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THE COMMUNITY COOK BOOK

Sold by Class of Willing Workers of the Winter St. Baptist Church Haverhill, Mass

A Practical Cook Book, Representative of the Best Cookery to Be Found in Any of the More Intelligent and Progressive American Communities



IN COMPILING AND REVISING THIS BOOK, ONE PERSON AND HER NEEDS WERE ALWAYS KEPT IN MIND—THAT PERSON IS THE AVERAGE AMERICAN WOMAN, AND TO HER THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED IN THE FIRM BELIEF THAT IN IT SHE WILL FIND MUCH HELPFULNESS.

Third Edition—1916

Copyright 1914, Powell & White Cincinnati, Ohio



CONTENTS

FOREWORD 4 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS AND PASTRY 5 Pies and Pastry 12 CEREALS, BREAKFAST FOODS 15 SOUPS 17 FISH 21 SALADS 26 MEAT 32 EGGS 46 VEGETABLES 48 DESSERTS 58 CAKE 72 FRUITS 85 PICKLES AND PRESERVES 87 Preserves and Jellies 89 CANDIES 92 MISCELLANEOUS 96 BEVERAGES 100 DEFINITIONS OF SOME FOREIGN AND OTHER TERMS. 110 INDEX. 112



FOREWORD

The Community Cook Book is a collection of recipes chosen from many hundreds that may well be considered representative of the best to be found in any of the more intelligent and progressive of American Communities in which a part of the population make occasional visits to all parts of the country from which they bring back choice recipes to contribute to the neighborhood fund. Added to this, that constant change and interchange of a part of the population, and if the best recipes of such a section be carefully selected and classified, then in a real American Community's Cook Book, such as this, we have one of the most valuable practical cook books in the world.

In presenting this cook book, the compilers were guided by the fact that what each housekeeper needs, is not so much a great variety of ways, but a few successful ways of preparing each article of food.



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS AND PASTRY

"'Bread,' says he, 'dear brothers, is the staff of life.'"

BAKING POWDER BISCUITS.

Two cups flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls lard, a little sugar if desired, one-half cup milk or water, milk preferred. Mix flour, salt, sugar and baking powder well with fork; add milk. When well mixed, drop in small quantities onto buttered pans. Bake eight minutes in moderate oven.

BAKING POWDER BISCUITS.

Two cups flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls butter, milk enough to make soft dough. Mix dry ingredients, chop in butter, add milk, mixing all the while with a wooden paddle or knife. Toss on a small floured board, roll lightly to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with cutter. Place on a buttered pan and bake in a hot oven.

BOSTON BROWN BREAD.

One level pint cornmeal scalded, one level tablespoonful salt, one cup New Orleans molasses, two teaspoonfuls soda over which pour a little boiling water, one pint sour milk; put half the soda in the molasses and the remainder in the milk. Stiffen with Graham flour. Steam four hours, and brown in oven for about fifteen minutes.

BUCKWHEAT CAKES.

One cake yeast, one coffee-cup cornmeal, two coffee-cups buckwheat, one teaspoonful salt, one quart tepid water. Before cooking, add four tablespoonfuls milk and two of molasses in which you have stirred a teaspoonful of soda.

CORNBREAD.

Sift three-fourths cup cornmeal, three-fourths cup flour, two and one-half teaspoonfuls baking powder, three-fourths teaspoonful salt, one tablespoonful sugar. Work in tablespoonful butter, then add three-fourths cup sweet milk, into which one or two eggs have been beaten. Pour into greased pans and bake in a moderate oven. If sour milk is used, take one and one-half teaspoonful baking powder and one-fourth teaspoonful soda.

CORN GEMS.

Two eggs, one-half cup white flour, one cup milk, one cup corn flour, one tablespoonful butter, one teaspoonful salt, one heaping teaspoonful baking powder. Pour enough boiling water over corn flour to wet it and burst starch grains. Beat eggs very light. Mix dry ingredients to corn flour, then eggs, milk and last butter. Bake twenty-five minutes in hot oven.

CRUMPETS.

One pint of milk, four ounces butter, one teaspoonful salt, one cake compressed yeast, three cups flour. Scald milk and let stand until lukewarm, then add salt and flour, beat vigorously, then add butter melted and the yeast, beat again, cover and stand in a warm place until very light. Grease muffin rings and place them on a hot griddle. Fill each ring half full of batter. Bake until brown on one side, then turn and brown the other side. Take from the fire and stand aside until wanted. When ready to use, steam and serve with butter, marmalade, syrup, jam, or anything else desired.

DUMPLINGS.

One pint flour, one level teaspoonful salt, one heaping teaspoonful baking powder, one heaping teaspoonful lard, enough milk and water to make a soft dough. Roll one-half inch thick, cut in squares, or with biscuit cutter, and lay in on top of stew. Cook ten minutes.

FRENCH BREAD.

After softening one cake of compressed yeast in one-half cup lukewarm water, stir in enough flour to make a very stiff dough. Knead well, shaping into a ball. Make two cuts on top about one-quarter inch deep. Place in a pan of tepid water until it swells and floats. When very light put into a bowl containing one-half cup salted water, stir in enough flour to make a stiff dough. Let stand in a temperature of 68 or 70 degrees F. until light. Shape into loaf, let lighten again and bake.

GRAHAM BREAD.

Two cups sour milk, two teaspoonfuls soda dissolved in little warm water, one-fourth cup sugar, one-half cup molasses, one egg, salt, three and one-half cups Graham flour. Bake one hour.

GRAHAM BREAD.

With one pint warm milk, one cake of yeast and white flour, make a sponge. One teaspoonful salt not heaped, one-half cup molasses. Let rise, then stir in sifted brown flour till partly stiff, put in baking pan, let rise, then bake.

GRIDDLE CAKES.

One-half pint milk, one-half pint warm water, one-half cake yeast, one teaspoonful salt, one egg, one tablespoonful melted lard, flour enough to make a batter like ordinary batter-cakes. Let rise over night and fry for breakfast.

KENTUCKY CORN BREAD.

One pint thick, sour milk, two teaspoonfuls salt, one egg. Mix with this enough cornmeal to make a batter not stiff. Use meal of medium fineness—not the very fine sold in most groceries. Beat well; add last one level teaspoonful soda dissolved in a little water. Allow a tablespoonful of lard to become very hot in baking pan; pour into the batter, stir, and turn into pan. Bake until cooked through.

MILK BREAD.

Scald one pint of milk, pour while hot over a tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful sugar, one teaspoonful salt. When nearly cold, add one-fourth cake of yeast, dissolved in one-half a cup of lukewarm water, add flour stiff enough to knead. Knead until smooth and elastic, cover, and let rise until morning, then shape into loaves, let rise again, bake from forty to fifty minutes; rolls from fifteen to twenty minutes.

MUFFINS.

One egg, one-half cup sugar, two cups flour, two heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder, three-fourths cup milk, salt. Mix egg with sugar. Sift flour, baking powder and salt, add to egg and sugar alternately with the milk and beat well. In season add blueberries. If short of milk, use part water.

NUT BREAD.

Four and one-half cups wheat flour, eight teaspoonfuls baking powder, one teaspoonful salt, one cup sugar, two cups sweet milk, one large cup chopped walnuts, two eggs well beaten. Stir all dry ingredients together thoroughly, add eggs and milk. Stand twenty minutes before baking. Bake in two tins about forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS.

Two cups scalded milk, two tablespoonfuls sugar, one teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls butter, one egg, one yeast cake dissolved in one-fourth cup lukewarm water. Mix dry ingredients and butter in the hot milk; when slightly cool, add flour enough to make a drop batter, beat well, add the yolk of egg, then the white beaten until stiff, and lastly the dissolved yeast cake, beat hard. Then add flour enough for a soft dough that you can handle. Turn on a well-floured board and knead until covered with blisters, turn into a well-buttered bowl. Cover and place in a temperature of 75 degrees until it doubles its bulk. Shape into rolls, butter and cover until they are very light. Bake in a quick oven until a delicate brown.

PARKER HOUSE CORN ROLLS.

One and one-fourth cup white flour (measurements level), three-fourths cup cornmeal, four teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, one tablespoonful sugar, two tablespoonfuls butter, one egg, one-half cup milk. Method: Mix and sift dry ingredients in a bowl; chop butter in with a knife; beat egg, to which add one-half cup milk; add all slowly to dry ingredients to make a soft dough that can be handled; add more milk, if necessary; toss lightly on floured board and pat to one-half inch thickness; cut with round cutter, patting piece of butter in center; fold in center, so that opposite edges meet; put in buttered baking sheet; wet top with milk and bake in quick oven ten to fifteen minutes.

POP-OVERS.

Two cups milk, one cup flour, two eggs, one-half teaspoonful salt. Beat eggs very light with Dover egg beater, add flour, milk and salt. Warm muffin pans slightly, butter them, and fill half full. Bake in hot oven until brown. This will make twelve pop-overs.

POTATO ROLLS.

Two cups hot mashed potatoes (four cups of sliced potatoes make about two cups of mashed potatoes), one scant cup lard, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, two teaspoonfuls salt, three well-beaten eggs. Mix all well together and have it lukewarm, then add one-half cake of yeast, which has been soaked in a cup of lukewarm water for twenty minutes. Let rise two hours in a warm place; work up (not too stiff) with flour; rise again. When very light, roll thin on a biscuit-board, cut with a cutter, put in pan, rise again, and bake in a very hot oven. This will make about sixty rolls.

REQUESTED BROWN BREAD.

Two cups each of Graham flour, cornmeal and buttermilk or sour milk, two-thirds cup of New Orleans molasses, two and one-half teaspoonfuls soda and a little salt; steam three hours; soda in sour milk.

SALLY LUNN.

Mix one pint of flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, yolks of two eggs well beaten, one-half cup milk, one-half cup butter melted, whites of two eggs beaten stiff. Bake in muffin pans or drop loaf fifteen to twenty minutes. If for tea, add two tablespoonfuls sugar to flour.

SODA BISCUIT.

Mix well one teaspoonful salt, one-half teaspoonful soda, two and one-half cups flour. Mix thoroughly with one heaping tablespoonful lard. Pour in one cup thick, sour milk or buttermilk; stir up quickly, adding as much flour as may be necessary to make stiff enough to handle. Roll about one-half inch thick. Bake in hot oven.

SPOON BREAD.

