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The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, Vol. XI
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THE

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE

OF THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

VOL. XI.



THE

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE

OF THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION;

BEING

THE LETTERS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, SILAS DEANE, JOHN ADAMS, JOHN JAY, ARTHUR LEE, WILLIAM LEE, RALPH IZARD, FRANCIS DANA, WILLIAM CARMICHAEL, HENRY LAURENS, JOHN LAURENS, M. DE LAFAYETTE, M. DUMAS, AND OTHERS, CONCERNING THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES DURING THE WHOLE REVOLUTION;

TOGETHER WITH

THE LETTERS IN REPLY FROM THE SECRET COMMITTEE OF CONGRESS, AND THE SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ALSO,

THE ENTIRE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE FRENCH MINISTERS, GERARD AND LUZERNE, WITH CONGRESS.

Published under the Direction of the President of the United States, from the original Manuscripts in the Department of State, conformably to a Resolution of Congress, of March 27th, 1818.

EDITED

BY JARED SPARKS.

VOL. XI.

BOSTON:

NATHAN HALE AND GRAY & BOWEN;

G. & C. & H. CARVILL, NEW YORK; P. THOMPSON, WASHINGTON.

1830.



Steam Power Press—W. L. Lewis' Print.

No. 6, Congress Street, Boston.



CONTENTS

OF THE

ELEVENTH VOLUME.

LUZERNE'S CORRESPONDENCE,

CONTINUED.

Page.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 10th, 1781, 3

Communicating the commission of M. Holker, as Consul General of France.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 18th, 1781, 4

Desires the appointment of a committee, to whom he may communicate his despatches.

Communications of the French Minister to Congress. In Congress, September 21st, 1781, 4

Proposed mediation of the Imperial Courts.—The French Court requires the establishing of some preliminaries, as to the admission of an American Minister to the proposed Congress, and the character in which England will treat the United States.—The British Court requires the submission of its revolted subjects in America.—Necessity of vigorous operations in America.—Mr Dana's mission to St Petersburg.—The accession of Maryland to the confederacy should be followed by vigorous measures.—Mr Adams in Holland.—Aids to America.—No further pecuniary assistance can be furnished by the French Court.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 24th, 1781, 17

Transmitting the memorial of a Spanish subject.

Memorial of Don Francisco Rendon to the Minister of France, 17

Requesting the release of certain prisoners taken at Pensacola by the Spanish forces, and afterwards captured by an American vessel.

Congress to the Minister of France. Philadelphia, September 25th, 1781, 19

Relative to the preceding memorial.

From Congress to the King of France, 20

Returning thanks for aid.

The King of France to Congress, 21

Birth of the Dauphin.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Philadelphia, October 24th, 1781, 21

Announces his appointment to the Department of Foreign Affairs.

To Robert R. Livingston, Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Philadelphia, October 25th, 1781, 22

Expressing his pleasure at Mr Livingston's appointment.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, November 2d, 1781, 23

Congress request permission to present to the Count de Grasse two pieces of ordnance taken at York.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, November 4th, 1781, 24

Acknowledging the receipt of certain papers.

To the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Philadelphia, November 4th, 1781, 25

Erection of a triumphal column at Yorktown.—The United States are named before the King in the resolutions.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, November 6th, 1781, 26

The order in which the United States and France were named, was accidental.

Robert R. Livingston to the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, November 6th, 1781, 28

Proposes the giving France the precedence in any subsequent acts, where the two countries are named.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, November 21st, 1781, 29

Complains of the proceedings of the Court of Admiralty in the French islands.

Heads of a verbal Communication made to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs by the Minister of France. In Congress, November 23d, 1781, 30

Satisfaction of the King with the appointment of Ministers for negotiating a peace.—Refusal to accede to the mediation, unless the American Ministers were acknowledged.—Necessity of exertion in America to compel Britain to a peace.

The Answer of his Most Christian Majesty to the Articles proposed by the two Mediating Courts, 33

The Answer of the Court of London to the Preliminary Articles proposed by the Mediating Courts, 40

The verbal Answer of the King of Great Britain to the verbal Observations made by the Count de Belgiojoso, Austrian Ambassador in London, 43

Reply of the Mediators to the Belligerent Powers, 45

Answer of the Court of France to the Reply of the Mediators, 48

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, November 23d, 1781, 51

Congress to the King of France, 51

Congratulations on the successes of the French arms in America.—Services of de Grasse, de Rochambeau, and de Lafayette.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, December 11th, 1781, 53

Enclosing papers.

To Count du Durat, Governor of Grenada. Philadelphia, December 11th, 1781, 54

Relative to an English ship carried into Grenada by American sailors.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, December 21st, 1781, 55

Relative to captures.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, January 19th, 1782, 55

Enclosing suspicious letters of Mr Deane.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, January 20th, 1782, 56

Complains of the process in Massachusetts in regard to effects libelled.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, January 24th, 1782, 57

Communicating certain resolutions.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, January 25th, 1782, 57

Thanking him for the preceding.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, January 28th, 1782, 58

Propriety of instructing Mr Franklin, in relation to the acts necessary to bind the United States in their engagements with France on account of the loan raised in Holland.

The Secretary of Foreign Affairs to the President of Congress. Philadelphia, January 29th, 1782, 59

Communicating extracts from letters of Count de Vergennes to the French Minister, expressing the desire of France to procure the most advantageous terms for America.—Indisposition of Great Britain to a peace.—Neither Holland nor Russia are disposed to an alliance with the United States.—France cannot furnish additional supplies.

Count de Vergennes to Robert R. Livingston. Versailles, January 31st, 1782, 62

On his appointment to the Department of Foreign Affairs.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, February 1st, 1782, 62

Instructions to Dr Franklin. In Congress, February 5th, 1782, 63

Empowering him to enter into engagements on the part of the United States to discharge the loan raised in Holland.

Resolves of Congress respecting the Communications made by the Minister of France. In Congress, February 8th, 1782, 64

Urging the necessity of further supplies from France.—Empowering Dr Franklin to raise a loan of twelve millions of livres.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, February 18th, 1782, 66

Requesting the revision of a sentence of condemnation against certain prizes.

The Marquis de Bouille to M. de la Luzerne. Without date, 67

Relative to the recapture of neutral ships trading to Dominica by American privateers.

Memorial of the Council of Dominica, 69

Same subject.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, February 20th, 1782, 71

Case of the capture of the neutral ships trading to Dominica.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, March 8th, 1782, 73

M. de Marbois will remain as Charge d'Affaires during his absence.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, April 7th, 1782, 73

Requesting the settlement of the accounts of Baron de Kalb and others.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, April 13th, 1782, 74

Warlike appearances in Europe.—Want of preparation in America.—Requests information of the strength of the forces.

Count de Rochambeau to M. de la Luzerne. Williamsburgh, April 16th, 1782, 77

Plans and operations of the enemy.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, April 18th, 1782, 78

Recommending Count Beniowsky.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Newburgh, April 28th, 1782, 79

Statement of his forces.—Enemy's force.

Communication of the French Minister to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In Congress, May 1st, 1782, 84

Representing the necessity of vigorous exertion.—The English intend to push operations with vigor.

Decree of the King's Council in France, 85

Relative to the exportation of merchandise taken from prizes.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, May 7th, 1782, 87

Appointment of M. d'Annemours, as French Consul for the five Southern States.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, May 8th, 1782, 87

Accounts of Baron de Kalb and others.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, May 9th, 1782, 88

Applications of bearers of loan certificates for the repayment of their capital, or the payment of the interest.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, May 9th, 1782, 89

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, May 12th, 1782, 89

The address of Congress is, Gentlemen of the Congress.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, May 17th, 1782, 90

Reported actions in the West Indies.

Congress to the King of France, 90

Congratulations on the birth of the Dauphin.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, May 25th, 1782, 92

Requests the execution of certain resolutions of Congress in relation to Baron de Holzendorff.

Verbal Communication of the French Minister to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In Congress, May 28th, 1782, 93

Attempts by the English to effect a partial peace with America and with France.—The French Court refuse to treat separately.—Vigorous preparations necessary to secure a peace.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, June 5th, 1782, 96

Enclosing the congratulations of the army, and offering his own on the birth of the Dauphin.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 7th, 1782, 97

Accounts of Baron de Kalb, Baron de Holzendorff and others.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 9th, 1782, 98

Answer to the applications of holders of the loan office certificates.

