs or shrubs and mosses permitted to grow near, since the least disadvantage resulting therefrom would be the loss of all the fruit that should fall into these thickets. But it is most essential to deepen the trenches which carry off the water, in proportion as the plant increases in size, and as the roots of course pierce deeper; for if the trenches are left at a depth of three feet, while the roots are six feet in the earth, it follows that the lower part of the cacao plant is in a situation of too great humidity, and rots at the level of the water. This precaution contributes not only to make the plantation more durable, but also to render the crop more productive. It is necessary, also, to abstain from cutting any branch from cacao plants that are already bearing. Such an operation might occasion the subsequent crop to be stronger; but the plants become enervated, and often perish, according to the quality of the soil and the number of branches cut off.

If the earth of the plantations be pressed and trampled down by animals, the duration of the plant is diminished. Irrigation, made with judgment, maintains them long in a state of produce.

Withering of the fruit.—The fruit of the cacao withers on the tree from three causes:—

First.—When the plantation is, during a long time, inundated with water. I have seen plantations of cacao, which had only been covered with water thirty hours, and of which the fruit was totally withered.

Second.—From abundant rains, particularly in very damp valleys. This is only to be remedied by keeping the plantation well drained, that the water may not remain on it.

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