Make a pint of cornmeal mush, five eggs, salt, tablespoonful of butter. Stir butter and salt into mush when warm; let cool, then add eggs, a cup of milk and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Bake. Serve with a spoon from baking dish.

WAFFLES.

Mix one pint flour, two level teaspoonfuls baking powder and one-half teaspoon salt. Add one and one-fourth cup milk, three well-beaten egg yolks, two tablespoonfuls melted butter and the whites of the three eggs, beaten stiff. Grease the hot waffle iron and put in the batter. Cook about one minute, then turn the iron and cook a little longer on the other side. Serve immediately with butter and maple syrup or marmalade.

SANDWICHES.

Philadelphia cream cheese, chives. Cut chives into small pieces with scissors. Mix into the cheese and spread on rye bread.

* * * * *

One-half pound boiled ham, two dill pickles, one teaspoonful mustard. Grind ham and pickles in a meat chopper, mix in mustard, and spread on white or rye bread.

* * * * *

Ten cents' worth peanuts, one cup mayonnaise. Grind peanuts in a meat chopper and mix with dressing. Spread on white bread, with a lettuce leaf in each sandwich.

* * * * *

One cake Eagle cheese, one ten-cent can pimentos. Mix half of this quantity at a time. Grind or chop the pimentos very fine, mix well with cheese, and spread on rye bread.

* * * * *

One can sardines, one-half cup mayonnaise. Mash sardines in a bowl, mix with dressing, add salt, pepper and a little lemon juice. Spread on rye or white bread.

WALNUT-RAISIN SANDWICHES.

Grind English walnuts and raisins and put in a few drops of hot water to make them thin enough to spread on reception flakes.



Pies and Pastry

PASTRY.

One cup sifted flour, one-half cup lard (cut lard into flour with knife), one-fourth teaspoonful salt. Ice water to form stiff dough.

APPLE PIE.

Pare, core and cut five sour apples into eighths; place evenly in a pie plate lined with the usual pie pastry. Mix one-third cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoonful grated nutmeg, one-third teaspoonful salt, teaspoonful lemon juice and a few gratings of lemon rind and sprinkle over apples. Dot over with little lumps of butter, wet edges of under crust, cover with upper crust and press edges together. Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.

JAM PIE.

One cup of raspberry or blackberry jam, yolk of two eggs, one cup rich milk or cream, one tablespoonful flour; mix thoroughly, cook over fire until thick. Use the whites of egg for meringue. Bake with bottom crust.

LEMON CUSTARD PIE.

One cup sugar, three eggs, one cup milk, one tablespoonful flour, three tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, juice and rind of one lemon. Beat yolks of eggs and sugar; add juice and rind of lemon. Mix flour with the milk, and pour through sieve into eggs and sugar. Line a deep pie plate with good rich paste; pour in the mixture and bake in a quick oven thirty minutes. Beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth and add three tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, beating all the while. Put on top of pie, and return to oven until a light brown.

LEMON PIE.

One cup water, one cup sugar, one lemon, two eggs, one tablespoonful butter, one heaping tablespoonful flour. Bake crust on the outside of pan, first pricking with a fork. Boil sugar and water; add to the beaten yolks of eggs the grated peel of lemon, butter and flour; pour over this the boiling mixture, then boil until it thickens like custard. Cool, turn into baked crust, spread on top whites of eggs beaten stiff, to which add a tablespoonful pulverized sugar. Place in oven until the meringue is brown.

MOCK CHERRY PIE.

One cup cranberries cut in half, one-half cup chopped raisins, one cup sugar, one tablespoonful flour, a pinch of salt, one teaspoonful vanilla and one-half cup boiling water. Bake with upper and under crust.

PUMPKIN PIE.

Peel and cut up in squares, cook with half pint of water, one cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoonful red pepper, boil slowly till soft and perfectly dry, then sift; two beaten eggs, one-half cup sugar, three and one-half large spoonfuls pumpkin, one-half cup milk, small pinch of salt, one-fourth teaspoonful cinnamon, a little more of ginger. Makes one pie. Bake slowly one hour.

SHORTCAKE.

Three cups flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt; sift three times; one-half cup butter mixed with flour till like meal. Beat one egg light, add to it a cup of cold water. Mix with flour. Put in two pie pans, or in muffin pans for individual shortcakes, and sprinkle tops with granulated sugar. When baked, split, butter and put sweetened berries between, and garnish tops with sweetened whipped cream and whole berries.

WAFERS.

Cream one-third cup butter, add one cup powdered sugar. Mix well. Add one-half cup milk alternately with two scant cups flour, or enough to make a stiff batter. Spread very thin on a slightly greased tin. Bake in very slow oven until light brown. Remove from oven and place on top of stove. Cut and roll in desired shape. These wafers can be flavored with ginger, sprinkled with chopped nuts or filled with whipped cream and berries.



CEREALS, BREAKFAST FOODS

"Look up! the wide extended plain Is billowy with its ripened grain, And on the summer winds are rolled Its waves of emerald and gold."

CORN MEAL MUSH.

Allow one pint of meal and one teaspoonful of salt to a quart of water. Sprinkle meal gradually into boiling salted water, stirring all the time. Boil rapidly for a few minutes, then let simmer for a long time. Very palatable served with milk; some people like it with butter and pepper. For fried mush let it get cold, then cut in slices, dip in flour and fry in suet until brown.

HOMINY.

This is very good when well cooked, and may be simply boiled until done in salted water, and served with pepper and butter. It is good fried like mush.

MACARONI WITH CHEESE.

After boiling macaroni in salted water until soft, sprinkle with grated cheese; repeat, pour over a sauce made of butter, flour, salt and scalded milk; cover with bread crumbs and bake until brown.

RICE.

Rice has been cultivated from time immemorial. While not so valuable a food as some of the other cereals, it forms the larger part of the diet of people in the tropics and in semi-tropical countries, and is used extensively in other places. It is eaten by more human beings than any other cereal; is not equal to wheat as a brain food, but worthy of the high place it holds in the estimation of mankind.

It may be simply boiled and served as a vegetable, with pepper and butter, or served with sugar and cream. It is good cooked in milk. Is baked like macaroni with cheese, and cooked in various ways in combination with meat or vegetables.

BOILED RICE.

One of the quickest ways of preparing rice is to fill a large kettle with water, allow it to come to a boil; when bubbling vigorously throw in two cups of rice and boil hard twenty-five minutes. Empty into a colander and dash under cold water, which will separate the grains. Season with pepper and salt, heap lightly on a dish and put a lump of butter on top.

ROLLED OATS.

None of the breakfast foods which are so much used are so wholesome as a simple dish of rolled oats or the old-fashioned oatmeal. Served with or without cream and sugar, these are to be highly recommended to persons who are compelled to live indoors a great deal, and are generally relished by those who lead an outdoor life. Although rolled oats is supposed to be a dish quickly prepared, it is better, like oatmeal, for being cooked a long time, and baked for two hours, after being boiled a few minutes, it is very palatable and nutritious.



SOUPS

"La soupe fait le soldat." ("The soup makes the soldier.")

BEAN SOUP.

One pint navy beans, soak over night, cook till they are very tender, add some celery and little tomato, salt and pepper to taste, cook all well together. In another saucepan let boil one tablespoonful of butter, add a chopped onion, fry till it is clear. Mix a tablespoonful of flour with a cup of the soup and a little butter, cook a moment or two, add to soup and let all boil ten minutes, add a pinch of red pepper and strain.

BOUILLON.

Twenty-cent beef soup bone, ten-cent knuckle of veal, twenty cents' worth chicken gizzards, seven quarts cold water. After reaching boiling point add one small handful salt; three or four whole peppers, one carrot, one onion, one celery root, one turnip, one parsley root, one bay leaf, two or three whole allspice, one-half can tomatoes. Let boil slowly one day. Strain and skim.

BOUILLON.

Chicken bones, three pounds beef, three quarts water, four whole cloves, one onion, one carrot, two pounds marrow bones, four peppercorns, a bouquet of herbs and one bay leaf, three stalks of celery, juice of a lemon, two tablespoonfuls butter or marrow, one-half cup of sherry, one turnip. Put vegetables in last, spices about one-half hour; brown vegetables in butter or suet; brown a few pieces of meat, to give a good color to the soup, turn into soup digester and cover with cold water. Let it come to a boil, skim, and let it simmer; cover and cook for five hours. Strain in an earthen vessel, cool, remove fat, clear and serve hot in cups.

CORN SOUP.

One can cornlet or corn, one pint cold water, one quart heated milk, two tablespoonfuls butter, one tablespoonful chopped onion, two tablespoonfuls flour, two teaspoonfuls salt, one-fourth teaspoonful white pepper, yolks of two eggs. Chop corn, cook it with the water twenty minutes; melt butter, add chopped onions and cook until light brown; add flour, and when thoroughly mixed add milk gradually. Add this mixture to corn and season with salt, pepper, rub through sieve, heat again. Beat yolk of eggs, put them in soup tureen, and pour soup over them very slowly. When mixed serve immediately.

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP.

A pint of milk, a tablespoonful of flour, one of butter, a head of celery, a large slice of onion and a small piece of mace, a little salt. Boil celery in one pint of water from thirty to forty-five minutes; boil mace, onion and milk together; mix flour with two tablespoonfuls of cold milk. Cook ten minutes. Mash celery in water it has been cooked in and stir in boiling milk. Strain and serve.

CREAM OF CORN SOUP.

Put one pint of milk in a double boiler, add one pint of grated corn, two teaspoonfuls of salt; rub together one tablespoonful of flour and one of butter. Add them to the soup when boiling. Just before serving add one-half pint of whipped cream.

FRENCH PEA SOUP.

Cover a quart of peas with water and boil with an onion till they mash easily. Mash and add a pint of water. Cook together two tablespoonfuls each of flour and butter until smooth but not brown. Add to the peas with one pint of cream and a cup of milk. Season with salt and pepper, strain and serve.

MIXED VEGETABLE SOUP.

Fifteen-cent soup bone, three quarts water, half a small cabbage cut very fine, three large potatoes, two good-sized carrots, two turnips, one medium-sized onion, three teaspoonfuls salt, one-half teaspoonful pepper, a little celery and green pepper. Put on in cold water with all vegetables except potatoes. Cook very slowly one hour. Do not cover closely. At the end of one hour add potatoes and cook an hour longer. Put in two or three tomatoes when potatoes are added, if liked.

MOCK BISQUE.