To George Washington, Commander in Chief, and other Officers of the American Army, on Hudson's River. Philadelphia, June 10th, 1782, 98

Birth of the Dauphin.

Congress to the King of France, 99

Condolence on the death of the Princess Sophia of France.

To Count de Rochambeau. Philadelphia, June 14th, 1782, 100

Movements of the English forces.—Plan of counter operations.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, Newburgh, June 24th, 1782, 102

Impracticability of the plan of operations abovementioned.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, July 3d, 1782, 103

Plans of Count de Rochambeau.—Disposition of Holland to form an alliance with America.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, July 8th, 1782, 104

Inviting him to attend the rejoicings on the birth of the Dauphin.

Count de Vergennes to George Washington. Versailles, July 29th, 1782, 105

Interceding in favor of Captain Asgill.

Lady Asgill to Count de Vergennes. London, July 18th, 1782, 107

Imploring his interference on behalf of her son.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, August 5th, 1782, 108

Requesting him to communicate with M. de Vaudreuil.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, August 14th, 1782, 110

Liberation of American prisoners in England.—Indisposition of England to peace.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 1st, 1782, 111

Relative to the America, presented by Congress to the King of France.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, September 5th, 1782, 112

Enclosing the preceding.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 12th, 1782, 112

The Marquis de Vaudreuil to M. de la Luzerne. Boston, September 20th, 1782, 113

Expressing his gratification at the offer of the America.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 23d, 1782, 114

Desires the appointment of a committee with whom he may communicate.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, September 24th, 1782, 114

The British meditate an attack on the squadron of M. de Vaudreuil.—Has taken measures to counteract their schemes.

Communication of the French Minister to a Committee of Congress. In Congress, September 24th, 1782, 115

The British Court indulge the idea of separating France and America.—Congress should take measures to destroy any hopes of such a result.—It is desirable that the negotiations should be conducted in Europe.—State of the negotiation.—The French cabinet refuse to treat except in conjunction with their allies.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, September 27th, 1782, 123

Communicating a decree of the French Council, relative to the fraudulent importation of English goods into America.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, September 29th, 1782, 124

State of the negotiations for peace.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, October 1st, 1782, 124

Requesting him to facilitate the entrance of M. Barbe into New York.

Report of a Committee of Congress on Communications made by the French Minister. In Congress, October 3d, 1782, 125

Congress will listen to no propositions for a separate peace.—They rely on the support of France to their demands in regard to boundaries, the fisheries, and the navigation of the Mississippi.—Difficulties attending any restitution of, or compensation for confiscated property.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, October 16th, 1782, 127

Desiring an interview with a committee of Congress.

George Washington to the President of Congress. Head Quarters, October 25th, 1782, 128

Receives the letters relative to Captain Asgill, and transmits them to Congress.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, October 25th, 1782, 128

Repayment of sums expended for French service.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, October 25th, 1782, 129

Case of Captain Asgill.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, October 28th, 1782, 130

Complains that the English fleet is supplied with provisions by citizens of the United States.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne. Office of Foreign Affairs, October 30th, 1782, 131

Case of the seizure of an American prize by the French authorities at St Domingo.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, November 4th, 1782, 133

Desires the passing of laws corresponding to the thirteenth Article of the treaty of commerce.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, November 6th, 1782, 134

The enemy are supplied with provisions by Americans.

To Count de Dillon, Governor of St Christopher's. Philadelphia, November 8th, 1782, 135

Affair of the Laetitia.

To Sir Guy Carleton. Philadelphia, November 9th, 1782, 135

Enclosing resolutions of Congress relative to Captain Asgill.

To Sir Guy Carleton. Philadelphia, November 9th, 1782, 137

Requesting him to permit the exchange of M. de la Touche.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, November 12th, 1782, 137

Apology for corresponding with General Carleton.

George Washington to Captain Asgill. Head Quarters, November 13th, 1782, 138

Enclosing the resolution of Congress relative to him.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, November 13th, 1782, 139

Regrets that he is unable to prevent the supplying of the enemy with provisions.

George Washington to Count de Vergennes. Head Quarters, Newburgh, State of New York, November 21st, 1782, 140

Affair of Captain Asgill.

Robert R. Livingston to M. de la Luzerne, Office of Foreign Affairs, November 26th, 1782, 141

Mr Jefferson appointed Minister for negotiating a peace.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia November 29th, 1782, 142

Expresses his satisfaction with Mr Jefferson's appointment.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, November 30th, 1782, 142

Relative to the supplying the enemy with provision.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, December 11th, 1782, 143

To George Washington. Philadelphia, December 18th, 1782, 144

Enclosing a letter for his perusal.

To the Marquis de Vaudreuil. Philadelphia, December 18th, 1782, 144

The Danae aground in the Chesapeake.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, December 26th, 1782, 145

Expressing his Majesty's gratification with the proceedings of Congress relative to the birth of the Dauphin.

Substance of a verbal Communication from the French Minister. Office of Foreign Affairs, December 30th, 1782, 146

State of the negotiations.—Lord Shelburne's policy deceitful.—Proposed mediation.

To the President of Congress. December 31st, 1782, 150

Satisfaction of the King with the conduct of Congress, in regard to the overtures of the English in America, and the unanimity with which the States determine not to treat separately.

Resolves of Congress on the departure of the French Army. In Congress, January 1st, 1783, 152

Recommending the army to his Majesty's favorable notice.—Declaring their high sense of the merits and services of the Count de Rochambeau.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, January 10th, 1783, 154

The capitulations permitting exportations from the islands captured by the French to British ports will not be renewed.

To Robert Morris. Philadelphia, March 15th, 1783, 155

Loan of six millions procured by France for America.—Conditions of the loan.—It will be impossible to furnish further supplies.—Necessity of establishing a public revenue in the United States.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, March 15th, 1783, 158

Conclusion of preliminaries of peace.—Necessity of continuing preparations with vigor to secure favorable terms definitively.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, March 18th, 1783, 161

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, March 19th, 1783, 161

Agrees that the articles of the treaty are so inconclusive as to render a hostile attitude still necessary.—Will endeavor to prevent the supplying of the enemy with provisions.

Minutes of a verbal Communication from the Minister of France. Office of Foreign Affairs, March 22d, 1783, 162

No essential difference exists between England and France, but the latter will act only in conjunction with her allies.—If military operations in America should cease, and the war be continued elsewhere, the United States may exclude the English from intercourse with them.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, March 29th, 1783, 166

Congratulations on the peace.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, April 10th, 1783, 167

The French troops in America will return immediately.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, April 29th, 1783, 167

Requests him to inform Congress of the intended departure of the French forces.

George Washington to M. de la Luzerne. Head Quarters, May 13th, 1783, 168

Inviting him to be present at the rejoicings on account of peace.

To Robert R. Livingston. Philadelphia, May 19th, 1783, 169

Affair of Mr Durham.—Complaints against Commodore Gillon.

Count de Vergennes to M. de Lafayette. Versailles, June 29th, 1783, 170

Definition of a Free Port.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 17th, 1783, 170

Communicating the following letter, and requesting information as to the measures taken in regard to the subject.

Count de Vergennes to M. de la Luzerne. Versailles, March 10th, 1783, 171

Circumstances under which the last loan was obtained from France.—Contract made on the occasion.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, November 2d, 1783, 175

General peace.—Commercial arrangements.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, November 21st, 1783, 176

His testimony in favor of the French officers.—Congratulations on the evacuation of New York.

M. de Calonne to M. de Lafayette. Versailles, January 9th, 1784, 177

L'Orient, Bayonne, Dunkirk, and Marseilles, will be declared free ports in favor of the Americans.—The commercial intercourse of the two countries will be favored by all possible facilities.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, January 29th, 1784, 178

Requests to be informed what measures have been taken by Congress relative to the contract for loans made by France.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, January 30th, 1784, 179

Appointment of French Consuls in America.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, February 18th, 1784, 180

Accounts of M. de la Radiere.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, April 6th, 1784, 180

Arrival of portraits of the King and Queen of France for Congress.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, April 9th, 1784, 181

Requests to be informed what arrangements have been made relative to the loans procured from France.

Count de Vergennes to M. de la Luzerne. Versailles, December 24th, 1783, 182

Free ports in France.

Congress to the King of France, 183

Reception of the portraits of his Majesty and his consort.

To the President of Congress. Office of Finance, April 16th, 1784, 184

Enclosing letters of Lafayette on the commercial relations of France and America.—Services of Lafayette in that matter.

To the President of Congress. Annapolis, April 21st, 1784, 185

Intends to return to France.—Pleasure afforded by his residence in the United States.—Leaves M. de Marbois Charge d'Affaires.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, April 28th, 1784, 186

Claims of the heirs of Baron de Kalb.—Case of M. de Fleury.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 6th, 1784, 189

Nomination of a Vice Consul at Charleston.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 13th, 1784, 190

Expresses his regret on leaving America.—Case of M. de Fleury and of the heirs of Baron de Kalb.

Congress to M. de la Luzerne. In Congress, May 17th, 1784, 191

Regretting his departure.

To John Jay, Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Paris, (date uncertain) 1787? 193

Requesting him to present to Congress his letter of recall from his intended mission to America.

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON'S CORRESPONDENCE.

Organization of a Foreign Department. In Congress, January 10th, 1781, 201

Appointment of a Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In Congress, August 10th, 1781, 203

Election of Mr Livingston.

To Major General Nathaniel Greene. Philadelphia, October 20th, 1781, 203

Desires to open a correspondence with him.—Congratulations on his successes.

To Governor George Clinton, of New York. Philadelphia, October 22d, 1781, 204

Congratulations on the capture of Cornwallis.—Requests information.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, October 29th, 1781, 205

Requests permission to examine the Secret Journals and papers of Congress.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, November 12th, 1781, 205

Requesting a return of the damage done by the British in the respective States.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, November 18th, 1781, 207

Payment of the foreign Ministers.—Allowance for different agents.—Affair of Mr John Temple.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, November 25th, 1781, 209

Enclosing certain papers.

General Greene to Robert R. Livingston. Camp Round O, South Carolina, December 13th, 1781, 210

State of affairs in the south.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, January 18th, 1782, 211

Mr Deane's letters.

To Governor Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut. Philadelphia, January 22d, 1782, 212

Enclosing copies of Mr Deane's letters, confirming the charges against him.—Desires an account of the damage done by the British in Connecticut.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, January 25th, 1782, 213

Proposing certain changes in the organization of his department.

To Major General Greene. Office of Foreign Affairs, Philadelphia, January 31st, 1782, 217

Military operations in Europe.—State of the negotiations.—Important influence of success in America on the same.

Circular Letter to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, February 18th, 1782, 219

Transmitting resolutions of Congress, relative to uniformity in the laws concerning foreigners, and to boundaries of the respective States.

To Governor Rutlege of South Carolina. Office of Foreign Affairs, Philadelphia, February 19th, 1782, 220

Desires to open a correspondence with him.

Circular Letter to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, February 19th, 1782, 221

Results of the last campaign.—Present disposition and means of England, Holland, Spain, and France.—Necessity of exertion at home.—Urges the adoption of measures for raising regular supplies.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, February 21st, 1782, 227

Recommends a rehearing of the cases of the Dutch ship Resolution, and of the Flemish brigantine Eeirsten, captured by American privateers, and condemned by the American Courts.

Regulations for the Department of Foreign Affairs. In Congress, February 22d, 1782, 230

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, February 23d, 1782, 234

Organization of his department.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, February 26th, 1782, 235

Questions relative to the distribution of the prize money from the prizes made by the Bon Homme Richard.

To Robert Smith, Commercial Agent at Havana. Philadelphia, February 26th, 1782, 237

Desires information relative to the Island of Cuba.

To Don Francisco Rendon. Philadelphia, March 6th, 1782, 238

Answer to questions relative to the military force; the resources of the United States; the probable extent of their commerce with Spain; means of preventing an illicit commerce with the Spanish Colonies; Spain will be permitted to build and arm ships in the United States.

To John Paul Jones. Philadelphia, April 17th, 1782, 241

Enclosing the protest of the commander of a Dutch ship.—Requesting information as to the distribution of the prize money among the crew of his squadron.

Thomas S. Lee to Robert R. Livingston. Annapolis, in Council, April 19th, 1782, 242

Robert Morris to Robert R. Livingston. Office of Finance, April 27th, 1782, 243

Desires to be furnished with an account of the salaries of the foreign Ministers.

Circular Letter to the Governors of the States. Office of Foreign Affairs, Philadelphia, May 2d, 1782, 243

The British cabinet refuses to admit the interference of the mediating powers between England and her Colonies.—Attempts will be made to open negotiations with the separate States.—Necessity of adopting decisive and vigorous measures to counteract this policy.—Languidness on the part of the States.

To Robert Morris. Philadelphia, May 8th, 1782, 247

Salaries of Ministers.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, May 8th, 1782, 247

Expenses of the foreign department.—Expenses of the Ministers abroad.—Enclosing resolutions regulating the allowance, &c. to the Ministers.

Charles Thomson to Robert R. Livingston. May 9th, 1782, 252

Places assigned to the Heads of Departments in Congress, on occasion of a public audience of the French Minister.

To the Commander in Chief, and Major General Greene. Philadelphia, May 13th, 1782, 253

Intelligence of the birth of the Dauphin.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 13th, 1782, 253

Proposing an expression of the inviolable attachment of the United States to the alliance with France.

Office of Foreign Affairs, May 13th, 1782, 254

Resolution above referred to.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 15th, 1782, 255

Proposing a resolution, granting Mr Jay permission to leave Madrid for France or Holland, if he thinks proper.

Office of Foreign Affairs, May 15th, 1782, 255

Resolution above mentioned.

To Richard Harrison of Cadiz. Philadelphia, May 21st, 1782, 256

Professions of kindness from the British commander treated with distrust in America.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 21st, 1782, 257

Enclosing drafts of letters to Mr Dana.

George Washington to Robert R. Livingston. Head Quarters, May 22d, 1782, 257

Preparations to celebrate the birth of the Dauphin.

Governor Trumbull to Robert R. Livingston. Hartford, May 23d, 1782, 258

Enclosing copies of letters to Mr Deane.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 5th, 1782, 258

To Robert Morris. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 6th, 1782, 259

Requesting information relative to interest due on Loan Office certificates.

To Robert Morris. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 6th, 1782, 259

Robert Morris to Robert R. Livingston. Office of Finance, June 7th, 1782, 260

Congress have applied to the States for a duty on imports, to pay the debt.

To Governor Trumbull. Office of Foreign Affairs, June 12th, 1782, 260

Mr Deane.

Governor Greene to Robert R. Livingston. Newport, June 15th, 1782, 261

Enclosing a letter of congratulation on the birth of the Dauphin.

Robert Morris to Robert R. Livingston. Office of Finance, June 20th, 1782, 262

Requesting him to make estimates of the expense of his department.

Robert Morris to Robert R. Livingston. Office of Finance, June 20th, 1782, 262

Persons having claims on the United States must account with vouchers.

The Governor of North Carolina to Robert R. Livingston. North Carolina, June 24th, 1782, 263

Military preparations of the State.—The State records being dispersed, is unable to furnish an estimate of the damages done by the British.—Transmits a map, showing the boundaries of the State.

To the Minister of France. Philadelphia, July 3d, 1782, 264

Transmitting the letter of congratulation on the birth of the Dauphin, from the authorities of Rhode Island.

To William Lee, at Brussels. Philadelphia, July 18th, 1782, 265

Dr Franklin is directed to discharge his demands.

Governor Martin to Robert R. Livingston. North Carolina, August 20th, 1782, 265

Disposition of North Carolina towards the enemy.—No overtures will be listened to by that State.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, August 23d, 1782, 267

Accounts of the Ministers.

To William Moore, President of the Council of Pennsylvania. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 8th, 1782, 268

Urging the passing of laws conformable to the treaty of commerce and amity with France.

To Governor Weare, of New Hampshire. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 9th, 1782, 269

Case of Mr Mc Clintock.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 9th, 1782, 270

Requests leave of absence.