One-half can tomatoes strained, one quart milk, one-third cup butter, one tablespoonful cornstarch, one teaspoonful salt, one salt-spoon pepper, heat milk in double boiler. Mix smoothly one tablespoonful butter, cornstarch and seasoning, add hot milk slowly. Boil ten minutes and add remainder of butter and strained tomatoes. Serve immediately.

MUTTON BROTH.

Remove pink skin from mutton, also fat; have the meat from the neck. Cover well with water, let boil slowly, cook until meat becomes ragged. One tablespoonful rice.

OYSTER SOUP.

Put about fifty oysters in a colander and drain. Pour over them a pitcher of cold water, and then put them into a hot kettle. Let stand covered for a few minutes. Add one pint of water. Rub together a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour; add a little of the soup to make a smooth paste. Put this with a quart of milk into the soup kettle with oysters, and stir till it begins to thicken. Add a teaspoonful of salt, and pepper to taste.

POTATO SOUP.

To one gallon of water add six large potatoes chopped fine, one teacupful rice, butter the size of an egg, one tablespoonful flour. Work butter and flour together and add one teacupful sweet cream just before taking from the fire. Boil one hour.

TOMATO BOUILLON.

One quart tomatoes, one tablespoonful onion minced, one tablespoonful parsley minced, one tablespoonful lean ham minced, one tablespoonful butter, one pint water, six whole peppercorns, four whole cloves, one bay leaf, salt-spoon paprika, one egg, one tablespoonful sugar. When the whole mixture has thoroughly boiled, add sugar and salt to taste; brown the onion and parsley in the butter, add to the other ingredients; boil all ten minutes, then strain and cool; when perfectly cold stir in the white of one egg, then beat thoroughly with Dover beater, place on stove and stir constantly (to prevent egg from cooking) until the mixture comes to a boil. Stand a few minutes on the back of the stove, strain very carefully through a sieve covered with a cheese-cloth wrung out in hot water. Serve hot. This will serve five persons.

TOMATO SOUP.

To one quart of tomatoes add one pint of water, one tablespoonful sugar, one teaspoonful salt, six cloves and a little pepper; let boil ten minutes. In another saucepan put one tablespoonful butter. When it boils, add a chopped onion and some parsley, and let fry about five minutes, then add one tablespoonful flour previously mixed with water; boil all for ten minutes, strain and serve.

VEAL BOUILLON.

Two knuckles of veal, four quarts of cold water, one onion, one stock celery, one bay leaf, twelve cloves, one teaspoonful salt, one blade mace, one pinch pepper. Put veal in soup kettle with cold water and salt. Simmer gently four hours. Cut up the vegetables and add with spices and simmer one hour longer. Strain, cool, remove fat, reheat and serve with teaspoonful whipped cream on each cup.



FISH

"Fools lade water, and wise men catch the fish."

BAKED WHITE FISH.

Clean and prepare the fish. Make a stuffing of one cupful of cracker crumbs, one teaspoonful chopped parsley, one teaspoonful chopped onion, two tablespoonfuls chopped suet or bacon or one large tablespoonful butter, one-third teaspoonful salt, two teaspoonfuls chopped pickles, one-quarter teaspoonful pepper. If a moist stuffing is desired, add one-quarter cup milk. Bake fifteen minutes to a pound, allowing ten or fifteen minutes if the fish is unusually large.

CODFISH BALLS.

Boil and mash as many potatoes as desired, using about one-half pound of soaked and drained codfish to a pound of potatoes. Have fish picked apart, and after soaking and drying mix thoroughly with potatoes, adding, for one-half pound of codfish, one tablespoonful butter, yolks of two eggs, one-half teaspoonful salt and a dash of pepper. Make into balls, dip in beaten egg and bread crumbs and fry in hot fat.

FINNAN HADDIE.

Boil a three-pound haddock until the skin comes off easily, remove every particle of bone, cut into small pieces, shred; put one-half pint cream into a chafing dish, add three finely-chopped hard-boiled eggs, rub together two rounded tablespoonfuls flour and two of butter, add to the other ingredients. Now light the lamp under the chafing dish. Stir until the mixture begins to thicken, then blend a raw yolk and add it to the haddie. Sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley and serve on toast. Should there not be quite enough sauce, sweet cream may be added.

FRIED FISH.

Brook trout, perch, catfish and other well-known fish are good fried. Cook in lard, suet or oil. Wash and clean, wipe dry, dip in beaten egg and roll in bread crumbs. Fry in oil, if possible.

FRIED OYSTERS.

One pint large oysters, one-half cup flour, one-half cup milk, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-half cup fresh tomato catsup. Mix thoroughly the flour, milk, catsup and salt; dip oysters into mixture, then roll in cracker crumbs. Fry in sweet, fresh lard until a dark brown. Serve very hot.

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.

Rub one-half cup butter to a cream, add the yolks of two eggs, one at a time, then salt and cayenne pepper. About five minutes before serving add one-half cup boiling water. Thicken in double boiler. Add lemon juice.

LOBSTER A LA BUSHMAN.

Cut the meat of four-pound lobster into large pieces; melt one tablespoonful butter and one teaspoonful minced onion, let cook until yellow. Add the lobster, salt, cayenne pepper, two tablespoonfuls white wine; simmer for five minutes, then sprinkle one tablespoonful flour over this. When well mixed, add six or eight mushrooms cut fine, one tablespoonful chili sauce, add one cup water or stock. Cook five minutes longer in shells, put a mushroom on each, sprinkle with buttered cracker crumbs. Bake till brown.

OYSTER COCKTAIL.

Mix one tablespoonful tomato catsup, one-half tablespoonful vinegar or lemon, two drops Tabasco sauce, one-half teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful finely chopped celery and one-half teaspoonful Worcestershire sauce. Chill these ingredients thoroughly, pour over eight oysters and serve in cocktail glasses.

OYSTER NEWBURG.

One pint oysters, one-half cup cream, one teaspoonful onion juice, two tablespoonfuls butter, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-eighth teaspoonful paprika, two level tablespoonfuls flour, one teaspoonful lemon juice, yolk of one egg, toasted bread. Melt one tablespoonful butter, add oysters, salt, paprika, onion and lemon juice, cook three minutes, and melt remaining tablespoonful butter, add flour, and when blended add cream, then the yolk of the egg, beaten slightly; cook until it thickens, stirring slowly, add to the oysters, mix and serve on toast.

OYSTER OMELET.

Make a plain omelet, beat six eggs until light, separately; add two tablespoonfuls milk, one of flour, one-fifth teaspoonful baking powder, put in flour and rub with milk, salt to taste. Fry in melted butter in a hot skillet. Put in oven for a few minutes to brown on top. Turn out on a good-sized meat dish, pour upon it the oyster sauce and serve at once, hot.

Sauce.

Make the oyster sauce first. Take twenty-five large oysters, put them in a saucepan over a moderate fire, and cook slowly until the gills are curled. Drain, save the liquor, add enough milk to make a pint. Take a tablespoonful flour and one of butter and cream them. Put the liquor in a pan and when it begins to boil stir in the flour and butter. Stir until boiling, add a teaspoonful salt and a dash of paprika. Stand in a warm place until you make the omelet.

OYSTER PATTIES.

Cook one heaping tablespoonful flour in one heaping tablespoonful butter; add slowly one cup hot milk, season with one teaspoonful salt, one-fourth teaspoonful red pepper; wash over one pint oysters, parboil until plump, skin carefully, drain and add the sauce, fill the patty shells when ready to serve.

OYSTER TENDERLOINS.

Take out one dozen oysters for the gravy first; then take one pint of oysters (pour off most of the liquor and save to put in the gravy); one pint of cracker crumbs rolled but not fine, pepper and salt to taste; also add a pinch of sage to the crumbs. Roll the oysters in the crumbs and put in butter the size of an egg. Cut the tenderloins in the center, roll until flat, then sew together, making a pocket. Stuff with the oysters and sew up the end. Put butter the size of an egg in a pan and brown. Pour this on top of the tenderloin, sprinkle over it salt, pepper and flour. Roast in a moderate oven one and one-half hour. To make the gravy, pour in the liquor and a little water and thickening. Drop in the oysters a few minutes before taking off the stove.

SALMON LOAF.

One can salmon. Drain off juice into stewpan, place salmon in a pan and add one-half cup fine cracker crumbs, two eggs, salt and pepper. Mix thoroughly, press into a mold, steam one hour.

Dressing.

One and one-half cup milk, four tablespoonfuls catsup, piece of butter size of an egg; boil; thicken with one tablespoonful cornstarch dissolved in water. Pour over loaf when done.

SALMON ON TOAST.

Toast bread and butter it. One and one-half pint milk and cream mixed; heat boiling hot; two tablespoonfuls flour, three tablespoonfuls butter. Work butter and flour together at boiling point, stir this in the milk. Strain salmon in colander upon top of stove, to get warm; then put on toast and pour cream dressing over all. Take three hard-boiled eggs and grate the yellows on top of salmon, and slice the white of eggs around edges of toast in the platter.

SALT MACKEREL IN CREAM.

Wash the mackerel and soak over night in clear, cold water. Lay in a baking pan, and to one mackerel add one-half pint of new milk; put into a moderate oven and bake one-half hour. Just before the fish is done, drop a few pieces of butter onto it.

SCALLOPED OYSTERS.

Roll the crackers, line the baking dish with butter; put the oysters, with a few cloves, salt and pepper, in a stewpan for say five minutes, but do not let them boil. Put a layer of oysters in the baking dish, then a layer of crackers, and so on, having the crackers on top. Bake twenty minutes.



SALADS

"Salads and eggs and lighter fare."

More progressive Americans now understand the value of the salad, and in this way use many vegetables, fish and meats that heretofore have not been extensively used for that purpose. There is room for much interesting experimenting in the making of salads. Almost endless variety may be had by ingenious mixing and combining of suitable ingredients. Used sparingly, they give a zest to the plainest meal, and the olive oil which is used so frequently in the preparation of salads is of immense value in promoting health.

The greens used in making salad, lettuce, dandelion and water cress should always be most carefully washed, and served only when fresh, crisp and cold. Many canned vegetables and left-overs may be used in salad, which would not be nearly so appetizing prepared in any other way.

ASPARAGUS SALAD.

Use either fresh or canned asparagus. If fresh, of course it should be cooked in the usual way and allowed to cool. Only very tender asparagus is suitable for salad. Cut green or red peppers into rings, put four stalks in each ring. Place these bundles on lettuce leaves and serve with usual French dressing. A little pat of Philadelphia cream cheese may be put on edge of each plate.