To Governor Martin, of North Carolina. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 9th, 1782, 270

Requests that further documents relative to the boundaries of North Carolina may be transmitted.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 11th, 1782, 271

M. Dumas.—Mr Adams's accounts.—Mr Deane's accounts.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 12th, 1782, 273

Enclosing papers.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, September 12th, 1782, 274

Services of M. Dumas.—Objections to appointing him Charge d'Affaires.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 12th, 1782, 275

Resignation of Mr Laurens.—His salary continued.—False account of his conduct in England.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Office of Foreign Affairs, September 12th, 1782, 276

Enclosing a resolution of Congress.—Complains that former resolutions have not been complied with.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Office of Foreign Affairs. September 15th, 1782, 277

Reception of Mr Adams by the States-General.

General Greene to Robert R. Livingston. Head Quarters, October 2d, 1782, 278

Celebration of the birth of the Dauphin.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, October 29th, 1782, 279

Recommending Mr Harrison to the notice of Congress.

To Thomas Jefferson. Philadelphia, November 13th, 1782, 280

Transmitting his appointment as Minister Plenipotentiary for negotiating a peace.

To Governor Matthews, of South Carolina. Philadelphia, November 20th, 1782, 280

Requests information relative to debts contracted by Mr Gillon on behalf of South Carolina.

To Thomas Barclay. Philadelphia, November 26th, 1782, 281

Transmitting his appointment as Commissioner for adjusting the accounts of Congress in Europe.

Thomas Jefferson to Robert R. Livingston. Chesterfield, November 26th, 1782, 281

Accepting his appointment as Minister.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, December 2d, 1782, 282

Offers his resignation.—Inadequacy of the allowance.

To Richard Harrison. Philadelphia, December 5th, 1782, 284

State of military affairs in America.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, December 9th, 1782, 285

The Count de Rochambeau orders his troops to embark for the West Indies.—Forces remaining.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, December 16th, 1782, 286

Extracts from a letter of Mr Jay relative to the Western boundary.

General Greene to Robert R. Livingston. Head Quarters, South Carolina, December 19th, 1782, 287

Evacuation of Charleston.

To the Committee of Congress appointed to repair to Rhode Island. Philadelphia, December 20th, 1782, 287

Improbable that any further supplies will be furnished by France.—Nothing is to be expected from Spain.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, December 22d, 1782, 288

Conclusion of the treaty of commerce with Holland.

Governor Martin to Robert R. Livingston. North Carolina, December 23d, 1782, 289

Is unable to transmit an account of the damages done by the British, without an Act of the Assembly.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, December 23d, 1782, 290

Enclosing a copy of Mr Oswald's commission to treat with the United States.

To William Greene, Governor of Rhode Island. Philadelphia, January 4th, 1783, 291

Foreign loans and grants since 1779.—Spain.—Portugal.—Holland.—France.

Thomas Jefferson to Robert R. Livingston. Baltimore, February 7th, 1783, 297

Prevented from sailing by English cruisers.

Thomas Jefferson to M. de la Luzerne. Baltimore, February 7th, 1783, 298

Is unwilling to expose the French frigate offered to convey him, on his account.

To General Greene. Philadelphia, February 14th, 1783, 299

Importance of the evacuation of Charleston.—Prospect of peace on favorable terms.

To Thomas Jefferson. Philadelphia, February 14th, 1783, 300

Enclosing a resolution of Congress.

To Thomas Jefferson. Philadelphia, February 18th, 1783, 301

Congress will be unwilling to lose his services, if the negotiations are not concluded.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, February 18th, 1783, 302

Enclosing letters from Mr Jefferson and Mr Lee.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, February 26th, 1783, 303

Inexpediency of keeping Mr Dana at St Petersburg.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, February 26th, 1783, 304

Great Britain appears disposed to peace.—State of the negotiations.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, March 12th, 1783, 305

Signing of the Preliminary Articles.—Mr Oswald proposes that the British forces in America be permitted to embark for West Florida without molestation.

To General Greene. Philadelphia, March 12th, 1783, 307

Signing of the preliminaries.—Remaining obstacles in the way of a definitive treaty.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, March 13th, 1783, 309

Probability of an expedition against West Florida.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, March 18th, 1783, 309

Appearances of distrust of France in the signing of the preliminaries, and the insertion of the Separate Article.—Evils which may arise from these measures.—Proposes that Congress adopt resolutions, directing the communication of the article to the French Minister, and declaring the preliminaries are not to take effect until peace is signed between France and Great Britain.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, March 18th, 1783, 315

Forwarding a copy of the preliminary treaty.—The conclusion of the definitive treaty is yet uncertain.—Warlike preparations are continued by France and England.—Desires that an account of the damage done by the enemy may be transmitted to him.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, Philadelphia, March 21st, 1783, 317

Enclosing a letter from Mr Barclay.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, March 24th, 1783, 318

Intelligence of a general peace.

To Sir Guy Carleton. Philadelphia, March 24th, 1783, 319

The French cruisers are recalled.—Expresses a wish that measures may be taken by the English commanders to discontinue hostilities.

To Rear Admiral Digby. Office of Foreign Affairs, Philadelphia, March 24th, 1783, 320

Desiring that measures may be concerted for the cessation of hostilities.

Sir Guy Carleton to Robert R. Livingston. New York, March 26th, 1783, 321

Does not feel authorised to order a cessation of hostilities without official communication. Presumes that Congress will immediately release prisoners of war.

Admiral Digby, to Robert R. Livingston. New York, March 27th, 1783, 322

Cannot withdraw his cruisers until the reception of official accounts.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, March 28th, 1783, 323

Moneys remaining in his hand.

To Thomas Jefferson. Philadelphia, April 4th, 1783, 324

His departure is rendered unnecessary by the peace.

William Paca to Robert R. Livingston. In Council, Annapolis, April 4th, 1783, 324

Measures taken to ascertain the damages done by the British.

Sir Guy Carleton to Robert R. Livingston. New York, April 6th, 1783, 325

Receives official information of the conclusion of peace.—Liberation of prisoners.—Restitution of confiscated estates.

Admiral Digby to Robert R. Livingston. Lion, off New York, April 6th, 1783, 327

Recall of British cruisers.

To the President of Congress. Office of Foreign Affairs, April 10th, 1783, 327

Communicating the preceding letters.—Doubts as to the time of the cessation of hostilities.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, April 10th, 1783, 328

Encloses a draft of a Proclamation for the suspension of hostilities.

To Gen. Greene. Philadelphia, April 12th, 1783, 329

Communicating the Proclamation of the suspension of hostilities.

To Sir Guy Carleton. Philadelphia, April 12th, 1783, 330

Cessation of hostilities.

To Rear Admiral Digby. Philadelphia, April 12th, 1783, 332

Recall of American cruisers.—Captures made subsequent to the 3d of March on the American coast.

To George Washington. Philadelphia, April 12th, 1783, 333

Congratulations on the peace.—No time fixed for the evacuation of New York.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, April 12th, 1783, 334

Congratulations on the peace.

Sir Guy Carleton to Robert R. Livingston. New York, April 14th, 1783, 335

Requests the appointment of an agent of Congress to superintend the embarkations on the evacuation of New York.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, April 21st, 1783, 335

Inexpediency of advancing the sums required by Mr Dana, in case of a treaty with Russia.

George Washington to Robert R. Livingston. Head Quarters, April 22d, 1783, 336

Liberation of prisoners.

George Washington to Robert R. Livingston. Head Quarters, May 13th, 1783, 337

Indecisive interview with Sir Guy Carleton.—Disinclined to give up Long Island.

To the Chairman of a Committee of Congress. Philadelphia, May 19th, 1783, 338

Desires to retire from his office.—His expenses have exceeded the salary.

To Joseph Nourse. Philadelphia, May 26th, 1783, 340

Account of the moneys received from Holland, France, and Spain.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, June 2d, 1783, 342

Transmitting a letter from M. Dumas.

ROBERT MORRIS'S CORRESPONDENCE.

Organization of the Finance Department. In Congress, February 7th, 1781, 347

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, March 13th, 1781, 348

Objections to accepting the office of Superintendent of Finance.—Conditions on which he will enter the post.

Proceedings in Congress, 352

Resolutions empowering Mr Morris to appoint his own assistants.

To a Committee of Congress. Date uncertain, 353

Powers necessary for conducting the affairs of his department.—Officers that must be subject to his control.

Proceedings in Congress, 358

Relative to the appointment and removal of officers by the Superintendent of Finance.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 14th, 1781, 360

Causes which will delay his entering on the duties of his office.—Requests that all past transactions may be adjusted, and that all debts remaining due may be funded.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 17th, 1781, 364

Enclosing a plan for a National Bank.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, May 23d, 1781, 364

Requests to be authorised to import specie at the risk of Congress.

To Alexander Hamilton. Philadelphia, May 26th, 1781, 365

Reasons for the small capital of the bank.

To Major General Philip Schuyler. Philadelphia, May 29th, 1781, 367

Requesting him to purchase flour.—Pledges himself in his public and private capacity to advance the money for the same.

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, June 4th, 1781, 370

The money granted by France has not been placed to his order.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, June 8th, 1781, 370

The grant of France having been committed to his disposition, he has made Le Couteulx & Co. his bankers.

To Messrs Le Couteulx & Co., Bankers in Paris. Philadelphia, June 8th, 1781, 372

Appointing them bankers for the United States.

To M. de la Luzerne, Minister of France. Philadelphia, June 8th, 1781, 373

Requesting him to order five hundred thousand livres to be deposited with Le Couteulx & Co.

Circular respecting the National Bank. Philadelphia, June 11th, 1781, 374

To the President of Congress. Philadelphia, June 21st, 1781, 376

Desires to be intrusted with the disposition of bills deposited by Congress with the Pennsylvania bank.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, July 13th, 1781, 377

Efforts to restore the credit of the United States.—Necessity of foreign aid.—Applications are directed to be made to Spain.—Desires a loan of fifteen millions from France to pay off the Loan Office Certificates.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, July 14th, 1781, 383

Requests him to converse with the Paris bankers on the plan of the National Bank.—The bank will deal profitably in bills of exchange.—Intended increase of the capital.

To the Governor of Havana. Philadelphia, July 17th, 1781, 384

State of the finances.—Plan of the National Bank.—Solicits deposits from Spain.—Sends bills for this purpose.—Sends a frigate to receive the sum drawn for in specie.

To Robert Smith. Philadelphia, July 17th, 1781, 390

Directing him to use his efforts in favor of the bank.—Sends a cargo of flour to be returned in specie.—Bill of exchange on Messrs Le Couteulx & Co. to be presented to the Governor of Havana.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, July 19th, 1781, 395

Supplies obtained by Colonel Laurens.—The proposed new loan may be retained in France.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, July 21st, 1781, 396

Banking operations in regard to the Pennsylvania emission of bills of credit.—Has been unable to fulfil Dr Franklin's contract relative to supplies.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Philadelphia, July 25th, 1781, 400

The accounts of the United States with the States will be liquidated as soon as possible.—Desires to be informed of the revenue and financial operations of the State.

B. Franklin to Robert Morris. Passy, July 26th, 1781, 405

Expressing his satisfaction with Mr Morris's appointment.—Difficulties in the situation of a public officer.

B. Franklin to Robert Morris. Passy, July 26th, 1781, 406

Disposition of the moneys raised in France.

To the Governors of several States. Philadelphia, July 27th, 1781, 408

Importance of a compliance with the recommendation of Congress for laying an impost on imports.—Answer to the objection, that commerce will not bear the duty.—Error of the notion that the duty should be carried to the account of the State where levied.—The debt cannot be apportioned to the States.—Hopes of the enemy from disunion.

To John Jay. Philadelphia, July 29th, 1781, 414

Enclosing the above letters to the Governor of Havana and Mr Smith.

To the President of the Council of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, July 30th, 1781, 415

Financial operation's of Pennsylvania.—Accounts with the United States.—Mr Searle's mission to Holland.

George Washington to Robert Morris. Head Quarters, Dobbs's Ferry, August 2d, 1781, 417

Plan of striking a blow in Virginia.—Wishes information as to the probability of obtaining vessels and provisions in the Chesapeake.

To M. de la Luzerne. Philadelphia, Aug. 2d, 1781, 419

Fluctuations in the exchange between the United States and France.—Efforts to raise and settle the value of the bills.—The bills issued by the French have disturbed his operations.—Offers to negotiate their bills, or supply the French forces.

To M. de la Luzerne. Philadelphia, Aug. 4th, 1781, 423

Rate of exchange.—Sum necessary to supply the French army.

To the Governor of Massachusetts. Office of Finance, August 4th, 1781, 424

Desiring him to equip the America, and to fit the Deane and Alliance for sea.

To the Governors of Delaware, Maryland, and New Jersey. Philadelphia, August 4th, 1781, 425

Requesting them to comply with the demands of Mr Gouverneur Morris during his absence.

To George Washington. Camp, Aug. 13th, 1781, 426

Impolicy of making large demands on the States.—Proposing reforms in the army.—Proposing queries on this subject.

George Washington to Robert Morris. Head Quarters, Dobbs's Ferry, August 17th, 1781, 430

Provisions required for the expedition to Virginia.—Necessary to give the troops one month's pay.—Requires five hundred guineas for secret services.

To George Washington. Office of Finance, August 22d, 1781, 431

Difficulty of raising specie.

To the Governors of New Jersey and Delaware. Office of Finance, August 22d, 1781, 432

Urging the furnishing of supplies.

To the Governor of Virginia. Office of Finance, August 23d, 1781, 434

Preparations necessary in Virginia.—Desires information as to the amount of supplies which can be furnished.

To Messrs Le Couteulx & Co. Office of Finance, Philadelphia, August 26th, 1781, 435

Bills drawn on them.—Funds deposited to meet the drafts.

George Washington to Robert Morris. Chatham, August 27th, 1781, 436

Preparations for the expedition into Virginia.—Desires pay for the troops.

To Donaldson Yeates. Office of Finance, August 28th, 1781, 438

Directing him to engage vessels for the transportation of the expedition into Virginia.

To B. Franklin. Philadelphia, August 28th, 1781, 439

Drafts on Le Couteulx & Co.—Resignation of M. Necker.—Arrival of Colonel Laurens.—Expedition to Virginia.

To the President of Congress. August 28th, 1781, 442

Urges the settlement of the accounts of the States.—A certain quota of the past expenses, except the public debt, should be established for each State.—Amount of the requisitions to March 1st, 1780.—Manner of apportioning the sums.—Accounts since March 18th, 1780.—Reasons for excepting the public debt from this apportionment.—Suggests appropriations for the payment of the debt.—Manner of liquidating accounts of holders of certificates, for articles taken in the public service.

To the Governor of Maryland. Office of Finance, Philadelphia, August 28th, 1781, 459

Urges supplies for the operations in Virginia.

Circular to the Governors of the States. Office of Finance, September 4th, 1781, 462

Desiring the adoption of measures facilitating the operations of the bank.

To the Count de Rochambeau. Office of Finance, September 6th, 1781, 464

Requesting the payment of money promised, to the bearer.

To George Washington. Chester, Sept. 6th, 1781, 466

Promising a month's pay to General Lincoln's troops.

George Washington to Robert Morris. Head of the Elk, September 6th, 1781, 467

Urging a supply of money for the troops.

George Washington to Robert Morris. Head of the Elk, September 7th, 1781, 467

The sum promised by Rochambeau insufficient.

To George Washington. Office of Finance, September 10th, 1781, 468

Difficulty of advancing an additional sum of money.

B. Franklin to Robert Morris. Passy, September 12th, 1781, 469

Obtains the sum necessary to meet the payments in Holland.—Cannot meet the new drafts.

To M. de la Luzerne. Office of Finance, September 20th, 1781, 471

Wishes to be allowed further time for repaying the sum advanced by the Count de Rochambeau.

To the President of the Council of Pennsylvania. Office of Finance, September 20th, 1781, 472

Unable to promise any assistance.

To M. de la Luzerne. Office of Finance, September 25th, 1781, 473

Amount of bills drawn on Messrs Le Couteulx & Co.—Rates of sale.—Necessities of the United States.

To the Speaker of the Assembly of Pennsylvania. Office of Finance, September 28th, 1781, 478

Accounts between Pennsylvania and the U. States.

To the Count de Rochambeau. Office of Finance, October 1st, 1781, 484

Reasons for not repaying the sum advanced by him.

To Major General Greene. Office of Finance, October 3d, 1781, 484

Inefficiency of the confederacy.—Funds in his hands.

To the Commissary General of Purchases. Office of Finance, October 4th, 1781, 486

Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland, must furnish supplies.