BEET RELISH.

One quart chopped beets, one quart chopped cabbage, one cup ground horseradish, one cup brown sugar, salt and pepper to taste. Pour over enough vinegar to moisten well about three cups. Heat and seal.

BOILED DRESSING.

Four tablespoonfuls vinegar, one tablespoonful butter, one-half tablespoonful sugar, yolks of three eggs, one cup whipped cream when ready to serve. Boil vinegar and sugar, turn on beaten yolks of eggs. Return to fire, and when as thick as boiled custard remove and add butter.

COLD SLAW.

One-half cup vinegar boiled, two teaspoonfuls sugar, one-half teaspoonful salt and mustard, one-half teaspoonful pepper, one-quarter cup butter to a cream, one teaspoonful flour; pour into boiling vinegar, cook five minutes. One well-beaten egg, with the cabbage chopped fine; pour vinegar over while hot.

COMBINATION SALAD.

Line a dish with lettuce. Arrange on it a layer of sliced tomatoes, thin layer of chopped onions, one sliced cucumber and one green pepper chopped fine. Pour over these layers a dressing made as follows:

Beat yolks of two eggs; add slowly about one cup of olive oil, beating all the time, two tablespoonfuls vinegar, salt and pepper to taste.

COOKED SALAD DRESSING.

One teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful mustard, one and one-half teaspoonful sugar, few grains cayenne, three-fourths tablespoonful flour, yolks of two eggs, three-fourths cup of scalded milk, one-half cup hot vinegar, one and one-half teaspoonful melted butter. Mix the dry ingredients, add the yolks and mix thoroughly; add the scalded milk, return to double boiler, add the hot vinegar, stirring constantly until mixture thickens, add the butter. Cool before using.

FRENCH DRESSING.

One saltspoonful salt, one-half saltspoonful white pepper, three tablespoonfuls olive oil, one-half teaspoonful onion juice, one tablespoonful vinegar. Mix in order slowly. One spoonful lemon juice may be used in place of onion juice.

FRUIT SALAD.

Bananas sliced lengthwise in quarters; over this put pineapple in cubes. Boil the pineapple a few minutes, to make it more tender. Then large strawberries and English walnuts. Over it put a spoonful of mayonnaise. Make the mayonnaise as you would a filling for lemon pie, with two lemons. Add whipped cream to it before serving.

HOT SLAW.

Chop or slice one medium-sized cabbage; put in boiling water, well covered; boil fifteen minutes, drain off all water and add a dressing made as follows: Half teacup vinegar, two-thirds as much sugar, salt, pepper, one-half teaspoonful mustard, one tablespoonful butter or olive oil. When this is boiling hot add one teacup cream and one egg, stirred together; mix thoroughly and immediately with the cabbage. Cook a moment. Serve hot.

LETTUCE SALAD.

Remove the outer leaves from a large, solid head of lettuce. Tear each leaf into three or four pieces; put them into a towel and on ice or in a cold place. When wishing to serve, put into a bowl, mix one tablespoonful vinegar, one-half teaspoonful salt and one-quarter teaspoonful pepper and sprinkle over the lettuce; stir well, add four tablespoonfuls thick, sweet cream and mix quickly. Serve at once.

MAYONNAISE.

Two tablespoonfuls butter, one teaspoonful mustard, one teaspoonful salt, four teaspoonfuls sugar, one-half cup vinegar, one cup cream, yolks of four eggs. Beat yolks together, add butter, mustard, salt and sugar. Boil cream and add to mixture. Boil vinegar and add. Then put on fire and stir until it thickens.

MAYONNAISE.

Yolks of eight eggs, two tablespoonfuls butter, one cup sugar, one tablespoonful flour, one teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful mustard, one and one-half cup strong vinegar, two-thirds cup water. Mix flour, mustard and sugar together; add to it the beaten eggs, sugar and butter; then add vinegar and water, and cook over slow fire, stirring all the time. Thin with cream when ready to use, and add celery seed if desired. One-half of this can be made at one time.

NEW ENGLAND POTATO SALAD.

One pint of cream, yolks of two eggs, one-half teaspoonful dry mustard, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-half teaspoonful pepper. Beat yolks for a few minutes, add mustard, salt and pepper, then mix with the cream and put in double boiler; let come to a boil. Put pepper and salt (more, if deemed necessary) and vinegar over potatoes or cabbage about ten minutes before putting in the dressing.

POTATO SALAD.

Boil six good-sized potatoes in their jackets. When cold, peel and put in chopping bowl; add two medium-sized onions, two hard-boiled eggs and chop fine. Add dressing.

Dressing.

Two eggs well beaten, one cup sweet milk. Boil milk and eggs until it thickens, then add one tablespoonful sugar and butter size of walnut. One-half cup vinegar; salt and pepper to taste.

SALAD No. 1.

Put alternate slices of tomatoes and pineapple on lettuce leaves and put a large spoonful mayonnaise over each.

SALAD No. 2.

Chop celery, English walnuts and apples, mix with mayonnaise. Serve on lettuce leaves.

SALAD.

Use lemon Jello as directed on the box. When beginning to get livery, put in thin slices of stuffed olives and pour in small cup to mold. Turn out on lettuce leaves and put a spoonful of mayonnaise on each.

SOUR CREAM POTATO SALAD.

Slice thin cold boiled potatoes and salt well, pour over thick sour cream and stir gently, cut celery in small pieces and mix; let stand one hour, then put in vinegar and stir, using one-third as much as cream. Let stand in cool place two or three hours.

SWEDISH SALAD.

One cup each of boiled potatoes, beet root, fish (mackerel, salmon or cold meat), celery root or stock, one apple, all cut up in small squares; chop some olives and pickles very fine, salt and pepper to taste. Mix in enough cream to make it stick together. Make a sauce by lightly whipping some cream and adding vinegar. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs, olives and beets.

SWEETBREAD SALAD.

One pair sweetbreads, two cucumbers, one cup mayonnaise. Decorate with shredded lettuce border.

SWEET CREAM DRESSING.

Mix together two tablespoonfuls olive oil, one teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls sugar, two tablespoonfuls vinegar. Then add one-half cup tomato catsup and one cupful sweet cream, beating in gradually. This dressing is good for fish, as well as vegetable salads.

TOMATO-CUCUMBER SALAD.

Take nice shaped tomatoes, remove skin, scoop out the seed, sprinkle with salt and put in cool place. Cut cucumbers in bits, fill the tomatoes and serve with whipped cream, lemon juice, salt and pepper.

TOMATO SALAD.

Cut the tomatoes half or two-thirds size if desired. Take out the inside and cut into dice. Fill the shells with ice. One cup tomatoes, one-half teaspoonful shredded onion. Over this pour mayonnaise dressing made with one egg, well-beaten oil, pour in until a little thick, salt, pepper and vinegar. Have all very cold. One teaspoonful of this dressing to a cup of tomatoes. Serve in the tomato shells. Nasturtium leaves are pretty on the plate to garnish.



MEAT

"Meat was made for mouths."

While it is undoubtedly true that raw meat is, as a rule, more easily digested than cooked, our present state of civilization demands that it be cooked, and we can only comply with the demand, preparing the food in question so that it may be not only attractive to the eye, but in a manner that will render it pleasing to the taste and readily assimilated. Cooking softens the tissues, making the act of eating more enjoyable, and also destroys parasitic growths.

To boil meat when broth is not desired, plunge into boiling water. The water should be allowed to boil for about ten minutes and then be permitted to fall somewhat below boiling point and kept at even heat for a long time. The juices and flavors are thus retained.

It is not desirable that fish should be treated in this manner, as the boiling water would break it into little pieces.

To stew meat, put small portions into cold water and raise temperature slowly, until very hot, but not quite boiling. Let it remain thus for some hours, and a rich broth, as well as juicy and tender meat, will result.

In roasting meat it is well to remember that the smaller roast requires the hotter fire. Intense heat produces a semi-solid condition of the exterior, and prevents the drying up of the meat juices. Great heat would be inapplicable to large cuts, the exterior of which would be burned to a coal under such treatment before the heat could reach the interior.

Young housekeepers and others who are not familiar with the various cuts of meat obtainable in most of our markets will do well to consider thoughtfully the accompanying illustrations.



In selecting beef we must remember that color is of great importance. The surface of a fresh lean cut should be a bright red, while the fat should be clear white. After being exposed to a warm atmosphere the surface will of course become darker in color.

The loin commands a higher market price than any other cut, on account of its tenderness and quality. The names applied to different parts of the loin vary in different localities. The part nearest the ribs is often called the "short steak," the other end the "sirloin."

It is interesting in this connection to recall the story which has been told regarding the origin of the word "sirloin." It is said that this steak found such favor with some epicurean king of olden times that he, in a spirit of jocularity and good humor, bestowed upon it the honor of knighthood, to the great delight of his assembled court, and as "Sir Loin" it was thereafter known. It is a pity to spoil so good a story, but the fact is that the word is derived from the French "sur" (upon) and "longe" (loin), and the preferable orthography would therefore be "surloin." However spelled, and whatever its history, the sirloin is deservedly popular.

Between the short and sirloin is the portion usually called the tenderloin, the name of which indicates its prevailing characteristic, the tenderness which makes it a much-to-be-desired cut in spite of its lack of juiciness and flavor as compared with other cuts.

The rib is the cut between the loin and chuck, and contains the best roasts. The fat on the best grade of ribs should be about one-half inch deep.

Round steaks are rather popular, but as Americans have a preference for loin and rib cuts, a large share of the lower grades of "rounds" are used otherwise, being converted into Hamburger, used as sausage trimmings and disposed of in many other ways.

Chucks are used extensively as shoulder steak, boiling pieces, and make very good roasts. Pot roasts are cut from the lower side, and stews or soup meat from the neck. The better grade of chucks should have a complete covering of fat, thickest at the rib end of the cut.



Quality in veal is determined by color and grain of flesh. It should be light pink, nearly white, and should contain a quantity of fat. The many ways of cooking and serving veal are so well known as to need but passing mention; veal loaf, veal cutlets, chops, pie, stew, curry of veal and many others are all favorite dishes in many homes.



In selecting mutton or lamb we should be guided by color, fineness of grain, thickness of flesh and amount of fat. Mutton of a dull brick red is preferable, though the color varies from that to dark red. Lamb on account of its superior flavor is more popular than mutton. The flesh of lamb should be light in color, of fine grain and the fat evenly distributed. The nutritive value of mutton and lamb is practically the same as beef.