To Messrs Le Couteulx & Co. Office of Finance, October 12th, 1781, 487

Depositing money subject to his drafts.

To the Loan Officers of the States. Office of Finance, October 13th, 1781, 488

Requiring preparations for settling their accounts with the United States.

To the Governor of Virginia. Philadelphia, October 16th, 1781, 489

Inadequacy of paper emissions and specific supplies.—Necessity of a revenue in hard money.

To the President of Congress. Office of Finance, October 18th, 1781, 490

Impolicy of settling private demands on Congress.—Estimate of sums required for immediate service.

Circular to the Governors of the several States. Office of Finance, October 19th, 1781, 494

Too much reliance has been placed on foreign aid.—Aid furnished by France.—Annual expense of the war.—Necessity of a solid revenue.—Urges a compliance with the requisitions of Congress.

To Major General Greene, Office of Finance, November 2d, 1781, 502

Difficulty of procuring pecuniary supplies.



THE

CORRESPONDENCE

OF

C. A. DE LA LUZERNE;

MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY FROM FRANCE TO THE UNITED STATES.



THE

CORRESPONDENCE

OF

C. A. DE LA LUZERNE.

CORRESPONDENCE CONTINUED.

* * * * *

TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

Translation.

Philadelphia, September 10th, 1781.

Sir,

The undersigned, Minister Plenipotentiary of France, has the honor of communicating to Congress the commission of M. Holker, as Consul General of France, in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. He requests Congress to pass an act, or four different acts, in order to procure for this Consul the exequatur in each of the States, to which his functions are to extend.

LUZERNE.

* * * * *

TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

Translation.

Philadelphia, September 18th, 1781.

Sir,

The undersigned, Minister Plenipotentiary of France, has the honor of informing Congress, that he has received despatches from his Court, containing important details relative to the communications, which have taken place between the belligerent and mediating powers. He wishes that Congress would be pleased to appoint a committee, to whom he shall communicate them, and with whom he shall confer upon the present state of affairs. He has also received orders from his Court, relative to the advances made on account of the Thirteen States, and concerning their finances; he will have the honor of communicating them to Congress through a committee.

LUZERNE.

* * * * *

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE FRENCH MINISTER TO CONGRESS.

In Congress, September 21st, 1781.

The committee, to whom was referred the Memorial of the Minister Plenipotentiary of France, dated the 18th instant, requesting a conference, report,

That they have this day held a conference with the said Minister Plenipotentiary, and received the following communications contained in sundry despatches from Count de Vergennes, Minister for Foreign Affairs to his Most Christian Majesty, viz.

From a letter of the 19th of April.—That Count de Vergennes had transmitted to the Minister the details respecting the proposed mediation of the Courts of Vienna and Petersburg. The Minister observed, that this had already been communicated to Congress through a committee. He repeated, for our recollection, that the acceptance on the part of France of the proposed mediation depended entirely, at that time, on the concurrence of the United States; and that with respect to Spain, its conduct would be determined by the dissolution of the negotiation with Mr Cumberland. That the Court of Spain had informed the Court of London, on the first proposal of the mediation of the Imperial Courts, that as a direct negotiation with the King of Great Britain was opened through Mr Cumberland, a mediation was unnecessary.

That affairs since that time had taken a different turn. Mr Cumberland has been recalled; and the Catholic King, being now entirely at liberty, has accepted the mediation of the two Imperial Courts. That the King, our ally, had done the same; but that both Kings had declared at the same time to the two mediators, that the mediation could not possibly have any activity, without previously establishing some fundamental preliminaries. Of this observation the two mediating Courts had already felt the propriety. That France was then (viz. the 19th of April) expecting the effect, which this communication would produce on the Court of London. That the first question proposed by France, related to the admission of an American Plenipotentiary; and that the object of the second was to know, upon what footing the King of England intended to treat with the United States. The Court of France, not knowing that the United States had agreed to accept the mediation, again invite us to it.

The Minister here observed, that Congress would judge by the questions proposed to the mediating powers, by the King his master, of the principles, by which his Majesty was actuated with respect to the United States. He assured us, that his Majesty is invariably resolved to abide by those principles, and will enter into no negotiation whatever before he shall receive a satisfactory solution of those two questions. He added, that the French Ministry trusted, that this conduct would more and more convince the United States, and would cause them to imitate the example of the King, and to feel that their honor and their interest call for their constant attachment, their friendship, and unreserved confidence towards him.

The Count de Vergennes observes, that it is plain from these circumstances, that the negotiation for peace will be full of difficulties, and that it will probably be necessary, in pretensions as well as proceedings, to be very cautious, and to act so as to remove those difficulties, and everything, which might increase the acrimony, to which the English Plenipotentiaries may be naturally inclined.

From another letter of the same date.—That when this letter was written, the Court had received information of the sentiments of the Court of London with respect to the United States. The Count de Vergennes mentions, that in the act, by which the Court of London accepts the mediation of Russia, and requests the mediation of the Emperor, she declares, that she is ready to make peace, as soon as the league between France and her revolted subjects shall be dissolved. That this pretension had met from the Court of France the contempt which it deserved. She on her part has declared, that if this proposition contained the last determination of England, it would be in vain to think of peace; and she has desired the English Ministry to give a positive answer on the two questions above mentioned. That this declaration had been exactly transmitted by the Court of Vienna to that of London; and the result of the answer made by that Court to the Imperial Majesty is, "that in all points to be agitated in a future Congress, England will behave with great equity and condescension; but the dependence of her rebel subjects in America must be pre-established, and that this matter must be left entirely to the care of Great Britain." That it is easily to be perceived, that while things remain in this situation there can be no possibility of a mediation or peace.

The Count de Vergennes remarks, that Congress will be finally convinced, that it is only by arms and the most vigorous exertions, that our independence can be extorted from the Court of London, and not at all by negotiation or persuasion. That the Court of France will transmit to the Court of Vienna the sentiments of the King on the British answer. That if these sentiments should be forwarded to the Court of London without any commentary, it is probable they would make but a slight impression; but it may be hoped from the justice of his Imperial Majesty, that they will be so supported by such reflections as to make a greater impression on the British Court; although it is not to be expected, that the Austrian Court will fully enter into the views of his Most Christian Majesty, until the matter shall be more perfectly explained. The Count, nevertheless, urges the necessity of sending forward proper instructions and powers for the mediation.

From a letter of the 11th of May.—That the affair of the mediation has made no progress; and that it is very probable, that the mediators will not be soon enabled to begin the negotiation. That the admission of an American Plenipotentiary presents the greatest difficulties. That the Count, however, will take every measure in his power to have this admission decided in favor of the United States, before the regular opening of the mediation. The Count urges the Chevalier de la Luzerne to observe to Congress, that the best manner of removing these obstacles would be a decisive victory, gained by the United States in the present campaign.

From a letter of the 27th of July.—Count de Vergennes observes on an opinion, which prevailed in America, respecting the friendly disposition of the powers of Europe towards the United States, that as yet, not one Court had taken the least step, which manifests their disposition towards the United States. That the Courts of Vienna and Petersburg, having assumed the character of mediators, cannot be too reserved. For by a different conduct they would become obnoxious to one or other of the belligerent powers, and lose the important and glorious part, with which they are intrusted. That it results from these observations, that the United States ought to look upon themselves as being still separated from all other powers; and that they have but one professed friend, which is France; and that the United States ought to rely principally upon their own resources.

The Count de Vergennes observes, that he has talked circumstantially with Mr Adams on these subjects, who appeared to be satisfied with what had been done in favor of his country. That he had communicated to Mr Adams the preliminary overtures made by the two Imperial Courts, as well as the intended answer of his Most Christian Majesty. That the great or only difficulty concerns America. That France will do all in her power to remove that obstacle, upon which depends the activity of the mediation. That as soon as it shall be removed, or proved to be insurmountable, proper instructions will be forwarded to the Chevalier de la Luzerne, concerning the conduct, which the state of affairs will require from Congress. That the Court of France had received, with great satisfaction, information, that Congress were disposed to trust their interest to the two mediating powers. The Chevalier de la Luzerne is directed to inform Congress, that no use shall be made of this disposition, in the present state of affairs; and that it shall be communicated only when it can be done consistently with the dignity of the United States.