The larger share of dressed pork is almost entirely clear fat, which should be white, firm and evenly distributed. Skin should be thin and smooth. Any detailed description of the various cuts of pork would be superfluous here. Not all our eloquence could adequately picture the delight with which an epicure gazes upon a ham boiled or baked by an experienced Kentucky or Virginia cook. The "roasting pig" is also a favorite in many places, and long has been, for, according to Irving, it was much prized by Ichabod Crane of Sleepy Hollow, and it has been mentioned by so great and learned a poet as Shakespeare.

Regarding all meats, we wish to say that as a rule the cheaper cuts have as much food value as the more expensive ones. Careful cooking will render the less expensive cuts delightfully appetizing. It is an advantage to housekeepers to know that meat need not be the highest in price to be nutritious and palatable.

BAKED BREAST OF MUTTON.

Sew up breast of mutton in a thin cloth, put into a stewpan, nearly cover with cold salt water, and let simmer, allowing ten minutes to each pound. Take out of pan and cloth, put into baking dish, rub over with mutton drippings, butter or fat, sprinkle with flour and bake one-half hour in hot oven, basting frequently with its own broth. Just before removing from oven, strew with bread crumbs and butter and let brown. Serve with brown sauce made from broth in which meat was cooked.

BEEF OMELET.

Three pounds chopped steak, three eggs, one and one-half cup rolled crackers, lump of butter size of a walnut, salt and pepper to taste, one-half cup milk. Mix thoroughly, make out in rolls, wrap in cloth, and bake two hours.

BEEFSTEAK WITH OYSTER BLANKET.

Broil an inch-thick sirloin steak, remove to platter, spread with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper; cover steak with one pint of oysters, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot with butter, place on grate in hot oven until the oysters are plump.

BEEF TENDERLOIN.

Take tenderloin of beef and lard it with pork. Put one can of mushrooms with the beef and cook in oven twenty minutes. Then cut the meat in slices one and one-half inch thick. On top of each slice place a few of the mushrooms and a little of the gravy, and set back in the oven five minutes to keep hot. Serve the slices on a chop plate, forming a circle, and filling in the center with peas.

BLANKETED HAM WITH SWEET POTATOES AND APPLES.

Cut off the fat close to the edge of a slice of ham one-half inch thick. Put fat through meat chopper, spread on top of ham, then sprinkle one-half cup of brown sugar and wine-glass of sherry over it. Peel and quarter four large sweet potatoes and four large apples. Put ham in oven in covered roasting pan. After it has cooked a quarter of an hour add apples and sweet potatoes. Now cook all of it three-quarters of an hour. This makes a delicious and savory dish, and is so substantial that little else is required for a meal.

BROWN STEW.

Thirty-five-cent beef off the shoulder; cut in pieces, cover with water and stew two hours until tender. Add one tablespoonful butter, and thicken with flour. Cook until brown.

CHICKEN CROQUETTE.

One-half pound chicken or veal, chopped very fine; season with one-half teaspoonful salt, one-half teaspoonful celery salt, one-fourth teaspoonful onion juice, one teaspoonful chopped parsley, one teaspoonful lemon juice, one saltspoonful white pepper, one-fourth saltspoonful cayenne. Mix with enough cream sauce to be easily handled; let cool, then shape into rolls. Roll on fine bread crumbs, dip in beaten egg, then roll in bread crumbs and fry in smoking-hot fat, drain on tissue paper. Boil meat in three quarts hot water, cold for soup, season with one teaspoonful salt, four grains pepper.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES.

Two pair sweetbreads, boiled and chopped fine, one teacupful boiled chicken chopped (use nothing but the white meat), one teacupful boiled bread and milk, pretty stiff; one-half pound butter, salt and pepper to taste, mold in shape, roll in cracker crumbs, beaten egg, and again in cracker crumbs, and fry in boiling lard.

Chicken Croquette Remarks.

Prepare meat and seasoning first. Put flour in hot butter dry, two tablespoonfuls cold water in the egg. Boil meat very slowly, until very tender. Make a hole in the flour when pouring in any liquid. Drop bread into hot fat, count forty slowly, until brown, fat then at proper heat. Cut a large potato in the hot grease; it takes out impurities.

CROQUETTES.

Cold turkey, chicken, veal or lamb, chopped fine; add one-fourth as much bread crumbs as meat; salt, pepper and herbs to taste; then to one cup of the mixture one well-beaten egg. Make in small balls egg-shaped, and fry in boiling lard.

FRICATELLI.

Chop raw fresh pork very fine, add salt and pepper and two small onions chopped fine, half as much stale bread as there is meat, soaked until soft, two eggs; mix all well together, make into oblong patties, and fry as you would oysters or other patties. A nice breakfast dish. Serve with sliced lemon.

HAM TOAST.

One-fourth pound of either boiled or fried ham; chop it fine, mix with the yolks of two eggs well beaten; one tablespoonful butter, enough cream or milk to make it soft, a little pepper; stir this over the fire until it thickens, dip toast into hot salted water for just an instant, spread with melted butter, then turn over the ham mixture. Dried beef may be substituted, adding, if fancied, a little chopped onion or parsley.

HUNGARIAN GOULASH.

Slice a peeled onion and cook it until brown in three tablespoonfuls of fat tried out of salt pork; take out the onion and turn in one and one-half pound lean uncooked veal cut into inch cubes. Stir and cook the meat until slightly browned, then, rejecting the fat, if there be any in the pan, place the meat in a casserole; add about a pint of broth or boiling water, a teaspoonful pepper, cover the dish and set to cook in the oven. In the meantime add more fat to the pan; when hot, brown in it a dozen balls cut from pared potatoes and a dozen small onions; when the onions are well browned, add to the casserole, and after the meat has been cooking an hour, add a teaspoonful salt and the potatoes, and if desired two tablespoonfuls flour mixed to a thin paste with cold water. Let cook in all about two hours. Serve from the casserole.

JELLIED VEAL.

A knuckle of veal, with the bone chopped; cover it with cold water and boil till the meat drops from the bone, pass the meat through a chopper; let the liquor continue boiling, as there must not be too much when you return it to the meat to cook a few minutes longer, adding pepper and salt to taste. Before removing from the fire, add quickly one egg. It is nice poured into individual molds.

LAMB AND RICE.

Cut lean lamb from the neck into small pieces. Put on in cold water and bring to a boil. Simmer for one and a half or two hours. Put in salt as desired soon after putting on to cook. When done add freshly boiled rice and simmer till the rice has absorbed the seasoning from the meat.

LIVER AND BACON.

Fry bacon till crisp. Then dip liver in the flour and fry until brown on both sides. Remove from skillet and cook in the skillet for a few minutes a chopped onion and a bunch of parsley. Then put back the liver and bacon, cover all with water and let simmer about one hour.

MEAT SOUFFLE.

Make one cup of cream sauce and season with chopped parsley and onion juice. Stir one cup chopped meat (chicken, fresh tongue, veal or lamb) into the sauce. When hot, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, cook one minute, and then set away to cool. When cool, stir in the whites, beaten stiff. Bake in a buttered dish about twenty minutes and serve immediately. If for lunch, serve with a mushroom sauce.

MEAT STEW.

Get five pounds of a cheap cut of beef. Cut into little pieces, taking off the fat. Try out the fat, brown the meat in it, and when well browned, cover with boiling water, boil five minutes, then cook in lower temperature until the meat is done. During the last hour of cooking add two-thirds cup of turnips and the same amount of carrots cut in small cubes, one-half an onion chopped fine, salt and pepper. About fifteen minutes before taking up put in four cups of potatoes cut in small pieces. Use one-quarter cup of flour for thickening and put in dumplings made as follows:

Mix and sift two cups flour, four teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt. Work in two teaspoonfuls butter, add gradually two-thirds cup milk. Roll to one-half inch thick, and cut out with biscuit cutter.

POT ROAST.

Thirty-five-cent beef off the shoulder. Sear all over in hot fat, cover with water, add two cloves, one onion, one bay leaf, cover and cook slowly two and one-half hours. For gravy, thicken the liquor with flour.

POT ROAST. (Old Style.)

Take a piece of fresh beef, about five or six pounds, not too fat. Put into a pot with just enough water to cover it. Set over a slow fire and let stew an hour, then add salt and pepper. Stew until tender, putting in a little onion if liked. Let nearly all the water boil away. When thoroughly tender take the meat out and pour the gravy in a bowl. Put a large lump of butter in the pot, dredge the meat with flour and return it to the pot to brown, turning it often to prevent burning. Skim fat from gravy poured off of meat; pour gravy in with the meat and stir in a large spoonful of flour; wet with a little water; let boil ten or fifteen minutes and pour into gravy dish. Try sometimes cooking in this way a piece of beef which has been placed in spiced pickle for two or three days.

RAGOUT OF BEEF.

Cut two pounds of the upper round of beef into inch squares, dredge them with salt and pepper and roll them in flour. Put into a saucepan some butter and some drippings, or a little suet, and let it fry out, using enough only to cover the bottom of the saucepan; when the grease is hot, turn in the pieces of meat and let them cook until well browned on all sides; watch and turn them as soon as browned, then draw the meat to one side of the pan and add a tablespoonful of flour; let the flour brown, and add a cupful of stock or water, and stir it until it comes to a boiling point; then add a teaspoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful pepper, one-half teaspoonful kitchen bouquet, one carrot cut into blocks, and one teaspoonful onion; cover the saucepan, and let it simmer, not boil, for an hour. Serve a border of rice around the ragout.

ROAST BEEF.

Clean roast by wiping with a wet cloth. Place on a rack in oven, add suet to baste with. Cook a six-pound round roast an hour and twenty minutes; a three-rib roast one and one-half hour. Use no water.

ROUND STEAK.

Cover round steak with raw, chopped onions and bacon. Roll and tie. Put into deep kettle, sear or brown. Cover with water and pot roast for two hours. Boil down and thicken the gravy.

SMOTHERED OR POT-ROASTED BEEF.

Take four or five pounds of the middle of the rump, the flank or the round. Wipe with a clean, wet cloth and sear all over by placing in a hot frying pan and turning until all the surface is browned. Put it in a kettle with one-half pint of water, and place it where it will keep just below boiling point. Add just enough water now and then to keep meat from burning. Have close-fitting cover to keep in the steam. Cook until very tender. Serve hot or cold.

SPANISH STEAK.

Get round steak one and one-fourth inch thick. Cook the same as veal cutlets, only instead of using soup stock use one cup strained tomato juice and a little onion; a few mushrooms add to the flavor.

TURKEY DRESSING.

Cut crust off a loaf of bread, cut loaf in small bits, season with salt, pepper, sage, tablespoonful melted butter; beat one egg, add cup of milk and wet dressing.

VEAL BIRD.

Make a dressing of bread crumbs, melted butter, salt, pepper, and, if desired, a little sage. Cut veal cutlets into pieces about the size of palm of hand. Put a spoonful of dressing into each piece, roll, and fasten with a toothpick. Put in a pan with a cup of hot water or stock, cover and bake. Arrange around a platter or chop plate. Fill center with a pound of peas. This is delicious cooked in a fireless cooker.

VEAL CUTLETS.

Get a thick cutlet, one and a half inch thick, second cut with little round bone; have it scored on both sides. Then chop it all over on both sides with the edge of a china plate, until the meat is very ragged. Salt and pepper it, and rub flour into both sides until it will hold no more. Put two heaping tablespoonfuls of butter in a skillet and when hot put in the cutlet. Brown on both sides a golden brown, then add one cup of soup stock, or one cup boiling water, pouring it into the skillet. Let simmer one hour.

VEAL LOAF.

Three pounds of raw veal chopped very fine, butter size of an egg, three eggs, three tablespoonfuls cream or milk. Mix the eggs and cream together. Mix with the veal four pounded crackers, one teaspoonful black pepper, one large tablespoonful salt, one large teaspoonful sage. Mix well together and form into a loaf. Bake two and one-half hours, basting with butter and water while baking. Serve cut in thin slices.

VEAL LOAF.

Three pounds of veal chopped fine, one-half pound salt or fresh pork, one cup powdered crackers, one cup water, two eggs, three teaspoonfuls salt, three teaspoonfuls sage, one teaspoonful pepper. Bake in rather quick oven.

VEAL PIE.

Crust for veal or chicken pie, two teacups flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls shortening; beat one egg and fill the teacup with milk, add to flour. Boil veal in cold water until quite tender, keep out a quart of the broth after it is cooked. When two-thirds done put in the salt.

Gravy for Pie.

Two tablespoonfuls melted butter, three tablespoonfuls flour; mix well, add salt and pepper, one cup cream, slightly warm; stir in the quart of broth after thickening is added. Cook about fifteen minutes, stir, but do not boil. Put meat and gravy in baking dish, cover with dough and bake twenty minutes.



EGGS

Eggs should be kept in cool places. If a recipe calls for just the white of an egg, the yolk may be kept from hardening by putting in a cup of cold water. Eggs may be cooked soft in two ways: Pour boiling water over the egg and cover them from five to ten minutes. Second method: Put eggs into cold water, and when water bubbles they are cooked.

BAKED EGGS.

Twelve hard-boiled eggs, one-half pint cream, butter size of an egg, one teaspoonful fine chopped parsley, one tablespoonful flour, salt and pepper. Mix cream, butter, flour and parsley. Cook till thick. Slice eggs, after each layer of eggs one of bread crumbs; cover with sauce, then bread crumbs, and bake till brown.

CHEESE OMELET.

Four eggs, four tablespoonfuls cold water, one-fourth teaspoonful salt, three level tablespoonfuls grated cheese, two level tablespoonfuls melted butter. Put butter in saucepan, separate whites from yolks. For omelet do not beat yolks too long, only until lemon color. To yolks add water and salt. Beat whites and pour yolks over whites; fold and cut with a spoon. Do not beat. Pour in saucepan, loosen with a knife around edges, cook until it sets. Sprinkle grated cheese on top and put in oven for two or three minutes. Serve very hot. Old English dairy cheese is the best.

EGG CUTLETS.

Heaping tablespoonful of butter. When hot, stir in two heaping tablespoonfuls flour, one-half pint of milk, and stir until smooth and well cooked; chop three hard-boiled eggs, and stir in after taking from the fire. Season with salt, pepper and one-half teaspoonful of onion juice; also add parsley. Put away until cold, mold and roll in cracker crumbs, and fry in abundance of hot fat. This may be used for meat croquettes, substituting chopped meat, cooked, for eggs.

EGGS SHIRRED IN TOMATOES.

Cut circular pieces out from the stem end of round tomato and remove part of the pulp. Season with salt and pepper; also with onion, juice and parsley, if liked. Break an egg into each tomato and put in a slow oven until each egg is set. Serve on hot buttered toast.

POACHED EGGS.

Partly fill a shallow pan with boiling water. Break eggs singly into a saucer, sliding each as broken into the boiling water. Keep pan where water will not quite boil. With a spoon baste the water over the yolk until it is covered thinly with white. Remove each egg with a skimmer, trim off ragged edges, and serve on buttered toast.

SHIRRED EGGS.

Shirred eggs are a pleasant change from the usual boiled eggs for breakfast. Drop each egg carefully into a buttered ramikin, season with pepper, salt and a small lump of butter. Set ramikin in a shallow pan filled with water, place in moderate oven and cook until whites are firm.

SOFT BOILED, OR STEAMED EGGS.

Put the desired number of eggs into a kettle and cover with boiling water. Cover the kettle and let stand ten minutes. Drain off the water, put eggs into a bowl, cover again with boiling water and send to the table.



VEGETABLES

"Perhaps if we could penetrate Nature's secrets we should find that what we call weeds are more essential to the well-being of the world than the most precious fruit or grain."—Hawthorne.

The simplest methods of cooking and serving vegetables are generally the best. The most common method of cooking them is in boiling water. All green vegetables, bulbs and tubers should be crisp and firm when put on to cook, and should, of course, be thoroughly cleaned before being cooked.

Almost all vegetables may be served in the form of salad. Our most common green salad plant is lettuce; celery is next, but endive, chicory and dandelion, with many others, may be used to advantage in this way, and furnish pleasing variety to the menu.

Nearly all vegetables are good canned, and if care is taken in preparing and canning, it is possible to have fresh-tasting fruits and vegetables through all seasons.

Thorough sterilization is necessary in canning or preserving. In the first place, use good jars. Glass jars will be found the most satisfactory. Those with glass top and rubber ring held in place by a wire spring are the cheapest in the long run, although the initial expense may be somewhat high. Never use defective rubbers, as vegetables often spoil after being sterilized, because of bad rubbers.

A clothes boiler makes a good container to use in sterilizing. A false bottom made of wire netting cut to fit or strips of wood may be used, as the jars will break if set flat on the bottom of the boiler.

Select vegetables that have not begun to harden or decay. Always can as soon as possible after gathering. Some vegetables are best cooked before putting in jars; among these are beets, pumpkins and turnips, but most of them may be packed while raw in jars and cooked as follows:

Pack jar full, adding salt as desired, fill with cold water to the top of the jar. Put the rubber on the jar and place the glass top on, but do not press down the spring at the side of the jar. Put as many jars in the boiler as it will hold without crowding. Pour into the boiler enough water (cold) to prevent it from going dry during the boiling. Put the cover on the boiler and bring the water to a boil and keep it boiling for an hour. (Hour and a half for half-gallon jars.) At the end of this time remove the boiler cover, and let the steam escape. Press down the spring on each jar, which clamps on the top, and no outside air can enter.

On the next day raise the spring at the side of the jar and boil as on the first day, clamping on the top as before at the end of operation. Repeat this on the third day. All meats, fruits and vegetables are sterilized on this principle.

Never subject jars to a draft of cold air when removing them from the boiler, as this will be likely to crack them. If, after sterilization seems complete, any jars spoil, increase the time of boiling.

ASPARAGUS.

Cut the tender part into short pieces. Cover with boiling water, and boil until done. Season with salt and pepper, and serve with most of juice; or, if preferred, serve with a cream dressing.

BEETS.

Wash the beets carefully without breaking the skin. Cover with boiling water and boil until tender. Take from the boiling water and drop into cold. Rub off the skin, cut in thin slices and serve at once with salt and butter.

CINCINNATI BAKED BEANS.

Measure beans (marrowfat are best), put them in cold water and parboil fifteen minutes and drain; use the Boston bean pot. For three pints of dried beans add three level teaspoonfuls salt, one-quarter pound pickled pork cut fine, six tablespoonfuls New Orleans molasses or six tablespoonfuls of C sugar, one tablespoonful standard mustard. Mix the above well and put in a three-quart bean pot, and fill within one inch of top with boiling water. May be kept in oven several days, but must never be allowed to get dry, adding boiling water as needed.

CORN.

Cook ears of corn five minutes in boiling water. Then cut through the center of each row of grains and press the grains from the hulls with the back of a knife. Put corn in saucepan and season with butter, salt, pepper and sugar. Add enough hot milk to moisten, and cook ten minutes.

When succotash is desired, add to a pint of corn cooked as above the same amount of cooked and seasoned shelled beans.

CORN PUDDING.

One dozen ears of corn, two eggs, one kitchen spoonful butter, one-half teaspoonful salt, one tablespoonful sugar.

CORN PUDDING.

To one can of corn, one pint milk, three eggs, two tablespoonful melted butter, one tablespoonful white sugar, pepper and salt to taste. Beat the eggs very light, add sugar and butter rubbed together; stir hard. Next the corn and seasoning, finally the milk; beat hard, bake in buttered dish one-half hour, covered; then lift top and brown. Serve in baking dish.

CREAMED CAULIFLOWER.

One pint cooked cauliflower, one pint milk, one teaspoonful salt, one-third teaspoonful pepper, one tablespoonful butter, one-half teaspoonful flour, three slices toasted bread. Break cooked cauliflower into branches and season with half of the salt and pepper. Put butter in a saucepan on the fire. When hot add flour and stir until frothy and smooth. Add gradually the milk, constantly stirring. When sauce boils add the salt, pepper and cauliflower. Cook ten minutes and serve very hot on the slices of toast.

GREEN STUFFED PEPPERS.

Clean out peppers and stuff with rice or potatoes, and meat. Moisten with hot water, standing on end in baking dish. Cover and bake until almost done, then remove cover and brown. Cheese or tomatoes may be used instead of meat.

HASHED BROWN POTATOES.