From a letter of the 19th of April.—That Mr Dana has communicated to Count de Vergennes his appointment, and requested his advice concerning the conduct, which circumstances demanded on his part. That it gave the Count great pleasure to observe this proof of the confidence, which Congress and their Ministers reposed in the friendship and advice of his Court. That the Count informed Mr Dana, that he would run the risk of exposing his person, and the dignity of the United States, if he assumed any character whatsoever in Russia, while the Empress had not acknowledged the independence of the United States, and expected to act the part of a mediatrix, which demanded the most perfect impartiality. That Mr Dana felt the propriety of the observation; and proposed to the Count, that he should appear in Russia in the character of a common traveller, keep his commission a secret, and avoid with the greatest care to speak of business, unless requested so to do by the Russian Ministry. That the Count fully approved of this prudent scheme; and apprized Mr Dana of all the difficulties he would meet with. He had him recommended to the Marquis de Verac, Envoy Extraordinary at the Court of Petersburg; and the Chevalier de la Luzerne is directed to assure Congress, that the Marquis de Verac would do all in his power for Mr Dana's best reception, and with pleasure assist him with his counsels, as often as he should have recourse to them. That the Marquis de Verac had communicated to the Russian Ministry the resolution of Congress, concerning the principle of the declaration made by the Empress of Russia to the belligerent powers. That this Envoy informs the Count de Vergennes, that the contents of this resolution had afforded great satisfaction to Count Panin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, who intended to submit it without delay to the perusal of the Empress. That the Marquis de Verac did not doubt, but that she would be pleased with the readiness of Congress to adopt that principle; and that correspondent resolutions will have been taken respecting the navigation of the neutrals.

From a letter of the 29th of June.—That the accession of the State of Maryland to the general confederation, in the opinion of the Court of France, presents very great advantages; among which is this, that Congress having at last acquired that power, which the act of confederation has assigned them, it is to be expected, that their orders will be fully and exactly executed, and that they will take advantage of the resources of their country, to give to American patriotism new energy. The Minister is directed to inform Congress of the satisfaction the King has received on that account, and to tell them at the same time, that there is the most pressing necessity to take more effectual measures than heretofore to drive the British out of this continent. It is thought needless to enter into details about the circumstances, which render this measure necessary. The King entreats the United States, as his friends, not to lose a moment in acting as vigorously as possible against the common enemy. That Congress cannot be particularly acquainted with the different burdens, which France has upon her hands. She wishes to be in a situation to continue as effectual assistance to the United States as at this moment; but future events may happen in a manner different from what we may expect, though nothing can change her unalterable resolution to support the independence of her ally. The Count de Vergennes observes, that he shall not speak any more of the non arrival of the second division, having reason to believe from orders given to Count de Grasse, that the delay will be judged of greater utility to the United States, than if the announced reinforcement had been sent in the time expected. He adds, that the Chevalier de la Luzerne had been already informed of the causes, which had prevented a compliance with the expectation, which he had been authorised to give.

From a letter of the 11th of May.—That the Count de Vergennes had been informed by the Duc de la Vauguyon, Ambassador to the United Provinces, of the intention of Mr Adams to display his character as a Minister of the United States in Holland. That the Duke gave him no assistance on that occasion, knowing the application would have no favorable issue. The Chevalier de la Luzerne is directed to inform confidentially a committee, or Congress themselves, of these circumstances, in order, that they may transmit to their said Minister Plenipotentiary such instructions as they may think proper. France is too much interested in the fate of the United States not to give them such counsels as would have for a principal object their advantage and their dignity.

* * * * *

At a second conference, on the 24th of September, the following additional communications were made by the French Minister to the committee.

From a letter of the 19th of April, 1781.—That Count de Vergennes remarks, that on the application of Chevalier de la Luzerne, and his representation of the distresses of the United States, measures had been taken for our aid when Colonel Laurens arrived. That it being impossible for the King to comply with all Colonel Laurens's demands, he took the resolution to offer his guarantee for ten millions of livres tournois, to be borrowed in Holland, for account of the United States. That the King was sensible of the wants and distresses of Congress, and wished to relieve them; but that it ought to be considered, that the French squadron and troops are in America for our immediate assistance. That Count de Grasse's expedition to America will occasion great expense; and that all those things collected together, would go far beyond even the expectation of Congress. That the most essential manner of showing the gratitude of the United States would be, by making all the exertions in their power, to co-operate in a glorious and effectual manner with the King's forces for their own speedy deliverance.

The Count de Vergennes observes, that a part of the six millions of livres would be employed in purchasing the different articles, contained in a list delivered by Mr Laurens. That three millions would be given by instalments to Dr Franklin, for the payment of bills of exchange drawn by Congress. That a fourth million would be reserved for unforeseen emergencies, and particularly to pay for the supplies embarked in the ship Lafayette. That Count de Vergennes had been Dr Franklin's security for a part of those supplies, amounting to four hundred and seventeen thousand livres. That he is unacquainted with the measures, which had been taken to effectuate the loan of ten millions in Holland, that affair being in the province of M. Necker, who probably would settle that matter with Mr Laurens, or with Mr Adams, who at that time was still in Holland to fill up a loan of a million florins, which he had opened several months before.

From a letter of the 11th of May.—That Count de Vergennes informs the Chevalier de la Luzerne, that orders had been given by the King to have the loan of ten millions, on account of the United States, negotiated; that the Duc de la Vauguyon had received orders to propose it to the States of Holland, but met with insuperable difficulties, not only because the United States had no credit in Holland, but also because that Province was afraid of exposing itself; and that indeed granting a loan to the United States would be the same thing as countenancing their independence, which would be contrary to the obligations entered into by the republic with the neutral powers; that in order to remove this difficulty, the King had presented himself as a principal borrower, and as being alone accountable for the sums, which were to be furnished.

The Count adds, that he thinks these proceedings need no commentary; and that a mere exposition of them will be sufficient to excite the gratitude of the United States, and to engage them at last to make all the exertions in their power. The Count flatters himself, that the measures, which have been taken by his Court, will enable Congress to put their finances in the best order. That the Chevalier de la Luzerne had often written to him, that the most certain way to effectuate so happy an event would be, to put Congress for a while out of their distressing situation, and to enable them, by an external relief, to take internal measures without precipitation, and with solidity. That these considerations determined the King; and that from affection he has done more for his ally than mere prudence would, perhaps, have suggested to him. That the Council of the King have no doubt but this resolution will be productive of the good effects, which the Chevalier de la Luzerne had announced. The Count exhorts Congress to take hold of the present circumstances for the common advantage. He thinks it his duty freely and openly to declare, that the moment is come not to spend the time in expectation, deliberation, and useless exhortations; that though he would wish to avoid every disagreeable intimation, friendship and common interest oblige France to speak without reserve, and with perfect sincerity. That the King has done on this occasion what he can do no more; that Congress, if well informed of the situation of his Majesty's affairs, would be sensible that an exertion like the present cannot be repeated; and that the Court would feel the deepest concern, if it was under the disagreeable but indispensable necessity of refusing the demands of an ally, whose cause is now become its own.

From a letter of the 14th of May.—That Count de Vergennes observes, that Colonel Laurens had taken leave of the King, and that he ought to be satisfied with the success of his mission, although he had not obtained all that he demanded. That the Court of France hopes these demands will not be renewed; for how disagreeable soever to refuse allies whom the King sincerely loves, necessity would oblige him to reject pecuniary demands of any kind whatsoever.

From a letter of the 27th of July.—That the Chevalier de la Luzerne observed, that in March last he informed Congress, that the Court no longer pay the bills drawn upon France; upon which declaration he believes Congress stopped all drafts on Dr Franklin. That he informed the Court of that resolution of Congress. The Court in the meantime had resolved to grant a subsidy of six millions, to be employed in purchasing arms, ammunition, and clothing, to be sent from France to the United States; and the remainder of the sum to be employed in paying the drafts of Congress, or of any person they might appoint. Mr Morris being appointed Superintendent, the Minister according to his instructions authorised him to draw for half a million of livres, and informed M. Necker of this measure; accordingly funds were prepared for a regular payment. The Chevalier de la Luzerne had agreed with the Superintendent, that he might draw in the whole for a million and a half, including the half million above mentioned; of all which he had informed Count de Vergennes. Colonel Laurens being in the meanwhile arrived in France, it was found from his representation, that the mode of drawing was prejudicial to Congress, and that if the specie was imported, there would be no loss; and it was agreed, that he should bring over two millions and a half, out of the six millions, in specie. In consequence of this measure, Count de Vergennes acquaints the Chevalier de la Luzerne, that he hopes the Superintendent will not have drawn more than the before mentioned half million of livres. He wishes it the more earnestly, as bills for a greater sum would embarrass the finances of France in a great degree, the goods delivered to Colonel Laurens exceeding already the sum remaining out of the six millions, and the goods taken on board the Marquis de Lafayette being not yet replaced.