Boil about one quart potatoes, drain and sprinkle with one teaspoonful salt and a little pepper. Add one teaspoonful chopped parsley and a few drops of onion juice, brown one heaping tablespoonful butter, add one tablespoonful flour and gradually one cup hot water. Salt and pepper to taste. Add potatoes, and cook about five minutes, or until they have absorbed nearly all the sauce. Butter a saute pan, add the potatoes and cook until light brown. Turn over like an omelet. Potatoes must not be chopped until cold.

HASHED TURNIPS.

Chop boiled turnips into large pieces. Put in saucepan, and for a pint and a half of turnips add a teaspoonful of pepper, a tablespoonful of butter and four tablespoonfuls of water. Cook over a hot fire until seasoning is absorbed.

HOME-MADE NOODLES.

(Serve as a Vegetable with Stewed Chicken or Veal.)

Four eggs, one tablespoonful cream, one teaspoonful salt, flour enough to make a stiff dough; roll out very thin and let dry an hour or longer; roll up and cut into fine strips; put into a kettle of boiling water, salted, boil ten minutes; cut a few noodles an inch wide and fry brown in butter to place on top. Serve with plenty of gravy.

KALE CANNON.

(Old Irish Dish.)

Take ten or twelve good-sized potatoes, peel and boil in salt water, add a large bunch of parsley previously washed and drained, and a pinch of baking soda. When the parsley is done, which will be in ten or fifteen minutes, take it up and lay it in a plate, drain it well and chop it, leaving out the stems. Chop fine one onion; when the potatoes are cooked place them at the back of the stove with a cloth and the lid over them; mash them, adding the onions as quickly as possible as the hot potatoes cook it, add a little pepper and salt and about one-half cup of hot milk with a lump of butter melted in it. Mix all together, serve with a little butter with each helping. This is sometimes made with kale, hence its name.

LYONNAISE POTATOES.

One pint cold potatoes cut in dice and seasoned with salt and pepper. Fry one scant tablespoonful of onion in one heaping tablespoonful of butter, add the potatoes, stir with a fork until the potatoes absorb the butter, add one teaspoonful chopped parsley. Three pints of boiling water, one-half teaspoonful salt. All vegetables should be put in boiling water.

MOCK ASPARAGUS.

Cut the tops from several bunches of young, green onions, leaving the stalks about the length of asparagus; trim the roots, wash and tie in bundles like asparagus. Cook until tender, drain off water, sprinkle with cheese and pour over ends a little melted butter. Onions are very delicate prepared in this way.

MUSHROOM SPAGHETTI.

Boil spaghetti in salt water one-half hour, drain, cover with soup stock, add one can of tomatoes, salt, pepper to taste. One can mushrooms. Boil all these ingredients well together, turn into a hot dish. Pass grated Parmesan cheese, to sprinkle over each portion. Fresh mushrooms turned in butter may be used instead of canned ones.

NEW ENGLAND SWEET POTATOES.

Put a layer of boiled, peeled and sliced sweet potatoes in a greased baking dish, sprinkle with brown sugar and dot with butter. Cover with another layer of potatoes and another of sugar, and so on until the dish is full. The last thing, pour over a cup of boiling water. Bake in a medium oven for one-half hour.

OKRA.

This vegetable grows in almost every state in the Union and is used extensively in soups. When young it is good boiled in salted water until tender, drained, and heated for five minutes with cream, butter, salt and pepper.

BAKED ONIONS.

Cover a number of large onions with boiling water and boil twenty minutes. Drain off water and make small hole in center of each onion. Fill hole with well-seasoned mashed potatoes. Add salt, pepper and butter, and milk to cover. Bake about one-half hour.

PARSNIPS.

Wash and scrape until clean, and cook until tender. When cooked, put into hot dish, sprinkle with salt and add bits of butter. Serve at once.

PEAS AND CARROTS.

One cup of carrots cut in dice and cooked, two cups green peas (or canned), four tablespoonfuls cream, one tablespoonful butter, salt and pepper. Put carrots and peas in stew pan, add cream, butter, and serve hot.

POTATOES AU GRATIN.

First prepare your white sauce of one-half pint milk, one tablespoonful butter, two tablespoonfuls flour. Cream butter and flour and add to boiling milk. Cook about ten minutes in double boiler. Slice or chop cold boiled potatoes, put in baking dish. One layer of potatoes. Cover thickly with layer of white sauce and grated cheese. Season with salt, pepper, mustard and cayenne pepper to suit taste. Put in other layers in same manner and bake twenty minutes.

POTATO CROQUETTES.

Two cups hot riced potatoes, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-fourth teaspoonful celery salt, one teaspoonful finely chopped parsley, two tablespoonfuls butter, one-half teaspoonful pepper, yolk of one egg, a few drops of onion juice. Mix the above ingredients, beat until light, shape, egg and crumb, and fry in deep fat, drain on paper. Serve hot. Finely chopped almonds are a pleasant addition.

POTATOES O'BRIEN.

Boil with skin on, allow them to stand until perfectly cold. Peel and chop fine and use Spanish peppers and salt, cream and butter. If you wish to brown, don't use cream, just fry slowly in butter.

POTATOES ON HALF SHELL.

Six baked potatoes, three tablespoonfuls hot milk, two tablespoonfuls butter, whites of two eggs, salt and pepper. Cut slice from top, scoop out inside, mash, add seasoning, then the whites of the eggs well beaten. Refill and bake from five to eight minutes in hot oven. A little grated cheese can be sprinkled on them.

RICH CREAMED POTATOES.

One cup potatoes cold, milk to cover, three tablespoonfuls butter, salt and pepper to taste, dash of paprika. Cut cold boiled potatoes in dice, better if boiled the day before. Melt butter in a saucepan, add potatoes and seasoning, cover and cook a minute, uncover, stir well, cover and cook another minute. Then add milk to cover well, and cook very slowly for forty-five minutes, keeping saucepan covered. These need watching, but are delicious; nice for Sunday night supper. Asbestos mats are best to use under these, if cooked over gas stove.

SALSIFY.

To prevent salsify from turning dark, drop as soon as pared into a mixture of flour, water and a little vinegar. After paring, cut into slices about three inches long. Put on in prepared water and cook thirty minutes from the time it begins to boil. Drain and serve in white sauce; or mix butter, salt, lemon juice and parsley and serve with this.

SCALLOPED CELERY.

Chopped celery, bread or cracker crumbs, butter, salt and pepper, milk. Place a layer of crumbs in bottom of buttered dish, then a layer of celery, dot with butter, season and continue alternately until pan is full, having crumbs on top, cover with milk, bake slowly until milk is absorbed, about one-half hour. Serve in bake dish.

SCALLOPED POTATOES AND EGGS.

Boil six medium-sized potatoes in salt water; boil four eggs an hour; let get cold. Make a cream sauce of one heaping tablespoonful of butter and a rounding tablespoonful of flour, with one and one-half cup of milk and a little salt. Cut potatoes and eggs and put in baking dish with the white sauce. Sprinkle buttered bread crumbs over the top. Bake until a yellowish brown, about three-fourths of an hour.

SHELLED BEANS STEWED.

Cut one-quarter pound salt pork in slices and fry slowly for ten minutes. Add one onion, chopped fine, and cook very slowly for twenty minutes. Cover one quart of green shelled kidney beans with boiling water and boil ten minutes. Drain off the water, put the beans and one tablespoonful of flour with the pork and onion and stir over the fire for five minutes. Add a quart of boiling water and one-half teaspoonful pepper. Keep where it will simmer for two hours. Salt to taste.

SPAGHETTI.

Four onions cut fine, one can of tomatoes, one package spaghetti, grated cheese, salt, pepper and cinnamon. Fry four onions in butter and lard, then put in tomatoes and seasoning, boil slowly until thick, put in grated cheese. Boil spaghetti in hot water until tender, cook until done, throw into strainer, then serve. Place grated cheese over it. Serve sauce separately.

SPAGHETTI.

White sauce: One and one-half cup hot milk, tablespoonful butter, tablespoonful flour. Add one-half teaspoonful salt and mix two-thirds cup fine cracker crumbs with one-third cup melted butter and sprinkle over the top. One-half cup cheese, dry.

SPINACH.

Put one-half peck spinach in stewpan and on the fire. Cover and cook for ten minutes. Press down and turn over several times. At the end of ten minutes turn into chopping bowl and mince. Return to stewpan and add seasoning; two generous tablespoonfuls butter and teaspoonful salt. Simmer for ten minutes.

SPINACH WITH SAUCE.

One-half peck spinach, one teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls flour or cornstarch, one pint boiling water, two tablespoonfuls butter, three-fourths cup cream or one cup milk. Prepare one-half peck spinach by cooking uncovered in one pint of boiling water, or, if young and tender, its own juices. Drain and chop fine. Put two tablespoonfuls butter in a frying pan; when melted add the spinach and cook three minutes. Sprinkle with two level tablespoonfuls cornstarch; stir thoroughly and add gradually three-fourths cup milk. Cook five minutes, serve with toast points on a pretty platter.

SQUASH.

Cut squash into small pieces and either steam or cook in boiling water. If boiled it will cook in half an hour; steaming will take an hour. Mash fine, season with salt, pepper and butter.

TOMATO ON TOAST.

Boil a quart of peeled and cut tomatoes for about ten minutes, then strain and put in saucepan with two teaspoonfuls salt, one-half teaspoonful pepper and two tablespoonfuls butter. Cook for five minutes. Cover a hot platter with toasted slices of bread and pour the tomato over it.

TWENTY-MINUTE CABBAGE.

Cut cabbage fine as for slaw. Cover with boiling water and boil twenty minutes, changing the water once. Drain and serve with sauce made of tablespoonful butter, tablespoonful flour, cup of hot milk.



DESSERTS

"The little sweet doth kill much bitterness."—Keats.

ALMOND TART.

Yolks of six eggs, beaten well, to which is added one cup powdered sugar. Mix one cup grated dried rusk, one cup grated almonds, one teaspoonful baking powder. Add to the yolks, and lastly add the well-beaten whites of six eggs. This makes three layers. Bake very slowly.

Filling.

One cup hot water, to which is added one-half cup sugar, one egg, one tablespoonful cornstarch, boil slowly, and add one cup grated almonds and one teaspoonful vanilla. Any other nuts can be used.

APPLE CHARLOTTE.