For a fuller explanation, the Chevalier de la Luzerne communicated to the Committee an account of the sums already furnished, and to be furnished from this time to the end of the present year for the service of the United States. That he had orders to take hold of this opportunity to repeat to Congress, that the King for the next year cannot continue any supplies to the United States, even of a much less nature. That it is time for them to relieve his Majesty from the heavy burdens in a war, which he had undertaken and carries on for their sakes. That the Count de Vergennes expects that Congress will not have drawn more bills of any kind after the 1st day of April last; that firmly relying on this, he had engaged the King to procure the necessary sums to answer the bills drawn before that period, and desired Dr Franklin to accept no more, if he had no other means of paying them; that this resolution could not be altered by any circumstances whatever.

The Count de Vergennes proceeds to state, how far the abuse of the King's benevolence had been carried, he supposes against the will and instructions and without the knowledge of Congress. That the bills drawn upon Mr Jay, Mr Adams, and Mr Laurens, had been sent back to Dr Franklin, that is, in effect to the Court of France. That the Republic of Holland had been unwilling to hear of any loan, even under the guarantee of the King, when it was known that the money was intended for the use of the United States; and that to remove this obstacle, as he had before observed, the King was induced to present himself as the principal borrower. The Court was still unacquainted with the effect of that proposition.

* * * * *

TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

Translation.

Philadelphia, September 24th, 1781.

Sir,

The undersigned, Minister Plenipotentiary of France, has the honor of communicating to Congress a Memorial, which has been sent to him by Don Francisco Rendon. He entreats Congress to take it into consideration, and he has no doubt that the resolution, which that body shall pass upon the subject, will be as advantageous to the subjects of his Catholic Majesty as justice will allow.

LUZERNE.

* * * * *

MEMORIAL OF DON FRANCISCO RENDON TO THE MINISTER OF FRANCE.

Translation.

May it please your Excellency,

Don Francisco Rendon, resident in this city, Encargado de Negocios for the Court of Spain, with all due respect, informs your Excellency that in consequence of the articles of capitulation granted to the troops and inhabitants of his Britannic Majesty at the reduction of Pensacola, by Don Bernardo de Galvez, commander in chief of the forces of his Catholic Majesty, permission was granted by the Governor of the place to Captain Jahleel Smith, with his vessel called the Sally, her crew and passengers contained in the passport, to go to New York, six of the passengers being prisoners on parole, to be exchanged for an equal number of Spanish prisoners; that in his passage the said flag was captured by an American vessel, called the Betsy, Captain Enos, belonging to the State of Pennsylvania; that in consequence thereof, the said J. Smith has presented to me a petition and an account, which I herewith enclose, praying me to obtain for him an indemnification and payment for the damages he has sustained, and that liberty may be granted him by the supreme authority to pass freely to the place of his destination, agreeable to the permission of the Generals of the King, my master.

I therefore entreat, that your Excellency would be pleased to present this Memorial, with the documents accompanying it, to the Honorable Congress, and pray them to order payment to be made to the Captain of the flag, for the delay and damages occasioned by this capture, and grant the said prisoners of his Catholic Majesty mentioned in the passport, free permission to go to New York, in order to discharge their parole and obtain their exchange. I am induced by your Excellency's goodness to hope for this favor, and am, &c.

FRANCISCO RENDON.

* * * * *

CONGRESS TO THE MINISTER OF FRANCE.

Philadelphia, September 25th, 1781.

Sir,

The United States in Congress assembled, ever desirous to observe good faith and maintain the rights of neutrality, and sincerely disposed to cultivate the friendship of his Catholic Majesty, have referred the Memorial presented by your Excellency, in favor of Jahleel Smith, master of the schooner Sally; to a committee of Congress, who now have it under consideration.

To form a right judgment of the transaction it is conceived necessary, that an authentic copy of the capitulation granted by his Catholic Majesty's General to the British officer lately commanding at Pensacola, and referred to in the Memorial of Don Francisco Rendon, residing in this city, Encargado de Negocios for the Court of Spain, should be communicated to the United States. In the meantime it requires no deliberation to assure your Excellency, that the laws of the land are competent for redressing every injury perpetrated by vessels of war commissioned by the United States, or under their authority, although the security for the good behaviour of the officers and crews may not be adequate to the damages claimed.

THOMAS M'KEAN, President.

* * * * *

FROM CONGRESS TO THE KING OF FRANCE.

The United States in Congress assembled, to their Great, Faithful and Beloved Friend and Ally, Louis the Sixteenth, King of France and Navarre.

Great, Faithful and Beloved Friend and Ally,

We feel an additional obligation to your Majesty, for your friendly reception of our late special Minister Lieutenant Colonel John Laurens. By him we received your Majesty's letter, containing new assurances of what the United States have been long convinced, your Majesty's affectionate patronage of American independence. His report, while it proves that our attachment has not been misplaced, will increase our gratitude. We have charged our Minister Plenipotentiary at your Court to render to your Majesty more particular acknowledgments for your zeal for the re-establishment of peace, upon principles coinciding with the liberty and sovereignty of the United States, and for the important succors lately administered to our necessities. We shall also instruct him to inform your Majesty of the arrangements, which have taken place for calling forth the resources of the United States with decision and effect against the common enemy.

We pray God, that he will keep your Majesty, our Great, Faithful and Beloved Friend and Ally, in his holy protection.

Done at Philadelphia, the eighteenth of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty one, and in the sixth year of our independence. By the United States in Congress assembled.

Your faithful friends and allies.

THOMAS M'KEAN, President.

Attest, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.

* * * * *

THE KING OF FRANCE TO CONGRESS.

Translation.

Very Dear and Faithful Allies,

Satisfied of the interest you take in every event which affects us, we are anxious to inform you of the precious mark, which Divine Providence has just given us of his goodness, and of the protection he has granted to our kingdom. We do not doubt that you will partake in the joy we feel on the birth of our son, the Dauphin, of whom the Queen, our most dear spouse, is just now happily delivered.

You will easily be convinced of the pleasure, with which we shall receive every proof that you may give of your sensibility upon this occasion. We cannot renew at a period more affecting to us, the assurance of our affection and of our constant friendship for you. Upon which we pray God, that he would have you, very Dear, Great Friends and Allies, in his holy keeping.

Written at Versailles, the 22d of October, 1781.

Your Good Friend and Ally,

LOUIS.

* * * * *

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON TO M. DE LA LUZERNE.

Philadelphia, October 24th, 1781.

Sir,

I do myself the honor to transmit you a copy of the resolution, by which Congress have been pleased to appoint me their Secretary of Foreign Affairs. They have annexed to this department the agreeable duty of receiving and making those communications, which the reciprocal interest of the allied nations may render necessary.

I need not tell you, Sir, with what pleasure I enter upon that task, when (by the direction of Congress) I enclose an account of the signal success obtained by the united arms of America and France. The cement it so happily affords to their connexion may justly be numbered among the important advantages, that will result from it to both countries.

I have the honor to be, Sir, with the highest respect and esteem, &c.

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON.

* * * * *

TO ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON, SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

Translation.

Philadelphia, October 25th, 1781.

Sir,

I have received the letter, with which you honored me on the 24th instant, and it is with the most sincere satisfaction, that I see in it your determination to accept the office, to which Congress have appointed you. It will give me great pleasure to address myself to you, in sending to Congress those communications, which I shall have it in my power to make; and I shall be no less flattered to receive through you every communication, which that body shall think proper to make to me. I can assure you, Sir, that the choice now made by Congress will give great satisfaction in Europe, where your patriotism, your past services, and your wisdom have long been known.

I have the honor to be, &c.

LUZERNE.

* * * * *

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON TO M. DE LA LUZERNE.

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