One cup apple sauce, one cup sugar, one-third package gelatin, three cups cold water, three cups boiling water, one lemon. Dissolve the gelatin (Knox's preferred) in cold water for five minutes, add the boiling water, sugar, lemon juice and apple, strain and set it to cool. When it is nearly stiff, add the well-beaten whites of three eggs. Line a mold with lady-fingers, pour in jelly and let stand until firm. It is nice served with whipped cream or a sauce made from yolks of eggs.

Sauce.

One pint boiling milk, yolks of three eggs, one-fourth cup sugar. Add a tablespoonful gelatin dissolved in a little water just before taking from fire. A teaspoonful of vanilla.

APRICOT SHORTCAKE.

Three cups flour, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-half cup butter, one egg (very light), one cup cold water stirred into the flour. Stir all very slowly. Divide in half, bake in square pans. Sprinkle the tops with white granulated sugar. Bake ten or fifteen minutes. Mash and sweeten the fruit, spread on top and between layers.

Sauce.

One teaspoonful cornstarch with one-half cup sugar; one cup of the fruit juice at boiling point, add sugar with cornstarch and let boil five minutes. Grease pans with lard or beef drippings.

BAKED APPLES.

Core the apples, but do not peel them. Stuff them with minced pecans mixed with scraped maple sugar, and bake. When done, cover with whipped cream.

BAKED APPLES.

Pare and quarter apples. Put into baking dish with butter, sugar, cinnamon and a little hot water. Keep cover on dish until almost done, then remove cover and brown.

BAKED DUMPLINGS.

For the dough: One pint flour, one-half cup butter, stir together; one teaspoonful baking powder, and milk to make a dough. Roll, cut in squares. Fill with apple or any fruit desired, put dumplings in a pan with one pint of water, a little butter, two-thirds cup sugar. Put on top of stove and let come to a boil, then put in oven at least one-half hour. Serve warm with cream.

BREAD PUDDING.

One pint bread crumbs without crust to one quart milk, four eggs beaten separately. After it is baked, cover with sweet jelly, beat the whites very light, add to them one-half cup pulverized sugar, put on top of the pudding, then in the oven until brown.

Sauce.

Two tablespoonfuls butter, one-half cup sugar, yolk of one egg, one tablespoonful cornstarch; beat hard, thin with boiling water, cook in hot water.

CABINET PUDDING.

Butter a melon mold, decorated with seeded raisins; one layer lady-fingers or stale sponge cake, then a few raisins, then repeat until the mold is nearly full; beat well the yolks of three eggs, add three tablespoonfuls sugar, one-half saltspoonful salt, add slowly one pint boiling milk, pour over cake in mold, and then steam for one hour. Serve with Foamy Sauce.

Foamy Sauce.

Rub one-half cup butter to a cream, add slowly one cup powdered sugar, one teaspoonful vanilla. When ready to serve, add one-fourth cup boiling water, the whites of two eggs beaten to a foam.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING.

One pint milk, four tablespoonfuls sugar, one teaspoonful vanilla, salt, two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, one tablespoonful cocoa, cinnamon. Thoroughly blend together the dry cornstarch and cocoa, then dissolve with a little cold milk and reduce to a pouring state, add vanilla. Heat the milk in a double boiler, add sugar and a pinch of cinnamon and salt; when scalding hot, pour in cornstarch and cocoa mixture and stir carefully until it thickens well. Turn into wet molds. Serve with plain or whipped cream. Garnish with Maraschino cherry.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING.

One pint milk, one pint bread crumbs, yolks of three eggs, one-half teaspoon vanilla, five tablespoonfuls grated chocolate. Scald the milk, add bread crumbs and chocolate. Take from fire and add one-half cup sugar and the beaten yolks. Bake in pudding dish fifteen minutes. Make meringue of whites of eggs and three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Spread over pudding and brown. Serve warm or cold, with cream, plain or whipped.

CREAM STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE.

One quart white flour; mix well with three tablespoonfuls cold butter, one teaspoonful salt, a tablespoonful white sugar. Add a beaten egg to a cup of sour cream, turn into other ingredients. Dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in a little water, mix all together quickly, roll lightly into two round sheets, place on pie tins and bake from twenty to twenty-five minutes in quick oven. Split, spread sweetened berries between layers and on top, and cover generously with whipped cream.

CUP CUSTARD.

Beat four eggs and stir in one-half cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoonful salt, then slowly one quart scalded milk. When sugar has dissolved, flavor with nutmeg or vanilla and pour in cups or bake dish. Set cups or bake dish in a pan of hot water and bake in a moderate oven till a knife inserted in custard comes out clean. Do not let the water in the pan boil. Serve plain or with caramel sauce.

Caramel Sauce.

Melt one-half cup sugar to a syrup of light brown color, and add one-half cup water. Simmer ten minutes. Cool before serving.

FIG PUDDING.

Chop one-half pound beef suet and work with the hands until creamy, then add one-half pound figs finely chopped, and again work with the hands until thoroughly blended. Soak two cups stale bread crumbs in one-half cup milk thirty minutes. Add two eggs well beaten, one cup sugar and three-fourths teaspoonful salt. Combine the mixture, beat vigorously, turn into a buttered mold, steam over three hours, remove from the mold and serve with sauce. Serve ten or eleven persons.

Sauce for Pudding.

Yolks of two eggs beaten light, two-thirds cup powdered sugar, one teaspoonful vanilla. Add one-half pint cream, whipped just before serving. Whites of eggs may be used instead of whipped cream.

FIG TAPIOCA.

Soak two-thirds of a cup of tapioca in three cups of cold water, add one pound of chopped figs and one and one-half cup of brown sugar. Steam one hour. Just before the tapioca sets add one cupful of chopped nuts and one teaspoonful of vanilla, (with knife), one-fourth teaspoonful salt. Ice water to form stiff dough.

FLUFFY CORNSTARCH PUDDING.

One pint of milk, three tablespoonfuls sugar, two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, whites of three eggs, a little salt to taste, one-half teaspoonful vanilla or lemon. Have egg whites beaten stiff. Put milk on in a double boiler; when heated, add sugar, salt and flavoring; when scalding hot, add cornstarch, which has been dissolved in a little cold milk. Let this cook a minute or two, stirring well, then add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs, using cut-and-fold method. Turn mixture into molds which have been wet with cold water; sherbet cups make excellent molds, tea cup half filled will do. Turn into suitable dishes and serve with custard sauce. Maraschino cherry on top of pudding is attractive.

Custard Sauce.

One pint milk, yolks of three eggs, three tablespoonfuls sugar, one teaspoonful vanilla or lemon, little salt. Beat egg yolks, add to these the sugar; heat milk in a double boiler, add salt and beaten egg yolks, stirring until the mixture thickens. Flavor when cool.

FROZEN PUDDING.

Soak one cup of candied fruit cut in pieces; put in hot syrup (sugar and water) to cover until softened; mix one quart cream and three-fourths cup sugar, and flavor, then freeze. Line two-quart mold with lady-fingers, crust side down. Fill with alternate layers of cream and fruit, cover, pack in salt and ice and let stand two hours. Serve with a nice boiled custard or whipped cream.

FRUIT PUFFS.

Make dough as for dumplings or fruit roll, only stiff enough to drop from spoon. To one pint sifted flour add one heaping teaspoonful baking powder, one-fourth teaspoonful salt, lump of lard or butter size of small egg, milk to make dough of consistency to drop it from a tablespoon. Drop a little dough on top of fruit, having cup about two-thirds full. Place cups in steamer and steam about three-fourths of an hour. Serve with any sauce or dip preferred.

FRUIT ROLL.

One pint flour, one tablespoonful sugar, one teaspoonful baking powder, pinch of salt, rounding tablespoonful lard, milk enough to roll. Roll in a long piece and put fruit (ripe or canned peaches, apricots, raspberries, blackberries or cherries) in center, then put the two sides together, a little water will make it stick; turn over and put in pan. Butter the top, take one-half cup sugar and one tablespoonful flour, mix thoroughly and pour into this the juice of the fruit or a little boiling water. Put a little of this on the top, also a little nutmeg. When half baked, pour in the sugar and flour, water or juice of fruit. Bake about one-half hour, when done baste with the juice. Serve with cream and sugar.

GRAHAM PUDDING.

One and one-half cup of Graham flour, one cup sweet milk, one-half cup molasses, one cup chopped raisins, one-half teaspoonful salt, one level teaspoonful soda. Sift the Graham flour to make it light and return the bran to the sifted mixture; dissolve the soda in the milk and add the salt and molasses with the milk to the Graham flour. Then add the raisins and pour into a double boiler and steam four hours.

GREEN TOMATO PIE.

Pare and slice tomatoes just beginning to ripen. Fill heaping full pie pan prepared with lower crust. Put in one cup sugar, a little nutmeg or cinnamon, juice of half a lemon and a tablespoonful butter. Cover with top crust. Bake three-fourths hour.

ICE CREAM PUDDING.

Custard: Two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, yolks of three eggs, one cup milk, one and one-third cup pulverized sugar; boil in double boiler, stirring constantly. Whip one quart cream, sweeten and flavor to taste; dissolve one tablespoonful Cox's gelatine and mix with cream; then add the beaten whites of eggs to the cream. Place alternate layers of the custard and whipped cream in a form or mold, sprinkling blanched and chopped almonds and candied cherries cut in small pieces in each layer. Close mold securely and place in a pail of chopped ice and salt. Allow four hours for freezing. Turn out of mold on a platter and cut in slices.

LEMON BUTTER.

Two lemons, grate rind of one; two eggs, one cup of sugar and small piece of butter. Boil until it thickens.

LEMON JELLY.

Soak one-half box of gelatine in one-half cup cold water; dissolve with one cup boiling water. Juice of one lemon, one cup sugar, one pint orange juice. Strain through a fine napkin. Put on ice to harden.

LEMON SAUCE.

Two heaping teaspoonfuls cornstarch, one cup sugar, add two cups boiling water, let simmer ten minutes, add grated rind and juice of one lemon, one tablespoonful butter.

MACARONI SOUFFLE.

Melt three tablespoonfuls butter, add four tablespoonfuls flour, and gradually one cup scalded milk with one-half cup macaroni rolled fine; when well thickened, pour into yolks of four eggs, beaten until thick, and lemon color, and mix with two tablespoonfuls sugar; cool, add one-fourth teaspoonful Crown almond extract and cut and fold in the whites of four eggs, beaten till stiff and dry. Turn into buttered pudding dish, sprinkle with macaroni crumbs and bake from thirty to thirty-five minutes in slow oven in a pan of water. Serve with Foamy Sauce.

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